MNG 425.2 Professional Practices Chapter 2: Ethics and Professionalism 2.1 Perspective on Morals, Ethics and Professionalism (TBG, pp. 13-15) Definition of Morale, Engineering morale, ethics, profession and professionalism (3 hr) 2.1.1 Moral Moral measures the standard of good behavior by which people are judged. Engineering moral measures the standard of good behavior of engineers. An engineer volunteering his/her time in adult education or providing training to needy children in learning skills is an example of a moral activity, as long as the work is done without any expectation of reward in any form, except self-satisfaction. Moral of a person is reflected by what one does when no one is watching. Ethics is a system of belief that supports the view of morality. Morality concerns with the principles of what is good and bad, right and wrong behavior. Baring some special cases, following laws of a nation and following ethics of a profession or a society are normally considered as moral actions. However, a specific moral action may not be ethical and a specific ethical action may not be moral. Speaking the truth, maintaining personal integrity, assisting people in need, not exploiting people in difficult conditions, refraining from unnecessary violence, refraining from using abusive language and derogatory words, and maintaining fairness are examples of moral actions. Non-moral actions: Actions that are beyond the realm of moral or immoral actions. Nonmoral actions are not immoral actions. The types of non-moral actions are: i. The events of nature, because they cannot be controlled. ii. The actions of animals (except human) because they lack rationality. They can neither justify nor accept the consequences of their actions. iii. The actions or behavior of children and insane persons because they are not capable of foreseeing the consequences of their actions. iv. The actions or behavior guided by the circumstances that is beyond his/her control such as coercion or any type of pressure that cannot be resisted. In such situations a person cannot think and/or act freely (case of force majeure) Examples of non-moral activities/events related to engineering: An infrastructure (road, bridge, tower, transmission lines, building, telephone connection, etc.) destroyed by natural events like an earthquake, flood, or landslide is a non-moral event. A child (less than 14 years old) hacking website of a company is a non-moral event. A child cutting wire and causing short-circuit in electrical connection which resulted in fire is a non-moral event. An elephant destroying buildings, wooden electrical-poles etc. is a non-moral event. If the same elephant does something which is beneficial for people, it is still a nonmoral event. A resident engineer of a project forced to change alignment of a road, or an MIS engineer of an internet service provider or a social media site forced to reveal password of its clients, under threat of life, is a non-moral event. 2.1.2 Ethics Ethics is the study of standards of right and wrong; that part of science and philosophy dealing with moral conduct, duty, and judgment. Ethics deals with voluntary actions specifically taken by an individual with sufficient knowledge of the options available to him or her. Laws of ethics: Eternal law of ethics: based on nature and scriptures Utilitarian law of ethics: greatest benefits for the largest number of persons Universalism law of ethics: based on motive or intent of doers; as per duties and obligation to society Distributive Justice law of ethics: based on primacy of law; law applies equally to all Personal Liberty law of ethics: should not violate personal liberty, even if action benefits the mass. Difference between Ethics and Morality Ethics and morals may seem the same on the face of it, but if one were to analyze, there is definitely some difference. It means, it may be ethical for someone to consume meat, after all there is no social code being breached, but at the same time the same person may find the idea of slaughtering an animal repugnant. This implies that ethics define the code that a society or group of people adhere to while morality delves into right and wrong at a much deeper level, which is both personal and spiritual. The ethics that a person adheres too are impacted upon by external factors like the nation, society, peer group, religion and profession, and could change with a change in any of these influencing factors. For instance fox hunting in England was ethical till the other day, because that was the tradition, and there was no law against it. But the recent legislation banning it made it illegal, and the widespread protests against the evil nature of the sport caused a cessation of the tradition supporting it, and therefore it became unethical. Morals on the other hand are made of sterner stuff, and usually do not change. It will for instance always be immoral to murder another human being, no matter who the person committing the act is. Ethics are well defined and quite neatly laid down. Take the case of professionals like doctors and lawyers. They know what the ethics of their profession dictate. A doctor will never divulge his patient’s medical history to anyone other than the patient himself, unless authorized by the later, or required under law to do so. Similarly a lawyer will never compromise his client’s interest notwithstanding his own disposition towards his client. But morals are of a subliminal nature and deciding upon what constitutes them is not that easy. We know of moral dilemma, not an ethical one. Take the case of abortion. Is it moral> On the one had there may be extremely compelling grounds in its favor, but is taking a human life, even if not fully formed, ever going to be considered a moral act? Following ethics is therefore a relatively simple affair, after all it only involves a set of socially acceptable guidelines which benefit all. Moral are, however, relatively difficult to adhere to. The religious sect of Jains in India believes that the only matter which can be consumed by human beings is leaves and fruits which have fallen off trees. No grains, no dairy products, no eggs, nor any meat. Why they are supposed to cover their mouths and noses with a piece of cloth, so that they may not inadvertently kill microscopic organisms by the very act of breathing. Now, those are tough morals to follow! We can clearly see that morals and ethics though seemingly similar are in fact quite distince. While the former constitute a basic human marker of right conduct and behavior, the latter is more like a set of guidelines that define accepted practices and behavior for a certain group of people. Summary: 1. Ethics relates to a society where morality related to an individual person. 2. Ethics relate more in a professional life while morals are what individuals follow independently. Source: http://www.differencebetween.net/business/difference-between-ethics-and-morals/ 2.1.3 Professionalism A profession is defined as having a systematic knowledge acquired through specialized training or education and practicing the same as an occupation. Professionals bear moral and ethical behavior. A profession means practice or application of such knowledge and skill that are acquired through a systematic study or training for the betterment of the society or people in the form of services. The content of profession with moral and ethical behaviors is professionalism. Examples of un-professional behavior of an engineer: Time related: Late arrival in meetings and office/duty station Late submission of reports/deliverables, i.e., missing the deadline Quality Related: Failing to monitor quality of works performed Failing to detect apparent errors in drawings/designs Meeting: Talking on phone during meeting/ loud ring tones of cell phones Talking with others during meeting Late arrival Taking frequent breaks Any activity that indicates that the meeting is of less importance to you Personal Integrity Hiding conflict of interest Accepting extra offer client/contractor Disclosing confidential information of clients Inconsistency in saying and doing (hypocrite) Making judgment based partial knowledge, like determining the brand of cement or steel rod or wire/transformer/turbine based on advertisement, rather than on test-data Inability to detect (and correct) apparent flaws in drawings/designs Inability to make appropriate judgment for a particular situation Personal Manner: Shouting at subordinates/workers Sloppy dress up/attention grabbing hair style/ jewelry Respect to others Criminal offense Forging document Falsifying data Accepting/offering bribes Abuse/misuse/disuse of authority: use of official property (vehicle, building, equipment) for personal purpose, asking office personnel to do personal works, nepotism) Plagiarism Plotting against firm, client, other engineers Code of Conduct Forgetting to sign on documents Disregard for code of conduct, standards, bylaws, and norms Advertisement in newspaper/TV/Radio Part time work as a salesman Attempt of undue influence Intentionally misleading public, client, employer Accepting offer from potential client/contractor1 Negligence Using different coefficients from engineering handbooks, without checking their applicability in particular conditions Allowing breach of terms and conditions at construction sites Not checking documents properly for formatting, contents, etc. before submission. 1 The Medical Council of India has written to the Madhya Pradesh Medical Council to suspend the names of the 15 doctors from the state medical register after an investigation found that they had "gone on a foreign trip sponsored by a pharma company". The Telegraph, Calcutta, Tuesday, 24 February, 2015, http://www.abplive.in/india/2015/02/24/article510140.ece/15-Indian-doctors-may-lose-their-license-for-goingon-a-foreign-trip Some of the features of a professional person: i) A professional acquires a systematic knowledge and skill through study, training and experience. ii) A professional exercises the knowledge and enhance skill ethically as an expert. As such, professionals are endowed with specific rights/authority. iii) The service or work as an expertise of a professional is evaluated by the public. iv) Professionals follow code of conducts to keep morale of the profession high. The activities of a professional are regulated by the professional organizations through licensing, code of conducts, and disciplinary actions. v) Professionals have their own cultures, developed through mutual contacts in social and professional gatherings. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Causes of loss of professionalism Defective social norms or values: When society easily accepts low or un-professional behavior, turns blind eye to property accumulated through unethical means, respects persons who have criminal records, admires rule-breaker and mocks rulefollowers, the level of professionalism in the society normally plummets. Low morale of the individual: The upbringing of a person holding license to practice a profession is defective or against moral values and ethics of the profession, it results in low morale of the individual. Such situation results in loss of professionalism. If the value of fairness and personal integrity are not inculcated during childhood of a person, such person normally ends up having low morale. Irregular, or inconsistent, application of laws and regulations: If institutes like NEC, CIAA, concerned line agencies or court apply the laws irregularly or selectively, the risk of indulging in unprofessional behavior becomes low and people loss their professionalism. Also, when the penalty for law breaking is disproportionately low compared to the gain from unprofessional action, people loss their professionalism. Lack of political commitment: When national level political parties or government bodies are unwilling to take action law breakers or unprofessional activities, the level of professionalism in the society normally plunges. Weak or negligent professional societies: When professional societies like NEA, SCAEF, FCAN, are weak, or negligent, in taking disciplinary actions against its members who blatantly break its rules and guidelines, the members tend to neglect the code of conduct of such professional societies, resulting in loss of professionalism. Inadequate salary: When the salary is inadequate to fulfill the basic necessities of life (food, clothing, shelter, kid’s education, sanitation, health) and/or when the salary level of a similarly trained person in a different profession is much higher, people tend to engage in unprofessional activities. 2.2 Codes of Ethics and Guidelines for Professional Engineering Practice (TBG, p. 15) 2.2.1 Fundamental Principles for Engineers to uphold and advance the integrity, honor and dignity of engineering profession by (National Society of Professional Engineering, US, 1977), i) Using their knowledge and skill for the advancement of human welfare ii) Being honest & impartial & serving with fidelity the public, their employers & clients iii) Striving to increase the competencies and prestige of engineering profession, and iv) Supporting the professional and technical societies of their disciplines 2.2.2 Fundamental canons for professional engineers/Characteristics of Ethical Decision Making i) Engineers should hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public in the performance of their professional duties, ii) Engineers shall perform services only in the area of their competencies, iii) Engineers shall issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner, iv) Engineers shall act in professional matters for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees, and shall avoid conflict of interests, v) Engineers shall build their professional reputations on the merit of their services and shall not compete unfairly with others, vi) Engineers shall act in such a manner as to uphold and enhance the honor, integrity and dignity of the profession, vii) Engineers shall continue their professional development throughout their career and shall provide opportunities for the professional development of those engineers under their supervision. 2.2.3 Codes of Ethics and Guidelines for Professional Engineering Practice in Nepal The code of ethics is the moral guidelines and the standard developed by the professional society and is obeyed by the members of the society. The codes of ethics and guidelines for professional engineering practices in Nepal are promulgated by different professional organizations in Nepal. Nepal Engineering Council The professional Code of Conduct to be followed by the registered Engineers of the council, subject to the provision of the Nepal Engineering Council Act.2055 and the Nepal Engineering Council Regulation, 2057 has been published as follows: i. Discipline and Honesty: The Engineering sevice/profession must be conducted in a disciplined manner with honesty, not contravening professional dignity and wellbeing. ii. Politeness and Confidentiality: Engineering services for customers should be sealt with in a polite manner and professional information should remain confidential except with written or verbal consent of the customers concerned. This, however, is not deemed to be a restriction to provide such information to the concerned authority as per the existing laws. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. Non-discrimination: No discrimination should be made against customers on the grounds of religion, sex, caste or any other things while applying professional knowledge and skills. Professional Work: Individuals should only do professional work in their field or provide recommendation or suggestions only within the area of theri study or obtained knowledge or skills. With regards to the works not falling within the subject of one's profession , such as works should be recommended to be done by an experts of the subject matter. Deeds which may cause harm to the engineering profession: With the exception of salary, allowance, and benefits to be received for services provided, one shall not obtain improper financial gain of any kind of conduct improper activities of any kinds, which would impair the engineering profession. Personal responsibility: All individuals will be personally responsible for all works performed in connection with his/her engineering profession. State name ,designation and registration number: While signing the documents or descriptions such as the design , map , specification and estimates etc ralating to the Engineering profession , the details should include, the name , designation and NEC registration No. and should be stated in a clear and comprehensive manner. No publicity or advertisement must be made which cause unnecessary effects: In connection with the professional activities to be carried out, no publicity or advertisement shall be made so as to cause unnecessary effects upon the customers. Nepal Engineers’ Association Nepal Engineers’ Association adopted code of ethics for its fellow members on March 19, 1969 (2025-12-6 BS). NEA Code of Ethics for Engineers Fundamental Principles of Professional Engineering Ethics The Engineer, to uphold and advance the honour and dignity of the engineering profession and in keeping with high standards of ethical conduct: (i) (ii) (iii) will be honest and fair, and will serve with devotion his Employer, his Clients and the public; will dedicate himself to the advancement of competence of engineering profession and to the dissemination of engineering knowledge and will use his knowledge and skill in the service of humanity 1. Relation with the Public: 1.1 The Engineer will have proper regard for the health, safety and welfare of the public in the performance of his professional duties. 1.2 He will endeavor to extend public knowledge and appreciation of engineering and its achievements and will at the same time oppose any untrue, unsupported or exaggerated statements regarding engineering 1.3 He will be dignified and modest in explaining his work and merit and will refrain from misrepresentative of self-laudatory advertising. 1.4 He will express an opinion on an engineering subject only when it is founded on adequate knowledge and honest conviction. 2. Relation with Employers and Clients: 2.1 The Engineer will act in professional matters as faithful agent or trustee of each Employer or Client. 2.2 He will not accept compensation or remuneration from more than one party for same service, or for other services pertaining to the same work, without the consent of all interested parties. 2.3 He will inform his Employer or Client if he is financially interested in any vender or contractor or any firm which is directly involved in a project or work of his employer or Client. He will not allow such interest to affect his decisions regarding engineering services which he may be applied to perform. 2.4 He will indicate to his Employer or Client in writing the adverse consequences to be expected if his engineering judgment is over-ruled. 2.5 He will undertake only those engineering assignments for which he is qualified. He will engage or advise his Employer or Client to engage specialists and will co-operate with them whenever in his judgment his Employer’s or Client’s interest are served best by such an arrangement. 2.6 He will not disclose information concerning the business affairs or technical processes of any present or former employer or Client without his consent. 2.7 He will not divulge any confidential findings of studies or action of an engineering commission or broad of which he is a member, without official consent. 2.8 He will not exert undue influence or offer, solicit or accept compensation for the purpose of affecting negotiations for an engineering engagement. 3. Relation with Engineers: 3.1 The Engineer will take care that credit for engineers work is given to those to whom credit is properly due. 3.2 He will provide a prospective engineering employee with complete information on working conditions and his proposed status of employment, and after employment will keep him informed of any changes in them. 3.3 He will uphold the principle of appropriate and adequate compensation for those engaged in engineering work including those in subordinate capacities. 3.4 He will endeavor to provide opportunity for professional development and advancement of fellow engineer under his supervision. 3.5 He will not attempt to injure falsely or maliciously professional reputation prospects or practice of other engineer. However, if he has proof that engineer has been unethical illegal or unfair in his practice he should so advice to proper authority. 3.6 He will not use the advantage of salaried position to compete unfair with another engineer. 3.7 He will not invite or submit price proposal for professional services, which require creative intellectual effort, on a basis that constitutes competition or process alone. Due regard should be given to all professional aspects of the engagement. 3.8 He will not attempt to supplant other engineer in a particular engagement after definitive steps have been taken towards his employment. 3.9 He will not review the work of other engineer for the same Client expect with the knowledge of such engineer unless such engineer’s engagement or the work which is subject to review has been terminated. 3.10 He will cooperate in advancing the engineering profession by interchanging information and experience with other engineers and students, and by contributing to public communication media to the efforts of engineering and scientific societies and schools. The membership of NEA can be terminated if the member violates the NEA code of conduct. “If a member violates this Statute or the Rules, Bye-laws framed hereunder of carries out act contrary to the interests of the Engineering community or breaches the code of conduct prescribed, his membership may be expelled by way of a decision made by the two- thirds majority of the Council.” Society of Consulting Architectural and Engineering Firms (RPA, p47) A consulting engineer will: a) be honest and fair and will serve the client and the public with devotion, b) be dedicated to the advancement of the competence of the engineering profession, and c) use knowledge and skill in the service of humanity Responsibility towards the nation i. Moral responsibility ii. Involvement in community development iii. Refrain from works which are against national interest Responsibility towards the client i. Gain and maintain client’s confidence ii. Loyal to the client iii. Protect interest of the client iv. Safeguard client’s confidential information v. Disclose conflict of interest Responsibility towards the profession i. Necessity of formal qualification ii. Refrain from claiming skill outside area of expertise iii. Exercise greater skill in specialized jobs iv. High quality of skill v. Limiting to agreed remuneration: cannot ask for higher remuneration by trapping client into difficult situation vi. Refrain from holding position with potential for conflict of interest vii. Engage in professional development through regular updating on knowledge & skills Federation of Contractors’ Association of Nepal The FCAN has listed a 31 point code-of-conduct in its statute. Some of the code-of-conduct issues related to general engineering practices are as follows; the numbers are kept same as in the code-of-conduct available in FCAN’s website. 1. Contractors shall not be involved in any activity against fundamental principles of morality. 5. Contractors shall not be involved in any form of corruption. 6. Contractors shall not be involved in any activity which may be deemed immoral and illegal/criminal. 15. Members and office bearers are prohibited from misuse of authority for personal gain. 16. Members and office bearers are prohibited from accepting jobs through unsealed quotation, hand receipt documents of users’ community, daily wage (amaanat), quotation, or from organizations like National Construction Company Nepal (NCCN). 18. Since inferior quality works of a contractor defame all the contractors, no one shall be involved in unhealthy competition and inferior-quality works 2.3 Relationship of the Engineering Profession to Basic Science and Technology 2.3.1 Basic Science Basic science is related to laws of nature, properties of matters and sources of power that are available on earth. Technology is the application of those laws of nature and utilization of the properties of matters and sources of power by which engineers can make new facilities and create new services. The basic science and technology used in an integrated form as a separate profession for the welfare of people is engineering. Engineering is not possible without basic science and technology. Engineering Profession and Mathematics Engineering Profession and Chemistry Engineering Profession and Physics 2.3.2 Applied Science Engineering Profession and Environmental Science Engineering Profession and Geology Engineering Profession and Hydrology Engineering Profession and Sociology Engineering Profession and Biology Engineering Profession and Economic Science Engineering Profession and Management Science 2.4 Relationship to Other Professions (TBG, p. 16-17) Engineering works involve large funds for creating facilities and services for the people. As the project involve budget and people, the engineer in charge and the staff need to have good procedure of keeping accounts and rapport with stakeholders. Engineers have to deal with auditing, budgeting, managing conflict and maintaining harmony in the work place. Professionals Engineering Profession and Accounts Engineering Profession and Lawyers Engineering Profession and medical doctors/bio-technologists Engineering Profession and managers Engineering Profession and sociologists Engineering Profession and environmentalists Engineering Profession and journalists Old Exam Questions from Chapter 2 1. What do you mean by ethics and morale? What should be done to make the morale of an engineer high?  (RPA, pp.57-59) 2. What is your understanding of ethics and norms? How are they essential in developing healthy professionalism? Elaborate. (I5) 3. Describe the factors affecting the morale of a professional? (12) (RPA, p38) 4. What is profession? Discuss the various factors that affect the morale of the profession.  (RPA, p38) 5. What are the characteristics of ethical decision making?.Briefly discuss.  (RPA, p61) 6. Discuss the consequences of ethical decision making.(RPA p61) 7. What are the main features of a profession? “Do you think the morale of the professional will become low if they are paid inadequate salary? Explain. .  8. Define profession, professional and professionalism. Explain the feature of professionals. 9. Define profession. Describe the characteristics of a profession? 10. What do you understand by profession? State the features of a profession. 11. How do you define moral and non-moral actions? Write the code of ethics for engineers. 12. How the moral and non moral action affects the quality of the work? (RPA p58) 13. Distinguish between moral and non-moral action with suitable examples.(RPA p58) Short Note Type Questions a. b. c. d. e. Characteristics of ethical decision making Objectives of Nepal Engineers Association (RPA, p42) Nepal Engineering Council (RPA, p40) Computer crimes Disciplinary action (RPA, p55), (RPA-C p15) Accountability of Engineers in Nepal (From: Transparency International Study 2001) The ethics of a certain profession is the code by which it regulates actions and sets standards for its members. The professional code attempts to assure high standards of competence in a given field, strengthen the relationships among its members, and promote the welfare of the whole community. A professional code does not automatically achieve these goals, but it does serve to guide and remind people of them. The professional code sometimes makes provision for dealing with members who violate the professional ethics of the group. In addition to the professional ethics, public laws may regulate a profession in cases where the public interest is at stake. Members should behave with integrity in all professional and business relationships. Integrity implies not merely honesty but fair dealing and truthfulness. Members should strive for objectivity in all professional and business judgments. Objectivity is the state of mind, which has regard to all considerations relevant to the task but no other. Members should not accept or perform work, which he or she is not competent to undertake unless the person obtains such advice and assistance as will enable him or her competently to carry out the work. Members should carry out his or her professional work with due skill, care, diligence and expedition and with proper regard for the technical and professional standards required of him as a member. Members should conduct themselves with courtesy and consideration towards all with whom they come into contact during the course of performance of work Viewed from the angle of the professional standards, the journalists, engineers, legal practitioners, medical professionals, accountants and auditors and private business people in Nepal could be safely categorized as true professionals. They are accountability-conscious as well. But because of their vulnerability to political pressure, clerical mind-set, commercial attitude and lack of will to stick to the professional standards, they have not been able to impress the people. Their organizations' failure to function as per the provisions of their constitution and implement the code of conduct is another reason why professionals have not been effective. Accountability in Engineering Profession Engineers in Nepal have been working for the professional goal under Nepal Engineers' Association for the last 33 years. NEA, first established in 2025 B.S.(1968) in accordance with the 2024 B.S.(1967) statute amended the Association's constitution for the third time in 2051 B.S.(1994). (Source: NEA's Third Amended constitution 2051 B.S.(1994). The Association aims at: a) helping appropriate development and mobilization of Engineering Sciences and Technology in Nepal. b) promoting mutual contact, good will and cooperation among Nepali engineers and preserving their interest and right. c) utilizing up to the maximum point the engineering person-power available for the national development activities and ending dependence on foreigners in this respect. d) contributing to the pursuit of ideals of the engineering profession by promoting the same among the engineers and expanding it. e) developing contact, mutual cooperation, and goodwill friendship with international engineering associations. People's perception People generally regard the profession of Engineering as a highly skilled profession, consider it as a lucrative one and consider engineers more commercially minded than accountable. The views expressed at the Focus Group Discussion are summarized below: Engineers are qualified and skilled. But their expertise has not been translated into quality of their works and does not display accountability. They appear to have been influenced more by contractors than their professional ethics. Although there is universal ethics for them, they do not follow them. Engineers have played the role of bureaucrats and administrators and not acted as builders and creative artists. They have been instruments of misutilization of public fund. Engineers have made themselves commercialized; they have neglected their engineering role. They have failed to define their role in development works. Engineers' perception Engineers are builders who give life and shape to scientists' vision. Nepal has a tradition of having brilliant students join engineering for studies and become engineers. They are the "cream" of the society. But the same has not been seen in practical fields. It is a case of poor performance by gifted people. New generation engineers feel the shock of unemployment, suffer from inexperience, guidelessness, and escapism. Old generation engineers, although highly experienced, have not been able to guide the new ones. Nepali engineers have contributed most to the development of sectors like road, drinking water, irrigation, building, telecommunication, and electricity. Neither the government nor the general people have appreciated it. Instead, they think they are the sectors through which engineers cheat the people. It is engineers' weakness not to be able to have proper appreciation from the people for their job. Engineers have not been understood well by government in Nepal. Their importance and inevitability in national development process has not been appreciated. A sad commentary: in a country where Lord Bishwakarma is worshipped, engineers are not given due respect. Government promotes not the engineers but the people who flatter, slavishly serve or become instrument for making the bureaucrats rich. This has made genuine professional engineers frustrated. Donors' conditions, guidelines and regulations have not allowed Nepali engineers practise their original skill and innovative talent in development works. Nepali engineers have been compelled to work just as captain of labourers, and the medium of getting bills endorsed and been made to back up the ill designed works prepared by foreign consultants. Accountability in practice- Engineers The above Table, worked out on the basis of study of the profession and professionals, presents a scenario of how accountability is practiced in the profession. The ten components that help enhance accountability have been presented in the column under indicators. Their position in the profession has been specifically mentioned in the column under provision. What sort of conventional practice is in use in regard to the components in the third column under Convention. The state of practice of the indicators has been mentioned in the fourth column. Comparison At the international level engineers are learnt to have recognized that the practice of engineering has a direct and vital influence on the quality of life for all people. Therefore, engineers should exhibit high standards of competency, honesty, and impartiality, be fair and equitable and accept a personal responsibility for adherence to applicable laws, the protection of the public health, and maintenance of safety in their professional actions and behaviour. These principles govern professional conduct in serving the interests of the public, clients, employers, colleagues, and the profession. The engineer is considered to be a professional dedicated to improving competence, service, fairness, and the exercise of well-founded judgment in the practice of engineering for the public, employers, and clients with fundamental concern for the public health and safety in the pursuit of this practice. Some canons of professional conduct are emphasized. Engineers offer services in the areas of their competence and experience, affording full disclosure of their qualifications. They consider the consequences of their work and societal issues pertinent to it and seek to extend public understanding of those relationships. Engineers are honest, truthful, and fair in presenting information and in making public statements reflecting on professional matters and their professional role. Engineers engage in professional relationships without bias because of race, religion, sex, age, national origin, or handicap. They act in professional matters for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees, disclosing nothing of a proprietary nature concerning the business affairs or technical processes of any present or former client or employer without specific consent. Engineers disclose to affected parties known or potential conflicts of interest or other circumstances which might influence – or appear to influence- judgment or impair the fairness or quality of their performance. Engineers are responsible for enhancing their professional competence throughout their careers and for encouraging similar actions by their colleagues. Engineers accept responsibility for their actions; seek and acknowledge criticism of their work; offer honest criticism of the work of others; properly credit the contributions of others; and do not accept credit for work not theirs. Engineers perceiving a consequence of their professional duties to adversely affect the present or future public health and safety shall formally advise their employers or clients and, if warranted, consider further disclosure. They act in accordance with all applicable laws and the rules of conduct, and lend support to other who strive to do likewise. Engineering employment and practice: Ethics Engineering affects the quality of life for every person in the world. In order to carry out the duties and responsibilities of their profession, engineers must be honest, fair, impartial, and dedicated to public health and safety. Engineers are called upon to use their knowledge and abilities in an ever increasing number of traditional and nontraditional forums. To meet this growing challenge, standards of conduct are implicit in protecting both the engineer and the public. Engineers in Nepal seem to have recognized the importance of such guidelines for professional conduct and continue to promote their adoption among member societies, the general scientific and engineering community and within the various levels of government.
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