Introduction and scope - Engineers Without Borders Australia

EWB Challenge 2010
Submission Cover Sheet
Instructions
Participating universities may enter up to four team submissions per university per year for external judging
(if the EWB Challenge is run in both semesters, the semester in which the course is run follows the submission
deadline for that semester).
Each submission MUST include the following:

Completed cover sheet (MS Word preferred)

Executive summary as part of the report (for more information, go to
http://www.ewb.org.au/ewbchallenge/challenge/submission)

One (1) electronic copy of the report (PDF – preferred or MS Word) via email
Submissions should be sent via either of the two following methods:
1.
Email electronic copy to [email protected] (with completed coversheet) or
2.
Via You Send it (for files over 2 MB is size), accessible from details below:
www.yousendit.com/
Email: [email protected]
Password: [email protected]
Submission deadline (Semester One): 23 July 2010
Submission deadline (Semester Two): 22 October 2010
Please complete this coversheet and send electronically:
University: Central Queensland University
Course name: ENEG11002 Engineering Skills 2
Degree Program: Bachelor of Engineering Technology
Course semester: Semester 2, 2010
University Contact Details (Course Coordinator)
Name:
Address:
Stephen Pinel
45 Gregory Cannonvalley Road
Gregory River QLD 4800
Telephone:
Email:
0437 736062
[email protected], [email protected]
Title of design project: 2010 EWB Challenge :– Bendee Downs – Design Area 5 - Energy
Name of students in team
Discipline
Email
1
Melinda Noble
[email protected]
2
Leon Chick
[email protected]
3
Vinay Shravage
[email protected]
4
5
Ian Boardman
Max Fraser
[email protected]
[email protected]
Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
PRELIMINARY PROJECT SCOPE STATEMENT
2010 EWB CHALLENGE- BENDEE DOWNS BUILDING DESIGN
FLEX GROUP B
ENEG11002
CQUNIVERSITY
11.08.2010
Melinda Noble
Leon Chick
Ian Boardman
Max Fraser
Vinay Shravage
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Executive Summary
This document focuses on a new construction to replace a shearing shed that is located in Bendee
Downs in Nebine, Queensland. The key focus of the EWB Challenge in 2010 is the redevelopment of
the Bendee Downs site as a financially viable regional hub that can assist with maintaining the
important ecology that surrounds the Bendee Downs site. Flex B team has taken the challenge to
modify the building design by completely knocking down and re-constructing the building using fresh
designs for the structural, electrical and the heating and cooling with the intent of it becoming a
tourist centre. Developing and implementing a sustainable design was one of the major factors
considered in this design. Throughout the design process a sustainable design approach was
incorporated in all of the different aspects of not only the shed itself, but its potential environmental
impacts.
This document is divided in to three different sections.
1. Structural
Our structural team has focused on the structural integrity of the building whilst keeping in mind the
impact of each material used in the construction of the building. The focus of the structural design
was environmental sustainability. The use of high insulation products for the floors, walls and ceiling
reduces everyday power use for heating and cooling. Where ever possible renewable materials have
been specified such as Replas Composite Fibre planks which are made from recycled plastic, this
reduces the amount of raw materials used and utilises a pre-used product that would otherwise end
up in landfill.
2. Electrical
The electrical design in this document is in three parts, being “The Lighting Design”, “The Power
Design” and “Hot Water”. The purpose of the power system is to provide electrical power for the
appliances within the building. This includes power supply to such things as the dishwater, hot water
unit, cooling and heating system etc. The lighting system focuses on the aesthetics of the building
and what will go in it while keeping in mind the initial and the ongoing cost of electrical power.
3. Mechanical
Thermal load calculations are often considered one of the most important aspects in any heating
and cooling system design. Accurate load calculations are needed to ensure proper system and
equipment selection. A proper system/equipment selection can guarantee maximum performance
and maintain desired comfort levels. Comfort, health, low environmental impact & performance
were other major factors that were considered in this design. A Fabric Energy Storage system was
decided upon by considering the reduction in the overall heat load and to have a sustainable
approach towards our design.
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Team Reflection
As a Flex team, separated from both the university and each other by hundreds of
kilometres, this project proved a difficult task. Our approach from the beginning was to divide
up the project into three categories and work on each part in pairs. What eventuated was
even more division of tasks as each member of a pair worked on separate parts of their
supposed pair task. Our team meetings were where we tried to resolve any differences in
approach that resulted from such individual work. This approach has the advantage of
making each task smaller and therefore more manageable but the difficulty of bringing the
pieces back together at the end and trying to form a coherent whole.
While our approach allowed each team member to choose a task that matched their
strengths or skills, it allowed little scope for collectively solving problems. Most of our
teamwork was performed at the beginning and end of the project, the former being choosing
what part of the EWB scope to work on and how it might be made to fit the requirements and
the latter being bringing all the pieces together into a single report.
We all felt from the beginning that the scope we were given lacked detail and this caused
ongoing problems throughout the project. Without clearly defined requirements or a
maximum budget, the team often had conflicting ideas on what would be the correct
direction. This helped push us towards a more individualistic work approach and made
producing a coherent and uniform report more difficult.
The vagueness of the scope also caused problems in meeting our internal deadlines. When
the question or request isn’t clear, neither is the answer. The whole team struggled to put
together their submissions in a timely manner, some more than others. Managing the time
lags was difficult as no-one completely understood the requirements and so couldn’t press
others to simply ‘do the work’ or solve the problems. Mostly the team understood each
other’s struggle with the requirements and didn’t push their teammates too hard. This
avoided some conflicts but let due dates slip by.
As the team was randomly chosen and not selected for the right mix of skills, some gaps in
knowledge across the whole group were inevitable, however as we are all mature age
students and in the workforce, sometimes our focus was united. Our client focused approach
and attempt to deliver an actual buildable product reflect our years trying to deliver physical
solutions to clients problems. Our report is not just a series of possible theoretically useful
aspects of a structure, but a nearly complete design that could be a physical reality without
much further additions. While reflecting our structural design limitations, the report is still an
almost complete answer to a client’s request.
None of the team have ever worked on a project scope like this one in their professional
lives. The lack of access to the client and no clear budget may have been less of an issue if
we weren’t all accustomed to having these things. Our experiences in the workforce were at
times an obstacle rather than an advantage and a more open minded approach may have
benefitted our team in meeting our deadlines.
The whole team also had to adjust to new collaboration tools such as the Windows Live site
and it’s Skydrive for sharing documents and also conference calls via Skype. These are very
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
useful tools but are not an equivalent substitute for a face to face meeting. One thing missing
from these types of communication technologies is non-verbal communication. Not being
able to see a team members reaction to a suggestion or not being able to quickly sketch a
design and share it with others at a glance are both major handicaps to any collaborative
effort. Our design and report would have been greatly improved by either of these abilities.
Table of Contents
Executive Summary ................................................................................................................... 3
1. Structural......................................................................................................................................... 3
2. Electrical .......................................................................................................................................... 3
3. Mechanical ...................................................................................................................................... 3
Team Reflection ......................................................................................................................... 4
Introduction and scope ............................................................................................................... 7
Project and Product Objectives .......................................................................................................... 7
Product or Service Requirements and Characteristics ....................................................................... 7
Product Acceptance Criteria ............................................................................................................... 7
Project Boundaries .............................................................................................................................. 8
Project Requirements and Deliverables ............................................................................................. 8
Project Assumptions ........................................................................................................................... 9
Initial Project Organization ................................................................................................................. 9
Initial Defined Risks ........................................................................................................................... 10
Schedule Milestones ......................................................................................................................... 10
Initial Work Breakdown Structure .................................................................................................... 10
Project Configuration Management Requirements.......................................................................... 11
Project Management Approach ........................................................................................................ 11
Design ...................................................................................................................................... 13
Structural design ............................................................................................................................... 13
Walls-External ............................................................................................................................... 13
Roofing Material ........................................................................................................................... 15
Structure-Primary ......................................................................................................................... 17
Veranda Area ................................................................................................................................ 18
Flooring Material........................................................................................................................... 21
Cooling and heating ...................................................................................................................... 23
Footings......................................................................................................................................... 24
Electrical design ................................................................................................................................ 25
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Design............................................................................................................................................ 25
Location......................................................................................................................................... 25
Lighting .......................................................................................................................................... 26
Hot Water System ......................................................................................................................... 28
Mechanical design ............................................................................................................................ 31
Heating and cooling design ........................................................................................................... 31
Heat load calculations ................................................................................................................... 35
Sensible heat calculations ............................................................................................................. 35
Latent heat calculations ................................................................................................................ 39
System Selection ........................................................................................................................... 41
Inverter control ............................................................................................................................. 43
Discussion ................................................................................................................................ 45
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................... 47
Recommendations .................................................................................................................... 48
References ................................................................................................................................ 49
Appendices ............................................................................................................................... 50
Structural drawings ........................................................................................................................... 50
Lighting design .................................................................................................................................. 50
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Introduction and scope
This Preliminary Project Scope Statement defines the scope of the 2010 EWB ChallengeBendee Downs Building Design project. This project is derived from EWB and is based on
the needs/ requirements of the Kooma Traditional Owners Association Incorporated
(KTOAI). The project objective is to start up an environmentally sustainable tourism hub at
Bendee Downs that will generate a profit.
Project and Product Objectives
Flex group B is to provide a complete design the new tourism centre that will be replacing
the existing shearing shed at Bendee Downs, this design will be cost efficient, have minimal
environmental impact and will be able to function effectively as a tourist hub; this is to be
handed in by October 5th.



This project will be using local resources including labour and materials
All work will be handed in by the 5th; a construction timeframe will be created at a
later date.
A total cost estimate for the project will be handed in with all documentation.
Product or Service Requirements and Characteristics
It is required that the structural team is to design the building size, shape and layout that will
incorporate tourism as its prime function. This design is to be provided to the mechanical
and electrical disciplines who will then design an effective heating & cooling system, solar
power system & specify the best form of insulation for the project. All designs are to be
environmentally sustainable, have minimal impact on the area surrounding the shed or on
the rest of the property, are relatively cheap & can be built by ill experienced locals.
Product Acceptance Criteria
To ensure the quality of the products developed under the EWB Bendee Downs building
design project, the following product acceptance criteria have been established:


All new materials must comply with Australian Standards
All structural, electrical and mechanical systems must be documented
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design



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All structural and aesthetic reused material must be assessed before reusing.
The engineers will be provided with photos/ video to ensure that the project is
complying with the documentation.
The building will require ‘signing-off’ by the engineer &/or building certifier before it
can be used.
Existing solar panels must comply with Australian Standards
Project Boundaries
The initial boundaries that are found is the information is provided for us but can be
considered very general, also we have no access to site to see what the exact conditions are
and the availability to ring someone to clarify conditions, client requirements etc. there is
almost no local knowledge on the area, therefore to create timeframes for the construction
phase is hard. It is unknown how skilled locals are & how readily available certain resources
will be.
Project Requirements and Deliverables
It is required that we are to provide by September 27th. A single hard copy folder/portfolio of
the project will be sent to Steve Pinel at CQUniversity as well as a soft copy email to him by
the due date. This will be followed by a presentation which will be made via Skype about the
project.
This documentation will include:





An executive summary
Reflection on the project
Collation of background information
Structural & civil which includes:

Materials used

Design information

Assumptions made

Dimensions

Cost

Environmental impact

Transportation/ storage of materials
Mechanical which includes:

Insulation material

Design information

Assumptions made

Cost

Environmental impact
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design




Something else
Electrical which includes

Lighting requirements

Shearing outlet requirements

Design information

Assumptions made

Dimensions

Cost

Environmental impact

Electricity provided during construction phase
Total costing of the project
Conclusion
KTOAI wish to plan and manage Murra Murra & Bendee Downs primarily for cultural and
natural heritage protection. They also hope the properties will ‘provide as base for many
social activities and programs’. Some of these programs will be formal and general income.
The key focus however is to redevelop Bendee downs as a financially viable regional hub
that can assist with the maintaining of the ecology that surrounds Bendee Downs.
Project Assumptions
Currently assumptions with the project include:






The new building replacing the shearing shed will be used for tourism
The new building will require a kitchenette, toilets and a shower.
That the long sides of the shed face east-west not north-south.
Access for a truck to deliver materials is already available
That the building is to be reasonably self sufficient
The clients’ budget
Initial Project Organization
The building is split into three disciplines: structural/civil, mechanical & electrical.
The structural/ civil are to complete stage one of the project which includes the designing the
building layout etc. This will then be the basis for the mechanical and electrical design.
Mechanical will work on the thermal properties of the building so that minimal heating and
cooling is required. Electrical will focus on using solar power to run the site during and after
construction, with the aim to make the building as self- sufficient as possible.
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Initial Defined Risks
Documentation & Design phase:




The assumptions made were incorrect-the client didn’t get what they were expecting,
the resources weren’t there etc.
Might meet the indigenous needs but not the Australian standards
Lack of (local) knowledge of the area, inability to travel there.
Timeframe is quite short.
Construction phase:




The resources required are not available, with the substantial remoteness of the
location, resourcing sources and having them delivered can be costly and very time
consuming.
A lack of experience or knowledge on site can result in mistakes, adding time and
money to the project.
Possible certification issues if any are required.
OH&S issues with inexperienced workers.
Schedule Milestones





Project scope to be completed 17.08.2010
Research to be completed by 30.08.2010
Preliminary design to be completed on 15.09.2010
Final design to be completed on 22.09.2010
Collation of information and final product to be completed and handed in on
27.09.2010
Initial Work Breakdown Structure
The work will be broken down into 4 stages:
Preliminary stage: where the client requirements are thought about and a preliminary design/
concept is created
Secondary stage: researching the area including weather, resources, labour skills, Australian
standards etc.
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Final stage: having a final design that is documented with required design calculations and
resources.
Collation stage: Collating the structural, mechanical & electrical aspects, formalizing the
information into one portfolio.
A timeline for this will be written up shortly. The project manager will oversee that deadlines
for each stage of the project will be met.
Project Configuration Management Requirements
Inclusions in the scope:




A new building design to replace the shearing shed on Bendee downs
Electrical design for the tourism building including solar power design
Low costing insulation for the Bendee downs information centre
Appropriate heating and cooling technologies for the Bendee downs tourism building
Not included in the scope:




Roads rectifications
Water supply and sanitation systems
Waste management
Communications
Project Management Approach
As the Project Manager, Leon Chick will have overall authority and responsibility for the
acceptance of the deliverables defined in this project. The project team will consist of
personnel including: Melinda Noble (secondary project manager) Max Fraser, Ian
Boardman, & Vinay Shravage
EWB authorizes the project to develop and implement a new system, upgrade an existing,
perform research, etc. A project plan will be developed and submitted to the Project
Sponsor for approval. Commencement of project activities will begin upon approval of the
project plan and the resources to execute it by the Project Sponsor. Included in the project
plan are to be a scope statement; schedule; cost estimate; budget; and provisions for scope,
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
resource, schedule, communications, quality, risk, procurement, and stakeholder
management as well as project control.
The purpose of the Bendee Downs building design project is to have a building that is cost
efficient, have minimal environmental impact and will be able to function effectively as a
tourist hub therefore generate its own profit..
Leon Chick, as project manager is hereby authorized to interface with management as
required, negotiate for resources, delegate responsibilities within the framework of the
project, and to communicate with all contractors and management, as required, to ensure
successful and timely completion of the project. The Project Manager is responsible for
developing the project plan, monitoring the schedule, cost, and scope of the project during
implementation, and maintaining control over the project by measuring performance and
taking corrective action.
The objective is to complete the project within the time, cost and quality constraints to be set
forth in the project plan. Since this project is driven by specific quality requirements, the
constraints of cost and time may be flexible to meet the quality constraint.
We have assumed that the funding for this project is still however limited, therefore any
variations on the project must be approved by KTOAI before being carried out.
The project deliverables shall include a complete set of documentation on the 5th of October;
this will be sent through the post on this date.
Approved by the Project Sponsor:
________________________________________
Steve Pinel
Project sponsor
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Date: __________________
Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Design
Structural design
Walls-External
Product Specified -Thermomass
With the concept of creating this structure by using processes that are environmentally
responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle, it was necessary to not
only consider the materials but the design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation,
and deconstruction. Thermomass complies with all of these sustainable requirements that
this building will eventually undergo.
The Thermomass Building Insulation System consists of two layers of modified concrete with
Styrofoam between The system is flexible enough to be used as tilt-up and will reduce the
disturbance that this construction will have on the rest of the site as it does not require a
large use of space on site. The construction process for the Thermomass wall is relatively
easy, once made in a controlled environment it is then and shipped to the building location.
Therefore there are little labour costs to be expected.
Thermomass is in this project will be constructed with the inclusion of recycled material. The
wall system construction produces no dust or airborne contaminants during construction and
also does not allow moisture to be absorbed into the insulation of the panel. The
thermomass sandwich panels limit or eliminate the transmission of moisture through the
envelope, which eliminates condensation on the wall surfaces.
The use of high mass walls provides a much more comfortable environment than standard
lightweight construction. This is achieved by eliminating cold or hot spots in the occupant
zones and by maintaining wall temperatures at or near the interior operating conditions,
Because the Thermomass panels have excellent thermal storage properties, facilities using
them have a reduced total load requirement. The energy costs can be reduced by as much
as 50%.
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
A section through a Thermomass wall
An example of what will be achieved with Thermomass Walls
The benefits for using precast in this application include:
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Controlled environment
Utilizing state-of-the-art steel casting beds and forming equipment
Precision construction
Superior quality finishes
High-strength 5,000 PSI concrete
Less construction labour
Comparisons
WALLING SYSTEM
Material Cost
Material 1
Material 2
Material 3
Labour Cost
Material 1
Material 2
Material 3
R-Value estimated
Total Cost
BRICK VENEER
TIMBER CLAD
THERMOMASS
WALLING
Brickwork= $181/m
Studwork= $216/m
Plasterboard= $96/m
Studwork= $216/m
Plasterboard= $96/m
Cladding= $464/m
Thermomass= $696/m
Plasterboard= $96/m
NA
Brickwork= $12 000
Studwork= $675
Plasterboard= $7150
R=1.4
$75 041
Cladding= $7150
Studwork= $675
Plasterboard= $7150
R=0.9
$82 560
Walling= 17920
NA
Plasterboard= $7150
R=4.2
$65 310
Standard Compliances
Thermomass will comply with the following standards:



AS1170-Structural Design Actions
Aggregate: -standard: to AS2758.1
Silica fume-standard: to AS3972.3
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
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Fly ash-standard: to AS3582.1 "fine grade" only.
General Requirement: to AS3600 section 17
Portland cement: standard: to AS3972
All precast concrete work shall be carried out in accordance with AS3850, AS3600
and AS3610 as appropriate, and the appropriate work cover authority industry
standard "Precast and Tilt-Up Concrete for Buildings"
Roofing Material
Product Used- Ritek Roofing
To maintain the sustainability of the building the required criteria for the roof was basically a
light, easy to work with roofing system that is atheistically pleasing and has good thermal
insulation. Ritek Custom Roof Panels met all these criteria. These pre-fabricated sheets are
made up of standard Custom Orb Colorbond sheeting, bonded to both sides of profiled
Expanded Polystyrene (EPS). This yields high strength resulting in large spans and
cantilevers along with a high insulation value. The ability to span large distances can
eliminate the need for complex, expensive roof structures.
Ritek also provides high level thermal comfort for a building’s occupants and reduces the
need for air-conditioning or heating requirements and therefore the size of a building’s
carbon foot print. A Ritek roof is cyclone tested, has a Group 1 fire rating, is fully
Warranted for up to 25 years and BCA Part J compliant.
Ritek Roof lap connection detail
The Ritek roofing system has the ability to be built by supervised unskilled workers, once the
panel is in place it is screwed to the steel supporting member and installation of the panel is
complete (flashing and other such details will come at the end of assembling the roof).
Maintenance on this sheeting is also very minimal as it is already covered in protecting
sheeting.
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Transportation of these panels will require one truck, as the panels are light, the tonne
capacity of a truck will not be breached by the entire roof worth of the panels.
Benefits of using Ritek Roofing;
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
Simple Construction
Aesthetics
High thermal mass,
Recyclable
Light, ease of manoeuvrability
No ceiling is required
Comparisons
ROOFING SYSTEM
Material Cost
Material 1
Material 2
Material 3
Labour Cost
Material 1
Material 2
Material 3
R-Value estimated
Total Cost
TILES & TRUSS
STEEL & PURLINS
STEEL AND RITEK
Trusses= $14 455
Battens= $6468
Tiles= $2146
Steel= $26 779
Purlins= $18 063
Sheeting= 17 577
Steel= $26 779
Ritek= $94 080
NA
Trusses= $14 455
Battens= $480
Tiles= $4743
R=1.4
$42 747
Steel= $5290
Purlins= $800
Sheeting= 6835
R=0.8
$57 919
Steel= $5290
Ritek= $14 530
NA
R=5.0
$140 697
Compliances
Ritek will comply with the following standards:




AS1170-Structural Design Actions
AS3600- Structural Steelwork
Supply, fabricate and erect structural steelwork in accordance with AS4100 & AS4600
Unless noted otherwise, use:
o 10mm plates.
o M20 8.8/S bolts.
o M20 4.6/S hold down bolts
o 6mm continuous fillet welds made with E48XX mild steel
o Electrodes.
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Structure-Primary
Product used-Steel
For the structure of the building conventional steel was used, this was for ease of
construction and details with the roofing and walling panels, its low maintenance costs & its
ability to span large distances efficiently. It has been designed so that the structural
components can be transported to the site as 8 continuous roof beams which will then be
bolted to the columns on site. The roof beams are 14m long and therefore can be
transported on a truck without escorts required, it is estimated that one semi-trailer truck
(standard trucks have a 28T capacity) can carry all the steel that is required for the building
as the total amount of steel (excluding cleats) is 18T.
The steel structure will require very minimal maintenance throughout the life of the building
and once erected can support the walling and roofing systems. All holes will be prefabricated
so local skill can be used to bolt the steel together.
Reusing the existing steel (from the shearing shed) was not an option as it wasn’t capable of
spanning the required distances and did not provided the required ability to have precast
fixed to it. However this steel can be reused as the cleats for the purlins.
Steel connection will be simple and bolted, no skill required
Benefits of using conventional steelwork;
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

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Low skill required in construction
Shallower member sections.
Provides easy connection to precast panels
Low maintenance
Comparisons
STRUCTURAL
ROOFING
Material Cost
Material 1
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TRUSS & BATTENS
STEEL & PURLINS
Trusses= $14 455
Steel= $26 779
Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Material 2
Material 3
Labour Cost
Material 1
Material 2
Material 3
R-Value estimated
Total Cost
Battens= $6468
Sheeting= $17 577
Purlins= $18 063
Sheeting= $17 577
Trusses= $6150
Battens= $480
Tiles= $6835
R=1.4
$51 965
Steel= $5290
Purlins= $400
Sheeting= 6835
R=0.8
$74 944
Standard compliances
The steelwork for this project was designed in accordance with the following standards:

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

AS1170-Structural Design Actions
AS3600- Structural Steelwork
Supply, fabricate and erect structural steelwork in accordance with AS4100 & AS4600
Unless noted otherwise, use:
10mm plates.
M20 8.8/S bolts.
M20 4.6/S hold down bolts
6mm continuous fillet welds made with E48XX mild steel
Electrodes.
Veranda Area
Products used-Replas
For the structure of the veranda thermal properties were not considered, instead the focus
was on a renewable material that required minimal maintenance over a long period of time.
With this in consideration Replas Composite Fibre is specified for the columns and lintels,
Replas Enduroplank is specified as the flooring for the veranda area.
Composite Fibre is stronger than steel, its light weight and can span long distances.
Composite Fibre with last for over 40 years with no maintenance required, the product will
not split, rot or be eaten by insects
The fibre composite structural components are extremely lightweight, making them easy to
install and transport
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Image of the Composite Fibre Structure Product by Replas
Unlike wooden planking which can be awkward to work with due to knots and differently
sized sections, every recycled-plastic Enduroplank is identical, making installation relatively
easy.
The recycled plastic planks are virtually maintenance free. They will not split, splinter or
crack, will never need oiling and will outlast wooden decking by many years. It is generally
claimed that the life expectancy of this recycled-plastic product of is 40 years plus.
Unused items can be recycled where such facilities exist or returned to the manufacturer for
recycling. Also there is no potential hazard involved in disposal in landfill if that is the only
disposal option.
The use of recycled-plastic products does not involve any environmental damage.
The use of timber substitute preserves timber for other uses and in the long term could result
in the preservation of such species as Red Gum, Ironbark and other hardwoods.
The manufacture of products, likewise, does not harm the environment since any toxic
Substances are generated and all production waste is reused. The energy required to
process waste plastic is 75% more effective than that required to produce the product from
virgin materials, which in many instances is based on the consumption of non-renewable
resources.
Benefits for using Composite Fibre & Enduroplank





Recycled products
Minimal maintenance less expensive over the lifetime of the building
Half the weight of timber, one third of the weight of steel
Corrosion and moisture resistant
Can be prefabricated, low skill required for assembly
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Enduroplank can be laid directly on the ground without rotting
Comparisons
TIMBER VERANDAH
STEEL/CONC
VERANDAH
REPLAS/ ENDUROPLANK
Material 1
Timber roof= $14 455
Steel= $10 780
Replas= $40 850
Material 2
Timber floor= $15 230
Concrete= $8 295
Enduroplank=$19 840
Material 3
Sheeting= $11 532
Sheeting= $11 532
Sheeting= $11 523
Material 1
Timber roof= $14 455
Steel= $26 779
Replas= $20 723
Material 2
Timber floor= $6468
Concrete= $18 063
Enduroplank=$5150
Material 3
Total Cost
Sheeting= $17 577
Sheeting= $17 577
Sheeting =$17 577
$42 747
$56 919
$115 663
VERANDAH SYSTEM
Material Cost
Labour Cost
Standard compliances
Replas and Enduroplank was design in accordance with the following standards



AS1170-Structural Design Actions
Supply, fabricate and erect in accordance with AS4100 & AS4600
Unless noted otherwise, use:
10mm plates.
M20 8.8/S bolts.
M20 4.6/S hold down bolts
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Flooring Material
Products used-Hollow core precast concrete
For the construction of the flooring precast hollow core concrete from Hollow Core Concrete
Pty. Ltd. is specified. Hollow core slabs are precast, prestressed concrete elements. Each
slab has four to six longitudinal hollow cores running through them, the primary purpose of
the cores being to decrease the weight and material within the floor, yet maintain maximum
strength. The slabs are reinforced with 12mm steel strand, running longitudinal.
Hollow core floor slabs come with different thicknesses and surface finishing.
Hollow core precast slabs are produced and cured in a controlled factory environment,
allowing for low water / cement ratios, which translates to a more dense and durable endproduct. Hollow core slab installation is fast and efficient giving huge labour cost savings.
Hollow core provides a ‘finished’ product ready for paint, pad or tiles. Hollow core is naturally
fire and insect resistant which can decrease maintenance and insurance costs.
Unlike in situ concrete slabs, precast hollow core slabs can be delivered over long distances
and assemble on site without the time restraints associated with delivery of wet concrete
from a concrete batch plant. This makes hollow core ideal for remote locations like Bendee
Downs. As hollow core slabs are made in a factory environment they are able to achieve
high density, high strength concrete with fewer contaminants and imperfections which can
result from on site concrete batch plants.
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Although timber is a cheaper upfront material, hollow core slabs have a much greater life
span resulting in a cheaper product in the long term. Timber is also vulnerable to insects
such as white ants (termites). Hollow core slabs are naturally resistant to insects giving lower
maintenance and repair costs. As hollow core slabs are made from concrete they don’t have
any risk of fire as you do from timber flooring.
Proposed hollow core flooring.
Comparisons
FLOORING
Material Cost
Material 1
Material 2
Labour Cost
Material 1
Material 2
R-Value estimated
Total Cost
TIMBER FLOOR
CONCRETE SLAB
HOLLOW CORE FLOOR
Timber surface= $29840
Timber bracing= $19020
Reinforcing= $18 000
Concrete= $75 000
Slabs= $58 875
Trimmer Beams= $19 840
Timber surface= $16740
Timber bracing= $10840
R=1.25
$76 440
Reinforcing= $35 000
Concrete= $19 000
R=0.80
$147 000
Slabs= $ 18 460
Trimmer Beams= $8 665
R=1.4
$105 840
Standard compliances
Designed to AS3600
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Cooling and heating
Method used-Underground labyrinth
For the heating and cooling of the tourist centre an underground labyrinth system has been
designed. The labyrinth consists of a maze of concrete walls built directly under the building.
Air drawn from outdoors is forced though the maze before passing into the building above.
As the concrete walls are not directly exposed to the environment they stay at moderate
temperatures. The concrete acts as a heat store and conditions the air as it comes in contact
with its surfaces, cooling in summer and heating in winter.
Warm air during summer is cooled in labyrinth before circulation into the building.
Concrete has great potential for heat exchange and tremendous compressive strength. This
allows the concrete walls to have a dual purpose, as a heat store and the as the supporting
structure for the buildings flooring. Compressed earth has similar thermal properties to
concrete and is substantially cheaper but lacks the structural strength to support the flooring.
The use of timber for the walls, although a cheaper alternative and do provide the structural
strength needed, do not provide the capacity to act as a heat store therefore are not a viable
option.
The cooling labyrinth uses minimal energy to operate; the only electricity used is to drive the
extraction fan. The estimated the running costs of the cooling labyrinth will be 10% that of
conventional overhead cooling systems, this is not only economically beneficial but
substantially better for the environment, reducing Bendee Downs carbon footprint.
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Comparisons
LABYRINTH
Material Cost
Material 1
Material 2
Labour Cost
Material 1
Material 2
Total Cost
TIMBER
COMPRESSED EARTH
CONCRETE
Timber surface= $50 110
Timber bracing= $19 530
Earth= $4 700
Bracing= $5 600
Concrete= $63 500
Reinforcement= $17 800
Timber surface= $27 520
Timber bracing= $8 760
$103 920
Earth= $14 300
Bracing= $9 400
$34 000
Concrete= $ 17 500
Reinforcement= $25 800
$124 600
Standard compliances
Designed to AS3600
Footings
Product used-Reinforced concrete
For the construction of the footings conventional RC concrete has been specified. The
column foundations are pad footings with reinforcing steel. The labyrinth wall foundations are
strip footings with reinforcing mesh.
Concrete is specified due to its high compressive strength and proven performance in this
area. Reinforcing steel reduces the volume of concrete needed while maximising strength.
This reduces the volume of material needed, minimising the impact on the immediate
surrounding environment and reducing materials costs.
Standard compliances
All footings designed to AS3600, ASNZ4671, AS3972, AS1379, AS2758.7 with the
assumption of class M soil, all designs shall be reviewed upon site soil classification.
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Electrical design
Purpose
To design the electrical system incorporating the power required for lights, fixed appliances, and
socket outlets for non-fixed appliances. The design is in two parts, being “The Lighting Design” and
“The Power Design”.
Overview
The electrical design is for a new building replacing the existing shearing shed on Bendee Downs in
Central Queensland.
Standards
All designs have been prepared to Australian Standards and local electrical rules.
AS/NZS 3000 – Electrical Installations - Wiring Rules
AS/NZS 3008: Part 1 – Electrical Installations – Selection of Cables
Design
Power
The design of the power system needed, other than for lighting, is to provide power for the fixed
appliances like oven, boiling water unit, dish washer, cooling/heating system, and socket outlets for
non-fixed appliances. See attached electrical design for the various power outlets that are required.
The power design consists of the following:







Single socket outlets
Double socket outlets
Oven
Cooling/heating system
Boiling Water Unit
Fridge/Freezer
Solar Hot Water
Location
Socket outlets and isolators are to be placed as per the electrical design. The height of socket
outlets above the floor is 300mm in normal open floor areas, 200mm from the top of benches and
the rest noted on the design drawing.
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Lighting
Overview
The lighting system in any building plays a major part of how the final concept looks. A well design
lighting system can give the building visual impact for the worker and visitor. If the lighting system is
poorly designed it can distract from the purpose of the building and give people a less satisfying
experience. To design a complete lighting system for any building you need to take into
consideration the following aspects:





The purpose of the building.
The use of each room in the building.
The cost of the lighting system installation.
The ongoing cost of the lighting system – lamp replacement, repairs & maintenance.
The cost of electricity consumption.
The purpose of the building
The building is to be used as a place for displaying the local indigenous culture and historical use of
the area. The building has the following rooms:







Display Area
Eatery
Alfresco
Kitchen
Male/Female Toilets
Kitchen Storage
Plant Room
Cost
The cost of any lighting system needs to weight up the cost of installation versus the ongoing cost of
running the lighting system.
The government is recommending the use of low watt power consumption lights for all buildings.
With the push to low watt lights our recommendation is to use fluorescent lights and LED lights in all
areas of the building. These light sources have low running cost and long lamp life. E.g. LED down
light lamps has greater than 50,000hrs lamp life, compared to conventional down light lamps of
2,000hrs. All fluorescents light are using electronic ballast over conventional wire round ballast,
because they are longer life, more light output and no heat loss.
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Comparison Table for Display Area and Eatery Lights
Lighting System
Material Cost
Units
Lamps
Total Units
Total Cost
Life Span (hrs)
Halogen
Down Lights
LED Down
Lights
Fluorescent
Lights
High Bay
Lights
$100
$10
43
$4,730
2,000
$200
$50
43
$10,750
>50,000
$150
$10
42
$6,720
30,000
$400
$100
12
$6,000
20,000
The table above shows that it is cheaper to install the High Bay Lights with Metal Halide Lamps, but
these lights will not fit the purpose of the building. The lights will give the required light output to
cover the whole area, but no target light for any visual displays. The lamps have long start up time of
about 10 minute, and they are great lights for a workshop. The installed lighting needs to fit the
purpose of the building.
LED lighting as recently been developed within the last 10 years and the cost of manufacture is
coming down because more and more people are installing LED lighting. With the LED lights having
over 50,000hrs lamp life and there low operating cost they are becoming more widely installed into
everyday installations.
The total estimated capital cost of the electrical for the project is between $40,000 - $60,000 which
includes the Distribution Board, cables, infrastructure, socket outlets, light switches, and lights.
These background costs are the virtually the same for any option chosen from the table above; the
choice of lighting system will have the biggest effect on overall electrical cost.
Recommendations
For the Display Area and the Eatery I have used track lighting with all functions such as power
supply, lighting control and connection to emergency lighting are seamlessly integrated into the
multifunctional trunking. Luminaries can be positioned flexibly and the system can be adapted to
suit structural alterations at any time. Assuming a Display Area will be required, the track lighting
copes effortlessly with various lighting requirements – at the time it is installed and whenever there
are changes. The track remains unchanged and forms the functional backbone of the system. It is
simply a matter of replacing or adding lighting modules or light sources as required.
Using track lighting meets a large variety of lighting requirements and makes extensive allowance for
the particular requirements of specific visual tasks. The emphasis is always on economic efficiency –
not only in terms of energy consumption, but also in terms of flexibility. There is a very wide range
of luminaries which offer different levels of performance. Factors such as the number of lamps and
the ability to choose spacing’s as required allow extra alternative choices. Tracking lighting is
therefore ideally suited to economical solutions in the Display Area where the lights must match the
visual displays that need to be highlighted. By using track lighting in this application the areas can be
illuminated flawlessly, providing dynamic lighting scenarios that turn viewing into an experience for
the visitor.
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
The lights installed in the Display Area and the Eatery has the possibility of having a dimming control
system added to the track lights. This will give the client better light control and less power
consumption, but has added installation expense which is not justifiable at this time.
The lighting system including the track can be supplied from any company that meets the
requirements within this document.
Hot Water System
Overview
A hot water system can be a hidden but high energy cost in any building, but it is also one of the
areas where simple changes can bring big savings. There are many options in the marketplace and
even the opportunity for some do-it-yourself systems that can be quite effective. In an environment
and climate like that around Bendee Downs, solar energy is in abundance and a solar hot water
system seems highly appropriate to provide cheap hot water for the foreseeable future. The option
chosen will depend on several things, including:






The main purpose of the building – office, accommodation, café/restaurant, etc.
The frequency and times of use of the hot water.
The available types of energy i.e. Electricity or gas.
The required temperature of the water.
The flexibility of the system or its ability to adjust to changing requirements.
The initial budget of the client and their desired ongoing energy costs.
The main options for hot water supply are:





Old style Electric storage (likely off-peak)
Commercial Solar systems
Instant hot water systems (almost exclusively gas fired)
Do-it-yourself Solar systems
Combinations of the above
The Bendee Downs Property has a SWER line electrical supply and large solar systems so energy
supply, particularly during daylight hours, is not an issue. The cost of this electricity over time though
is an issue. For our proposed new building we have suggested an LPG bottled gas supply be installed
for the kitchen stove to help limit peak electrical current requirements. This secondary energy
supply also means that the site is not totally reliant on a single wire and source of energy. Heating
with gas is quite efficient and energy is only used when heating and then turned off, there is no
standby energy usage. Gas is also a pay-as-you-go system which can help with budgeting and also
means there cannot be any surprise bills at the end of a quarter or billing period. This means that a
gas fired instant hot water system is a viable option.
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Some hot water storage would be beneficial if the building is to be used at night. If the building were
not used at all after hours then the client can forego this extra cost. If the building were used
intermittently then electrical systems can waste a lot of energy unless turned off and not
remembering to turn them back on can cause inconvenience. Solar systems on their own are viable
if the users of the building don’t mind not having hot water occasionally. This kind of compromise
can save a lot of money and energy and still allows for additions in the future if building use changes.
Several options were selected as options and costed as best as possible for the remote site of
Bendee Downs and they are shown in the table below.
Comparison Table for Hot Water Systems
Hot Water
system
Solar &
Instant
Home
made
Solar &
Instant
Just Gas
Instant
Solar
only
Material Cost
Solar Unit
Gas Instant
Home made
solar
Pump
Labour
$3,072
$1,500
Total Cost
$3,072
$1,500
$100
$1,500
$750
$3,000
$750
$1,500
$750
$1,500
$750
$2,000
$8,322
$3,850
$3,750
$5,822
All prices in the above table are indicative only; they are average prices of units from selected
suppliers, mainly from Toowoomba in Queensland but some others that also service the South West
area of the state. Labour costs were based on both estimates from suppliers and also the estimates
of a registered installer in Cunnamulla. Actual final prices may vary greatly due to the remoteness of
Bendee Downs and also the lack of some licensed trades in the region, especially gas fitters.
Systems Detail
The Solar unit chosen was a dual panel system with a 300L on roof storage tank as pictured below.
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
This type of solar system is considered appropriate for medium to high solar gain areas and the large
storage tank allows for greater flexibility in the future. If this system were chosen by the client then
it could be thought of as the backbone to the system which could operate on its own or with backup
from gas boosting. The cost of the unit is quite high at over $3000 and, if warranty is to be
maintained, installation may also be comparatively expensive but solar rebates would help offset the
initial cost with ongoing maintenance and running costs being very low.
The home made solar could take on several forms but by far the cheapest and simplest is to buy
100m or more of black poly or plastic pipe and coil it on the roof of the building. This type of system
is the recommended do-it-yourself system as it is the cheapest and requires the least skill. It has the
disadvantages of problems with overheating in the middle of summer and no heating or even some
net cooling of water on cold nights. The cooling can be managed easily with a bypass system,
manually operated when appropriate. The overheating during summer could cause scalding at its
worst and, without a safety system or temperature gauge, careful use and possibly pre-mixing with
cold water is recommended.
The gas ‘instant hot water’ booster system is a very flexible addition if chosen. It has the advantages
of not using any energy when no hot water is required, only heating water to a mild temperature as
no storage is required, and by using the LPG it becomes a pre-pay system with no surprise bills and
easy monitoring of usage. This system would work well in combination with a solar system, using
less energy but guaranteeing hot water at the desired temperature every time it is needed. The
disadvantage is the cost of this system, if added to the solar unit, is quite high. On its own the unit is
good value but doesn’t use the abundant solar energy available, meaning running costs will be
higher.
As the water at Bendee Downs is tank water from rain and bore sources and no information was
available on the height of the tank or pressure in the system, a pump has been included in the price.
The size and type of pump can vary depending on the setup of the system; there are as many pumps
on the market as there are types of systems so choice is not limited. The price of the pump in the
table above is based on a mid-range domestic water pump capable of pumping water up to the roof
and through long pipe coils while still delivering good pressure at the tap. The pump is over-specified
and could be changed for a lower cost unit however it has the capability of being used for more
buildings if the site expands.
Recommendations
The type of system chosen by the client will depend on their priorities, budget, goals and personal
preferences. The hot water system cost is only a small proportion of the overall cost but a good
choice now will save money in the future. As the enterprise of Bendee Downs is new and still
developing, flexibility will be important. Hot water systems can be installed or changed any time
after the structure is built and so perhaps it would be better to spend less money up front and add
to the system later as it is needed. On this basis the system representing both flexibility and value is
the home made solar with Gas boost backup. The system is good value both initially and in terms of
running costs with the possibility of more sophisticated solar and control system additions at any
time in the future.
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Mechanical design
Heating and cooling design
Purpose
This document focuses on a new building to replace a shearing shed that is located in Bendee Downs
in Nebine, Queensland. The intent of this heating and cooling technology design document is to
provide a functional, economical and environmentally sustainable design that will provide for the
needs of the building occupants now and over a minimum 20-year life cycle.
Developing and implementing a sustainable design was one of the major factors considered in this
design. A sustainable design approach must incorporate all different aspects of not only the shed
itself, but its potential environmental impacts.
Overview
Thermal load calculations are often considered one of the most important aspects in any heating
and cooling system design. Accurate load calculations are needed to ensure proper system and
equipment selection. A proper system/equipment selection can guarantee maximum performance
and maintain desired comfort levels.
Comfort, health, low environmental impact & performance were other major factors that were
considered in this design.
The selection of material and equipment was based on the basis of the knowledge available and
gathered during the short period of 8-12 weeks.
Building fabric - Building envelope components has three important characteristics that affect their
performance: their U-value or thermal resistance R-value; their thermal mass or ability to store heat
(heat capacity) and their exterior surface finish (for example, light surface colour reflects heat and
dark surface absorb solar heat)
Roof and Insulation - The roof receives the most direct heat gain from solar radiation. Suitable
insulation was used to reduce this heat gain.
Glazing - The type of glazing chosen should provide good visible light transmission but low solar heat
transmission. Double glazing with built in tinting was selected as has a higher R value, which
indicates less transfer of heat.
A Fabric Energy Storage system was decided to be utilised by considering the reduction in the overall
heat load this would provide and to have a sustainable approach towards our design.
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Bendee Downs Location
Format
Latitude
Longitude
D° MM' SS"
28° 08' 55" S
146° 40' 27" E
D° MM.MMM'
28° 08.924' S
146° 40.458' E
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Bendee Downs - Temperatures
Reference
Accessed online on 18th September 2010
http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/cw_044010.shtml for Bollon Mary St
(Nearest location to Nebine QLD)
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Bendee Downs - Humidity
References
Accessed online on 18th September 2010
http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/ for Bollon Mary St
(Nearest location to Nebine QLD)
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Heat load calculations
Outside design condition –
35.5⁰C Dry bulb temperature & 28⁰C Wet bulb temperature
Inside design requirement –
24⁰C Dry bulb temperature & 50% relative humidity
From the Psychometric chart (see figure 1), we find that the specific volume of the air at point 1 is
vs1 = 0.855 m³/kg of dry air
Enthalpy of air at point 1
H1 = 23.90 kcal/kg of dry air
Enthalpy of air at point 2
H2 =11.70 kcal/kg of dry air
Enthalpy of air at point A
Ha = 14.33 kcal/kg of dry air
Sensible heat calculations
Heat conducted through the external walls
Heat conducted (Q) through the walls is given by the equation:
Q = AU (t0-ti)
Where,
A is the area of the wall in meter square
U is the overall coefficient of thermal conductivity
to is the outside temperature in ⁰C
ti is the inside temperature in ⁰C
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
The material we are using for the external walls is Thermomass. The overall coefficient of heat
transmission (U) for this material is 0.24, U-value being the inverse of the more widely recognised Rvalue.
Using this value it is possible to find the heat conducted through the walls.
East wall
Q = 0.24 x 56 x (35.5⁰C-24⁰C)
= 154.56 kcal/hr
West wall
Q = 0.24 x 54 x (35.5⁰C-24⁰C)
= 149.04 kcal/hr
North wall
Q = 0.24 x 61.5 x (35.5⁰C-24⁰C)
= 169.74 kcal/hr
South wall
Q = 0.24 x 61.5 x (35.5⁰C-24⁰C)
= 169.74 kcal/hr
Heat conducted (q) through the roof is given by the equation:
Q = AU (t0-ti)
= 514.2 kcal/hr
Solar heat gain through glass
There are 14 glazed windows in our shed which contribute to the heat gain.
The U-value for aluminium frame with double 3mm glass with 6mm gap is 3.8
(Ref: http://www.yourhome.gov.au/technical/fs410.html)
Total area of glazed surface calculated is 105 m²
Heat conducted through the glass is given by the equation
q = AU (to-ti)
= 105 x 3.8 x 11.5 ⁰C
= 4588.5 kcal/hr
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Radiation through glass
Solar heat gain through glass areas varies from hour to hour, from day to day and from latitude to
latitude. We would be assuming that the solar heat gain by radiation for south facing windows is
250kcal per hour per sq meter and nearly twice for glass facing east or west.
There are not windows on the east facing wall
West facing glass = 2 x 500 = 1000 kcal/hr
South facing glass = Area x 250 = 5425 kcal/hr
Heat gain by infiltration of air
To account for infiltration of outside air through cracks around windows and doors a leakage rate of
12m³ per min is considered. The resultant sensible heat gain due to infiltration can be given by
The mass of in filtered air at point 1
m1 = v1/vs1 = 14 kg/min
Therefore the sensible heat gain due to infiltration air
= m1 (Ha – H2)
14 (14.33-11.7)
= 36.8 kcal/min
= 2209 kcal/hr
Heat Gain from occupants
Human occupants of the building contribute sensible heat according to their activity.
50 kcal/hr per person is estimated for light activity. At any one time there would be around 50
people visiting the tourist centre (assumption)
The heat gain due to human occupants in the shed gives us
50 x 50 = 2500kcal/hr
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Appliances like dishwashers, gas ovens, gas range add to the latent heat load of the shed.
Dishwasher –
110kcal/hr
Gas oven –
400kcal/hr
Gas range –
1400kcal/hr
Misc –
2000kcal/hr
Adding all the heat gain from conduction and internal sources gives us
Total sensible load Qs = 20790 kcal/hr
Figure 1
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Latent heat calculations
Heat Gain from occupants
Human occupants also contribute to the latent heat gain of the shed which is 65kcal/hr (estimated)
q = 50 (65) = 3250 kcal/hr
Heat gain by infiltration of air
The previous assumption of 12m³ of outside air brings latent heat into the building which is given by
the below equation.
Therefore the latent heat gain due to infiltration air
= m1 (H1 – Ha)
= 12(23.9-14.33)
= 114.84 kcal/min
= 6890 kcal/hr
Appliances like dishwashers, gas ovens, gas range add to the latent heat load of the shed.
Dishwasher – 90kcal/hr
Gas oven – 200kcal/hr
Gas range – 800kcal/hr
Misc – 500kcal/hr
Adding the latent heat gives us
Total latent load Ql = 11230 kcal/hr
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
Room sensible heat factor = Room sensible heat / Room sensible heat + Room latent heat
= 20790/20790+11230
= 0.65
From the psychometric chart we find the enthalpy of air at point 4.
H4 = 8.127 kcal/kg of dry air
Enthalpy of air at point 3 is
H3 = 16.25 kcal/kg of dry air
We know that mass of air,
ma = total room heat /total heat removed = RSH +RLH/H2-H4
= (20790+11230)/ (11.7-8.127)
= 2675 kg/hr
Where RSH = Room sensible heat
Where RLH = Room latent heat
Capacity required for the shed is
ma x (H3-H4)
= 2675 x (16.25-8.127)
= 21729kcal/hr
= 21729/3024
= 7.18 TR (ton of refrigeration)
7.18 x 3.516 = approx. 25 KW
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Flex Group B- Project 2, EWB design
System Selection
Option 1
Commercial vapour compression refrigeration
A ducted air conditioning system from major manufacturers could be considered suitable and would
be utilised in heating & cooling the building.
Option 2
Air evaporator system
Air evaporative cooling system is most economical cooling, but unfortunately we cannot use the
evaporative system in this instance because of the basic requirement of having a very dry outside air
(less than 10%) humidity. We have around 40% average humidity.
Some disadvantages of using this type of system.
Performance
High dewpoint (humidity) conditions decrease the cooling capability of the evaporative cooler.
No dehumidification. Traditional air conditioners remove moisture from the air, except in very dry
locations where recirculation can lead to a build up of humidity. Evaporative cooling adds moisture,
and in dry climates, dryness may improve thermal comfort at higher temperatures.
Comfort
The air supplied by the evaporative cooler is typically 80–90% relative humidity; very humid air
reduces the evaporation rate of moisture from the skin, nose, lungs, and eyes.
High humidity in air accelerates corrosion, particularly in the presence of dust. This can considerably
shorten the life of electronic and other equipment.
High humidity in air may cause condensation. This can be a problem for some situations (e.g.,
electrical equipment, computers, paper/books, old wood).
Water
Evaporative coolers require a constant supply of water to wet the pads.
Water high in mineral content will leave mineral deposits on the pads and interior of the cooler.
Bleed-off and refill (purge pump) systems may reduce this problem.
The water supply line may need protection against freeze bursting during off-season, winter
temperatures. The cooler it-self needs to be drained too, as well as cleaned periodically and the pads
replaced.
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Capital Cost
In this instance we have selected two units of Fujitsu 14.5KW ducted inverter air-conditioning
systems. Each installation would cost around $7500.00 + GST which include labour. Considering the
remote location of the shed, a contingency of 25% is added to the price. Hence the total initial
investment cost would be $18,750.00 + GST
Operational Cost
29KW system in total @ 11c/kwh
Total operating cost per year = $27,944.00 per year
Maintenance cost = approximately 8% of the initial cost
Comparative option – Air evaporative system
An air evaporative system was considered during the system selection process, but rejected due to
the basic requirement of very dry outside air. With the current location, the humidity of the air
coming out of the cooler would be 80 to 90 % which is not acceptable.
Sustainable design viability
A Fabric Energy System is incorporated in our design which would lower the overall heat load.
Highly efficient R410A refrigerant
The R410A refrigerant, which is used in Fujitsu's Inverter ducted systems, has zero ozone depletion
potential as it contains no chlorine. R410A also provides excellent stability and low toxicity, as well
as offering superior energy saving.
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Inverter control
The Inverter component allows the outdoor unit to vary its speed and output to match the required
capacity of the indoor unit. Thus, the Inverter model can achieve 30% more operating efficiency than
conventional models and therefore, is much cheaper to run.
Operation sound (low noise)
The new ducted models have increased airflow volume & decreased noise levels to 49dBA by
adopting a plastic case, plastic fan and three airflow volume switch positions
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ASHRAE Standards
1. ASHRAE Standard 15-2004
The purpose of this standard is to specify the safe design, construction, installation and operation of
refrigeration systems
2. ASHRAE Standard 55-2004
Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects that need to be addressed in any HVAC Design.
Thermal comfort is defined as the “condition of mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal
environment and is assessed by subjective evaluation.”
3. ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004
Standard 90.1-2004 provides minimum requirements for the energy-efficient design of buildings
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Discussion
The design team of Team Flex B have set out within this document to provide for the KTOAI
what could be described as a blank canvas. Having no team members with insight into the
culture of the clients, it was felt that a sustainably designed building of a multipurpose nature
was the most appropriate and ethical option. Our team has tried to give the client several
options in terms of cost and an essentially empty space into which they can design and
install features and elements that suit their purposes, goals and culture. We feel that the
building is such that it can evolve with the venture that the client has begun. This approach
will have social benefits as the local people’s involvement is crucial during and after
construction. The building will essentially be what the local people make of it. The building
can be painted and decorated both inside and out in ways that suit the environment that it is
in and the culture it is to help showcase.
While we did not have a budget to guide us, we did have some design aims to consider. The
aims included sustainability, the use of KTOAI people for labour during construction and for
ongoing maintenance, to provide financial opportunities for Kooma people and to provide
opportunities for cultural exchange. We feel that, within the design options provided, there is
the option to choose a highly sustainable building design. The Thermomass and Ritek
materials and building systems offer a building with very low long term energy use. Using
materials like these that are pre-cast means less disturbance of the Bendee Downs site
during construction. These materials also allow the Kooma people to be involved in the
construction as they can be assembled on-site with correctly qualified supervision of low
skilled labour. The use of partially constructed trusses and other structural members made
from steel also means less skill being required during construction and therefore more
involvement of local people.
Not all portions of this building allow for large unskilled labour involvement. At times our
team has chosen to recommend the use of external contractors due to the Australian
Standards and Australian Workplace laws. Licensed tradespeople will be required for
electrical, plumbing and gas fitting work and some items, such as a solar hot water system,
have warranties that are invalid if an unlicensed installer is not used. In some circumstances
other options are given that may prove less effective over time, such as a homemade solar
hot water system, so that there is further opportunity for the Kooma people to choose their
level of involvement.
We felt that having a building with ‘green’ credentials was important in the context of a
tourism business. Many tourists now prefer a destination where they can explore the
environment without having to worry about their impact on it. We also feel that there would
be a large crossover of tourists concerned with sustainability who are also interested in
indigenous culture. We believe that the Kooma people will be more successful in their
business if they can talk with pride about both their land and what they have built on it.
Our team has elected not to use many local materials in the building as we wished to disturb
the local flora and fauna as little as possible. We aimed for a building that could be put
together on-site quickly and without having to reinstate large areas of natural flora
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afterwards. This quick and low impact system also means that the tourist operation can be
started very soon after construction has finished. We feel that this is a better result for the
environment and the Kooma people than using local materials.
The Ritek and Thermomass building options both provide a low maintenance building with
little need for structural repair or outer cladding maintenance. The lighting design also
provides the option of using very long life LED lighting to reduce maintenance. This frees up
time for Kooma people to spend in their business and also money to be spent in more fruitful
ways.
Overall, the design recommendations we have made are most beneficial in the long term.
We felt that the most ethical approach was to design a building with long lived components
that will hopefully benefit more than one generation of the Kooma people. This sometimes
involves a higher initial monetary cost, but a lower running cost and also lower costs to the
environment.
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Conclusion
Our team aimed to produce an environmentally sustainable tourist centre for the Kooma
Traditional Owners Association Incorporated (KTOAI) located at Bendee Downs that could
be utilised to generate a profit. Our final design satisfies this aim. Our tourist centre provides
a platform for the indigenous people of Bendee Downs to share their rich cultural
background and unique natural refuge with the Australian community as well as international
tourists. The structure of the tourist centre has been designed largely from prefabricated
elements; it can be constructed using local labour and community members with the minimal
supervision of qualified personnel. This allows the people of KTOAI to be involved in the
project and play a part in providing for the future.
To achieve an environmentally sustainable building extensive research was completed, this
was divided into 3 different areas, structural, electrical and mechanical.
The structural research was focused on construction materials that met the environmental,
economical and thermal properties needed to construct a sustainable building in such a
remote area. In the final design materials such as Ritek roof panels and thermo-mass walls
provided superior insulation which reduces power requirements for heating and cooling. The
use of hollow-core flooring gives a high strength, durable product that reduces amounts of
concrete needed. All of these products are prefabricated which reduces the need for skilled
labour, allowing more local community members to be involved in construction.
Extensive research and design has been conducted on lighting products and design. The
use of LED and fluorescent lights reduces power usage and with a lamp life of up to 25 times
that of halogen down lights increases the life span of the lighting system. This gives an
environmental saving as well as an economic saving over an extended period of time. The
incorporation of a solar hot water system utilises the natural energy source of the sun,
reducing electricity consumption, this is a great example of a sustainable energy source.
The mechanical research concentrated on methods of cooling and heating. A thorough
research was done on the average temperatures and humidity of the Bendee Downs area.
This information along with heat gain properties of structural products used allowed
extensive heat load calculations to be completed. With this technical information the final
design incorporates an underground labyrinth to assists the use of two fujitsu 14.5KW
ducted inverter air-conditioning systems. The use of an inverter control further increases
efficiency the air conditioning system lowering running costs and total electricity used.
The resulting building design is one of low energy consumption, low maintenance with an
expected life of over 50 years. By following the triple bottom line values the design has met
the social, environmental and economical needs of the KTOAI people. Sustainability is an
important concept in engineering, especially for future generations. We are confident that the
design we have produced, using low energy technologies, natural energy resources and
recycled materials is an environmentally friendly, sustainable proposal.
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The bottom line cost of our teams design will vary according to the options chosen by the
client. Our lowest cost options result in a building cost of $335,709.00 while our highest cost
options result in a final cost of $694,511.00. Our recommended options tend towards the
higher of these two prices but there is considerable scope for variance due to savings on
labour by using Kooma volunteers. While we have made great efforts to be accurate, costs
could also rise due to unforseen circumstance including weather and also due to costs
associated with the remoteness of the site. To guarantee the costs would require a more
detailed analysis and quotes from transport companies and contractors involved with
performing skilled and or licensed work.
Recommendations

EWB undertake a soil condition survey to assess the soil class prior to construction
and adjust designs as appropriate.

Appropriate, qualified persons to be appointed for project management of the
construction of the tourist centre.

All designs to be checked and certified by appropriate bodies. Although significant
research has been undertaken for the designs in the project, we are not qualified to
certify any of the plans.
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References
1. Textbook of Refrigeration and Air conditioning by R S Khurmi and J K Gupta (1995) Eurasia
Publishing House
2. Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology, http://www.bom.gov.au
3. Psychometric chart, www.handsdownsoftware.com
4. Gary Beckfeld, PDH course M199 (2007), HVAC Calculations and Duct Sizing
www.pdhcenter.com
5. Standards Association of Australia 2009, Australian standard: Concrete structures (AS 3600),
Standards Australia, North Sydney.
6. Standards Association of Australia 2009, Australian standard: Steel reinforcing materials
(AS/NZS 4671), Standards Australia, North Sydney.
7. Standards Association of Australia 2009, Australian standard: Portland and blended cements
(AS 3972), Standards Australia, North Sydney.
8. Standards Association of Australia 2009, Australian standard: Specification and supply of
concrete (AS 1379), Standards Australia, North Sydney.
9. Standards Association of Australia 2009, Australian standard: Aggregates and rock for
engineering purposes (AS 2758.7), Standards Australia, North Sydney.
10. Standards Association of Australia 2009, Australian standard: Structural design actions
(AS/NZS 1170), Standards Australia, North Sydney.
11. Standards Association of Australia 2009, Australian standard: Steel structures (AS 4100),
Standards Australia, North Sydney.
12. Standards Association of Australia 2009, Australian standard: Cold-formed steel structures
(AS/NZS 4600), Standards Australia, North Sydney.
13. Rawlinsons Publications 2010, Australian Construction Handbook, Rawlinsons publishing,
West Australia.
14. BHP 2010, BHP Steel guide
15. Replas Guide
16. www.ritek.net.au/
17. www.thermomass.com.au/
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Appendices
Structural drawings
Architectural plans
Architectural
elevations
Design plans
Designs details
Lighting design
Lighting design
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