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姉10期プロ・ナトウーラ・ファンド助成旗来報(lril}(2001)
SPECIESMAINTENANCEINDYNAMICLANDSCAPEOFTHE
CI-IURlYA,EASTERNNEPAL
DBhuiuI).andP、Yonzonz’
SUMMARY
Th(pChuri>'allillsarcIh(pyoullgeslall(Isoutherllm()slmoul1tainchainoflhellimalaya・Theycon‐
ioinlwocc(〕Iogicalre8imes:IhelropicalinIhesoulhall(llcm1)eraleinlhenorIh」I1Nepal,lheChuriyaHills
cover12.7()<,o(thet()mllalldareaandcollI「ibuIeto25、8〔X,o{11MJforestcovero(IhecounIry・A51hehuman
encromdlmenIconIil1uestoiIlcrease,lhe(rt18ilelandsCapeo[Churi)'aisil1dallger・IIowever,ecolo8icaliI1‐
formaIi()11()、NCI)alClIuriyilisalIU1ostlloⅣcxisIelll・Thepl・〔psenlsIudycove】・in8IhcChuriyao(e(ISI(Prl1Nepal
isalliniIiiIliollofcreMil18cc()I()8imldambas(PC(NepalChu「iyil,TllesIudydweⅡHonsixmajornreas:(i)GIS
anal>'sis()(chan8eilllilI1dllsel)ilItcrllbetwcel11958al1dlリリ2,(ii)Horisliccompo5itiol1,forestst「llcIureand
regell('『`lIi()、,(iii)trcespcCiesasHociationaIvilriousalIiIlldcs,(iv)loCalkn()wledgeonplalltuSesMIlollgthe
residし、、l(DIhnicgroul〕s,(v)(Iislribuliono(blllI〔P『[lies,all。(vi)})msclillcin(()rmaliollonbirds.
BACKGROUND
ThcChuriy4lc()mpriseIhcyoull8esId1lldIhesouIhcrnnl〔)sIll1oulllminchain()(Ihellim(】1m)'t1I1system
(BhatIl977,lla8enlO98)andcollioiIlIwodislil1ctecolo8iCalre8imes:Ihel「o})icalelwironso(Can8elicplail1s
inIhcs()ulhalldlheIcmpemlell1()llllmillswl1ichexlendIolllcillpineinI1lenorth(I,i8.1).A1sokllowl1asthe
Siwaliks,IlleChuri)'i1col】sisI()「T(Prliar>'1Inc()l1solidaIedilI1dhighl)'erodiblefIlwiaIilesedimcllIsmnging
from1℃lMivel)'(ine-8raincdgmywackesilllhcsouIh(LowerSiwalik),Ihrou8hso(lofclay(MiddleSiwalik)
lover>'〔()ilrsesmndsM1dcoll81(〕meraIes(U1)I)erSiwaIik)illIhellorlh(CarSonl985).TheChllriyaHills
extelld(r〔)lulAfgallisI11allIo八ssamwiIhallnv〔pmgesumnliIoflcssIhanl500maSlalldthewidI1waryin8
from81o50km、
111cChuri>'arocksarcrichilwertcbrMc(ossilcolUIcnIs、Churi)'miHllnearlhedfossilso[laIcrTerIiar)’
havepr(widedmsis(()rmuch(〕fourpresellIknowIed8eo(Iheevoluliono(Asian(loraandfaunm(Ilihara(?!
(】ノ.1972).Maior(ossil{allnaincllldesprimaIes,mrI1ivores,un8ulates,elel〕hnnls,rodcllIs,birds,rel〕Iilesand
fishTlwl〕rimalecoⅡccIion(r()mtheChuri)'a((〕rmaIionsincludcsanumbero(gclleraofAnIhropoids・A
compamIivestudyill〔licmlcslhill(heanimnls〔)IlhaIperi()dwcrelhcimmc(liMe41ncesIorsoflllepr“cI1t-day
l)Ro)'alNcpalAcademyofScicnceandTcchI1olo8y,Cl)OBOX3323,Kalhmandu
2)RcsolIrccsllimnlaya,CPOl〕OX2`M8,KM11nlimdu
-95‐
species、Fllrlhermore,IllcvarieIylllatexisIedIhenwas8reaIerIhanwhiltexisIsIoday.
AN
:<lミミご烹奄、
●や■。●■■●o●●
Fig.1.Physiogral)11iczonesofNcpal
InNepal(are、:小17,181k,12),lheChuriyaHillscover12.7%olthcI()tallaI1dilremandcollIributeto
25.8%oflheforestcoveroflhecounI「>'(LRMl〕1978).Chllriym'shardwoodcomponcllI(S/10庇,(lrol)lイsmand
Ter"li1lll1ilIs})p)islhehigheslinIhe(x)unlrywhichcomprises37%o(lh〔'1(北11(11M(iNlO88).Thcexisting
proIeclednelworkdocs】1olencoml)assIheChu「iyaHillsbumtlcasMwoproIecledmremsinIhesouth,Cl1iIwall
andBardia,arebordercdwilhIhelIills・AIsomep1acestheChuriyalIiⅡscouldals()n1akcbiolo8icalcorridorsuchasbeIwecnllKlrdiaall(IShlIklaPhanIainIhefar-wcslerllNepill・
TI1ereisa8rowilIBconcerllonmpiddeleriomtiol1o(thcChuri)'allillsillNc1〕31.AsIhehumallen‐
croachmenIconIil1llesIoillcredlse,Ihe(ra8ilelandscapeofChuriyaisindilI1Ber」lowever,ecolo8icalinfor‐
maIionollChuri)'i1llillsofNeI)i1lisnlmostllo汁existence,excepta((pwsIudicsc()nducIediIlsul)porto(
developmcntacIivⅡics、Tllepres(pntsludy,collducledilleasIcrnNep(】1,c(wcrcdIh(pChuriyalliⅡsbctween
MechiandSapmkoSlli.'「hesIudyincludedsixmajorareas,viz.(i)chnngcill1im〔I-llscpnucmill1958,l978
andl992,(ii)(Iorislicc()mposiIi()'1,(olPstslrucIureandre8clleraIioI1,(iii)lruesl〕ccicsi1ssociaIion,(iv)Iocal
knowledgcollplantllse,(v)disIribllIionofbuIIcrHies,and(vi)baselill〔pin(ormaIi()、()nbirdspccics.
-96-
METHODOLOGY
Studyarea
ThestudyareaisapartofIhcChuriyaineastNepal(26.40,N-2753'N,87.08,E-88.11,E)exlcndin8105
kmfromthcMechiRiVer(Nepal,seasternborder)toIheSaptakoshiRivercoveringatotalareaof779.24
km2(widIh:500m‐20km;elevalioll:115-1300m)(Fig.2).Therewere390villa8es(settlemenls)under37
ViUa8eDevelopmentCommittecsofIhefivedisIricts:]I1apa(32.9kmz),Momng(211.3kmz)andSunsari
(89.4km2)disIriclsandllam(443.9km2)andDhaI1kuta(L8km2)disIricIs.
926000
58か000
異O)00
鋤0○00
(⑪刺CO
GcogmphicRe庇KelDccI》oinl8(SamplingSiにs)intlneChlIriya,EastNcpal
CO-生一・---
;トー'三コ■一十F’二丁'0二
▲■_◆
-------◆■-=、=一一・・・-←--●--●
・‐--「‐◆
-------I申。-や
6
--十---.◆‐
『
マサ---=-◆-----
-f--÷---ヤー◆-----
(AL」
ミ□」へ’
と
ⅥⅡaOeB
/V Road5
1.
|_
P◆--.---千一
l-JL
-,.------ ̄一一一一
屡gjA:Ls厩HpHQ>
、L--け
;鍵詳鵠討U薩劃辱片旨5冨禿、医… 両U7面頭-両毎万万万[T56刀一一一一一一
Y■6600■“」OETCpOObD仇fFUUM。A870>羽 F”、淀SIB■-UWD「F連P時HbdaHO8・■1,1粥9
1001020KⅡomotnr5
戸写再毛一一= ̄専一
92⑨0,0
540心①0
540000
:$0000
C(巾000
17i8.2.Geogmphicre(er(mcepoil1lsforsamp1ingillIheChuri>'aofeasterIlNepal.
Samplingmethods
l1orCIS(Ceo8raphiclll((〕rmaIiol1Systelll)allalysis,1111℃eIime-scriesmapsof1958(scalcl:63,360;
Govt.o(Illdial961),1978(scalel:50,000;IRMP/IlMCN1986)andl992(scalel:25000;HMGN/PINNIDA
1996)weredigitizedugin8Arclllfo352andArcvicw32.Lan(l-usecategorieSwerca8riculture,forest,shrub,
gmziI18,barren,andsimd/gravcl」、(ormatiollwerealsoassesscdforurbk1narea,swamp,tea/coffeepIallta‐
tion,orcllardandiI1(rasIructuresllChascanals・
Samplin8pIots(orfielddamcolleclionwereascermillcdusin88eogmphical8ridsonl992mal〕usm8
randomtablcofRohlfandSokal(1969).Inthe(ieldIhe8ridswerelocatedwiththehelpofGlobalPosition‐
in8System、Therewcrealto8elher35geogmphicreference}〕oints(samplill88rids).Fieldsurveyswcrecom‐
-97‐
pleIedbetweenJanuary‐April,2000.
Ve8eIationsampIin8sweredonemquadrates,each8ridbasedsiIecomprisedoftwolargequadrates
(25mx25m)represenIingtwodifferentslopeswhereappIicableForshrubstratum,eachsuchquadratehad
twosub-quadmtesof5mx5m,alldfoursmallquadralesoflmxlmlor8roundve8etation・SampIingpa‐
rametersincludedheight,DBH,coverage,seedlingandsapIingdensityofpIantspeciesBeside,nolingsiIe
condiIioll,soilsaml)leswerecollecIedfromlllestudyploIs、Rccordedplantswereidelllifiedatspecieslevel
wherepossibleandspecimenwerecolIfirmedaIIheNationallIerbarium,Codavari(KATH).Nomcnclature
followsPressel(7/(2000).
OccurrenceofbirdandbuIterHywererecordede汁rouIetolhesamplin8pIols・Elhnobolanicalinfor‐
mationwere8alhered(romthcnearestvilla8e/settlementsofthesampIingploIs(orwhichrapidethllo‐
bolanicalappraisal(Marlinl995)wasapp1ied、Ve8eIationdamwerealsocollected(rom64selectedpointsm
anelevaIiollaldi(fercnceof100men-routeloIhesamplin88ridswhichmn8edfrom200-800m.
RESULTS
Landusepattem
GISanalysisoflherecelltmap1992showedthatIhemajorlandilltheChuriyail1theeastemNepal
wasoccupiedbylhcforestswithanareaof477.28kmzcoverillg61、25%ofIhetotalarea(779.24km2)andthe
a8riculIurelandwas221.71kmz(28.45%).Sandand8ravelcoverednearly6、0%indicaIin8Iheprescnceofa
lar8enetworkofriversandslreams、Shruband8razil181andoccupicdL5%each,andthercsIlalld-use
includingllrbanareilmade1.5(ルl〕oththe(oresIsanda8riculIurelaI1dsvariedinsimilarpaIterllinlheir
altitudinaldislribuIionwhiChwe1℃hi8hinlowerelevation(〈300m)(l11ddecreascd8mduallyinlhehigher
elevaIionshowinganinlerrelaIionshipbetwccntheforeslsanda8riculIuralpracliCcsinNepal.(Fig.3).
AnaIysisshowedIhattheforestcovcrhasdecreasedbyover25(>(,inlesslhan35years、1,1958,the
tolalareaoftheforeslsinIheCllllriyawas631.6km2sharil1881.0%ofIheIotalarea・Byl978,ildecrcasedb)’
10%orallareaequivalcntlo63、5km2.1,1992,itlurIherdeIerioratedandtheforeslsshrunkloaIomlal・eao(
477.2km2.Durill8Ihcsameperiod,thea8ricullurelalldhadincreascdbymorethanl20%,i、e・(romatolal
areaoflOl8kmziI11958to221.7km2inl992、Also,incrcmclltinagriclllturelandwashi8hcomparatively
belweenl978-l9921hanl958-1978、WhileIhchi8hesI8aillwasfora8riculturewithl271kmzor56%oflhe
totalchangedal・ea,andamar8inalchallgeforurbanareawilha8ainlcssIhanO.'別,ofthetolalchallgedarea、
Similarl)',grazin81qndalldshrllblandhadincrcaseddllrillgIhepcriodattheexpenseofforesIs・Onthe
otherhaI1d,IherewasaliIlle8ain(489km2)(orlheforesIswhichincludedsomeforms()(})lanIatiolls(Tablel).
-98-
兜CpbO
S4DOO⑪
920口40
兜00(。
GpOOOO
LRndu6GPnlI「ml”2o「11】eChuriyaoEa81NepaI
④
;
!
 ̄1
;
;
;
K瓢i鰹sVil60n既>
EATA卜>・DCE
8cU唾ご丁CO■哺已ご■o及TO0z毛一輩c;OmbDDrごOnHra比FGtlOM
Lシご-●0V、~▲●●q「いHeABWpCケ。“上■0●クワ■PDi■ゼハ■U2.■O凶LODW
10
0
10
20KIlOmetBrB
 ̄ ̄---- ̄
、Gmo
94bbOO
46○0屯、
S4nOCO
OCmOO
Fig.3.Li1I1dusepMIcrll()[IheChllri)'ilill]992,c(1s比rIlNepnl
Tmblel
L【ln(lljsepatterIlinl958,1978(I、(ll992inChurjynDea81ernMlpal
LanlIll5e
1992
1978
1958
A「PJu(km2)A「、(兜)Area(kInJ)ATG、(外)A「PMkm2)A「e、(兜)
F【)rlNbil
(i:1155
H1U
568,2
72.9
477.23
61.2
AgriCIIltll「eLan(I
1()1.M
lIM
138」`1
17.7
221.71
28.5
SllIlI1DL【111.
4.96
Il6
1870
2.4
1152
15
(HnwinHland
5.27
0.7
3.56
05
1087
1.4
35.62
‘1.6
5(1.82
6.5
53.12
6.8
()lllID「日
rroIIlI
779.241()0.0771124IOU()779.24】00.0
FIoristiccompositionandforestsIructu「e
Ow「265vtlsclIIarplantHpccics,belol1llin8Io85(ilmiliesandl788enera,wcrerecordedfromIhe
studysitcs、Famil>'L(D8uminosacincludcdlhchi8hestllumbcro(sl)(J(jcs(25SPP.)whichincludedrare/
Ihremtene(1t1℃esIxjDcicHlikeD(lルノXhlj(l/llljβ()i11iIlldA(T7dll(wl(,「Alイ,and(m(lemicspecicsOr"J()Smgノロllr1l・Olher
familicsc()mprisiIl8hi8hnumb(Pr()(specieHwereCmmineae(l6Hl〕P.),Composime(l2spp.)and
Euph()rbiacekle(l()sl)1).).Byhabil,11℃eandsub-Ireespeciesc()mprisedIhehi8hesIcoml〕osiIioI1wiIh45%of
thet(〕mlsl1ccies,(()Ⅱ()wedbyllcrbs(22%),Shrllbs(20%),LinIm(10(X))imdI7ern(3%).
Outofl61)Ii1nIso(Nepalincludedi11ClTljS,threespccics(CM11/IMC(,(]s/】.,Cyals1)Pclj"(11(landR(IWC伽
serノノピ""11(1)were(()llndinthestudicsarca(〕「Chllriya・AIOいIC(36individualsofCノ)(,clj)l(lmwer(Dobserved
-99-
whichwerefoulld8rowin8mosl1yinlheS〔ノli"川and/orSノノo'wJforesIsillassocialionwithPノIOF"/Xsp・and/
orPnl1(mlIlls/ilscic1(/nrjs,Similarly,l9individualsofCl/"lハclJsp・wcrealsolloIed・Therecordedindividualsof
bolhspecicswere8rowillgnearslrcamsandinIheeasIernsitesinlhcalIiIlldinalmn8eof300-750m・Seven
rareand/orendal18ercdspecicsidclllifiedb)'IUCN,andSeveralspecicsofspeci[icsciellti(icinlerestwere
alsonoIed・
TI1eforesIs()[ChllriyaillcilSIerllN(J1)alwereesIimMedwiIhilbi1st】la1℃a(1)A)(〕f37.28m211(T1anda
densityof78651111a-1.Tlle1〕【℃(1ominallttreespeciesatcanol〕ysIl・aIum(hei8ht〉10m)wereSノノ(〕'(?(1)UDI(Sm
(relativebasalarea:`#1.0`X,),Tl,r"lij11l1nlRMl1(RBA:6.8%),L(ISU’rSlroC"ln1/)'1パ)(/11()m(5.0`X,),imdAdi11l1cordl/bノノ(l
(5.0%).MeanDBH(diameIeraIbrcaslhei8hl)ofIhesespecieswas26、4cm,Ihou8ha(CWS・rol)!(smhada
maximllmDBHo(124.()cm・ThcdomillanlspeciespresellIedaspomdicIweofsizc-classdislribulionindi‐
catin8IhevariaIiollinsnmp1epIoIsand/orpresenceofspecicswiIhdifkrel1la8e8rolll)sBesideIhesespe‐
cies,IhcmoslfrequcnIlyoccurril18(Freq.〉40%)treeswereS(wlFalrノノl(s(1)1,1(w(/jl("1,ハルizilllFl)l)(,ck,Syzl/Rjll"I
Cノイ"lノノlj,(1)!(lScノノノ"l(、()(1"j(ソlノノ.SMIノノicノノノノwas()bscrvedupIo300m,alowcslrecordo[iIsoccurrcl1cewhich
couldbeaIIribuledIoIhemoislerclwirollso(eastcmNepal.(Fig.4,Tablc2).
TheundcrslorysImlum(111.〈4m),hadsl〕ecieslikeCoMjloolW()ノ)”jli/b/i(](I;『(x1.329%),Elリノl110rM〃
SPP.(Freq.>22%),l似,(ISP.(Frcq・'8.6%),MII(?s(J1"())11(1)川(Freq、17.1%),al1dlll)(,ノl"I(,ノブ111)/(lllノノ)ノリノノハ】(F「(Jq、15.7%).
Thehi8hcsldensiI)',h()wcver,wnsllli1IofCノビrolノ1W,lrM"lu1scosl""wiIh29lOI1M1、EIIノ】111()rnl"ISP.`COノ)/)()sノリbノ、,
andノリloCllなsyノ【!(PSlrjs,nlreespeciesbutoccurringinthellllderstor)'illIhesludysite(Avem8cll1.1.3m),
sharedcompamlivcl)'ahi8hbasalarea,eaChhavill8RBAover3、0%・TlwI;roundslmIllmwaspoorl)'devel‐
Table2
Structuralpmrameter8o1.,1lljortreespecie8intheChuTiya,ea8terllNcpaI
SNSpecies
1
652208250404350
1
222221212121112
1
●●巳●●け。□凸の■■■e□
196860733365202
980868858715871
1
5.6
11
7.7
1
8423.4
28605.8
7.2
116.7
436027036477655
15744.9
8.2
289787050374140
TOTAIJ
9204.1
8.2
●●●●●●■●●■●●。p●
15”〃"/"イノノノ〃DPノ〃が(?〃
36715.8
14.0
068850860841125
141DutlIliKMM
8860.3
12.1
5
l3此"。()“〃"〕"Sルβノフノノル"ノノ
56638.2
19.8
809151617516651
12MWo/usノルルノノjnPw7s/s
9569.3
19.1
10.7
22221221213113
llL"""“(W切刃”此〃〔Pa
79181.5
16.1
604926520551034
lOGrelrjDQ/Ww
239444
37.3
24.3
611
9/ldma〔WIメノハWap
29240.9
162.4
960684856333032
86Ver〔Wノノ〃17"OS〃
366922
●●●CG■●■●。●。●●●
7SCA/"】HDWタノ〃〔.A〃、
108941.8
008385065636058
6SKI'2J<9Wノ"jclノ、/"ノ
80047.0
外/baNlnoallmaxl11eaumax
456211503020101
5′1ノハノzノィノノC66eCA
702871.1
RI)ADensStcII】I)l)11(cn】)Ileight(、)
4
4&v"e(?/jl7wJw7"JJ(wYmノ")
F●の。●■●●■DB●●白●
3九mノノ”ノ、aノ"/a‘
704399073444639
21,agWSlmCmla”「I'ノノル、‘
501422054111842
875444433333222
1SAO八DJJm6"SlJJ'
BA
Freq91cm2
1597312.0100.0786.5337017.81247.475
巾donlinnntsI)ecic3byIlIlA#Loco11Mlme
-100-
Hoi9hIClassDisIribution
DBHC1assDisI「ibuIion
62840626284062
Sho「eambusIa
。
}
2860
050100
22111
C
LageノsI/O0m/a
pa/vノソノOノa
0102030
1■■■■■
284
211
062
1
・
・
。
二
■
二
■
。■
■■
|■■■
■■■
■■■■
■■■
■□■■
■■■
■■■■■
211
05050
ロロロロ■四四四m四四m
25
22111
l[|lOlm1MllllIlL-
髻
二
7,7)/、aノノョa旧la
020406080100
22
201
Scノリ/mawaノノルノリノノ
一
120
051015
22
84062
(【上)の②⑩一○五m|の工
111
DBHclass(c、)
111
1L1111,,M,繊癬
84062
1[''1.1ⅡLhⅧ-
=
Somecamus
anacaU7um
05101520
Slemnumber(N)
Fig.4.DiamIcratbrcasthcight(DBIl)alldheightcl&ISSdisIribulion
ofmajortrecsl)cciesinthcC11uriya,castemNepal
‐101‐
opedwilhacovem8eof15.4%inavem8ewhichcanbeatlributedtoprevailingdryseasondurin8Iheinves‐
ti8aIionandwidespreadover-grazin8.Themostabundantspeciesbyfrequencyofoccurrencewere
OP1js"IC"llssp.(Freq、23.46%),C(lノノノルe(/jIllll(lssi"l庇(Fre〔]、16.54%),andSi(ノロcor(ノlJm(Freq、10.38%).Byrelativedominance,Cq5sj)"i化,Arll)!dj"eノノロノノビノ)(l1cllsjs,O/)ノノs"IC'11イSSP.,A8〃(111"〃CO'11/zoi(lcsandCI1rcxcrlにjMJ
weremostprevalelllinlhearea.
TreeSpeciesassociation
Adendro8mm(romsimilarityanal)'sisbasedonRBAandHorisliccomposiIioncate8orizedIhesludy
siteintoseven8roupswithvar)'in8diversiI)'index・T11emajor8roul)swerelhatofdominaledbyShoグピ(l
rol)IIS、,Tcr"!j"ロノノm/lllm,L"gersfluf1"j(1ノwM()r(1,A(/j"17corllリt)ノ、,Scノji"l(JM1nノノノcノlijalldBol"l)llxcc肋11.Thepre‐
dominalltspecieswasS、roblイsminIhestudiedsiteindicaIin8ilshi8her8erminaIiollpercellla8e,hi8her
adaplabilityandhi8herrateofsurvivorship・ThespecieswasreCordedasdomil1antspeciesin24siIes(375%
oftheloIal),andco-dominantillatleastllsiles、However,asalsoshownbythedendrogmm,S、rol)Msm
appearedalon8wilhotherdomiI1antand/orco-dominantlreesinthosesites(Table3).
Tablc3
A8sociatinnfrequency(Wi)ofmajortreesI]eciesintheChuriya,ea8ternNePal
A8sociated
AssocintionFreq,9【1
,SルoreamOUsfa
7.日ノaraL./wW/701as.、"“"畝"mawaノノノcノW4.CuJYノノノbノノaTotal3pp.
42.18
ルrm/"且ノノaJTノdwla
35.93
32.81
21.88
20.31
28.13
17.19
938
17.19
2031
7.81
17.19
9.38
7.81
La“rszJUcm/βノww〃om
8bme“"【ノsD"acam/""J
7.81
SbAjmaII'βノノノcノケガ
A磁血“J1"/b"a
624209
444323
species
OutofGlsaml〕lill8sites,S、rol)l(smwas「oulldassocialedwiIhoneormores}〕ccicsin49siles,andwas
8rowingwith46t〉'pcsoftreespcciesinIotalWhilcL・ノノ(1パ1帆omand7.、MhadanassociationwiIh44and
42t>'pesofspecies.S・roblイsmshowedthehi811cstassociaIiollwiIhalldominanIspecies;with7.llノ(J1q42.2%
frequency,withLノ)llW7or"35.リルwithS.("1(lmrlノノM1"32.8%,withS.【()(リノノic/lii21リルandwithA.coll/(/b/jn
203〔ルAhi811associaIionwasalsoseenbelwceI1T.(Jノロノ(IandL./)(1M/11(〕m(28.1`X,).Onlheotherhand,S・
『(MJノノノcMshowedlesserassociaIionfrequency(<10%)exceptwiththeS、roblィ5,.Amoll8Ihedominantspe‐
cies,S、rol)lイsl(JhadIhewidestdisIribuIiollmn8eandoccurredfrom200-800malliludes,whileST()(lノノノcノJノノ
wasbasicallyamidllillelementmostlydistribuIedabove500m.
Localknowledgeandethnicgroups
ThepreselltsIudydocumellted82sI〕eciesofmedicinalpIallIsand76wildedibleplanIs・A1Io8ether
‐102-
301ypesofdiseaseswere(oulldIobeIreaIedbyphyIo-therapyusil1gIhereported82plantspeciesinlhe
Churi)'aofeastNepaLAz(7(ノノmcノノW"(ノノclJ(Neem)wasreporIedtobeusedforlhehi8hestnumber(10)of
diseasesasanIiseptic,anal8esic,aIlIispasmodicalldanIipyreIic・Thespecieswasfoulldalsoeffectivetocure
diabetes,gastric,sllakebiteand化verduetotyphoid,malaria,pIleumollia・Threespecies,viz.P/lyl!(1)11ノllls
(リ"lノノノc、(Amala),AqRノe"、r"|ビノ0s(I〕Cl),andノリ1ノO8mcMfA11sl/iyrsリ70111s(Chuwa)werereportedtobeusedforsix
differenldiseaSes、Similarly,RMU01/1ims(】'7)c"lj1l1l(CI1andmaruwa),B1llfl1"1i"or(Bllolelro)andTell"j"(1ノノロ”んrkW
(Barro)werealsofoul1dformulIi-usesIreatin8atleastsixdi([erellIIypeso(coml〕lainIsanddisorders・
Amongthe{ourmajoreIhnic8roupsinterviewed,Limbureporledalolalof64medicinalp1anls
(781%ofthetotalpIanIsreportcdf()rmedicinalpurposes)whileBahun-ChheIriin(ormed55suchspecies
(67.W,ofthetolal).Similarly,RaiandMagarinformed43and37spccicsrespectively(Fig.5).Inavera8e,
cachindividualbelon8il18toLimbu,RaiandMagarwasfamiliarwithlcssthanfourspeciesofmcdicillal
p1anIs,whileeachindividualbelon8in8IoBahun-ChheIriwas(amiliarwithmorethamfivesuChplanls・The
LimbuswerethepiolleeringalldsIilldominalltin11abilanIso(theChuriyaiIlI〕aslNepal、BahlmandChhelris,
dominaiingsocialHillduclasshtwe8ivenIhemaccesstobeltcrIhcircdllcalion・TheyhadklIowled8eon
AyurvedandotherHilldulileralu1℃whichcontainaweallhofkllowled8eonplanIsalldplantuses.
00000000
7654321
,の⑩.⑩←仁⑩一Q一ロに一○一つのE一○・oz
DUB2
トいiMaC
Chhetri
EIhnicGroups
Fig,5.Nllmbcrofmedicinalplantsusedbyvarious
ctbnicgroupslivillgintheChuriyaofl〕asINcI)al
Distributionofbutterilies
A1to8ether35speciesbelon8in8Io288enemand8{amilieswcreellumemtedfromthepresenIsludy
siIeoftheChuriyaofeastemNepal(Table4).Thedocumentedspeciescom1)rised5.3%ofthetotalspeciesof
butterfliesknowntoNcpal・Cellusl)r(,cjSwasfoundIobethemostcommonwilhiIsfourspecies,while
/Mノノyノノノ(1,,,)M1イs,Dピノノl7sandEノ!/"lノノノ(lswerealsocommollinIhispmrI(hercstweresinglespecies8enus・
Fi8ure2showsthatthcmajoriIyofrccordcdspeciescome[r(〕mNymphalidaefamil)'whichcomprised
34、3%fouowedb)'Lycaenidae(20.()!X)),Pieridae(14.3%)andSatyridae(11.4%).
Consideringseasonalchan8c,thespeciesricImessofbuIlcr(lywas[olmdtoincreasefromwinterlo
-103-
sprin8season、Outof35speciescollecIed,15species(42.85%)werefoundinwinterseasonandIherestin
sprin8・Asi811i(icantcorrelalionwasfoundbetweenthespeciesriclmessandthemonthsilldicalin8thatlhe
ablmdallceofbullerflywasposilivelyaffectedbyapproachin8warmerdaysandavailabiliIyofmorefood
thatislheneclar・Similarly,lhespecicsrichllessofbutterflyilllheChuriyaofeastNepal8raduallyincreased
upto500m,lhel1itdecreased、Thistcndenc>'correspondswilhlheareaofshrub-landil1Ihestudiedarea
indicaIin81hehabilatpreferencesofthcbulterfIies、However,IhehabiIatlossisadverselya(feCtill8Ihebut‐
terflydiversiI)'illNepal.
Table4
Di8triIjUtionOfbutterflyspecieBiIldifroren0altitudes(、)and8oaBonBintbo Churi 8.eaBtcrnNepal
A11iludG(【Ⅱ
FdllliIvADclfics
Scdsoll
2503504505506507508509501050
1150
WillIcrSprinFK
lDdIiliollidoP
十十
十十
十十
十十
十十十
十十十
十十十
十十
十十
十十
十十
十十
十十十
+
十十
十十
十十
十十
十十
十十
+
十十
ノjセツノゾノわけ“ノロノc"s
十十
十十
ノブhjm"/q/raaJ7s(。/bにv'@
lDiPridkIc
十十
十十十
十十
十十
十十
十十
十十
十十十
十十十十
十十
十十十
十十
十十十
十十十
十十十
十十十
十十
十十
十十十
十十十
十
十
+
+++++十
+
十十
十
十・十
+
十十十
+
(姫sDmbU"〃〃ノo〔/Us
十
十十
卜
十十十
ハノcノヨノノノ〃sノ[Yノa
十十
LP"Ip〔w7ハノ&/『
+
十十卜
+
十
十十十十十
s`Ilyri(LMP
〃.wノノ"ノルラノ""/pノピノs
aw""/“/Ww")"jFfra
+
十十十十十十
/牝C/Sルノ〃んn
十十十十十十十
+
十十
ノ対"〔q/wブイlAoJMD'7曲
Z物""“/aノG/放/“
Aiw"Drp"/〃〃〃ノ”
十十十
ノケU『?/sノc"1,W/"s
P'℃c店〃mlz"Ja
十十
A/bノWSルリゾィリs
〃、/Sウカノ/a
十十十十十十十十十
Jlノ"o"/〃イノノ"ノコノノロ
十
十十
Ab/sww/)"汀
NymuPIMIi(IdHc
ノlrZr.l'"j〃ノノ”
'1ノムリw'""jspノM〔WIom
十十
+
NPuuwolDiilIolC
十十
L"ノノリ”Cs“c『/〔ws
+
十十
JIT"ノ"ハノbsnノ“/O
Z7zec〃ロ〃JMa
十十
十十
十十
+
↓、十
バノ、qノリWa"curjrG"fa"、ノさ
ccAJs〃/"ロバノs/rT
ルノノロノカoバパノSc〆c/c
十十
LWHG11i(1M、
’1"J647rrノ、〃「Csル
十十十
Gtハイ'G/〕feJ:jwノメリ"")"ノ
ノヴeJ7盃6mg副“D
十十
十十
戯"℃"、AC“6G
+
十十
〃c〃“。“CO"ノbe.sノ
〃c〃"sAj7wcfc
DdlMilLlc
十十
十十
m"`"s圃創“
ノルノノ""s`M''2}“mJs
EfVy〔,“【Porp
IIQPspcri(l`IIP
7℃匂"(/“ノノ〔広れ】SYI
+
ToIdI71625292423191311101521
Note:+dcnolespreseIlce
-104‐
Baselineinformationonbirds
Atotalofl50birdspecieswererecordedtotaling2,374birdsdurin8thefieldstudy、Fromtheob‐
serveddaIa,ilwasinferredthataspecies/timecurveisofinterestbecauseitnotonlyindicatesspecies
richllessperullittimeilwesImentbutalsoascertainswhethertimeilwestmenIinthefieldwasadequate、Of
the255observation,birdswerepredominantlyobservedeitheril1foresls(38%)orinfarmlands(31%).Ad‐
ditional24observationswerenoIinchldedintheanalysisasbirdswereseenHyingoutofa8ivenhabiIat
type・MajoriIyofthebirdswerefOundina8riculturefields,especiallyattheedgeofcultivationordegraded
shrubberies・
Allobservedbirdspecieswere8roupedmIofourcategoriestodeterminetheirstatus:endan8ered(E),
vuh1erable(V),rareandconmlon、n1efirstIwocate8ories(EandV)constihlte4%ofthetotalspecies(Table5).
Oftheobservedbirdspecies,gianthombill(Bllc〃osl)jcorlljs),paleblueHycatcher(M1イscjc(IノノHlll1ico[or),and
loll8-tailedbroadbill(PSαノブso"J1/sdnl/ICI(sme)areendan8ered・SpeciesIhatarevulnerablewerecrow-billed
drongo(Djc)wrlイsn'111〔Pcm"s),pintailgreenpi8eon(Trero〃npic(M、)andlargenecklacedlau8hing-thrush
(Clmwノnxpuclol"ノノs).Theoran8e-breastedgreenpi8eon(Trero'11)jcjlJcl(7)wasconsideredrare、Somesixhabi‐
Iatsiteswhereallendangeredandvulnerablespecieswerefound,werecol1sideredimportantforbirdsand
lhesesitesneedtobemoniIoredtocheckifthesespeciescontinuetoexistinsuchadversesettings.
Table5
Bird8tatusandob8ervationfrequencyintheChuriya,ea8temNepal
No.ofslDeriP5
No.ofobscrvjlioms
3313
51.(us
6
Endangered
Vulnerable
Rare
4
1
Commom
8
1
2359
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
ThestudywassupportedbyProNaturaFundtolhefirstauthor・GISfacilityandCPSweremade
availablebytheResourcesHimalaya,Kathmalldu・SincerestlhanksaretoDrT・NakamuraofNahlralHistory
Museumalldlnslitute,ChibaandProf,DrMOhsawaofUniversityofTokyofOrtheirkmdCooperation・
AllGISworkwasconductedbyBidurBaidya・CiriJoshialldBhesholididHoristicsurveyDaya
BhusalconducledbutterHysurvey.GokamaKhanalconductedbirdsurvey・WethankthemaU.
REFERENCES
Bhatt,DB、1977.NaturalHistoryalldEconomicBolanyofNepal・OrientLongmanLtd・NewDelhi
Carson,B、1985.ErosionandsedimelltationprocessesinlheNepalHimalaya・ICIMODOccns/01JロノI〕αperL
IntemationalCentreforlnte8ratedMolmtainDevelopment,Kathmandu、
CovI・ofIndial958.IMml1SMrWyMH/)I958SurveyofIndiaOf(ices,Covt、oflndia・
Hagen,T、1908.NCI)Hノ.HimalBooks,POBox42,Lalilpur,NepaLForthed・
IlMGNl988M(vslcrlリlJ'j/brPoreslrySecforMWm/MnjjjRqj0〃.MinistryofForesIsandSoilConservation,His
maiestyosGovt・ofNepal/Covt、ofFinland,Kathmalldu・
Itihara,M,Tatsuo,SandNoboru,M、1972.Photo8eologicalsurveyoftheSiwalikrangesandTeraiplains,
southeasternNepalJ、Ccoscje'ICCS,OsakaUniv、15:77-98.
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HMGN/PINNIDA1996・LRMllsFM")1992.HisMajesty,sGovt・ofNepal/Covt・ofFinland,KaIhmalldu
LRMP/HMGN1986、LanduseMapl978・LandResourcesMappingProiect、Dep1.o(Forests,HisMajesty0s
Govt、ofNepal/Govt.o(Canada/KeatingEarthSciences,Kalhmandu、
Martin,cル1915.Elhllol)ohllll/:八M(?'ノlodsMnlllイロノ,ChapmanandHalls,Londoll、
Press,I.R,Shrestha,KK、andSutlon,、A、2000八"'loledCノ1“Mislq/ノノl(,F1ol()crill8ノリmllsq/Ncl"M・Natural
HistoryMuseum,LoI1don・
RohlfJ.F・andSokal,R、R、1969.SmlMal17MノノCs.W、H・FreemanandCo..
鞆l01Olプ【ルナトウーラ・ファンド助成成果報告il}(2001)
』曰
要
ネパールシワリク山地の植生の生態学的研究
動的景相域(ランドスケープ)における生物極管理
ブジュ・ディネス、ヨンゾン・プロラド
シワリク地区は、ヒマラヤ''1脈の肢南城に位置
ル、シワリク地区の生態学的Iilj報は極めて少な
する。地史的には縦NM1rい111域である。ここは、南
かった。この訓イ削り1究は、束ネパールのシワリク地
から熱帯、北からiliAイ|ザと二つの生態域の結節域で
区の生態学的ノlL礎情報の収集を主たる目的としつ
もある。
つ、以下の6つのテーマについて詳しく研究され
シワリク高地はネパールのIEI上の12.7%、森林面積
た。①()ISによる1958年と1992年の土地利用状況の
の25.8%を占めている。nM;、土地|;;1発が増加し続
比較、②植物jlllおよび森林の構造と更新、③様々な
ける状況の1'1で、シワリク地区の自然環境の分断
標高域における樹i1剛成、①地域民族の植物利用、
化が深刻化している。しかし、これまで、ネパー
⑤チョウ類の分布、⑥』洲|'1のベースライン調査。
-106-
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