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ᮏ㡯䛾䝯䝙䝳䞊䠄5/31䡚䠅
ᮏ㡯䛾䜻䞊䝽䞊䝗
• 䛂ゝㄒ䛃䛻䛴䛔䛶⪃䛘䜛䚹ゝㄒ䛿ே㛫䛾ㄆ▱άື
䛾୰᰾䛷䛒䜚䚸䛒䜙䜖䜛ㄆ▱άື䛿ఱ䜙䛛䛾ព
࿡䛷ゝㄒ䛸䛴䛺䛜䜚䜢ᣢ䛴䚹
• 䛧䛯䛜䛳䛶ゝㄒ䛻䛴䛔䛶䛾◊✲䜒ᵝ䚻䛺ほⅬ䚸
ᵝ䚻䛺䜰䝥䝻䞊䝏䛾䜒䛾䛜䛒䜛䠄ㄽ⌮Ꮫ䚸ᚰ⌮
Ꮫ䚸ேᕤ▱⬟䚸⬻⛉Ꮫ䚸➼䚻䠅䚹
• ゝㄒᏛ
• ゝㄒᏛ䛾ㅖ㒊㛛
• 䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊䠄ゝㄒᏛ䠅
– ᙧᘧゝㄒ䞉ᙧᘧᩥἲ
ゝㄒ䜈䛾ᩘ⌮ⓗ䞉ᙧᘧ
ⓗ䜰䝥䝻䞊䝏
– ᵓᩥㄽ
– ⏕ᡂᩥἲ⌮ㄽ
– ኚᙧ䠄⌮ㄽ䠅
– ゝㄒ䛾⏕ᚓᛶ
– ᬑ㐢ᩥἲ
• ௨ୗ䛷䛿䜎䛪䚸䛂ゝㄒᏛ䠄Linguistics䠅䛃䚸䛸䜚䜟䛡䚸
Chomsky 䜢୰ᚰ䛸䛧䛯 1950 ᖺ௦௨㝆䛾ゝㄒᏛ
䛻䛴䛔䛶ゐ䜜䜛䚹
• 䜎䛯䛭䜜䛜⮬↛ゝㄒฎ⌮䛾◊✲䛻䛹䛖䛴䛺䛜䛳
䛶䛔䜛䛛䜒⡆༢䛻⤂௓䛩䜛䚹
– ᵓᩥㄽ
ྛ✀䛾ᩥἲ⌮ㄽ
– ព࿡ㄽ䞉ㄒ⏝ㄽ
• ⮬↛ゝㄒฎ⌮
– ㇟ᚩⓗ஦౛
• ELIZA
• SHRDLU
– ᶵᲔ⩻ヂ䚸௚
– ᭱㏆䛾ືྥ
1
䛿䛨䜑䛻䠖ゝㄒ䛸ㄒ㡰
–
–
–
–
–
䛆᪥䛇
䛆ⱥ䛇
䛆୰䛇
䛆⊂䛇
䛆௖䛇
ཧ⪃䠖 ゝㄒ䛾ヰ⪅ᩘ䠄2005䠅
⚾䛿ྩ䜢ឡ䛩
I love you
ᡃឡ఼
(Ich liebe dich)
(Je t’aime)
໭ிㄒ䠄䛔䜟䜖䜛୰ᅜㄒ䠅 䠄8൨7300୓ே䠅 SVO
䝇䝨䜲䞁ㄒ 䠄3൨2200୓ே䠅 SVO
ⱥㄒ 䠄3൨0900୓ே䠅 SVO
䝠䞁䝗䜳䝇䝍䞊䝙䞊ㄒ䠄䝠䞁䝕䜱䞊ㄒ䞉䜴䝹䝗䜳䞊ㄒ䜋䛛䠅
䠄2൨4200୓ே䠅 SOV
5. ᶆ‽䜰䝷䝡䜰ㄒ 䠄2൨0600୓ே䠅 SVO
6. 䝫䝹䝖䜺䝹ㄒ 䠄1൨7500୓ே䠅 SVO
7. 䝧䞁䜺䝹ㄒ 䠄1൨7100୓ே䠅 SOV
8. 䝻䝅䜰ㄒ 䠄1൨4500୓ே䠅 SVO
9. ᪥ᮏㄒ 䠄1൨2200୓ே䠅 SOV
10. ᶆ‽䝗䜲䝒ㄒ 䠄9600୓ே䠅 SOV
1.
2.
3.
4.
• ྂ඾ⓗ䛺 S䠄୺ㄒ䠅䚸O䠄┠ⓗㄒ䠅䚸V䠄ືモ䠅䛾༊ศ䛷ゝ䛖
䛸䠄S: ⚾䚸O䠖ྩ䚸V: ឡ䛩䜛䠅
– SOV ᆺ䠄᪥ᮏㄒ䚸䠄䝗䜲䝒ㄒ䠅...䠅
– SVO ᆺ䠄ⱥㄒ䚸୰ᅜㄒ䚸䠄䝣䝷䞁䝇ㄒ䠅...䠅
– ⤌ྜ䛫ⓗ䛻䛿䚸VSO, VOS, OSV, OVS 䜢ຍ䛘䛯 3! = 6 ㏻䜚䚹
• 䛹䜜䛜ඃໃ䛛䚸ඃ䜜䛶䛔䜛䛛䠛
2
3
4
వㄯ䠖ᙧᘧゝㄒ⌮ㄽ䛸䛾㛵ಀ
ゝㄒ㢮ᆺㄽ䛻䜘䜛ศ㢮
• ㄒ㡰䛿ᩘᘧ䛾⾲グ᪉ἲ䛻ᑐᛂ
•
•
•
•
•
•
SOV ᆺ
SVO ᆺ
VSO ᆺ
VOS ᆺ
OSV ᆺ
OVS ᆺ
– SVO: ୰⨨グἲ (infix notation)
a+b, a㽢b 䛺䛹
– VSO: ๓⨨グἲ (prefix notation) 㛵ᩘグἲ䠖 f (x,y)
– SOV: ᚋ⨨グἲ (postfix notation) 㝵஌ n! 䛺䛹
45䡚55%
35䡚40%
10䡚18% 䠄䝦䝤䝷䜲䚸䝍䜺䝻䜾䚸䜲䝻䜹䝜䠅
⛥ 䠄䝣䜱䝆䞊ㄒ䛺䛹䠅
⛥ 䠄䝅䝱䝞䞁䝔ㄒ䛺䛹䠅
⛥ 䠄䝠䝅䜹䝸䝲䝘ㄒ䛺䛹䠅
• ๓⨨グἲ䚸ᚋ⨨グἲ䛿䜹䝑䝁䛜䛔䜙䛪䚸䝁䞁䝢䝳䞊
䝍ฎ⌮䛻㐺䛧䛶䛔䜛䚹䠄᪥ᮏㄒ䛿ィ⟬ᶵྥ䛝䠛䠅
୰⨨グἲ
5
๓⨨グἲ
ᚋ⨨グἲ
1㽢2 + 3 + 4
1 + 2㽢3 + 4
+ +㽢1, 2, 3, 4
+ + 1 㽢2, 3, 4
1, 2㽢 3 + 4 +
1, 2, 3㽢+ 4 +
(1 + 2)㽢(3 + 4)
㽢+1, 2 + 3, 4
1, 2 + 3, 4 +㽢
6
ゝㄒ䛸ㄆ▱䠄䠍䠅
ゝㄒ䛾ከᵝᛶ
• ಶูゝㄒ䛾◊✲䛰䛡䛸䛳䛶䜒ᵝ䚻䛺ㄢ㢟䛜
䛒䜛䛜䚸䜘䜚୍⯡ⓗ䛺ぢᆅ䛛䜙⪃䛘䜛䛸䚹
– ᵝ䚻䛺ゝㄒ䛜䛒䜛䛾䛿䛺䛬䛛䚹
– 䛭䜜䜙䛾㛫䛻ඹ㏻ᛶ䛿䛒䜛䛛䚹
– 䛭䜜䜙䛾㛫䛻ඃຎ䛿䛒䜛䛛䚹
• 䛺䛬ᵝ䚻䛺ゝㄒ䛜䛒䜛䛾䛛䠛
• 䛭䜜䜙䛻ඹ㏻ᛶ䛜䛒䜛䛾䛛䚸䛹䛾䜘䛖䛻⏕
䜎䜜䛶䛝䛯䛾䛛䠛
– ཧ⪃䠖䠄⪷᭩䛻䜘䜛ゝㄒ䛾ከᵝᛶ䛾㉳※䠅
๰ୡグ䠍䠍❶䛂䝞䝧䝹䛾ሪ䛃
ே㛫䛜ኳ䜢┠ᣦ䛧䛯ሪ䛾ᘓ⠏
䜢ጞ䜑䛯䛾䛷䚸⚄䛜ู䚻䛾
ゝⴥ䜢ヰ䛥䛫䜛䜘䛖䛻䛧䚸ே䛿
ΰ஘䛧䚸ୡ⏺䛻ᩓ䛳䛶䛔䛳䛯䚹
– ཧ⪃䠖䜲䞁䝗䞉䝶䞊䝻䝑䝟ㄒ᪘䛾Ⓨぢ
W. Jones (1786) ྂ඾䜼䝸䝅䝱ㄒ䚸䝷䝔䞁ㄒ䛸ྂ௦䝃䞁䝇
䜽䝸䝑䝖ㄒ䛸䛾㛵ಀ
э ඹ㏻䛾䛂♽ㄒ䛃䛾Ꮡᅾ
7
8
ゝㄒ䛸ㄆ▱䠄䠎䠅
ゝㄒ䛸ㄆ▱䠄䠏䠅
• ゝㄒ䛸ᛮ⪃䛸䛾㛵ಀ
• ゝㄒ䛿㛢䛨䛯య⣔䛛䠛
– ⮬↛⛉Ꮫ䛾䜘䛖䛻䚸ᙧᘧⓗ䞉ᩘ⌮ⓗ䛺ᩥἲつ๎䛺䛹䛻
䜘䛳䛶つᐃ䛷䛝䜛䛛䠛
– ே㛫䛿༑ศ䛭䜜䜢ṇ☜䛻౑䛔䛣䛺䛫䜛䛛䚸౑䛳䛶䛔䜛䛛
– ゝㄒ䛿௚䛾ㄆ▱㒊㛛䛸⊂❧ᛶ䛜䛒䜛䠄䝰䝆䝳䞊䝹ⓗ䠅䛛
ゝㄒ䛾୰䛾ㅖ㒊㛛䠄䛸䛟䛻ᵓᩥㄽ䠅䛿䛹䛖䛛䠛
– ே㛫䛿ゝⴥ䛷ᛮ⪃䛧䛶䛔䜛䛾䛛䠛
– 䛂ᛮ⪃䛾ゝㄒ䠄mentalese䠅䛃䛾䜘䛖䛺䜒䛾䛿䛒䜛
䛾䛛䠛
– ᛮ⪃䛸ゝㄒ䛸䛜ู≀䛺䜙䚸ᛮ⪃䛛䜙ゝㄒ䛿䛹
䛾䜘䛖䛻⏕ᡂ䛥䜜䜛䠄ㄆ㆑䛥䜜䜛䠅䛾䛛䠛
ᵝ䚻䛺ᛮ⪃䛾㒊㛛䛿஫䛔䛻䛹䛾䜘䛖䛻᝟ሗ஺
᥮䛧䛶䛔䜛䛾䛛䠛
• ゝㄒᏛ䛜Ꮫၥ䛸䛧䛶⮬❧䛧䛖䜛䛯䜑䛻䛿䚸
ゝㄒ䛾⊂❧ᛶ䛜๓ᥦ䛸䛺䜛䚹
• ཧ⪃䠖 A. Arnauld (1660)䠖䛂ゝㄒ䛿ᛮ⪃䜢ᛅᐇ䛻཯
ᫎ䛩䜛䜒䛾䛷䛒䜚䚸䛭䛾䜒䛳䛸䜒⮬↛䛺ㄒ㡰䛿 ...
䝣䝷䞁䝇ㄒ䛾䛭䜜䛸୍⮴䛩䜛䛃
9
10
ゝㄒ䛸ㄆ▱䠄䠐䠅
⌮ㄽゝㄒᏛ䛾ㅖ㒊㛛
• ே㛫䛾⏕≀ⓗ䞉⏕ᚓⓗ⬟ຊ䛸䛹䛾䜘䛖䛻㛵ಀ䛩
䜛䛾䛛䠛
• 㡢ኌᏛ䠄Phonetics䠅
• 㡢㡩ㄽ䠄Phonology䠅
– ゝㄒ䜢ᢅ䛘䜛䛯䜑䛻䛿䛹䛾䜘䛖䛺ᚰⓗ䛺䝯䜹䝙䝈䝮䞉
᝟ሗฎ⌮⬟ຊ䛜ᚲせ䛛
– ே㛫䛸ື≀䛾ゝㄒ⬟ຊ䛿䛹䛖㐪䛖䛛
䛭䜜䜢ศ䛛䛴䜒䛾䛿ఱ䛛
– ᗂඣ䛿䛺䛬ᛴ㏿䛻ゝㄒ䠄ẕᅜㄒ䠅䜢Ꮫ⩦䛷䛝䜛䛾䛛
э 䛂䝥䝷䝖䞁ၥ㢟䠄䝯䝜䞁䛾ၥ㢟䠅䛃
• ゝㄒᏛ䛿ᚰ⌮Ꮫ䞉ㄆ▱⛉Ꮫ䞉⏕≀Ꮫ➼䛾୍㒊㛛
䛻఩⨨䛵䛡䜙䜜䜛䛛䠛
• ᙧែ䠄⣲䠅ㄽ䠄Morphology䠅
– ㄒᙡㄽ䠄Lexicology䠅
• ᵓᩥㄽ䠄⤫ㄒㄽ䠖 Syntax䠅
• ព࿡ㄽ䠄Semantics䠅
• ㄒ⏝ㄽ䠄Pragmatics䠅
11
12
䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊௨๓䛾ゝㄒᏛ䠄䠍䠅
䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊௨๓䛾ゝㄒᏛ䠄䠎䠅
• 䝋䝅䝳䞊䝹䠄F. de Saussure䠅
䠄1857~1913䠅
• 䠄䜼䝸䝅䝱௨᮶䛾ᩥἲ䞉ಟ㎡Ꮫ䞉ᘚドἲ䚸ㄽ⌮Ꮫ
䛾ఏ⤫䠅
• つ⠊ⓗ䛺ᩥἲ⌮ㄽ䠄䡚18 C.䠅
– ゝㄒᏛ䛾⌧௦໬䠖
– 䛂䝫䞊䝹䞉䝻䝽䜲䝲䝹䠄Port Royal䠅ᩥἲ䞉ㄽ⌮䛃
䠄A. Arnauld 䜙䠅
• ඹ᫬ⓗ䠄synchronic䠅䛺య⣔䜢
୰᰾䛻ᤣ䛘䜛
• ẚ㍑ゝㄒᏛ䛸䛂ゝㄒᏛ䛾ㄌ⏕䛃䠄18䡚19 C.䠅
–
–
–
–
– 䛂ゝㄒ䛾᜛ពᛶ䛃䠖
䝅䝙䝣䜱䜰䞁䠄signifiant䠅䛸䝅
䝅䝙䝣䜱䜶䠄signifié䠅
– グྕㄽ䜈䛾Ⓨᒎ
Jones䠄༳Ḣㄒ᪘䠅䚸Grimm ඗ᘵ
䛂㏻᫬ⓗ䠄diatonic䠅ゝㄒᏛ䛃
䠄ྂ௦ᩥᏐ䛾ゎㄞ䠖䝠䜶䝻䜾䝸䝣䚸ᴂᙧᩥᏐ䠅
䛂㟷ᖺᩥἲᏛὴ䠄᪂ᩥἲᏛὴ䠅䛃䠄⊂䠅
13
14
䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊௨๓䛾ゝㄒᏛ䠄䠏䠅
䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊㠉࿨䠄䠍䠅
• 䝲䝁䝤䝋䞁䠄R. Jacobson䠅䛸䛂䝥䝷䝝Ꮫὴ䛃
• Noam Chomsky (1928.12.7~䠅
– 䠄Wikipedia ⱥㄒ ᪥ᮏㄒ䠅
– 㡢㡩ㄽ䛾య⣔໬
– 䝺䞂䜱䞉䝇䝖䝻䞊䝇䜙䛸䛾஺ὶ
• 䜰䝯䝸䜹ฟ㌟
䝬䝃䝏䝳䞊䝉䝑䝒ᕤ⛉኱Ꮫ(MIT)ྡ㄃ᩍᤵ
• ゝㄒᏛ⪅䚸ဴᏛ⪅䚸ᕥ⩼㐠ືᐙ䚸䠊䠊䠊
• 1950 ᖺ௦௨㝆䚸ゝㄒᏛ䛷୺ᑟⓗᙺ๭䜢ᯝ䛯䛧䚸
䜹䝸䝇䝬ⓗᏑᅾ䛷䛒䜛䚹
• ⌮ㄽ⮬య䛜䠄ഐ䛛䜙ぢ䜜䜀䠅䛹䜣䛹䜣ኚ䜟䛳䛶䛔
䛟䛾䛷䚸㏣㝶䛩䜛ഃ䛿኱ኚ䚹
• 䜴䜱䝖䝀䞁䝅䝳䝍䜲䞁䛸䛂ゝㄒ䝀䞊䝮䛃
• ㄽ⌮ᐇド୺⩏䛸ᙧᘧ䠄ⓗ䠅య⣔
– ᩘᏛᇶ♏ㄽ䞉グྕㄽ⌮䛸䛾㛵ಀ
– ゝㄒ䛾䛂ព࿡䠄ㄽ䠅䛃䚸᥎ㄽ䛾⾲⌧
– Carnap, Kleene, Tarski, (Turing)
• 䝤䝹䞊䝮䝣䜱䞊䝹䝗䛸⾜ື୺⩏ⓗゝㄒᏛ
15
16
䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊㠉࿨䠄䠎䠅
䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊㠉࿨䠄䠏䠅
• ึᮇ䛾୺せ䛺ⴭస䠄௨ୗ䛷䜒ゝཬ䠅
• ᩥἲ⌮ㄽ䛾ཝᐦ䛺ᙧᘧⓗ䞉ᩘᏛⓗᢅ䛔
э ᙧᘧᩥἲ䚸ᙧᘧゝㄒ
ĺ ᝟ሗ⛉Ꮫ䛸䛾䛴䛺䛜䜚
• ◊✲ィ⏬䚸◊✲᪉ἲ䚸ุ᩿ᇶ‽䛺䛹䚸◊✲䛭䛾
䜒䛾䛻䛴䛔䛶䛾ᣦ㔪䜢ᡴ䛱䛯䛶䛯
䠄ゝㄒ◊✲䛾䛂䝯䝍⌮ㄽ䛃䠅 э䛂ጇᙜᛶ䛾䝺䝧䝹䛃
– Chomsky, N. (1956). “Three Models for the
Description of Language”.
IRE Transactions on Information Theory
2 (2): 113–123. doi:10.1109/TIT.1956.1056813
– Chomsky, N. (1957). Syntactic Structures. The Hague:
Mouton.
䠄ຬᗣ㞝ヂ䠖䛂ᩥἲ䛾ᵓ㐀䛃䚸◊✲♫ฟ∧䚸 1963䠅
– Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax.
Cambridge: The MIT Press.
䠄Ᏻ஭⛱ヂ䠖䛂ᩥἲ⌮ㄽ䛾ㅖ┦䛃䚸◊✲♫ฟ∧䚸 1970䠅
– Review of Verbal Behavior, by B.F. Skinner. Language
35, no. 1 (January-March 1959): 26-57.
17
• ゝㄒ䛾䛖䛱䚸≉䛻ᵓᩥㄽ䠄⤫ㄒㄽ䠅䜢㔜ど䛧䚸
ゝㄒ◊✲䛾୰ᚰ䛻఩⨨௜䛡䛯䚹
• 䛭䛾䛯䜑䛾ᩥἲⓗᯟ⤌䜏䛸䛧䛶䚸䛂⏕ᡂᩥἲ⌮
ㄽ䛃䜢♧䛧䚸≉䛻䠄ึᮇ䛻䛚䛔䛶䛿䠅ኚᙧ䜢㔜ど䛧
䛯䚹
18
䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊㠉࿨䠄䠐䠅
ጇᙜᛶ䛾䝺䝧䝹䠄Levels of adequacy䠅
• ゝㄒ䛜⏕≀ⓗ䞉⏕ᚓⓗせᅉ䛻ᇶ䛵䛔䛶䛔䜛䛣䛸
䜢๓ᥦ䛸䛧䚸≉䛻䛩䜉䛶䛾ゝㄒ䛻ඹ㏻䛾䛂ᬑ㐢ᩥ
ἲ䛃䛾◊✲䜢୰ᚰ┠ᶆ䛻ᤣ䛘䛯䚹
• ほᐹⓗጇᙜᛶ䠄observational adequacy䠅
– ⌮ㄽ䛿ほᐹ䛥䜜䛯䝕䞊䝍䜢䛟䜎䛺䛟ิᣲ䞉ศ㢮䛩䜛
• グ㏙ⓗጇᙜᛶ䠄descriptive adequacy䠅
• 䛂䝕䜹䝹䝖୺⩏䛃䠖ே㛫䛾ᚰⓗ㐣⛬䛸䛧䛶䛾ゝㄒ䛾
⊂❧ᛶ䜢ၐ䛘䚸䛭䛾䝯䜹䝙䝈䝮䜢௬ᵓ䛧䚸ゎ᫂䛧
䛶䛔䛟䛸䛔䛖᪉ἲㄽ䜢䛸䛳䛯䚹
• 䛭䛾䛯䜑䚸ᪧ᮶䛾ゝㄒᏛ䚸≉䛻 Bloomfield 䠄䜔
⫼ᬒ䛻䛒䜛 Skinner 䜙䛾䠅⾜ື୺⩏ⓗ䜰䝥䝻䞊䝏
䛸┿䛳ྥ䛛䜙ᑐ❧䛧䚸䛣䜜䜢ྰᐃ䛧䛯䚹
– ⌮ㄽ䛿䝕䞊䝍䜢グ㏙䛩䜛ᙧᘧⓗつ๎య⣔䜢୚䛘䚸
つ๎䛿䛂ṇ䛧䛔౛䛃䛾䜏⏕ᡂ䛩䜛
• ㄝ᫂ⓗጇᙜᛶ䠄explanatory adequacy䠅
– ⌮ㄽ䛿➇ྜ䛩䜛グ㏙ྠኈ䛾ඃຎ䜢Ỵᐃ䛧䚸
᰿ᗏ䛻䛒䜛ᵓ㐀䜢ᣦ䛧♧䛩䛸䛸䜒䛻䚸
ண ⓗ䛻⏝䛔䜛䛣䛸䛜䛷䛝䜛
19
ᙧᘧᩥἲ䛸ᙧᘧゝㄒ
ゝㄒ⬟ຊ䛸ゝㄒ㐠⏝
䠄ᮏ᱁ⓗ䛻䛿䛂䜸䞊䝖䝬䝖䞁䛸ᙧᘧゝㄒ䛃䛺䛹䛾ᤵᴗ䛷ᢅ䛖䠅
• ゝㄒ⬟ຊ䠄linguistic competence䠅
• ᙧᘧゝㄒ䠄formal language䠅
– ⌮᝿ⓗ䛺ព࿡䛷ゝㄒヰ⪅䛜᭷䛩䜛ゝㄒ䞉ᩥἲ
䛾▱㆑䞉⬟ຊ䚹
– ᩥἲᛶ䠄ᩥ䛛㠀ᩥ䛛䛾ุ᩿䠅䛺䛹
– ఱ䜙䛛䛾グྕิ䛾㞟ྜ䚹
ྛグྕิ䜢౽ᐅⓗ䛻䛂ᩥ䛃䛸࿧䜆䚹
– グྕ䛿ᩥᏐ䚸ᩘᏐ䚸༢ㄒ䛺䛹䚸䛿䛳䛝䜚ᐃ⩏䛥䜜䛶䛔
䜜䜀ఱ䛷䜒䜘䛔䚹
– グྕ䜔ᩥ䛿ఱ䛛ព࿡䜢⾲䛧䛶䛔䛶䜒䛔䛺䛟䛶䜒䜘䛔䚹
䠄ᙧᘧ⌮ㄽ䛾⠊ᅖ䛷䛿ព࿡䛿⪃䛘䛺䛔䠅
– ゝㄒ䠄ᩥ䛾㞟ྜ䠅䛿↓㝈㞟ྜ䛷䛒䜛䛾䛜ᬑ㏻䚹
• ゝㄒ㐠⏝䠄linguistic performance䠅
– ᐇ㝿䛾ゝㄒ౑⏝䛾ഃ㠃䚹
– ὀពຊ䜔グ᠈ຊ䛾㝈⏺䚸Ⓨヰ䛾≀⌮ⓗไ⣙
䛺䛹䛻䜘䛳䛶䚸competence 䛜ไ⣙䛥䜜䜛䚹
• cf. “langue” 䛸 “parole” 䠄de Saussure䠅
20
• ᙧᘧᩥἲ䠄formal grammar䠅
– ゝㄒ䛜᭷㝈ಶ䛾つ๎䛻䜘䜚ᐃ⩏䛥䜜䜛ሙྜ䚸
䛭䛾つ๎㞟䜢ゝㄒ䛾䛂ᩥἲ䛃䛸࿧䜆䚹
21
22
౛䠖ᩥ⬦⮬⏤ゝㄒ䛸ᵓᩥᮌ
ᙧᘧᩥἲ䛸ᙧᘧゝㄒ䠄䠎䠅
• “The dog ate the bone” 䛸䛔䛖ᩥ䛿䚸
ḟ䛾つ๎䛷⾲䜟䛫䜛䚹
• ᙧᘧゝㄒ䛾඾ᆺⓗ䛺౛
–
–
–
–
–
SĺNP VP
VP ĺV NP
NP ĺD N
༢ㄒ䜈ᑐᛂ䛵䛡䜛つ๎䠅
䛯䛰䛧䠖 S: ᩥ䚸V: ືモ䚸N: ྡモ䚸D: ෙモ䚸
NP: ྡモྃ䚸VP: ືモྃ
–
–
–
–
• ᚓ䜙䜜䜛ᵓ㐀䛿ᅗ䛾䜘䛖䛺ᵓᩥᮌ䛷⾲䜟䛫䜛䚹
• ௚䛾౛䛻䛴䛔䛶䛿䠖஧ᐑᓫ䞉ᐑᑿభ௓
䛂⮬↛ゝㄒฎ⌮䛻䛚䛡䜛ᩥἲ㛤Ⓨ䛾㌶㊧䛸ᒎᮃ䛃➼ཧ↷
䛂⮬↛ゝㄒฎ⌮䛻䛚䛡
䛚䛡
䛡
䛡䜛ᩥἲ㛤Ⓨ䛾㌶㊧䛸ᒎᮃ䛃➼ཧ
http://www.r.dl.itc.u
.uu-tokyo.ac.jp/~ninomi/NLP2007/
23
ᩘᏛ䛾ᩘᘧ
グྕㄽ⌮䛾ㄽ⌮ᘧ
䝥䝻䜾䝷䝭䞁䜾ゝㄒ
䠄⡆༢䛺ᅗᙧ䚸㡢ᴦ䛺䛹䠅
• ᙧᘧⓗ䞉ᶵᲔⓗ䛻ᐃ⩏䛥䜜䜛䛯䜑䚸䝁䞁䝢
䝳䞊䝍䛻䜘䜛ฎ⌮䛜ྍ⬟䛻䛺䜛䚹
24
ᙧᘧᩥἲ䛸ᙧᘧゝㄒ䠄䠏䠅
ᙧᘧᩥἲ䛸ᙧᘧゝㄒ䠄䠐䠅
• ᙧᘧᩥἲ
• ᩥἲつ๎ Įĺȕ䛿䚸ᕥ㎶䛾Į䛜ྑ㎶䛾ȕ䛻᭩䛝᥮
䛘䜙䜜䜛䛣䛸䜢⾲䛩䚹
G = { N, T, P, S }
– N: 㠀⤊➃グྕ䛾᭷㝈㞟ྜ
ᬑ㏻䛿኱ᩥᏐ䠄䛷ጞ䜎䜛ᩥᏐิ䠅䠅䛷⾲䜟䛩䚹
– T: ⤊➃グྕ䛾᭷㝈㞟ྜ
ᩥᏐ䚸ᩘᏐ䚸༢ㄒ䛺䛹䚹
– P: ᩥἲつ๎䠄᭩᥮つ๎䠅䛾㞟ྜ䠖 Įĺȕ
Į䚸ȕ䛿䛧䛛䜛䜉䛝グྕิ
Į䛿ᚲ䛪㠀⤊➃グྕ䜢ྵ䜐
– S: 㛤ጞグྕ
≉ู䛺㠀⤊➃グྕ䠖 S Ѯ N
• ᙧᘧゝㄒ
• సᡂ䛥䜜䛯グྕิ䛻㠀⤊➃グྕ䛜䛺䛡䜜䜀䠄䠙
⤊➃グྕ䛰䛡䛺䜙䠅䛂ᩥ䛃䛜᏶ᡂ䛩䜛䚹䛭䛖䛷䛺䛡
䜜䜀䜎䛰ᮍ᏶ᡂ䛷䚸᭩䛝᥮䛘䜢⥆䛡䜛䚹
• ᩥἲ G 䛜⏕ᡂ䛩䜛ゝㄒ䠄䠙ᩥ䛾㞟ྜ䠅䜢
L = L(G) 䛸䛩䜛䛸䛝䚸䛂G 䛿 L 䜢ཷ⌮䛩䜛䠄⏕ᡂ
䛩䜛䠅䛃䛸ゝ䛖䚹
L Ө T*
– T* 䛿⤊➃グྕ㞟ྜ T 䛾᭷㝈ิ඲య䛾㞟ྜ
25
26
ᙧᘧᩥἲ䛸ᙧᘧゝㄒ䠄䠑䠅
䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊㝵ᒙ
• ౛䠖ᩥἲつ๎䛜ḟ䛾䠎䛴䛸䛩䜛䚹
(1) S ĺb
(2) S ĺaS
• ᩥἲ G 䛜ཷ⌮䛩䜛ゝㄒ䛿䚸ᩥἲつ๎
Įĺȕ
䛷チ䛥䜜䜛ᙧᘧ䛻ᛂ䛨䛶༊ู䞉ศ㢮䛷䛝䜛䚹
– つ๎ (1) 䛿ྑ㎶䛻⤊➃グྕ bѮT 䛧䛛䛺䛔䛛䜙䚸䛣䜜
䜢㐺⏝䛩䜛䛸᭩᥮䛘䛿⤊஢䛩䜛䚹
– つ๎ (2) 䛿ྑ㎶䛻㠀⤊➃グྕ SѮN 䜢ྵ䜐䛛䜙䚸䛣䜜
䜢㐺⏝䛧䛶䜒ᩥ䛿ᮍ᏶ᡂ䛷䚸᭩᥮䛘䛜⥆䛟䚹
– 䛣䛾⤖ᯝ䚸ᩥ b, ab, aab, aaab, ... 䛜⏕ᡂ䛥䜜䜛䚹
• ᙧᘧᩥἲ䛾䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊㝵ᒙ䠄1956䠅
• 䛣䛾ᩥἲ䛜ཷ⌮䛩䜛ゝㄒ䛿䚸L={ anb } 䛷䛒䜛䚹
– 䠄n 䛿 0 ௨ୖ䛾ᩚᩘ䛷䚸an䛿 a 䛜 nಶ⥆䛟䛣䛸䜢⾲䛩䠅
27
䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊㝵ᒙ䠄䠎䠅
–
–
–
–
䠏ᆺᩥἲ䠄ṇつᩥἲ䞉ゝㄒ䠅
䠎ᆺᩥἲ䠄ᩥ⬦⮬⏤ᩥἲ䞉ゝㄒ䠅 䠞䠪䠢グἲ
䠍ᆺᩥἲ䠄ᩥ⬦౫Ꮡᩥἲ䞉ゝㄒ䠅
䠌ᆺᩥἲ䠄ᖐ⣡ྍ⟬ゝㄒ䠅
28
䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊㝵ᒙ䠄䠏䠅
– ௨ୗ䛷 Į䚸ȕ䚸Ȗ䛿௵ព䛾グྕิ䠄✵ิ䛷䜒䜘䛔䠅䜢⾲䛩䚹
• 䠍ᆺᩥἲつ๎
– Į$ȕĺĮȖȕ䛾ᙧ䛾䜒䛾
䠄ᕥ㎶䛾 A 䛜Į䚸ȕ䛾䛂ᩥ⬦䛃䛾୰䛷Ȗ䛻᭩᥮䜟䜛䠅
– 䛂Įĺȕ䛃䠄_Į_ӌ_ȕ_䠅䛸䛔䛖ไ⣙䛻⨨䛝᥮䛘䛶䜒䚸ᐇ㉁ⓗ䛻䛿
ྠ䛨䠄_Į_䛿Į䛾㛗䛥䠅䚹
• 䠏ᆺᩥἲつ๎
– Aĺa, AĺbB 䛾ᙧ䛾つ๎䛰䛡䚹
䠄ᐇ㝿䛻䛿䚸ᕥ㎶䛿㠀⤊➃グྕ䠍ಶ䛰䛡䚸ྑ㎶䛾㠀⤊
➃グྕ䛿䛯䛛䛰䛛䠍ಶ䛷䛒䜜䜀䜘䛔䠅
• 䠌ᆺᩥἲつ๎
• 䠎ᆺᩥἲつ๎
– ไ⣙䛿୍ษ䛺䛟䚸௵ព䛾䛂Įĺȕ䛃䛷䜘䛔䚹
– AĺĮ 䛾ᙧ䛾䜒䛾䠄ᕥ㎶䛿㠀⤊➃グྕ䠍ಶ䛰䛡䠅
• 䠄0, 1 ᆺ䛸䜒䚸ᕥ㎶䛾Į䛿ᚲ䛪㠀⤊➃グྕ䜢ྵ䜏䚸
䜎䛯㠀⤊➃グྕ䛰䛡䛛䜙䛺䜛䛸䛧䛶䛛䜎䜟䛺䛔䠅
29
30
䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊㝵ᒙ䠄䠐䠅
⮬↛ゝㄒ䛾ᩥἲᙧᘧ䠄䠍䠅
• ౛
• 䠏ᆺᩥἲ䠄ṇつᩥἲ䠅䛿䝬䝹䝁䝣㐣⛬䛸㛵ಀ䛩䜛䚹
– 䝬䝹䝁䝣㐣⛬䠖 ⣔ิ䝕䞊䝍䛷䚸䝕䞊䝍 an 䛿䛭䛾๓䛾 k
ಶ䛾䝕䞊䝍䛻䜘䛳䛶Ỵᐃ䛥䜜䜛䠄k 䛿ṇ䛾ᐃᩘ䠅䚹
䛯䛰䛧䚸୍⯡䛾䝬䝹䝁䝣㐣⛬䛷䛿Ỵᐃ䛜☜⋡ⓗ䛷䛒䜛
䛣䛸䛜๓ᥦ䛸䛺䜛䚹
– { an } 䛿䠏ᆺᩥἲ䠄䛷ཷ⌮䛷䛝䜛䠅
– { anbn } 䛿䠎ᆺᩥἲ䛷ཷ⌮䛷䛝䜛䛜䚸䠏ᆺ䛷䛿
䛷䛝䛺䛔䚹
(1) Sĺab (2) SĺaSb 䛸䛩䜜䜀䜘䛔䚹
n
– { a bncn }䚸 { anbncndn }䚸... 䛿䠍ᆺᩥἲ䛷ཷ⌮
䛷䛝䜛䛜䚸䠎ᆺ䛷䛿䛷䛝䛺䛔䚹
– { ap }䠄p 䛿⣲ᩘ䠅䛿䠍ᆺ䛷ཷ⌮䛷䛝䜛䚹
• ṇつᩥἲ䛿⮬↛ゝㄒ䛾グ㏙ᩥἲ䛸䛧䛶䛿୙㐺ษ䞉
୙༑ศ
э ෌ᖐⓗᵓ㐀䠄ᇙ㎸ᵓ㐀䚸ධ䜜Ꮚᵓ㐀䠅䛜ᢅ䛘
䛺䛔䚹
31
32
⮬↛ゝㄒ䛾ᩥἲᙧᘧ䠄䠎䠅
⮬↛ゝㄒ䛾ᩥἲᙧᘧ䠄䠏䠅
• ෌ᖐⓗᵓ㐀䜢ᣢ䛴ᩥ
• ෌ᖐⓗᵓ㐀䛿䚸䠎ᆺᩥἲ䠄ᩥ⬦⮬⏤ᩥἲ䠖
context-free grammar䠅䛷䛺䜙ᢅ䛘䜛䚹
– The cheese the rat the cat the dog the boy held bit
chased ate was rotten.
䠄⏨䛾Ꮚ䛜ᢲ䛥䛘䛶䛔䛯≟䛜ჶ䜏䛴䛔䛯⊧䛜㏣䛔䛛
䛡䛯䝛䝈䝭䛜㣗䜉䛯䝏䞊䝈䛿⭉䛳䛶䛔䛯䠅
– 䛔䜟䜖䜛䛂ྃᵓ㐀ᩥἲ䠄phrase-structure grammar䠅䛃䛸
ྠ⩏䛸⪃䛘䛶䜘䛔䚹
• ⤒㦂ⓗ䛻ゝ䛳䛶䚸ᩥ⬦⮬⏤ᩥἲ䛿⮬↛ゝㄒ䜢㏆
ఝⓗ䛻⾲䜟䛩䛻䛿༑ศ䛷䛒䜛䚹
– Dorothy, who met the wicked Witch of the West in
Munchkin Land where her wicked Witch sister was
killed, liquidated her with a pail of water.
– ㏫ⱱᮌᩥ
– 䛂ᡃ䚻䛿䚸⭉䛳䛯ᨻᗓ䛜᫖ᖺ䛾䝔䝻஦௳䛷⿕ᐖ䛻䛒䛳
䛯ே䛯䛱䛾ᐙ᪘䛜ḹ㢪䛧䛯䛻䜒㛵䜟䜙䛪䚸䛺䛛䛺䛛╔
ᡭ䛧䛺䛔ᩆ῭ἲ᱌䛾ไᐃ䜢᥎㐍䛩䜛䚹䛃
• 䛧䛛䛧䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊䠄ึᮇ䠅䛻䜘䜜䜀䚸䛣䜜䜒⮬↛
ゝㄒグ㏙䛻䛿୙༑ศ
– ᖹླྀᩥ䛸␲ၥᩥ䚸⬟ືែ䛸ཷືែ䛸䛔䛳䛯┦஫䛻㛵
㐃䛩䜛ᩥ䛾䛴䛺䛜䜚䛜⾲䛫䛪䚸ᩥἲ䛜↓ព࿡䛻」㞧
䛻䛺䜛䚹
33
34
(Jabberwocky)
'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves
Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;
All mimsy were the borogoves,
And the mome raths outgrabe.
“colorless green ideas sleep furiously”
• 䠄┤ヂ䠄䠛䠅䠖䛂↓Ⰽ䛾⥳䛾⪃䛘䛿⊛䚻䛧䛟╀䜛䛃䠅
"Beware the Jabberwock, my son!
The jaws that bite, the claws that catch!
Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun
The frumious Bandersnatch!“
• 䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊䠄1957䠅䛜♧䛧䛯᭷ྡ䛺౛ᩥ䛷䚸ゝㄒ
䛻䛚䛡䜛ᵓᩥㄽ䛾⮬❧ᛶ䚸㔜せᛶ䜢➃ⓗ䛻♧䛩䛣
䛸䛜ពᅗ䛥䜜䛶䛔䜛䚹
He took his vorpal sword in hand:
Long time the manxome foe he sought—
So rested he by the Tumtum tree,
And stood awhile in thought.
35
And as in uffish thought he stood,
The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame,
Came whiffling through the tulgey wood,
And burbled as it came!
One, two! One, two!
and through and through
The vorpal blade went
snicker-snack!
He left it dead,
and with its head
He went galumphing back.
"And hast thou slain the Jabberwock?
Come to my arms, my beamish boy!
O frabjous day! Callooh! Callay!“
He chortled in his joy.
'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves
Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;
All mimsy were the borogoves,
And the mome raths outgrabe.
36
ᵓᩥ䛻䜘䜛᭕᫕ᛶ䛾ゎᾘ
⮬↛ゝㄒ䛾ᩥἲᙧᘧ䠄䠐䠅䠖ኚᙧ
• ᭕᫕ᩥ䠄」ᩘ䛾ព࿡䜢ᣢ䛴ᩥ䠅䛿䚸␗䛺䜛ᵓᩥᵓ
㐀䜢ᣢ䛴䛣䛸䛷ᕪู໬䛥䜜䜛䚹
–
–
–
–
• ྃᵓ㐀ᩥἲ䛷䛿ᖹླྀᩥ䛸␲ၥᩥ䚸⬟ືែ䛸ཷື
ែ䛸䛔䛳䛯┦஫䛻㛵㐃䛩䜛ᩥ䛾䛴䛺䛜䜚䛜⾲䛫䛺
䛔䚹
• 䛭䛾䛯䜑䛻䛂ኚᙧ䠄transformation䠅䛃䜢ᑟධ䛩䜛䚹
Flying planes can be dangerous.
Time flies like an arrow.
I eat the apples in the garden.
㉥䛔ᒇ᰿䛾኱䛝䛺ᐙ
• ㏫䛻⾲㠃ୖఝ䛶䛿䛔䜛䛜䚸ព࿡䞉ᵓ㐀䛜㐪䛖ᩥ
䛾ᕪู໬䛻䜒㛵ಀ䛩䜛䚹
– John is easy to please.
– John is eager to please.
– 䛣䛣䛷䛿䛝䜒䛾䜢䛼䛔䛷䛟䛰䛥䛔
37
⮬↛ゝㄒ䛾ᩥἲᙧᘧ䠄䠑䠅
• 㛵㐃䛾䛒䜛ᩥྠኈ䛿䚸ඹ㏻䛾䛂ᇶᮏᙧ䛃䠄䛔䜟䜖䜛
䛂῝ᒙᵓ㐀䠄deep structure䠅䛃䜢ᣢ䛱䚸䛭䜜䛻ኚᙧ䜢
ຍ䛘䜛䛣䛸䛻䜘䛳䛶䛂⾲ᒙᵓ㐀䠄surface structure䠅䛃
䛷䛒䜛ᐇ㝿䛾ᩥ䠄༢ㄒิ䠅䛻䛺䜛䚹
• ୍ᣲ䛻ᩥ⬦౫Ꮡᩥἲ䜎䛷⾜䛛䛺䛟䛶䜒䚸ྃᵓ㐀ᩥ
ἲ䠇ኚᙧ䛷ᑐᛂ䛷䛝䜛䚹
38
⏕ᡂᩥἲ䠄Generative Grammar䠅
• ኚᙧ䛾౛䠖ཷືែ䜢స䜛䚹
“John loves Mary”䠄䝆䝵䞁䛿䝯䝸䞊䜢ឡ䛩䜛䠅
䛻ᑐ䛧䚸
• 䛰䛔䛯䛔䚸䛂ᶆ‽⌮ㄽ䛃䠄~1965䠅䛠䜙䛔䛾䛖䛱䛿䚸
䛣䛾䛂ྃᵓ㐀ᩥἲ䠇ኚᙧつ๎䛃䛻䜘䜛ᵓᩥㄽᵓ
⠏䛜⾜䜟䜜䚸ᵝ䚻䛺ኚᙧつ๎䛜ᑟධ䞉ྫྷ࿡䛥䜜
䛯䚹
– ືモ䜢 “is loved” 䛾ศモᙧ䛻ኚᙧ
– ୺ㄒ䠄John䠅䛸┠ⓗㄒ䠄Mary䠅䜢஺᥮
䛻䜘䜚䚸“Mary is loved by John” 䜢ᚓ䜛䚹
• 䛣䜜䜢䛂⏕ᡂᩥἲ䠄⌮ㄽ䠅䛃䛸࿧䜆䚹
䛂⏕ᡂ䠄generative䠅䛃䛾ព࿡䛿䜟䛛䜚䛻䛟䛔䛜䚸
䛂ᩥ䜢⏕ᡂ䛩䜛䛯䜑䛾ᩥἲ䛃䛸䛔䛳䛯ព࿡䛷䛿䛺
䛟䚸ྍ⬟䛺ᩥ䛩䜉䛶䜢⏕ᡂ䛩䜛䛯䜑䛾⌮ㄽ䚸䛸䛔
䛳䛯ព࿡ྜ䛔䜢ᣢ䛴䚹
• 䠄᪥ᮏㄒ䠅
– 䛂ឡ䛩䜛䛃ĺ䛂ឡ䛥䜜䜛䛃䠄ཷື䛾ຓືモ䠅
– ୺ㄒ䞉┠ⓗㄒ䛾஺᥮
э䛂䝯䝸䞊䛿䝆䝵䞁䛻ឡ䛥䜜䜛䛃
39
40
ᬑ㐢ᩥἲ䠄Universal Grammar䠅
ᬑ㐢ᩥἲ䠄䠎䠅
• 䛂䝥䝷䝖䞁ၥ㢟䛃
• 䝥䝷䝖䞁ၥ㢟ゎỴ䛾䛯䜑䛻䛿䚸ே㛫䠄Ꮚ౪䠅䛿⏕
ᚓⓗ䛻ゝㄒ䜢ฎ⌮䛩䜛䛯䜑䛾▱㆑䜔䝯䜹䝙䝈䝮
䜢ഛ䛘䛶䛔䛺䛡䜜䜀䛺䜙䛺䛔䚹
• 䛭䛾䜘䛖䛺ゝㄒ▱㆑䜢⥲⛠䛧䛶䚸
䛂ᬑ㐢ᩥἲ䠄Universal Grammar䠅䛃䛸࿧䜆䚹
– 䛂▱㆑䛿⏕ᚓⓗ䛺䜒䛾䛛䛃䠄䛄䝯䝜䞁䛅䠅
– э䛂ゝㄒ䛿䠄䛹䛣䜎䛷䠅⏕ᚓⓗ䛛䛃
– Ꮚ౪䠄ᗂඣ䠅䛜䚸⮬ศ䛜᥋䛩䜛ゝㄒ⎔ቃ䛛䜙ᴟ䜑䛶▷
ᮇ㛫䛻䠄䠎䡚䠏ᖺ䠅䚸䛧䛛䜒䜋䜌᏶඲䛺ゝㄒ䠄ẕᅜㄒ䠅䛾
▱㆑䛾⋓ᚓ䛜䛷䛝䜛䛾䛿䛺䛬䛛䠛
• 䛷䛿ᬑ㐢ᩥἲ䛿䛹䛾䜘䛖䛺ෆᐜ䛛䠛
–
–
–
–
– ᏶඲䛺䛂ⓑ⣬≧ែ䠄tabula rasa䠅䛃䛛䜙Ꮫ⩦䛩䜛䛾䛿ᴟ
䜑䛶㠀ຠ⋡ⓗ䛛䛴୙᏶඲
– ▱㆑䛾ᑡ䛺䛟䛸䜒䛒䜛㒊ศ䛿⏕ᚓⓗ䠄⏕䜎䜜䛴䛔䛶䛾
䜒䛾䠅䛷䛺䛡䜜䜀䛺䜙䛺䛔䚹
cf. 䛂ᮏ⬟䛃
41
≉ᐃ䛾ゝㄒ䜔䛭䛾ᩥἲ䛷䛿䛺䛔䛾䛿᫂䜙䛛䚹
≉ᐃ䛾ᩥἲ㢮ᆺ䛸䛔䛖䜟䛡䛷䜒䛺䛔䚹
ᵓᩥゎᯒჾ䛾ᇶᮏ䝯䜹䝙䝈䝮䠛
ᬑ㐢ᩥἲ䛾㏣✲䛿䚸䛹䜣䛹䜣ᢳ㇟໬䛧䛶䛔䛝䚸䛂ᵓᩥ
ㄽ䛃䛛䜙䛿㞳䜜䛶䛔䛟䛣䛸䛻䛺䜛䚹
42
䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊⌮ㄽ䛾ኚ㑄䠄䠍䠅
䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊⌮ㄽ䛾ኚ㑄䠄䠎䠅
• 䛂ᶆ‽⌮ㄽ䠄Standard theory䠅䛃䠄1957~1965䠅
• 䛂ᣑ኱ᶆ‽⌮ㄽ䠄Extended standard theory䠅䛃
䠄1965~1973䠅䛸䛭䛾ᨵゞ䠄1973~1976䠅
• 䛂䠄㛵ಀᩥἲ䠅䠄Relational grammar䠅䛃
䠄1975 㡭䡚1990䠅
• 䛂⤫⋡䞉᮰⦡⌮ㄽ䠄Government & binding䠅䛃䚸
䛂ཎ⌮䛸䝟䝷䝯䝍⌮ㄽ䠄Principles & parameters)䛃
䠄1981~1990䠅
• 䛂䝭䝙䝬䝸䝇䝖䝥䝻䜾䝷䝮䠄Minimalist program䠅䛃
䠄1990~⌧ᅾ䠅
• ඲య䛸䛧䛶䚸ึᮇ䛾䛂ᵓᩥㄽ⮳ୖ୺⩏䛃䛿
ᙳ䜢₯䜑䛯⤖ᯝ䛸䛺䛳䛶䛔䜛䚹
• ึᮇ䛾㡭䛻㔜せど䛥䜜䛯䛂ኚᙧ䛃ᴫᛕ䛿䚸
஦ᐇୖ䚸ᨺ㏲䛥䜜䛯䛻➼䛧䛔䚹
• ᵓᩥ䜘䜚䛿ㄒᙡㄽ㔜ど䠄༢ㄒ䛾ᣢ䛴ព࿡
䜔ᵓᩥⓗᙺ๭䛻኱䛝䛺䜴䜵䜲䝖䛜䛛䛡䜙䜜
䜛䠅䛻㌿䛨䛶䛔䜛䚹
– 䛣䛣䜙䛿ྃᵓ㐀ᩥἲ୺య䛾䚸௚䛾ᩥἲ◊✲䛸
ྠ䛨᪉ྥ䛻䛺䛳䛶䛔䜛䚹
43
䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊⌮ㄽ䛾ኚ㑄䠄䠏䠅
44
ㄆ▱⛉Ꮫ䛻䛚䛡䜛ゝㄒ◊✲䠄୍⯡䠅
• 䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊䜢୰ᚰ䛸䛩䜛ゝㄒᏛ◊✲䛿䚸
Competence䠄ゝㄒ⬟ຊ䠅䛻❧⬮䛧䚸ᵓᩥㄽ䛻೫䛧
䛯ឤ䛜䛒䜛䚹
эゝㄒᏛ䛾⮬❧ᛶ䜢┠ᣦ䛧䛯䜒䛾
• ୍᪉䚸ᬑ㐢ᩥἲ᥈✲䛻ྥ䛡䛶䛾⌮ㄽ໬䛿䚸䛹䜣
䛹䜣ᢳ㇟ⓗ䞉୍⯡ㄽⓗ䛻䛺䛳䛶䛔䛝䚸䛭䜒䛭䜒䛾
ᵓᩥㄽ䛛䜙䜒㞳䜜䜛䜒䛾䛻䛺䛳䛶䛔䜛䚹
• 䛂䝭䝙䝬䝸䝇䝖䝥䝻䜾䝷䝮䛃䛿㠀ᮏ㉁ⓗ䛺㒊ศ䜢ᚭ
ᗏⓗ䛻ษ䜚ᤞ䛶䠄䛂䜸䝑䜹䝮䛾๋ย䛃䠅䚸୰᰾䛸䛺䜛
㒊ศ䜢ᢳฟ䛧䜘䛖䛸䛔䛖䜰䝥䝻䞊䝏䛷䛒䜛䚹
• ึᮇ䛾⇕≬ⓗ䛺཯㡪䛻ẚ䜉䚸⌧ᅾ䛷䛿䛭䛾䜎䜎
䛾ᙧ䛷䛾ᨭᣢ⪅䛿኱ᖜ䛻ᑡ䛺䛟䛺䛳䛶䛔䜛䛜䚸䜎
䛰㞃↛䛯䜛ᙳ㡪ຊ䛿᭷䛧䛶䛔䜛䚹
• 䛣䜜䛻ᑐ䛧䚸ゝㄒ䛾ㄆ▱⛉Ꮫⓗ◊✲୍⯡䛷䛿䚸
ゝㄒ䜢㛢䛨䛯ᑐ㇟䛸䛧䛶ᢅ䛖䛾䛷䛿䛺䛟䚸ᛮ⪃䞉⾜
ື䞉▱㆑⾲⌧䠄⾲㇟䠅䛺䛹䛸㐃ື䛧䛶⪃䛘䜛䚹
– Competence 䜘䜚 performance 䛾ഃ㠃䛻┠䜢ྥ䛡䜛䚹
– ᵓᩥㄽ⮳ୖ䛷䛿䛺䛟䚸ព࿡ㄽ䞉ㄒ⏝ㄽ䜢ᑐ㇟䛸䛩䜛䚹
– ≉䛻䝁䞁䝢䝳䞊䝍䛻䜘䜛⮬↛ゝㄒฎ⌮䛷䛿䚸⌮ㄽⓗ䛺
᏶ഛᛶ䜘䜚䛿䚸ᐇ⏝ⓗ䛺ព⩏䛜㔜ど䛥䜜䜛䚹
45
46
䛭䛾௚䛾ᩥἲ⌮ㄽ䠄䠍䠅
䛭䛾௚䛾ᩥἲ⌮ㄽ䠄䠎䠅
• ୺䛸䛧䛶䝁䞁䝢䝳䞊䝍䛻䜘䜛ゝㄒฎ⌮䜢ព㆑䛧䛯
ほⅬ䛛䜙䚸ᩥ⬦⮬⏤ᩥἲ䠄ྃᵓ㐀ᩥἲ䠅䜢䝧䞊䝇
䛻䛧䛯ᵝ䚻䛺ᩥἲ⌮ㄽ䛜ᥦ᱌䛥䜜䛶䛔䜛䚹
• ྃᵓ㐀ᩥἲ䠄Phrase structure grammar䠅
䝧䞊䝇䛾ᩥἲ䛾౛
– LFG䠄Lexical Functional Grammar䠖ㄒᙡᶵ⬟
ᩥἲ䠅 1970 ᖺ௦䚸Bresnan & Kaplan
– 䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊㝵ᒙ䛻䛚䛔䛶䚸䠏ᆺ䛛䜙䠌ᆺ䛻㐍䜐䛻䛴
䜜䚸䝁䞁䝢䝳䞊䝍䛻䜘䜛ゎᯒฎ⌮䛿䠄㣕㌍ⓗ䛻䠅㞴䛧䛟
䛺䜛䚹
– 䠏ᆺ䞉䠎ᆺᩥἲ䛷䛿ຠ⋡ⓗ䛺ゎᯒ䛜ྍ⬟
– 䠍ᆺ䛻䛺䜛䛸䚸ゎᯒຠ⋡䛿኱ᖜ䛻䝎䜴䞁䛩䜛
– 䠌ᆺ䠄䝏䝳䞊䝸䞁䜾䝬䝅䞁䛸➼౯䠅䛷䛿䠄୍⯡䛻䛿䠅ฎ⌮
䛜೵Ṇ䛩䜛ಖド䛥䛘䛺䛔䚹
– GPSG䠄Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar:
୍⯡໬ྃᵓ㐀ᩥἲ䠅 1970ᖺ௦ᚋ༙䚸Gazdar
– HPSG䠄Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar:
୺㎡㥑ືྃᵓ㐀ᩥἲ䠅 1985~䚸Pollard & Sag
47
48
䛭䛾௚䛾ᩥἲ⌮ㄽ䠄䠏䠅
ཧ⪃䠖 ゝㄒ䛾䛂᱁䠄case䠅䛃
• ⏕ᡂᩥἲ⌮ㄽ䛸䛿ู⣔⤫䛾䚸᭱ึ䛛䜙ព࿡
ㄽ䜢ព㆑䛧䛯ᩥἲ⌮ㄽ䛸䛧䛶䛿ḟ䛾䜒䛾䛜
䛒䜛䚹
• ືモ䠄⏝ゝ䠅䜢୰ᚰ䛻䛚䛔䛶ᩥ䜢⪃䛘䜛䛸䚸ྛྡ
モ䠄ྃ䠅䛿䚸ືモ䛻ᑐ䛧䛶䛹䛾䜘䛖䛺ᙺ๭䜢ᣢ䛴
䛛䛷༊ู䛥䜜䜛䚹䛭䜜䜢䛭䛾ྡモ䛾䛂᱁䛃䛸࿧䜆䚹
– ౛䠖 ୺᱁䚸┠ⓗ᱁䚸୚᱁䚸ᡤ᭷᱁䚸䠊䠊䠊
– ᱁ᩥἲ䠄case grammar䠅 1968, Fillmore
䠄ᙧᘧᩥἲ䛾ᒓᛶᩥἲ䛸䜒㛵㐃䛩䜛䠅
– 䝅䝇䝔䝭䝑䜽ᩥἲ䠄systemic functional grammar䠅
1960 ᖺ௦~䚸M. Halliday
• ᱁䛿䚸䝣䝷䞁䝇ㄒ䚸䝗䜲䝒ㄒ䛺䛹䛷䛿ㄒᑿ䛾᱁ኚ
໬䛷⾲䜟䛥䜜䚸᪥ᮏㄒ䛷䛿ຓモ䛜䛭䛾ᙺ๭䜢ᯝ
䛯䛩䚹䠄᱁䛾ᶆ㆑䠅
• ⱥㄒ䠄䜔୰ᅜㄒ䠅䛿≉ᐃ䛾᱁ᶆ㆑䛜䛒䜎䜚䛺䛟䚸
ㄒ㡰䛷⾲䜟䛩䚹
49
ཧ⪃䠖᪥ᮏㄒ䛾ᩥἲ䠄䠍䠅
50
ཧ⪃䠖᪥ᮏㄒ䛾ᩥἲ䠄䠎䠅
– ㄒ㡰䛜ẚ㍑ⓗ⮬⏤䛷䛒䜛
• ᪥ᮏㄒ䛿䚸ⱥㄒ䛺䛹༳Ḣ⣔ゝㄒ䛸ẚ䜉䛶
ⴭ䛧䛔┦㐪Ⅼ䛜䛔䜝䛔䜝䛒䜛䚹
• 䛂ኴ㑻䛿ⰼᏊ䛻ᮏ䜢㉗䛳䛯䛃
• 䛂ኴ㑻䛿ᮏ䜢ⰼᏊ䛻㉗䛳䛯䛃
– ⭺╔ㄒ䛷䛒䜛䠄ศ䛛䛱᭩䛝䜢䛧䛺䛔ሙྜ䠅䚹䛧䛯
䛜䛳䛶༢ㄒ䛾ቃ⏺䜢Ỵ䜑䜛䛂ᙧែ⣲ゎᯒ䛃䛜
኱䛝䛺䜴䜵䜲䝖䜢༨䜑䜛䚹
– ୺ㄒ䜢ྵ䜑䚸┬␎䛜ከ䛔䚹
• 䛂ⰼᏊ䛻ᮏ䜢㉗䛳䛯䛃
• 䛂⚾䛿䜴䝘䜼䛰䛃
• 䛂䛣䛣䛷䛿䛝䜒䛾䜢䛼䛔䛷䛟䛰䛥䛔䛃
• 䛂䜴䝷䝙䝽䝙䝽䝙䝽䝙䝽䝙䝽䝙䝽䝙䝽䝖䝸䜺䜲䝹䛃
• 䛣䛖䛔䛳䛯≉ᚩ䛾䛯䜑䚸ྃᵓ㐀ᩥἲ䛻䜘䜛
ゎᯒ䛿ᚲ䛪䛧䜒᭷ຠ䛷䛿䛺䛟䚸ಀ䜚ཷ䛡ゎ
ᯒ䛭䛾௚䛾ᡭἲ䛜⏝䛔䜙䜜䜛䚹
– ୖ䛿䚸ྠ㡢␗⩏ㄒ䛜ከ䛔䛣䛸䜢♧䛧䛶䜒䛔䜛䚹
51
ព࿡ㄽ䠄Semantics䠅
ព࿡ㄽ䠄䠎䠅
• ᩥ䞉ᩥ❶䛾ព࿡ෆᐜ䜢ᢅ䛖ゝㄒᏛ䛾㒊㛛䚹
ᵓᩥㄽ䞉ㄒ⏝ㄽ䛸䜎䛯䛜䜛㒊ศ䜒䛒䜛䚹
• “Every man loves a woman.”
䛣䛾ᩥ䛿䚸ᵓᩥⓗ䛺᭕᫕ᛶ䛿䛺䛔䛜䚸ព࿡ⓗ䛻
䛿᭕᫕ᛶ䠄䠎㏻䜚䛾ゎ㔘䠅䛜䛒䜛䚹
• 䛭䜒䛭䜒䛂ព࿡䛃䜢䛹䛖ᐃ⩏䞉グ㏙䛩䜛䛛䚹
– 䛭䛾㐪䛔䜢᪥ᮏㄒ䛻ヂ䛩䛾䛿㞴䛧䛔䚹
– ゝⴥ䛷グ䛩䠄㎡᭩䛾ㄒ㔘䛺䛹䠅
• ᇽ䚻ᕠ䜚䛻䛺䜚䛭䛖䚹
• グ䛥䜜䛯ᩥ❶⮬య䜢ゎ㔘䛩䜛ᚲせ䛜䛒䜛䚹
– ゝㄒ䛷♧䛥䜜䛯ෆᐜ䠄≉䛻࿨௧䠅䜢ᐇ㝿䛻ᐇ⾜䛩䜛䠄᧯
సⓗព࿡ㄽ䠅
– ఱ䜙䛛䛾ᙧᘧⓗ䛺▱㆑⾲⌧䛾ᯟ⤌䛷ព࿡䜢⾲䛩䠄グྕ
ㄽ⌮䚸Montague grammar 䛺䛹䠅
52
• ㏙ㄒㄽ⌮䛷⾲䜟䛩䛸䚸ḟ䛾㐪䛔䛻䛺䜛䚹
– Ѧx ѩy love(x,y)
䛂䛹䜣䛺⏨ᛶ x 䛷䜒䚸ឡ䛩䜛ዪᛶ y 䛜䠍ே䛿Ꮡᅾ䛩䜛䛃
– ѩy Ѧx love(x,y)
䛂䛹䜣䛺⏨ᛶ x 䜒䛜ឡ䛩䜛≉ู䛺ዪᛶ y 䛜Ꮡᅾ䛩䜛䛃
53
54
ㄒ⏝ㄽ䠄Pragmatics䠅
ព࿡ㄽ䠄䠏䠅
• ᐇ㝿䛾ゝㄒ౑⏝䛿䚸⾲䜟䛥䜜䜛ព࿡ෆᐜ䛭䛾䜒
䛾䜢ఏ㐩䛩䜛䛣䛸䛭䛾䜒䛾䛸䛔䛖䜘䜚䛿䚸ᵝ䚻䛺
ຠᯝ䞉ᙳ㡪䞉せồ䛺䛹䜢♧䛩䛣䛸䛜┠ⓗ䚹
э ㄒ⏝ㄽ䠖ゝㄒ䛾䛭䛖䛔䛳䛯ഃ㠃䛻╔┠䛩䜛
• ┿⌮್ⓗ䛺ព࿡ㄽ
– Tarski ➼䛾ㄽ⌮Ꮫ䛾䝰䝕䝹ㄽ䛛䜙Ⓨ䛧䚸
Montague Grammar䛺䛹
• ⏕ᡂព࿡ㄽ䠄Ross, Postal, McCawley, Lakoff䠅
• ẚ႘䞉ᬯ႘䠄metaphor䠅 э㢮᥎
– Chomsky 䛾 deep structure 䜢ព࿡⾲⌧䛾᰿ᖿ䛻䛚䛟䚹
– ព࿡ᵓ㐀䜢ゝㄒእ䛻ᣢ䛱ฟ䛩䛸䛔䛳䛯Ⅼ䛷 Chomsky
Ꮫὴ䛸ᑐ❧䚹
– 䛂❧䛶䜀Ⱏ⸆ᗙ䜜䜀∻୹䚸䠊䠊䠊䛃䚸䛂⏨䛿䜏䛺⊋䜘䛃
– ᶆㄒ䚸䛣䛸䜟䛦䛺䛹
• ㄆ▱ⓗព࿡ㄽ
– ⏕ᡂព࿡ㄽ䛾Ⓨᒎᙧ
– Jackendoff 䛾⏕ᡂ⌮ㄽⓗ䛺ព࿡ㄽ䛾ᢅ䛔
• ≧ἣព࿡ㄽ䠄Barwise, Perry䠅
55
• 䛂ゝㄒ䝀䞊䝮䛃䠄Wittgenstein䠅
• ゝㄒ⾜Ⅽ
• ㄯヰᵓ㐀䛾ศᯒ䠄఍ヰ⪅ྠኈ䛾Ⓨヰ䜢䝀䞊䝮䛻
䛚䛡䜛䛂╔ᡭ䛃䛸䜏䛺䛩䠅
56
ゝㄒ⾜Ⅽㄽ䠄䠎䠅
ゝㄒ⾜Ⅽㄽ䠄Speech Act Theory䠅
• 䛂Ⓨヰෆ⾜Ⅽ䛃䠄illocutionary act䠅
䛂ఱ䛛䜢ゝ䛖䛣䛸䛷ఱ䛛䜢⾜䛖䛣䛸 䛃
• J.L. Austin 䛻䜘䜚๰ጞ䛥䜜䚸J.R.Searle 䛻䜘䜚Ⓨ
ᒎ䞉ᣑᙇ䛥䜜䛯ゝㄒ䛾䛂ㄒ⏝ㄽ䛃䛻ᒓ䛩䜛⌮ㄽ䚹
• ゝㄒ䛭䛾䜒䛾䛻䜘䛳䛶䛹䛾䜘䛖䛺஦ᐇ䜔୺ᙇ䛜
㏙䜉䜙䜜䛶䛔䜛䛛䛷䛿䛺䛟䚸䛭䜜䛜䛹䛖䛔䛖ຠᯝ
䜢䜒䛯䜙䛩䛛䛸䛔䛖ほⅬ䛻❧䛳䛯ゝㄒ౑⏝䛾⌮
ㄽ䚹
• ㄯヰศᯒ䚸䝁䞁䝢䝳䞊䝍䛻䜘䜛఍ヰᵓ㐀䛾ᵓᡂ䞉
ศᯒ䛺䛹䛻ᛂ⏝䛥䜜䜛䚹
• Ⓨヰෆ⾜Ⅽ䛾ศ㢮䠄Searle䠅
– assertives
• ヰ⪅䛜࿨㢟䛜┿䛷䛒䜛䛣䛸䜢୺ᙇ䛩䜛ゝㄒ⾜Ⅽ
– directives
• ┦ᡭ䛻ఱ䜙䛛䛾⾜ື䜢䛸䜙䛫䜛ゝㄒ⾜Ⅽ䠄せồ䚸࿨௧䚸ຓゝ䛺䛹䠅
– commissives
• ヰ⪅䛜ᑗ᮶䛾⾜ື䜢⣙᮰䛩䜛ゝㄒ⾜Ⅽ䠄⣙᮰䚸ㄋ䛔䛺䛹䠅
– expressives
• 䛒䜛ᥦ᱌䞉࿨㢟䛻ᑐ䛩䜛ヰ⪅䛾ែᗘ䜔ឤ᝟䜢⾲⌧䛩䜛ゝㄒ⾜Ⅽ䠄
⚃㎡䚸ㅰ⨥䚸ឤㅰ䛺䛹䠅
– declaratives
• ఱ䜙䛛䛾ᐉゝ䜢⌧ᐇ໬䛩䜛ゝㄒ⾜Ⅽ䠄Ὑ♩䚸ุỴ䚸⤖፧ᘧ䛷䛾⪷
⫋⪅䛺䛹䠅
• ཧ⪃䠖 L. Wittgenstein 䛂ゝㄒ䝀䞊䝮䛃
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ㄆ▱ⓗゝㄒ◊✲䛾⌧≧
᪥ᖖ఍ヰ䛾౛
䠄≉䛻⮬↛ゝㄒฎ⌮䛾ほⅬ䛛䜙䠅
• HPSG 䛺䛹䚸㎡᭩㡯┠䛸ᩥἲつ๎䜢⼥ྜ䛩䜛ᵓᩥ
⌮ㄽ䛸䛭䛾䝁䞁䝢䝳䞊䝍ୖ䛷䛾ᐇ⌧
• 䛂෭ⶶᗜ䛻Ỉ䛿䛒䜛䛛䛔䠛䛃
–
–
–
–
䛂䛺䛔䛛䜙Ỉ㐨Ỉ䜢౑䛳䛶䛟䜜䛃
䛂Ỉ䛿䛺䛔䛡䛹෭䛘䛯㯏Ⲕ䛺䜙ධ䛳䛶䛔䜛䛃
䛂㟖ྲྀ䜚䛾ཷ䛡─䛻⁀䜎䛳䛶䛔䜛䛿䛪䛃
䛂㣗ရ䛻䜒Ỉ⵨Ẽ䛸䛧䛶䜒ỈศᏊ䛿Ꮡᅾ䛩䜛䛃
• ኱つᶍ䝁䞊䝟䝇䛾฼⏝
• 䛭䜜䛻ᇶ䛵䛟䚸⤫ィⓗ䞉☜⋡䝰䝕䝹ⓗ䛺ゝㄒศᯒ
э ⌮ㄽ䜘䜚䛿ᐇ㊶䚸஦౛䝧䞊䝇
• 䛂㒊ᒇ䛜ᬯ䛔䛽䛃
–
–
–
–
58
䛂᫂䜛䛥䛿 XX 䝹䜽䝇䛰䛃
䛂䜒䛖᪥䛜ᬽ䜜䛯䛛䜙䛃
䛂ᬯ䛔㟁⌫䛧䛛䛴䛡䛶䛺䛔䜣䛰䛃
䛂㟁Ẽ䛴䛡䜘䛖䛛䠛䛃
• ཧ⪃䠖஧ᐑᓫ䞉ᐑᑿభ௓
䛂⮬↛ゝㄒฎ⌮䛻䛚䛡䜛ᩥἲ㛤Ⓨ䛾㌶㊧䛸ᒎᮃ䛃
⮬↛ゝㄒฎ⌮䛻䛚
䛻䛚
䛚
䛚䛡䜛ᩥἲ㛤Ⓨ䛾㌶㊧䛸ᒎ
59
http://www.r.dl.itc.u
.uu-tokyo.ac.jp/~ninomi/NLP2007/
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ゝㄒⓎ㐩䞉⋓ᚓ
• ಶయ䛻䛚䛡䜛ゝㄒⓎ㐩䞉⋓ᚓ䠄Piaget ௚䠅
– 䛂䠍ㄒᮇ䛃䚸䛂䠎ㄒᮇ䛃䚸䠊䠊䠊
– ẕᅜㄒ䛸⋓ᚓ⮫⏺
– ᴫᛕ⋓ᚓ䛸䛾㛵ಀ
• ゝㄒ䛾Ⓨ⏕䞉Ⓨ㐩
– ゝㄒ䛾㉳※ㄽ
– 䝢䝆䞁䠄Pidgin䠅䛸䜽䝺䜸䞊䝹䠄Creole䠅
D. Bickerton: “Roots of Language” (1981)
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62
W. F. 䝖䜳䜴䜷䝕䝹䛂㡢⣲䛾ᐃ⩏䛻䛴䛔䛶䛃(1939)
௜㘓䠖 ㏣ຍ㈨ᩱ
• 䠷㡢⣲䛻䛴䛔䛶䛾䠹䛣䛖䛧䛯ᐃ⩏䛿ኻ᱁䛷䛒䜛䚹䛺䛬䛺䜙䚸
➨୍䛻䚸ᡭ䛻䛸䛳䛶䜏䜛䛣䛸䛾䛷䛝䛺䛔䛂䝁䝁䝻䛃(mind) 䛾
ゝㄒⓗ䛿䛯䜙䛝䛻䛴䛔䛶䚸ᙜ䛶᥎㔞䛩䜛ᶒ฼䛿⚾䛯䛱䛻
䛿䛺䛔䛧䚸➨஧䛻䚸䛣䛾䜘䛖䛺ᙜ䛶᥎㔞䛛䜙ఱ䛛฼┈䜢ᚓ
䜛䛣䛸䛿䛷䛝䛺䛔䛛䜙䛷䛒䜛䚹䛂䝁䝁䝻䛃䛾ゝㄒⓗ㐣⛬䛾ෆ
┬䛺䛹䛸䛔䛖䜒䛾䛿䚸䜂䛹䛔䛯䛸䛘䛷ゝ䛖䛸䚸ᮌ㐀䜚䛾䝇䝖
䞊䞂䛾୰䛷ⅆ䜢⇞䜔䛩䜘䛖䛺䜒䛾䛰䚹ᡃ䚻䛻䛸䛳䛶䚸䛂䝁䝁
䝻䛃䛻㛵䛩䜛၏୍䛾᝟ሗ䛿䚸䛭䛾䝁䝁䝻䛜ఫ䜎䛳䛶䛔䜛ᙜ
ே䛾⾜ື䛛䜙䛾䜏ᘬ䛝ฟ䛫䜛䛾䛰䚹䛭䛾⾜ື䜢䛂䝁䝁䝻䛃
䛻ᣐ䜚䛛䛛䛳䛶ㄝ᫂䛩䜛䛣䛸䛿䚸ᮍ▱䛾ཎᅉ䛻ྡ䜢୚䛘
䛶䛚䛔䛯ୖ䛷䚸䛒䜛஦ᐇ䛾ཎᅉ䛸䛧䛶䚸䛭䛾 x 䛸䛔䛖ྡ䜢
ᥖ䛢䜛䛸䛔䛖䚸䛒䛾䚸䛺䛻䛛䜟䛛䜙䛼୙᫂䛾ཎᅉ䛻䜘䛔䛳
䛶䛒䜛䛣䛸䜢䛂ㄝ᫂䛃䛧䜘䛖䛸䛔䛖䚸ㄽ⌮䛾ㄗ䜚䜢≢䛩䛣䛸䛻
䛺䜛䚹䛂䝁䝁䝻䛃䛸䛿䚸䛨䛴䛻䚸䛭䛾䜘䛖䛺 x䚸䛴䜎䜚䚸ே㛫⾜
ື䛾ᮍ▱䛾ཎᅉ䜢ᘬ䛳䛟䜛䜑䛯࿧䜃ྡ䛷䛒䜛䚹
• 䛔䛪䜜䜒⏣୰ඞᙪ䛂䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊䛃䠄ᒾἼ᭩
ᗑ䚸1983䠅䜘䜚䚹
⌧ᅾ䛿᪂⿦୎䛾䜒䛾䛜䛒䜛䚹
• ḟ䛾䝖䜳䜴䜷䝕䝹䛿ᵓ㐀୺⩏ゝㄒᏛ䞉㡢㡩
Ꮫ⪅䛷䚸཯䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊ⓗ䛺❧ሙ䛛䜙䛾グ
㏙䚹⥆䛟䠎䝇䝷䜲䝗䛿䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊㠉࿨䛻ᑐ
䛩䜛⏣୰䛾❧ሙ䛛䜙䛾㏙᠜䚹
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⏣୰ඞᙪ䛂䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊䛃䠄ᒾἼ䠅⥆
⏣୰ඞᙪ䛂䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊䛃䠄ᒾἼ䠅
• 䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊䛸䛭䛾ಙዊ⪅䛾㛵ᚰ䜢䛸䜙䛘䛯䛾䛿䚸
ఱ䜘䜚䜒୍⯡ⓗ䛺㢮䛸䛧䛶䛾ゝㄒ䛾ᛶ㉁䛷䛒䛳䛯䛛
䜙䚸ከᵝ䛸䛔䛖௬㇟䜢୍⯡䛻㑏ඖ䛩䜛䛣䛸䛻␗ᵝ䛺
ᇳᛕ䜢♧䛧䛯䛾䛷䛒䜛䚹䛣䛾䜘䛖䛺ᇳᛕ䛿䚸ゝㄒ䛭
䛾䜒䛾䛛䜙䛷䛿䛺䛟䚸䜐䛧䜝䚸ゝㄒ௨እ䛾ఱ䛛䛻ື
ᶵ䛵䛡䜙䜜䛶⌧䜜䛯䜘䛖䛻ᛮ䜟䜜䜛䚹ఏ⤫ⓗ䛻ゝ
ㄒᏛ⪅䛿䚸䜒䛱䜝䜣䛣䛾䜘䛖䛺୍⯡ᛶ䚸ᬑ㐢ᛶ䜈䛾
㛵ᚰ䜢ᛀ䜜䛶䛿䛔䛺䛔䛜䚸䜶䜻䝌䝏䝑䜽䛷䚸ྡ䜒䛺
䛔ᑠ䛥䛺䛣䛸䜀䛾䛩䜏䛪䜏䛻䛔䛯䜛䜎䛷᥈⣴䛾᝟
⇕䜢⇞䜔䛧䚸䛭䛾䜘䛖䛺Ⅼ䛻䛣䛭䚸ே㛫ᛶ䜔ᩥ໬䛸
䛾᥋Ⅼ䜢ぢฟ䛩䛣䛸䛻႐䜃䜢ឤ䛨䜛⩦ᛶ䜢䜒䛳䛶䛔
䜛䜒䛾䛺䛾䛷䛒䜛䚹䛛䜜䜙䛿ᬑ㏻䚸䛣䛸䜀䜢䛣䛸䜀௨
እ䛾ఱ䛛䛻䛧䜘䛖䛸䛿௻䛶䛺䛔䚹
• 䜒䛧䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊⌮ㄽ䛜䚸ⱞᝎ䛾ኚ㠉䛾㐣⛬䜢㏻䛳䛶䚸
㏆௦ゝㄒᏛ䜢ෆ㒊䛛䜙㣗䛔◚䜚䚸ᚲ↛䛾⤖ᯝ䛸䛧䛶䛒䜙
䜟䜜䛯䛾䛷䛒䛳䛯䜙䚸ᩘከ䛟䛾ᵓ㐀୺⩏⪅䜔グ㏙୺⩏⪅
䛜䚸䛩䛩䜣䛷䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊䛻䛺䜙䛳䛶⮬ᕫኚ㠉䜢䛸䛢䚸㠉
࿨ᐙ䛸䛧䛶䜑䛦䜑䜛䛣䛸䛻䛺䛳䛯䛷䛒䜝䛖䚹䛛䜜䛾ᩍ᮲䜒
䚸䜘䜚ㄝᚓⓗ䛻䚸ከ᪉㠃䛛䜙᰿ᣐ䛵䛡䜙䜜䜛䛣䛸䛜䛷䛝䛯
䛷䛒䜝䛖䚹䛧䛛䛧஦ᐇ䛿䛭䛖䛷䛿䛺䛛䛳䛯䚹☜ಙ䛻‶䛱䛯
ᵓ㐀୺⩏⪅䛜䚸⃭䛧䛔᢬ᢠ䜢♧䛧䛯䛾䛿䚸䛛䜜䜙䛜䚸䛯
䛰㡹㏞䛷䛒䛳䛯䛛䜙䛸䛔䛖䛾䛷䛿䛺䛟䚸䜐䛧䜝䚸䛛䜜䜙䜢ෆ
㒊䛛䜙䜖䜚ື䛛䛧䛶ኚ㠉䛻ཧຍ䛥䛫䜛ຊ䜢Ḟ䛔䛶䛔䛯䛛
䜙䛸ぢ䜛䜉䛝䛷䛒䜛䚹䛰䛛䜙䝏䝵䝮䝇䜻䞊⌮ㄽ䛿ᵓ㐀୺⩏
⪅䛾㌿ྥ䛻䜘䛳䛶䛷䛿䛺䛟䚸䜎䛳䛯䛟᪂䛧䛔䝬䞊䜿䝑䝖䛻ಙ
ዊ⪅䜢ぢฟ䛩䛣䛸䛻䜘䛳䛶ᬑཬ䛾ᅪ䜢ᗈ䛢䛶䛔䛳䛯䛾䛷
䛒䜛䚹
65
66
䠄᭕᫕ᩥ䛻䛴䛔䛶䠅
• ⱥㄒ䛾≉ᚩ䠖 ㄒᙧኚ໬䛜ᑡ䛺䛔䠄Ꮩ❧ㄒ
䛻㏆䛔䠅䛯䜑䚸༢ㄒ䛜ከရモⓗ䛻䛺
• “Time flies like an arrow”
䇾Flying planes can be dangerous”
– “time” ྡモ䚸“flies” ືモ䚸“like” ๓⨨モ
䛂᫬䛿▮䛾䜘䛖䛻㣕䜆䛃䠄ග㝜▮䛾䛤䛸䛧䠅
䠄㏻ᖖ䛾ゎ㔘䠅
• “flying” 䜢ᙧᐜモ䛸䛧䛶ゎ㔘䛩䜛䛛䚸ືྡ
モ䛸䛧䛶ゎ㔘䛩䜛䛛䚹༢ᩘ໬䛩䜛䛸䠖
– 䠄ᙧᐜモ䠅 A flying plane can be dangerous.
– 䠄ືྡモ䠅 Flying a plane can be dangerous.
– “time” ᙧᐜモ䚸“flies” ྡモ䠄䝝䜶䠅䚸
“like” ືモ䠄ዲ䜐䠅
䛂᫬䝝䜶䛿▮䜢ዲ䜐䛃
• “The shooting of the hunters disturbed me.”
䜒ྠᵝ
• 䇾I saw a man with a telescope”
“I ate the apples in the garden” 䛿䠛
– “time” ືモ䠄࿨௧ᙧ䠖䛂ィ᫬䛩䜛䛃䠅䚸
“flies” ྡモ䠄䝝䜶䠅䚸“like” ๓⨨モ
䛂䝝䜶䜢▮䛾䜘䛖䛻ィ᫬䛧䜝䛃
䠄௨ୗ3ᯛ䛿ᮃ᭶ඛ⏕䠄ᮾிእ኱䠅䛾㈨ᩱ䜘䜚䠅
http://www.tufs.ac.jp/ts/personal/motizuki/
ᩥἲ䠄4䠅
ᩥ䛾ᵓ㐀䛾᭕᫕ᛶ2䠄5䠅
lecture/ls2k62/lsandc06.ppt
• ᩥ⬦⮬⏤ᩥἲ䛾౛
S
– PP 䠖ྃᵓ㐀つ๎䛾㞟ྜ
䠄1䠅6ĺ13 VP
䠄4䠅13ĺ'(7 N 䠄7䠅93ĺ93 NP
䠄2䠅13ĺ1
䠄5䠅93ĺ9
䠄3䠅13ĺ13 PP 䠄6䠅93ĺ9 NP
NP
VP
䠄8䠅93ĺ93 PP
䠄9䠅33ĺ3UHS NP
VP
– PD 䠖㎡᭩つ๎䛾㞟ྜ
NP
1ĺ,DSSOHVJDUGHQ
9ĺDWH
'HWĺ the
3UHSĺLQ
N
I
V
ate
ᩥ䛾ᵓ㐀䛾᭕᫕ᛶ2䠄8䠅
NP
N
I
V
ate
–
–
–
–
PP
NP
Det N
the apples
Prep Det N
in the garden .
• ಟ㣭ㄒ䠄⏝ゝ䠖㉥䛔䚸኱䛝䛺䠅䛜⿕ಟ㣭ㄒ䠄యゝ䠖
ᒇ᰿䚸ᐙ䠅䛾䛹䛱䜙䜢ಟ㣭䛩䜛䛛䚹
• ༢⣧䛺⤌䜏ྜ䜟䛫䛷䛿 2㽢2 = 4 ㏻䜚䛒䜛䚹
VP
NP
Det N
the apples
䛂㉥䛔ᒇ᰿䛾኱䛝䛺ᐙ䛃
S
VP
NP
⚾䛿ᗞ䛷䜚䜣䛤䜢㣗䜉䛯
69
NP
PP
Prep Det
in the
N
garden .
⚾䛿ᗞ䛾䜚䜣䛤䜢㣗䜉䛯
71
䕿
䕿
䕿
㽢
㉥䛔ĺᒇ᰿䚸኱䛝䛺ĺᒇ᰿
㉥䛔ĺᒇ᰿䚸኱䛝䛺ĺᐙ
㉥䛔ĺᐙ䚸኱䛝䛺ĺᒇ᰿
㉥䛔ĺᐙ䚸኱䛝䛺ĺᐙ
• 䛧䛛䛧䛂ᒇ᰿䛾ᐙ䛃䛸䛔䛖ゝ䛔᪉䛿䚸ᬑ㏻䛾᪥ᮏ
ㄒ䛷䛿䛷䛝䛺䛔䛛䜙䚸᭱ᚋ䛾䜒䛾䛿㝖እ䛥䜜䜛䚹
• 䠍␒┠䜒ⱝᖸ୙⮬↛䛷䛿䛒䜛䚹
70
• 㽢䛂ᒇ᰿䛾ᐙ䛃
• 䛂䛄㉥䛔ᒇ᰿䛾኱䛝䛺䛅ᐙ䛃
䛂㯮䛔▖䛾኱䛝䛺ዪ䛾Ꮚ䛃
• 䛂㉥䛔ᒇ᰿䛾ᐙ䛃
• 䛂㉥䛔䚸䛄ᒇ᰿䛾኱䛝䛺䛅ᐙ䛃
• ๓౛䛾䛂㉥䛔ᒇ᰿䛾኱䛝䛺ᐙ䛃䛸ྠ䛨ᵓ㐀䛻ぢ䛘䜛䛜䚸ᐇ
㝿䛻䛿䜒䛖ᑡ䛧」㞧䚹
– 䛂ዪ䛾Ꮚ䛃 䠄girl ĺfemale child䠅
– 䛂䛄ዪ䛾䛅Ꮚ䛃 䠄woman’s child䠅
• 䛂ᒇ᰿䛾኱䛝䛺ᐙ䛃
• 䛂䛄㉥䛔ᒇ᰿䛅䛾䛄኱䛝䛺ᐙ䛅䛃
䛂㯮䛔▖䛾኱䛝䛺䛄ዪ䛾Ꮚ䛅䛃
• 䛂㯮䛔▖䛾኱䛝䛺䛄ዪ䛾Ꮚ䛅䛃䛸䛩䜜䜀䚸
䛂㉥䛔ᒇ᰿䠊䠊䠊䛃ྠᵝ䚸䠏㏻䜚
• 䛂 䛄㯮䛔▖䛾኱䛝䛺ዪ䛅䛾Ꮚ䛃䜒ྠᵝ䛻䠏㏻䜚
• 䛒䛸䚸஺ᕪⓗ䛺䜿䞊䝇䠄䛂Ꮚ䛃䛜ಟ㣭䛥䜜䜛䜿䞊䝇䠅䛜䛒䜛䚹
䛯䛰䛧䚸䛂ᒇ᰿䛾ᐙ䛃䛸ྠᵝ䚸䛂ዪ䛃䛜༢⊂䛷䛂Ꮚ䛃䜢ಟ㣭䛩䜛
䛾䛿ᑡ䛧୙⮬↛䚹
䛂 䛄㯮䛔▖䛾኱䛝䛺ዪ䛅䛾Ꮚ䛃
䠄ᅗ䛿ᮃ᭶ඛ⏕䠄ᮾிእ኱䠅䛾䜒䛾䜢ᨵኚ䠅
http://www.tufs.ac.jp/ts/personal/motizuki/lecture/ls2k62/lsandc06.ppt
䛂㯮䛔䛄▖䛾኱䛝䛺ዪ䛅䛾Ꮚ䛃
䛂 䛄㯮䛔▖䛅䛾䛄኱䛝䛺ዪ䛅䛾Ꮚ䛃
㽢䛂 䛄㯮䛔▖䛾኱䛝䛺䛅䚸䛄ዪ䛅䛾Ꮚ䛃
㽢䛂 䛄▖䛾኱䛝䛺䛅䚸䛄㯮䛔ዪ䛅䛾Ꮚ䛃
㽢䛂 䛄㯮䛔▖䛾ዪ䛅䛾䛄኱䛝䛺Ꮚ䛅 䛃
䠄䛒䛸䛾䠎䛴䛿ಀ䜚ཷ䛡䛜஺ᕪ䛧䛶䛔䜛䠅
ၥ㢟䠄ᮇᮎヨ㦂➼䛻䜒ฟ䛩䛛䜒䠅
• 䇾I saw a man with a telescope”
䛾ᩥ䜢ྠᵝ䛻ᵓᩥゎᯒ䛧䛶䜏䜘
• ᩥἲつ๎䜢ຍ䛘䛶௚䛾ᩥ䜒ゎᯒ䛧䛶䜏䜘
• 䛂㯮䛔▖䛾኱䛝䛺ዪ䛾Ꮚ䛃䛿ఱ㏻䜚䛾ゎ㔘䞉ゎ
ᯒ䛜ྍ⬟䛛䠄ᑡ䛺䛟䛸䜒8㏻䜚䠅
• 䠄ຍῶ஌㝖䛸䜹䝑䝁䜘䜚䛺䜛䠅ᩘᘧ䛾ᩥἲ䜢ᐃ
⩏䛧䛶䜏䜘䚹䠄䛒䜛䛔䛿ㄪ䜉䛶䜏䜘䠅
䠄䝥䝻䜾䝷䝭䞁䜾ゝㄒ䛾ᇶ♏㒊ศ䛷䜒䛒䜛䚹䠅
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