比 表現における意味論的主観性と語用論的主観性

!"#$%&'()*+,-./012+,-./
!" #$
%&'()* +,-./
[email protected]
0123
4 "56789:;<=>?*@ABCD;EFG8<=BHIJK;LMNOPQRSBCD;TUVWXI8
>?YZ[\]^_`aBCDbcde<=fRSBCD;ghijX;klImnop;VWbqrsmRt
IbuvfRwxes8tneayBCDz[_p{Rt`_6;-.b|}@[~•e8€a[y•‚[email protected]
CDzIy?ƒ[email protected]„…b†‡fRwt;CˆNO‰Š‹Œ•Ž••A‘;’•YZG‘;“n
[h”K[gh•`RNb–—e8˜HŽ™š›œ•–—_6bžŸfR€aA<=?ƒF;
¡Db¢Rw
£¤•¥•¦§•‚[email protected][email protected]™š›œ•8¨©ˆ¡ª8<=?ƒF
1. 7Q][
4 >?YZ[«¬RBCD[-es78®¯°±
;-.GA•`smRG8²³ (2003) Guvf
R“n[8>?*;–´[«msBCDG•µ¶
·¸{`R“n[A¹a;78<=>?*;º»
I¼b½[esmRw<=>?*;¾¿ÀÁ78
P˜Ã;>?C[ÄY•`R“n[8>?Ń
K;gÆÇ;ÈÉ;TÊIes8>?I>?Ń
bËÌfRÍÎ;ÏÐbÑÒÇfRÓÔGÕrA
N¹aNO6ÖRw
4 eNeAGO89:;<=>?*@ABCD;
EF7"×@[Ø;Ùp;VWbqrsmR“n
[Ú{`Rw½p78<=BHIJK;LMNO
PQRSBCD;TUVWX
8Ûn½p78>?Y
Z[\]^_`aBCDbcde<=fRSBC
D;ghijX;kl6ÖRwÁK;VW78>
?YZ[\]^_`ayBCDzbÜÝ[Sm_Þ
ttX;JK[TU•ßse_ntI[“¹s8
>?Ń;¿[«[email protected]Þ[email protected][>
?bƒmRtII8à[áâ@A>?YZIes
ãä•`[email protected]åIæA•`Rç>?YZI;
èébêë[fRw½ì8íK;ˆ78>?YZ
;ghij[«ms8îON;BCDbh”KG
dïfIð8x;BCDbSm_ÞttX;JK
[TU•ßRtIG‘;“n[es ¡IARN
ImnVmbñ]sòófRw
4 "5678tneayBCDz[_p{Rt`
_6;-.b|}@[~•e8!"ô (2006) 6
†‡eay•‚[email protected][email protected]
Imn„…bãäfRwxes8‰Š‹Œ•Ž•
•A‘;’•YZG‘;“n[h”K[gh•`
RNbões8
BCD;EF[€aAlˆböQ8
˜HŽ™š›œ•–—_6bžŸfR€aA<=
?ƒF; ¡Db¢Rw
2. •‚[email protected][email protected]
2.1. BCD;Ùp;™÷ø
4 ù[úûa8<=>?*69:¸{`sðaB
CD;-{R>?ZüI78ýrþØ;“nAÛ
;6ÖR (Langacker 1991: 328)w
(1) Vanessa is sitting across the table from me.
(2) Vanessa is sitting across the table.
³ÿ;ý7‘!OÛJe"by¨©ˆ reference
pointzIea>?YZ6ÖR;#G8(1)67Je
"G>[email protected][$%•`smR;[&e8(2)67$
%•`smAmwt`[pms Langacker 78(1)
;“nA˜bcJfR¿'I78ýrþ(–G
Vanessa I½)[*¹smR*+bdAGO,$
fR“nA¿-6Ö·8(2);“nA˜bcJfR
¿'I78./[ Vanessa IÔNm'¹s0¹s
mR¿[«mscJesmR¿-6ÖRIh”•
`RI,$es«·8t;(2);“nA¿'8":
<[email protected][12•`R&üIAR34;5[JK(
6G‡·^76mRa]yBCÇ subjectificationz
GPQsmRIB8fRw
4 tnea>?YZGÖR•‚[email protected]Û
;6ÖRtI7<]O`RG8VWA;7tne
a>?YZ;BCDG9aes‘t_6Sm_Þ
ttX;JK[TU•`R:ðA;N7"×@[
êë6ÖRtI6ÖRwA;AOþ8./[tn
eacJb<nJe"[email protected][È=34b„…
Çe8>?ÇeaI>na][78":[email protected]
!"#$%&'()*+,-."/012345
16"789):;6!1<=>=!)/?&@
AB=C)(AD7!EFGH(AIJKL=?
MN,-OB=P"16QKR-S"<
T UVP?'7=WXYGQ?#$%&AZ-[
\-]VP^_`a0Wbc,!dA4516K
R?ef4Q'0Hghij,XYGk6lm'
66n1opeq 2006r
<'0-s=?
g"at'
'k-uv1B=Cwx3CAyz,!#${.
-u"P|}~0?#$•€A•‚-u"P€ƒ
„)…†nXYGHg$.j,XYGk6lm'
64?XYGA‡ˆA‰Š‹HŒ•=W"<
2.2. XYGAŽ••‘
T 'AD7-XYGAŒ•H’7'6Q“AD7
!•"H(A”•6=P–ˆ<a—?#$%&A
XYG6Q(d(d˜AXYG!A>6"7•‘
45™?''4Q'0HšXYGAŽ••‘›6
lm<
T 'AXYGAŽ••‘Q?UœA•ž#$Ÿu"P= = …¡v/01?•žX¢6OBX
¢A£¤¥A¦§-¨3S©ª=P"1<
«R ?
Langacker Q'A¬-ˆ"PA-®>/?B„
(speaker) 6¯°±„ (conceptualizer) AŒ•H²
PP"1<=>=!)/?³´ (2001) )µ¶n
1D7-?
gXY± subjectificationkH_·1¸j
A¹6º»-u"P¼/>-½„A¾£)…/0
1'6Q¿À43!"<
T Á¢,-#76?Langacker Qg"at''kA
#${.-©Â1Ã;Ä6=P?B„-6VPA
ÅƱ-©n1•‘HÇÈAD7-ÉÊ=P"1<
(3) B„-6VPAÅƱ (coding) •‘
- Ë̱A‚J
- ¯°±-uv1ÍÎÏÐAMN
- Ñ3C6AÒÓ,©Ô
- ÕÖ×ØÙÚ6ÛÜ~01¯°-ˆ"PA
Ñ3CAžÝÞßAàá
- âBAã06AäåG
- Ñ3C-s=PªRW"æç
- Ñ3CA#$,Fè-sn1…éd™
- #$bc>/AêëA‚J
(Langacker 1987: 65)
'7=WÅƱA•‘€ìH?B„-D1#$A
{.íî (usage event) HïðñòÚ6=Wïð
ñòÚóz-ô_1A) Langacker A²õ45™?
#$bc6=PAö÷)(7=W#$%&AMN
wy†-6VPA¨3!øùðÙ6!1'6HX
ún1<
'A²õ-û„Qüý-£hn1dAA?
@þA6'ÿ!"A•‘)Á¢,-»AD7-€
ì~0P"1>-ˆ"PQ#¼!aa45™?8
$4…WD7!XYGA©Â1#$&î-ˆ"P
A Langacker -%A&¼6'ån1AQ()45
1<
T UVP?XYGAŽ••‘6Q?ˆa16'ÿ
#$bc6=PAö÷w#$%&)">-=P*
²=P3W>H•7+$j/hij,!²õ6?(
7=W#$bcHOB,¬-u"P">-B„)
-,-..=P"1>6"7$.j,!²õ6H
/•n1'6-DVPA0€ìn1dA45™?
¤…XY,!#$%&45VPd?(AXYG)
•1A•žX¢-Ž•n1dA!A>?(06d
š"at''›AOBX¢-Ž•n1dA!A>
H•7:;)51A451<
3. XYGA€ƒ,23
3.1. #$%&A45EFG
T hij,XYG6$.j,XYGAŒ•H’7
d7¤ˆA”•6=P?
š#$%&A45EFG›
A•‘-ˆ"P62W"<
(4) g7="8GH…>vPk
(9) :8Q7="<
(;) :8Q<=><
(?) 5AÕQ;@P1A<
(B) 5A8GQCDAD7><
'7=W#$%&-uv1B„AXYGHER1
!4•‘6!1AQ?(i) £¤Asîwíß-ˆ"
PA#$±QeF-GHEF451A>?(ii) €
ƒ„oÑ3CrQIOB-s=P¤J-KÀ=W
XYGAµLHM.n1'6)EF>?6"7'
645™?'A½„QN"-OP!QN©Ô-5
1<
T 8„A•‘Hš#$%&A45EFG›6=P
ER16?
•ž#$Ÿ-R/—SœA#$Ÿ4Q?
= = '0H896n1«)HTS…¡v/0
1<«R •ž#$Ÿ4Q?'7=W%&AU"
Q•žX¢AERV (construal) H|}=P"1
6>?
šWY,íßAXY,XY›4516>?
“Human beings employ a variety of construal
operations in language (Croft & Cruse 2004) ”!»?6
"VW#&4'A#$%&A45EFGHZ[=
P"1<
T =>=!)/?B„)51#$%&H."1'
6-Q?#E\,-#$bcw(AõAÕÖ×Ø
ÙÚ>/A;]w^_)`a=?(Ahi4Fb
OBHB„Aš•žAc',!|}›6"7AQ
#Md451'6Q-¼451<«R ?(4)A«
-u"PµZsîHš:8›6n1>š5AÕ›
š5A8G›6n1>QB„Aíß•ž>v4Q
ìÀ43—[email protected]þ-QB„-%A–ˆ#$,bc
w(3)4 Langacker )ÊeWD7!Õ[email protected]ði
jÖ!AkL)¨3S©ÂVP"1<aW?(A
µZsî-sn16À6=P?
š7="›6n1A
>š<=>›6n1A>l-ˆ"Pd?£J-Jm
!;Ä)nº4"1<#"5R0 ?51oÀA
B„-6VPš7="8G›6š<=!8G›Q
:—=d£p4!"!-?(0)µ=Znsîw
íßA£¤GHqrn1dAQes,-`a=!
"<
T UVP?#$%&A45EFGQ?tuA6'
ÿv*ö÷,!•w±~0WB„/x„Ayz‹
-{|3?ëÕÖ×ØÙÚ±~0WWY,!íß
H896n1dA45™?•ž#$Ÿ)L}n1
š.÷{~ (usage-based) yz‹›
A#•€H%n
dA451'6Hµ¶=W"<
3.2. €ƒ„-D1XYGAO…
T ¤V?8„A#$%&A45EFGA•‘H•
aRW!4‚„A€ƒ„AY¬Hƒ016?Uœ
AXYGA¸jQ?¤„-B=C/x3C)»AD
7-íßH•žn1>6"7'6-A0…¬)†
>0P3Wšíß•žZ‡Xˆ›-{|"WdA
4516#R1<=>=!)/?(3)AÅƱ•‘
AhˆH‰Š-¡v‹_?">!1#$Œò•ð
Žd¡•„/€ƒ„A`aH896=P"16n
1šÕ[email protected]ðijÖ6=PA#$Y›-²P
?(7=Wíß•žZ‡Xˆ)TSA•‘H–
ˆ'6)’“-”•~0D7<T
T
T
–—.
T ''4?Bühler A˜‹™šÖtyz‹-›"?
#$Õ[email protected]ðijÖHOB„t€ƒ„tíßt
#$Aœ•©Ô4ER16n1!/ ?€ƒ„6VP?#$AXYGQýPAžª•ŸA©ÔA
7 -…†~01Q—451o–—r
<'0HOB
•€AY¬>/ERcn!/ ?€ƒ„Q–—Z~01#$Õ[email protected]ðijÖHó*n1¡ˆ
A“¢>/FbOB)!~0Wíß
o£OBíßr
Aàá (assessment) H¤¥POB•€H’VP
"16#R1<ˆa™?OB„Q¦/>A#§n
23íßH•ž=o•žX¢r
?Ñ3C-¦/>A
¨©Hª«n12S#$±=o¨©ª«X¢r
?(
A#$±=WOBH¤¥P¦/>A’¬H-’=?
Ñ3C-®¯HªR1oOB’¬X¢r
?6"7¡
…AX¢6=POBíß-©ª=Pu™?'A
Im-°¥W±4oÑ3CH²³r€ƒ„QOB
•€H’VP"1A451<
T ef4Q?'A€ƒ„)’7#$Õ[email protected]ð
ijÖAàáH?(0´0gíß•žàák
?
g¨
©ª«àák?gOB’¬àák6n1opeq
2006r
<'0H•ž#$ŸAY¬>/µ¶n16?
Lakoff (1987) A#7š•w•žyz‹ (ICM)›DVP?€ƒ„AOBíß•ždOB„A(06
£J-#$Õ[email protected]ðijÖ-©n1 ICM DVP·¸~0P"16KR/0?ÇÈAD7!
ICM H€ƒ„AOB•€AøùðÙ6…!n'
6)431<
(5) •w•žyz‹ (ICM) -{|S#$Õf
[email protected]ðijÖàáopeq 2006r
(9) íß•žàáA ICM
OB„Aíß•žQ€ƒ„Aíß•ž6
¤¹=P"!v0 !/!"
(;) ¨©ª«àáA ICM
a) OB)ÛÜn1¨©QÑ3C-6VP
º»!¨©GH«=P"!v0 !/!
"
b) a AÜ*Q:—B=C6Ñ3CA¼V
)½-ª«=P"1¨©-9Ø•Ùn1
'64Ü*~0!v0 !/!"
(?) OB’¬àáA ICM
OBHó*n1#$%&);]n1OB
’¬ï;¾6?OBÞ¿);]!"=QÀ
•n1OB’¬ï;¾Q¤¹=P"!v
0 !/!"
'7=W#$Õ[email protected]ðijÖA ICM 6"7
*+-Á/n'64€ƒ„QFbOBAêëGH
•ž=?
('>/OB„AXYGH…†=P"1<
T 'AD7-€ƒ„A²õ>/XYGA•‘HÂ
[email protected]þ-š"at''›AOB„)»
A‚JXY,45VW>6"7WY,[email protected]
ÃR?€ƒ„-DVP•Ýj,-…†~01dA
6=PER1'6)EF-!1<ˆa™?FbA
#$%&)XY,451>¿>Hg•žX¢kA
Ï>/•‘-n1R™?#$%&-ÄÅ,-^_
`a0WXYGo£hij,XYGr6?(A#
$%&H%†n1,¬4AB=C/x3CAXY
Go£$.j,XYGrH¼Æ-d™»v1AQ
()6!1)?
g€ƒ„kQ(7=WXYGHO…
=•žn1²õ451A4?»AD7!ÇÈAÈ
4FbA#$%&AZ-XYGH…">=?(0
H»AD7!•ž¾É•Ù-u"PB=C/x3
CAdA6=PŽ•~Ê1A>?6"7ïÙØË5n1'6)EF6!1A451<
4. ©ÌG•jA•‘¬
T 8$462W?€ƒ„-D1XYGAO…•‚
Q?OB•€HÍR1*+6êë6"7Y¬>/
&¼t"6~0WdA451)?$.j,!Û+
-u"P?
'7=W²õQÎÏ="dA4Q!"<
(d(d?Austin A#7šbcG›w Grice AšÓ
BÐÑ conversation principles›6"7¯°Q?ª
-g#$Õ[email protected]ðijÖHÍR1*+k6g*
+Aêë6=PAh–•€kHZ[=P"W<«
R ?Grice )(AÓBÐÑ-u"PÒ–=P"W
dAQ?êë,!šÓBA²h conversational
implicature›
A`aHÓžn1Ô†6=PAÕfg
[email protected]ðijÖ*+AÀÕ±45™?aW Austin )
O$Ö’¬AšMdGÇÈ felicity condition›6=
PZ=WdAd?OBA#$%&6OBÞ¿Ab
c,!×ò¾øÖØ6=PA*+G451<
T =>=!)/?'7=W*+GH…¥=P"W
Grice Xˆ$.jHÙÚ,-ÛÀn1š©ÌG•j
(Sperber & Wilson 1986/1995)›Q?”j-D1B„
Ah–A܆HÍÎn15a™?Grice w Austin
)…¥=P"W*+GA•‘HÝ¥=?(Atç
“AD7!ÏW!•‘HÞRP"1'6Hµ¶=
Pu3W"<
T ¤„-©ÌG•jA”jyz‹4Q?h–¼Z
”j, (ostensive-inferential) Õ[email protected]ðijÖ
-u"P?51OB)!~016?a—OBßà
6=Páè~0?â$H€n1Ñ3C450 -,-j•±Õ6=PA‡,%ZHªR/01<
(=PFbOB)!~0Wö㨩-Á/=P
(i) äåGAæ1 disambiguation?(ii) µZçª
reference assignment?(iii) è± enrichment?6"V
Wéê-DVP둱ÕoBlakemore (1992)4Q
g%†ë‘ proposition expressedk
r-ìí~01<
~/-?ö㨩6#$±Õ-{|"WwÀÙî
ðï6tðˆS'64£À~0W?gë‘ßJ
propositional attitude k - ^ _ ` a 0 ?g % h
explicaturekH±*n1<(06£,-OB-DV
Pña±~0Wö㨩AZ4ò-£À~0W
g%†ë‘k
-DVPlð†~0Wö㨩)
g”
h89 (implicated premise) k6" 7ö ã²h
(contextual implication) Hv0†n<
(=Pó‚-?
g%hk6g”h89k>/ôõ~01'6-D
™?
g”htj (implicated conclusion)k)v¥1<
'Ag”h89k6g”htjkQ» /dg”
h implicaturek4516~01 (Sperber & Wilson
1986/1995; Blakemore 1992).
T =>=!)/?'7=W©ÌG•jA”jyz
‹QB„-DVPh–~0WhiH">-ÜS>
6"7¬-…3)†>0Pu™?€ƒ„-6VP
OB•€)»AD7-!~01>6"7¬-ˆ"
PQ•‘)ö1<«R <OB•€-g%hkw
g”hkA±*)#E•451>»7>HKRP
016?:—=d¼Æ!둱Õ4(0/H÷¢
n1'6!SOB•€)Ü*~016KR/01
«QHTS`an1<ˆa™?
g%hkwg”hk
H܆n1'6HdVPOB•€Hüøn1A4
Q!S?OB•€Atç?í‚,-B„Ah–=
WhiA¤ù6=Pg%hkwg”hkH€ƒ„
)”jn1'6H©ÌG•jA”jyz‹4QK
L-á0P"!"<'AD7-OB•€AÎL
(goal) 6úûü (by-product) H¾£n1ýþQ?
”j-D1OB•€A&¼4= = …/01d
A451<
T aW?Sadock (1986) Q (i) ©ÌG•jA•jQ
$.jAÐÑHÿ!±=n"Pu™?(0>v4
Q•##A!"&¼Ð•6Q#R!"?(ii) $%
;Ú&ÙAD7-ë‘,-'Â0wn")[email protected]þ
Q(),!ÒÓ,FèA|}45™?”jFè6
QŒ•~0123&î)`an1?6"7‡¬H
Êe?©ÌG•jAë‘éê,!GsHÙÚ=P
"1<
T ~/-?©ÌG•j4'Â01g%hkwg”
hkA»'a4HB=CAh–AZ-²_123
>6"7•‘)51<@þ?51OB)Ñ3CªR1æçQB=CAh–HÃRWdA)51'
6Q*+,--./n1dA45™?aWB=C
)..n1øùðÙ6=PAö㨩o£”h8
9rQ:—=dÑ3C-ÛRW"¨©4Q!"<
T '7=W•‘¬Hƒ01-?©ÌG•j)'0
a4A$.j,Û+6=PAš*+6êë›yz
‹>/Aë0H10W'6Q?tç,-€ƒ„A
²õ>/A•ž$.jHƲn1!42e6!V
P"1D7-3Â01<UVP?ÇÈef4Qš*
+6êë›yz‹H€ƒ„AOB•€•‚>/d
7¤JÂKn1'64?Jm!‰ÚøòØ%&A
»4H’7'6-=W"<
5. $.j,XYGAÃQ
5.1. Œï56ðA$.j,XYG
T 7_P#$%&-uv1gXYGkH•ž,Y
¬>/…cn!/ ?a—5/81#$%&A*
²)Õ[email protected]ðijÖAžª„AQNê.H8
96=P"1'66?(A•€)#${.HÍR
1T¢,!*+G-ÍR/0P"1'6H•_!
v0 !/!"<(7n1'64?"Â81šW
Y,›!#%6Q?FbÕ[email protected]ðijÖ-u
v1OBX¢A`a)”•±~0?ÿ!1¨©6
=P€ƒ„-DVP*+,-XY~0WdA6=
P?(=PšXYG›6Q€ƒ„A•€•‚-u
"Pñ&=W¦/>Aêë-DVPOBX¢)8
•±~01&î6ERcn'6)431>ÿ7<
'Aöã-u"P?‚„AXYGQg$.j,X
YGk6ÂÀˆ~0?¤Vghij,XYGkH
97#$%&Q?
š"at''›AOBíß-u"
PWY,451>?d=SQg$.j,XYGk
A:"dA4516KR1'6)431<
T ''4"Â81Œï56ð%&HK•=P01
6?
;\•ž#$Ÿ4<™'Â01Œï56ðQ?
X-=î,¯°HïðñòÚ>?6=?Á¢,¯
°HùðÙ>?6n1'64?(0/A>?ŸA
@A-DVP8„HXYn1•žFèHµ=P"
W (Lakoff & Turner 1989; Ungerer & Schmid 1996)<
“TIME IS MONEY”l-B%~01'7=W¯°
Œï56ðQ[C,!bc-DVPDhÝA7
-#$-^_`a0WdA45™?(7=WŒï
56ð'()ód…;!dA4516•ž#$Ÿ
4QKR/0P"1<
T =>=!)/?'7=Wbc,4ghij,X
YGkAE"Œï56ð>v)Œï56ð4Q!
"<“AD7!«4Q£¥Œï56ð%&)?‚
A«¹»?‚Fn1%&-DVP>º>º6g$
.j,XYGk
AE"%&6=P€ƒ~0P"S<
(6) oµÜn1Ÿv-GœAHIHQâ~0
Pr
(9) JQU7KH’3!~"<
(;) JQU7KH’3!~"<J)ML76
=P"1KQ5a™-dM="<
(?) JQU7KH’3!~"<J)ML76
=P"1KQa>ýNOÔ~0P"!"
=?P¤AQŸ)RS-Tv1dA4Q
!"<
(9)>/(?)-’S-UVP?OB„AX¢,!•
žê.)U¥/01AQ!V>ÿ7><'0-W
R1W_-Q? (9)A%&-DVPÛÜ~01h
i)€ƒ„-6VPbc,/--,-ïðñòÚ
>?o£GœAHIr4€ƒ~01A-s=?(;)
(?)6H³-ˆ0P?ùðÙ>?o£@þAKr
4A€ƒH;ô~016"7?Œï56ð[email protected]
©Ô-¢AX;YfØÙHER1:;)51<ˆ
a™?
šGœAHI›6"7ÚZòØ-s=P*+
,-Q(Aöã4A€ƒHeœ;]n1%&)?
š@þAK›AGsH621‚FOBAW_-»
º»ºêë=P"SA>)?ó[,-Q¢AÚZ
òØ4A€ƒ-Ž\n1<'A•€•‚-uv1
êëJ)g$.j,XYGkAU"6!VP&0
P"1A451<
T £J-?“AD7!b.]H."W%&H^_
n1<
(7) %‘êAXQ`d?a6£¥b‡„><4
º6óRP"0 ""dAH?c‡deH
fní)43!"<gA!h™4?iHˆ
ˆ"PjH†n<
(http://www.bk1.co.jp/product/2325344/review/2
27567?ÈkQl.„)
(8) u"u"?iHˆˆ"W/¨j)† mV
WD<
(nopÎqeº=vº(8)r
?ÈkQl.„)
(7)A«4Qšij›6"7b.])*+,-{.
~0Pu™ghij,XYGk)Í"%&451
6#R1<¤V?(8)4Qšij›Hst-š¨j›
6"7%&HÏW-{.n1'64?
šij›A'
6ÂuAš:;d!"'6H=WW_-v)-5
7›6"7hiHìú=?
šwwÇ!Av)›6"
7²hHxyn1¬4g$.j,XYGk)Í"
6KR/01<'A(8)A%&Q?(6)A(?)A%&
6Qz!™?ùðÙ>?Ašj›4A€ƒH€ƒ
„-ÍS;]n1dA4Q!"<³=ÿ?
šij›
6"7¢mAbc,!…²P-¢-{u=P?(
0Hhi,-ìún1'64?ÏW!.÷Hy†
=P"1A451<
T '7=WšÏ|! (novel) Œï56ð›H
Lakoff & Turner (1989) 4Q?(i) bc,Œï56ð
Aìú?(ii) }~‰Š‹AŒï56ðo«•
Necessity is the mother of invention.r
?(iii) ;ŒðŽ
Œï5 6ðo «• My wife...whose waist is an
hourglass.r
?A¡€-Œ•=?UœA¯°Œï5
6ð•j4Q&¼)()!dA6=P"1<ef
A²õ4Q?ÿ!1bc±~0Wë‘óz,!>
?ŸA¯°@AA04»4n1A4Q!S?€ƒ
„A²õ>/*+,!Œï56ð%&6êë,!
Ï|!Œï56ð%&AU"HD™•Ì-»4n
1:;)516KR1<#"5R1!/ ?Ï|
!…²P)!VEF-!1A>o£B=CA-‚
çvr6"7•‘6?Ï|!…²PH!V•€4
31A>o£Ñ3CA•ž•‚r6"7•‘H¾
£Ê—-'7=WŒï56ð%&H&¼n1C>
P)ô_/0P"1A451<
5.2. cƒA$.j,XYG
T ¤V?cƒ-ˆ"PQ?Œï56ð6z!™?
UœA•ž#$Ÿ4Q¹6º»K•~01'6)
!>VW<=>=!)/?„… (1978) )†=S
µ¶=WD7-?cƒQ¤„,!¤°6z!™?
‡ˆ‰G-{|"Pcƒ)*²n1ŠA4Q!S
‡cƒ-DVPˆ‰G)*²n1Š
6"7D7!?
x3CwB„AXYGAc',!|}4516K
R/0?ef-6VPQ…;!#$&î451<
«R ?‘X is like Y’6"7?‹$4Qód¤„,
!cƒ±ÕH–ˆ#$&îH»4n16?ÇÈ…1D7-OB-Œ'=W±4B=CAO…=W
ˆ‰GA{•H¼Z,-Ë̱n1õå)T"
(peq 2006)<
(9) The Dalai Lama said, "The mind is like a
parachute, it works best when it is open."
(http://techref.massmind.org/techref/quotes.htm)
(10) Men are like gum anyway -- after you chew they
lose their flavor.
(Ally McBeal, 1997)
'A•ŽHK•n16?'0/Acƒ%&-DV
Pxy~01ˆ‰GQš"at''›AB„AX
Y,!íß•ž)c'|}=Pu™?(Aíß•
ž)Ñ3C/•0C6ª«~0WdA4Q!"W
_?¨©ª«AY¬>/ˆ‰GA{•H‚FOB
6=PZnÎ,4!~0P"16KR/01<a
W?Roncero et al. (2006) )?•‘’;Ú!AâB/
×ØÙÚ-uv1Œï56ð6cƒA»“HΔ
=?wQ™Œï56ðD™dcƒAV)ˆ‰GA
&¼%&)•7'6H–r=P"1<
T ¤V?*e$AcƒLÝ6=PQš—AD7!›
š—0W"!›!»)B%,!dA451)?Ç
ÈAD7!bc,!cƒH?#$±ÕAY¬>/
ÿ!-cƒ45160!nAQ•‘)51<
(11) ˜AD7!™š› mº
(12) :VPœ×0W"<
(13) •_"Wtž
'7=W«4Q?
g$.j,XYGkQŸ0?
gh
ij,XYGk)Í"%&6!™?d=„…A#
7D7!cƒAGs)es,!dA451A!/
cƒ6Q#")W"'6-!1<òAŒï56
ð%&A«d ÊP?Œï56ðdcƒd?7_
PXYGAY¬>/ERcn23•‘4516#
RD7<aW?;\¡º6!VP"1?Õð¢Ù
-uv1ÕÉ@ðijÖAΔ-{|"Wb.]
AO£EFG-ˆ"PA¤¥d?ef4¦e1X
Y G A µ L -¨ 3 S § ªn 1 6 KR / 0 1
(Stathi 2006; ‚… 2002)<
6. žÁ¬Fè-{|SOB•€
6.1. #$Õ[email protected]ðijÖ-uv1žÁ¬Fè
T 2.1.$4d¨0W)?Langacker A9©n1•ž
ö÷-u"P?…;!¯°A¤ˆ-gžÁ¬Fè
reference point abilityk)Êe/01 (Langacker
1993).
T ¤„-?•žX¢)¦>HïðñòÚ6=Pª
«n1õå?+-ª=P"1ïðñòÚ6=PA
sî)c',-XY431qrQ!S?
@þ-Q?
(AïðñòÚ-¬Ün1W_AgžÁ¬k
o£s
î-¬Ün1W_AC)>™rH•ž=?'Až
Á¬H.Ž=P?•‘AïðñòÚ6=PAsî
H•ž=P"SA)P¤Aª«A¾É•Ù451
6KR/01 (-® 2000: 86)<'AžÁ¬6ïð
ñòÚAÇÈHK•n16?žÁ¬QB=C6Ñ
3CA•ž¯°-u"PβVWdA4!SPQ
!/—?ïðñòÚQα451žÁ¬>/²0
n"P"PQ"v!"A4?žÁ¬AÍk?AZ
-`a=!SPQ!/!"<
T 'AžÁ¬FèHefA²õ4³.n1!/ ?
B„451>€ƒ„451>H•Â—?•žX¢
Qš9Ø•Ù=wn"dAHC´>™-9Ø•Ù
=-S"dA-¬Ün1›ýþ-51?6µ6a
—a6_1'6)431>ÿ7<'0HË̱n
16?
hi•€•‚-u"PQ?
‡&8n1dA
o#
$rHC´>™-?(A”‚AdAohir-¬
Ün1Š6•05R1'6)43?¨©ª«±•
‚-u"PQ‡½žAdAHC´>™-?¶žA
dA-¬Ün1Š6KR/01<‚„Q?Á¢,
-Q‡¶žAdAH•€n1W_-½žAdAH
lð†noCf. ”h89r
Š'6w?
‡½žA$·
HC´>™6=P¸B=C/Ñ3C-ª«~0P"
1¨©-¬Ün1oCf. ŒÚhfðøÖØr
Š'6
!»H²º4"1<aW?#$c¹•‚-u"P
Q?
‡ª£ºhH..=PB„Ah–-¬Ün1
oCf. Tomasello 1999r
Š'66€ƒn1'6)43
1<
T 'A#$Õ[email protected]ðijÖ-uv1žÁ¬F
è-ˆ"[email protected],!¤¥Qa>¹6º»`a
=!")?!"AD7-•05R1'64?>!
™+¤,!#$Õ[email protected]ðijÖyz‹Hó»
431EFG)51<
6.2. #¼½ðA•€-uv1hiA8/"
T '7=WžÁ¬FèA°.yz‹A¤ˆ6=P
-® (2004) )9©n1gžÁ¬y-A”jyz
‹k4Q?“AD7!#¼½ðA«Hb.]6=
PAhio£¾¿r6Àˆ¤™Ahio£œ@Á
HÂ1rAš8/"›6"7Y¬>/&¼n1<
(14) (&) If you’ve got to kick the bucket, it’s best to
die with your boots on. (-® 2004: 87)
35 Ì8•Mr.ÌD=~º Íf*•2005/08/13(s)
02:59:15
>>33
Ñ>VWº>
'A«AD7!?öÀATˆG)Ó–~0Waa
ÓB)H’n1'6AÐÇ~Q?x3#¼6B=
#¼4z!1•€AyðÆA`aHZ[=Pu™?
B=#¼6Qz!VWx3CAXYGH•0€S
Ô6!1<
7. ö¢A•ž$.j-þvP
T ~P?'0a462P3Whij,XYG6$
.j,XYG?(=P(0HÍR1*+G6êë
HKLn16?'0a4#$Ÿ4Q†ÐdVPj
¥/01'6AÕ!>VWšö¢›A•ž$.j
»4AEFG)Ö>01<'A¬-ˆ"P?b&
6hgðÙ"íH^_n1'64(A£×Hª1<
(16) Ø´ÙqÓÇr(2005)•ÚÛù»
(9) KÜÝ\¸ÞÖßàáâ›ãäÀ(»Aåæç
è)“A[é6=P†v=WêëìQRí4
T I: €ƒ„ (interpreter)T U: žÁ¬6=PAOB (utterance)
îS~"Êï45VW)[—1-ˆ0PCA
T Mi/Mj: €ƒïðñòÚ6=PAhi
ˆv/0!"ðñ„6!™¸¼òóº\¸ôº
T Dc: Ãa,-*Àn1€ƒïðñòÚÄÅAÆŒ;Ö
õH•"1ö-Q¸Ð÷¸øù¸ú8-%H–
T (dominion of candidates)
ûn¸üý!Dü„6*™çPP"Wý
–‡.
(;) þÿA!"H¤%-#vP$ !)/!º4
(º!'6-!VP=aVWA>ý
–‡-…1D7-?(15)A«4Q?äåG)€f
~01A4Q!S?GHAz!1hi)QN-Ê
_"5"!)/» /6d€ƒ43!"6'ÿFb#$%&AÐÇ~)516=P"1<
T '7=WhiATˆGHš8/"›6=PéÈ
,-ER1¥¬Q?“AD7!öÀ€•A8/"
A«d!CS&¼431<
(15) ÉʦZËg‡ mºA1k4Aw™<™
A¤«•
6 Ì8•Mr.ÌD=~º Íf*•2005/08/13(s)
02:56:34
ÎiH¤R-¤Ïк>/~n)-Ñ>VW
22 Ì8•Mr.ÌD=~º Íf*•2005/08/13(s)
02:57:44
>>6
Ñ>VWÒÑ>VWÒ
33 Ì8•Mr.ÌD=~º Íf*•2005/08/13(s)
02:59:00
>>22T
‚„
(?) 5>º4Q!">ý
(16)H«-<16?b&AÚÛ(9)4Q¤+Aü$
,!&B÷)."/0Pu™?•„QXQ`A%
õ6(A,B”•H•0<1<''4Qü$öŸ
A*+,!ö¢)Ík=Pu™?$™ù451ê
„A`aQ”•±~0P"1<=>=!)/?(;)
-&VP?
'(6=Pê„AXYG))á~01<
('4Q?¨©ª«àáA ICM >/wÀ~01?
$™ù451ê„)eœ–VP"123žÝÞß
Aêë)*+n1<~/-?OB’¬àáA ICM
>/n0 *+,-Qg,6kA0H’723ê
„)?êë,!g•">vkH’7'64?ê„
AF-,!X¢G (conativity) H•0C-xyn
1<(=P?(?)-&VP?'0a4Aö¢6z
!1©-V#A{.?uDð¤ö-D1#"d™
)?ö¢-§1êëæçH~/-E_P"1<
T '7=Wêë-u"P…;!AQ?ê„)(A
,¬a44•„6<™tº4"1*+G45™?
(0H97A)(9)Aò’öã!A451<'A
ò’öã'()êëHêëW/=_P"1*+4
5™?êëAŽ•ò6=PAê„A8•±)tç
6=P.,æçHvº4"1A451<
T ¤V?hgðÙ"í?Z4d"ÌÐfQ= =
x3CAXYGtX¢GHö/-u"Pña±
~Ê1<
³´T. 2001. š
4Subjectification56Q¦>•#$%&AhiA
{UHª1›, #$VŸjW XYÆ, 61-89.
‚…Z. 2002.šb.]6-Ž!$tåAŸðqùn1rH«=Pð›, Q[¨Ÿ#$ŸjW, X 11 Æ, 1-8.
\!]F. 2003.š#$-uv1gXYGk6gXYGkA#$
,µL (1)›, -®†¼ (q) ^q•ž#$ŸjKrNo.3, 1-60,
QR: µˆ¥xS.
(17) "ÌÐfAhgðÙ"íA«
Lakoff, G. 1987. Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things, Chicago: The
šXbox 360 Aó;A00’3QC1¹»4Q!"
University of Chicago Press.o\!]FtÞ!_êq (P)q•
629YøÙÚ› (2006.11.02)
žhij`#$>/…WQŸA‡r, QR:abcdxe,
T 29YøÙÚ3¢4Lazard Capital Markets5A Colin
1993r
Sebastian 6Q¸
šXbox 360 A70tHQ2ß8õA
C1HÈ3VP"1›6A‰$ðÚH`9=W'6
H¸
4Next Genaration5¹>2ßAGHhgðÙ’;
Ú)©¥Wý
oZ:r
W>=\/;<4Q¸øøðÙï;Ú‹A=>6¸
%;œ‹‚451 PLAYSTATION 3 6 Wii Aï?#
#)ww~01'6>/¸[email protected] nEFG
d516A'6ý“ABñðB‚CDQ''>/)
†°õ>ý
oZE•Fr
(http://www.gpara.com/kaigainews/eanda/2006110205.p
hpGÈkQl.„)
Lakoff, G. and Turner, M. 1989. More Than Cool Reason: A field
guide to poetic metaphor, Chicago University Press.
Langacker, R. W. 1987. Foundations of Cognitive Grammar Volume
1. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press.
Langacker, R. W. 1991. Concept, Image, and Symbol: The Cognitive
Basis of Grammar, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Langacker, R. W. 1993. “Reference-point Constructions,” Cognitive
Linguistics 4, 1-38.
Numberg, G. Sag, I. A. and Wasow, T. 1994. “Idioms.” Language 70,
491-538.
pefÅtÞШgthijk. 2006. š%l,$·»“-{|
SâB/×ØÙÚAXYGtX¢G»4-þvP›. *e•ž
(17)A«4Q?ó‚Aö-&1a4QhgðÙ"
í)*+,-;]n1WY,!,6)’Â0P"
1A>)?ó‚Aö4¼/>-x3CA`a)8
•±=?$.j,XYGAE"%&)."/0P
"1<'0-DVP?x3CQ•„HAºÎHI
3?(Atç6=PhgðÙ"íý¢A±îHÍ
_1'6-*J=P"1<
#$ŸÓjöWXmn, 423-433.
Roncero, C., Kennedy, J. M., Smyth, R. 2006. “Similes on the Internet
Have Explanations”, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13(1),
74--77.
Sadock, J. M. 1986. “Remarks on the Paper by Deidre Wilson and
Dan Sperber”, CLS 22.
„…•k. 1978. q‰ÚøòØU®`'6 QÏ="¥¬Hµ/
Sr, QR: oâÒ<
8. u™T ef4Q?XYG-aˆÂ1Uœ¤¥HÙÚ,
-–K=?ÏW-ghij,XYGk6g$.j
,XYGk6"7¯°HÜá=W<(=P?Œï
56ðwcƒ!»A^ƒ%&)»AD7-€ƒ„
-•€~01>A»4H¤=P?XYGA¸jÏW!¥¬HÍ¥?ö¢w‰ÚøòØ»4a4H
¤¥AL‚6n1'6)43W<(A*çQa>
a>¶žH4Q51)?M‚AËÌ!¸j6»4
H¤¥P?•ž6Õ[email protected]ðijÖH{~6n
1ÏW!•ž$.jHƲ=P"3W"6KR1<
Sperber, D. and Wilson, D. 1986/1995. Relevance: Communication
and Cognition. Second Edition, Oxford: Blackwell.oÖ´pót
Zqr¼tstòt´ZuÊ (P) q©ÌG•j`ÛÜ6•
žr, QR: ¤¥Ò†v, 1993r
Stathi, K. 2006. “Corpus Linguistics Meets Cognitive Linguistics: A
Framework for the Analysis of Idioms.” In A theme session,
Cognitive-linguistic Approaches: What Can We Gain by
Computational Treatment of Data?, DGKL-06/GCLA-06.
Tomasello, M. 1999. The Cultural Origin of Human Cognition,
Harvard Univ. Press.
Ungerer, F. and Schmid, H-J. 1996. An Introduction to Cognitive
Linguistics, Addison Wesley Longman Ltd.o\!]Fq (P)q•
!"#$
Blakemore, D. 1992. Understanding Utterances. Oxford: Blackwell.
oNÖKÊt-O‹¤(P) qµ6QOBH»7•€n1>r,
QR: µˆ¥xS, 1994r
Croft, W. and Cruse, D. A. 2004. Cognitive Linguistics. Cambridge:
Cambridge Univ. Press.
ž#$Ÿáwr, QR: ¨xyxe, 1998r
-®†¼. 2000.q•ž#$ŸÐ•r, QR: Sÿ=u†v.
-®†¼. 2004.q'6 A•žzŸr. QR: 9ÖÒ.