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第二次世界大戦におけるポーランドの地名のドイツ語化

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第二次世界大戦におけるポーランドの地名のドイツ語化
Germanization of Polish Geographical Names during the Second World War
渡辺 克義
Katsuyoshi WATANABE
ߪߓ߼ߦ
ߪߓ߼ߦ
࠽࠴භ㗔ਅࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼⺆ߩᦠ☋࡮㔀⹹࡮ᣂ⡞ߩ⊒ⴕߪ⑌ߓࠄࠇ㧔භ㗔ᒰዪ߇✬㓸࡮⊒ⴕߒߚࡊࡠࡄࠟࡦ࠳ࠍᗧ࿑
ߒߚࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼⺆ೀⴕ‛ࠍ㒰ߊ㧕
㧘ᢎ⢒ᯏ㑐ߩ߶ߣࠎߤߔߴߡ߇㐽㎮ߐࠇ㧘⍮⼂ੱߩᩮ⛘᡽╷߇ታᣉߐࠇߡ޿ߚߎߣ
߆ࠄ㧘ࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼⺆ߪ⴫⃻ᚻᲑߣߒߡߩᯏ⢻ࠍᅓࠊࠇߚ‫ߒ߆ߒޕ‬㧘ࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼⺆ߘߩ߽ߩ߇ⵍߞߚⵍኂߪ㧘ࡐ࡯࡜
ࡦ࠼ᢥൻߩઁߩ஥㕙߇ฃߌߚⵍኂߣᲧߴࠇ߫ࠊߕ߆ߛߞߚߣ޿߃ࠆߢ޽ࠈ߁‫ߩߘޕ‬ℂ↱ߣߒߡߪ㧘Ԙࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼ੱ
ߩ㑆ߦ࠼ࠗ࠷ੱߣ࠼ࠗ࠷⺆ߦኻߔࠆህᖡᗵ߇ᒝߊ㧘ኈᤃߦߎߩ⸒⺆߇ฃߌ౉ࠇࠄࠇߥ߆ߞߚߎߣ㧘ԙࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼ੱ
ߦࠃࠆ࿾ਅᢎ⢒߇⊒㆐ߒߡ߅ࠅ㧘ࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼⺆ߩ⛽ᜬ߇࿑ࠄࠇߚߎߣ㧘Ԛ╙ੑᰴᄢᚢߩභ㗔ᦼ㑆ߪ㧘⸒⺆ߩᄌኈߦ
ߣߞߡᲧセ⊛⍴޿ᦼ㑆ߢ޽ߞߚߎߣ㧔́ ᐕߩ੢࿖ᦼߦߪ㧘ࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼⺆ߩ࿾ၞᏅ߹ߢ᜛ᄢߒߚ㧕
㧘ߥߤ߇
ᜰ៰ߢ߈ࠃ߁‫ޕ‬
ߒ߆ߒ㧘࠽࠴භ㗔ᦼߦ⋧ᒰ㊂ߩ࠼ࠗ࠷⺆߇ࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼⺆ߦ౉ߞߡ߈ߚߩ߽੐ታߢ޽ࠆ‫ޕ‬DUEHLWVNDUWD㧔ഭ௛␿㧕
㧘
DXVZHLV㧔⸽᣿ᦠ㧕
㧘NHQQNDUWD㧔りಽ⸽᣿ᦠ㧕ߥߤ߇ࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼⺆⺆ᒵߦߥߞߚ‫߽ߣߞ߽ޕ‬㧘ᚢᓟߪߎࠇࠄߩ↪⺆ߪ
↪޿ࠄࠇߥߊߥࠅ㧘৻⥸ߩࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼⺆⺆ᒵ߆ࠄ߽ᆫࠍᶖߒߡ޿ࠆ‫੹ޕ‬ᣣߢߪ㧘ߎࠇࠄߩ⺆ߪᤨઍࠍ⽎ᓽߔࠆ⺆ᒵ
ߣߒߡᒁ↪ߐࠇࠆߎߣ߇޽ࠆߦߔ߉ߥ޿‫߽̌ߦ⺆⸒ߩࠄ⥄ߪੱ࠼ࡦ࡜࡯ࡐޕ‬ᡷ⦟̍ࠍട߃㧘㓝⺆ࠍഃㅧߒߡ޿ߞߚ‫ޕ‬
ߒ߆ߒߥ߇ࠄ㧘ߎࠇࠄߩ↪⺆ߩਛߦߪหߓࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼ੱߢ߽㧘ᚲዻㇱ㓌࡮ᵴേ࿾ၞߥߤߩ㆑޿߆ࠄ㧘⋧੕ߦㅢߓߥ
޿႐ว߽ዋߥߊߥ߆ߞߚ‫ࠇ޽߽ߣޕ‬㧘ߎ߁ߒߚ⺆ᒵߪභ㗔ᒰዪߦኻߔࠆⷰኤ⌒ߣ჻᳇ߣࠍ㓶ᑯߦ⺆ࠆ߽ߩߣߒߡᵈ
⋡ߒߡࠃ߆ࠈ߁‫ޕ‬
ࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼ߩ⸒⺆ቇ⠪ࠬ࠲࠾ࠬࡢࡈ࡮ࠞ࠾ࡖߪ㧘භ㗔ਅߦ↢߹ࠇߚ⺆ᒵࠍ෼㓸ߒ㧘ߘࠇࠄࠍಽᨆߒߚ㧔.DQLD㧕
‫ޕ‬
⚿ᨐ㧘⚂ 㧑߇ࡄ࡞࠹ࠖࠩࡦߩᱞེ࡮૞ᚢฬ㧘⚂ 㧑߇භ㗔ਅߩ↢ᵴ↪⺆㧘⚂㧣㧑߇ᢜߦ㑐ㅪߒߚ↪⺆ߢ޽ߞߚ‫ޕ‬
ߎߩ㗔ၞߢߩࠊ߇࿖ߩవⴕ⎇ⓥߦߪ 3OXWD㧔㧕ߦଐ᜚ߒߚ㧘౉⼱㧔㧘㧘㧕߇޽ࠆ߇㧘ᧄⓂߪ೎ⷺ
ᐲ㧔ฬ⒓ቇ㧕߆ࠄࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼⺆߇࠼ࠗ࠷⺆߆ࠄฃߌߚᓇ㗀ࠍ⠨ኤߔࠆ߽ߩߢ޽ࠆ‫ޕ‬
㧝㧚Ꮢ↸᧛ฬ
Ꮢ↸᧛ฬ
╙ੑᰴᄢᚢഺ⊒ᓟ㧘࠽࠴ࠬ࡮࠼ࠗ࠷ߪࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼ߩ࿾ฬߩ࠼ࠗ࠷⺆ൻࠍផㅴߔࠆ߇㧘ߘߩᐲว޿ߪ৻᭽ߢߪߥ߆
ߞߚ‫ޕ‬
࠼ࠗ࠷ߦභ㗔ߐࠇߚࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼ߪߘߩ߶߷⷏ඨಽߦ޽ߚࠆ૬ว࿾඙ߣ᧲ඨಽߦ޽ߚࠆ✚〈▤඙ߣߦੑㇱߐࠇߚ‫ޕ‬
当時
૬ว࿾඙ߦ޽ߞߡߪ㧘ࠪࡠࡦࠬࠢ࿾ᣇߢᒝജߦ࠼ࠗ࠷⺆ൻ߇ㅴ߼ࠄࠇߚ߇㧘ᄙߊߪ ᐕ౻⥋ߩ࠼ࠗ࠷⺆ߦᚯߐࠇ
ࠆߣ޿߁߽ߩߢ޽ߞߚ㧔ࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼߇ ᐕ㑆ߩ੢࿖ᦼࠍ⚻ߡ⁛┙ࠍ࿁ᓳߒߚߩ߇ ᐕߢ㧘ࠪࡠࡦࠬࠢ࿾ᣇߪߘ
ࠇએ೨ߩᱧผߢߪ࠼ࠗ࠷㗔ߢ޽ࠆߎߣ߇ᄙ߆ߞߚ㧕
‫⺆࠷ࠗ࠼ߦߊߣޕ‬ൻ߇⪺ߒ߆ߞߚߩߪࠞ࠻ࡧࠖ࠷ࠚߢ㧘ߔߴߡߩ
࿾඙ฬ㧘ᚢ⇛⊛࡮࿾᡽ቇ⊛ߦ㊀ⷐߥᑪㅧ‛ߩߔߴߡߢฬ⒓ᄌᦝ߇ታᣉߐࠇߚ㧔5XGQLFND)LUD㧕
‫ޕ‬
✚〈▤඙ߢߪ૬ว࿾඙ߦㆃࠇߡ ᐕ߆ࠄห᭽ߩ᡽╷߇ታᣉߐࠇߚ‫ޕ‬
ߒ߆ߒ㧘
૬ว࿾඙߶ߤߦߪᔀᐩߒߡ߅ࠄߕ㧘
Ყセ⊛ᄢ߈ߥㇺᏒߦ㒢ߞߡታᣉߐࠇߚ
㧔Ყセ⊛ᄢ߈ߥㇺᏒߢ㧘
࠼ࠗ࠷⺆ൻߐࠇߥ߆ߞߚ଀߽޽ࠆ‫ޕ‬
଀㧦%RFKQLD.UDĞQLN
/XEOLQ6DQGRPLHU]7DUQREU]HJ㧕
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ࠇߚࠃ߁ߢ޽ࠆ㧔଀߃߫㧘.U]HV]RZLFHĺ.UHVVHQGRUIާ✚〈ࡂࡦࠬ࡮ࡈ࡜ࡦࠢߩችᲚ߇ߘߎߦᑪߡࠄࠇߚި
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‫ޕ‬
― 51 ―
山口県立大学学術情報 第3号 〔国際文化学部紀要〕 2010年3月
ࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼ߩ࿾ฬߩ࠼ࠗ࠷⺆ൻߦߪᰴߩࠃ߁ߥ௑ะ߇⷗ࠄࠇࠆ‫ޕ‬
Ԙォ౮⴫⸥ࠍណ↪ߒߡ޿ࠆ߽ߩ㧔଀㧦.DOLV]ĺ.DOLVFK㧕
ԙࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼⺆ߦ․᦭ߥ㖸ࠍࠕ࡟ࡦࠫߒߡ޽ࠆ߽ߩ㧔଀㧦5\EQLNĺ5HLEQLJ㧕
Ԛ⺆ߩᧃየࠍᡷ߼ߚ߽ߩ
ࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼⺆ߩ DZDyZRZDRZR ߥߤߦኻߒߡ࠼ࠗ࠷⺆ߩ DX ࠍኻᔕߐߖߡ޿ࠆࠤ࡯ࠬ㧔଀㧦.UDNyZĺ .UDNDX:DUV]DZDĺ:DUVFKDX㧕
࠼ࠗ࠷⺆ߩᩰᄌൻߦㆡ↪ߔࠆࠃ߁ߦᡷ߼ߚ߽ߩ‫ߒߛߚޕ‬㧘ߒ߫ߒ߫ᢥᴺᕈߦ߽㆑޿߇޽ࠆ႐ว߇޽ࠆ㧔࠼ࠗ࠷
⺆ߩ႐ว㧘࿾ฬߪ߶ߣࠎߤਛᕈฬ⹖㧕
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ĺ:UHVFKHQ㧔ਛᕈฬ⹖㧕
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*G\QLD ψ *RWHQKDIHQàyGĨ ψ /LW]PDQQVWDGW㧕
‫ߒߛߚޕ‬㧘⺆㗡ߩᢙᢥሼࠍหߓߦߒߚ߽ߩ߇ᄙ޿‫ޕ‬
ߎߩࠃ߁ߦභ㗔ᒰዪߦ࠼ࠗ࠷⺆ൻࠍᒝⷐߐࠇߚࠊߌߢ޽ࠆ߇㧘౏ᢥᦠߥߤߩ૞ᚑࠍ㒰ߌ߫ࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼ੱߪߘࠇ߹
ߢߤ߅ࠅᲣ⺆ߢߩ⴫⃻ߦᓥߞߡ޿ߚ‫ޕ‬
㧞㧚ㅢࠅ߿ᐢ႐
ࠅ߿ᐢ႐ߥߤߩ
ᐢ႐ߥߤߩฬ⒓
ߥߤߩฬ⒓
ฬ⒓
✚〈▤඙ߦ߅޿ߡߪⴝߩਛᄩߦ޽ࠆㅢࠅ߿ᐢ႐ߢ࠼ࠗ࠷⺆ൻ߇ㅴ߼ࠄࠇߚ߇㧘㇠ᄖߦ޽ࠆㅢࠅ╬ߦ߆ࠎߒߡߪ㧘
ߣߊߦࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼⊛⦡ᓀ߇ᒝ޿ߣ್ᢿߐࠇࠆ႐วࠍ㒰߈㧘࠼ࠗ࠷⺆ൻߪⴕࠊࠇߥ߆ߞߚ‫৻ޕ‬ᣇ㧘૬ว࿾඙ߢߪ㧘ߔ
ߴߡߩㅢࠅ㧘ᐢ႐㧘౏࿦ߦߟ޿ߡ࠼ࠗ࠷⺆ฬ߇ઃߌࠄࠇߚ‫ޕ‬
ઃߌࠄࠇߚ࠼ࠗ࠷⺆ฬߦߪ㧘޽ࠆ⒳ߩ౒ㅢὐ߇޽ࠆ‫ޕ‬ᰴߦࡢ࡞ࠪࡖࡢߩ႐วࠍ଀ߦណࠅ㧘⧯ᐓߎߩ໧㗴ࠍᬌ⸛ߒ
ߚ޿‫ߢࡢࡖࠪ࡞ࡢޕ‬ㅢࠅ߿ᐢ႐ߩ࠼ࠗ࠷⺆ൻ߇ᆎ߹ߞߚߩߪ ᐕ ᦬߆ࠄߢ޽ࠆ‫ߢ⺆࠼ࡦ࡜࡯ࡐޕ‬ฬ⒓߇ᦠ߆ࠇ
ߚࡊ࡟࡯࠻ߩ਄ߦ࠼ࠗ࠷⺆ߩߘࠇ߇ᛂߜㄟ߹ࠇߚ㧔ਗ⟎ߒߡ޽ࠆ႐ว߽޽ߞߚ㧕ߩߢ޽ࠆ‫ޕ‬ᒰᤨߩ᭽ሶࠍ⪺ฬߥ⚻
ᷣቇ⠪ߩ࡜ࡦ࠳࠙ߪᣣ⸥㧔 ᐕ ᦬ ᣣઃ㧕ߢᰴߩࠃ߁ߦឬ౮ߒߡ޿ࠆ㧔/DQGDX㧕
‫ޕ‬
޽ࠆᤨ߆ࠄࡢ࡞ࠪࡖࡢߢߪ㧘࠼ࠗ࠷⺆ߩฬ⒓߇⸥ߐࠇߚࡊ࡟࡯࠻ߩᛂߜㄟߺ߇⛯޿ߡ޿ࠆ‫࡜࡯ࡐߪ࠻࡯࡟ࡊޕ‬
ࡦ࠼⺆ߩ߽ߩߩ਄ߦⵍߖࠄࠇ㧘ࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼ฬ߇ߥ޿ߣ޿ࠊࠎ߫߆ࠅߢ޽ߞߚ‫ޕ‬ฬ⒓ߪ⋥⸶ߢ޽ߞߚࠅ
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/LQGHQDOOHH ߦ㧕
‫ޕ‬
ㅢࠅ࡮ᐢ႐ߥߤߩ࠼ࠗ࠷⺆ൻߦߪ㧘ㇺᏒฬߩ႐วߣหߓࠃ߁ߦ㧘๮ฬߦߪ৻ቯߩ௑ะ߇޽ߞߚ‫ޕ‬
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ࡐ࡯࡜ࡦ࠼ผ਄㊀ⷐߥ಴᧪੐߇㑐ଥߒߡ޿ࠆ߽ߩߦߟ޿ߡ߽ห᭽㧔଀㧦DO 0DMDާ੖᦬ਃᣣᙗᴺㅢࠅިψ
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‫ޕ‬භ㗔ᒰዪߪ‫ޠ⥌৻ޟ‬
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‫ޠ↱⥄ޟ‬
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‫ޠ৻⛔ޟ‬
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― 52 ―
第二次世界大戦におけるポーランドの地名のドイツ語化
ԙ࠼ࠗ࠷ߩ࿾ฬ߿࿾ᣇฬ߇ߒ߫ߒ߫૶ࠊࠇߚ㧔଀㧦XO-DJLHOORĔVND ψ .|QLJVEHUJVWUD‰H㧕
〔蜂蜜通り〕
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ߒߡᛶ᛫ߒߚ‫ޕ‬
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― 53 ―
山口県立大学学術情報 第3号 〔国際文化学部紀要〕 2010年3月
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― 54 ―
第二次世界大戦におけるポーランドの地名のドイツ語化
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山口県立大学学術情報 第3号 〔国際文化学部紀要〕 2010年3月
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山口県立大学学術情報 第3号 〔国際文化学部紀要〕 2010年3月
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山口県立大学学術情報 第3号 〔国際文化学部紀要〕 2010年3月
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第二次世界大戦におけるポーランドの地名のドイツ語化
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山口県立大学学術情報 第3号 〔国際文化学部紀要〕 2010年3月
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山口県立大学学術情報 第3号 〔国際文化学部紀要〕 2010年3月
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山口県立大学学術情報 第3号 〔国際文化学部紀要〕 2010年3月
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