PSY345 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 1 Intrinsic and

PSY345 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 1 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation •
Intrinsic Motivation –
The inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenges, to extend and exercise one's capacities, to explore, and to learn. –
Emerge from: •
Psychological Needs (Chapter 5) •
Curiosities •
Innate striving for growth –
Requires supportive conditions –
Examples: Think about things that you love doing Extrinsic Motivation –
An environmentally created reasons to initiate or persist in an action –
Arise from external sources •
Incentives •
Consequences –
Traditionally: Extrinsic >< Intrinsic –
Contemporarily: Different types of extrinsic motivations reflect differing degrees to which the value and regulation of the requested behavior have been internalized and integrated. Incentives and Consequences –
Operant Conditioning: The process by which a person learns how to operate effectively on the environment –
Thorndike’s Law of Effect: Of several responses made to the same situation, those which are accompanied or closely followed by satisfaction … will be more firmly connected to the situation so that, when it recurs, it will be more likely to recur (Thorndike, 1991) –
S: R Æ C S = situational cue/incentive R = behavioral response PSY345 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 2 C = consequences •
Incentive –
An environmental event that attracts or repels a person toward or away from initiating a particular course of action. –
Incentives always precede behaviors but do not cause behaviors. –
Knowledge of the incentives is learned through experience Consequences –
Reinforcers: Environmental stimulus that increases the future probability of the desired behavior •
Positive: presence of positive consequences •
Negative: removal of negative consequences ƒ
Escape: Remove a person from aversive stimulus ƒ
Avoidance: Prevent aversive stimulus from happing Punishers: Environmental stimulus that decreases the future probability of the undesired behavior •
Positive punishers: presence of negative consequences •
Negative punishers : removal of positive consequences 6 Characteristics of (+) Reinforcers that Determine Effectiveness 1. Quality 2. Immediacy 3. Person/Reinforcer Fit 4. Recipient’s Need 5. Intensity 6. Value to Recipient •
Does punishment work? –
5 reasons people use punishment? 1. To deter undesirable behaviors PSY345 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 3 2.
Does punishment work? Reward –
Attractive environmental consequences of behavior that increase the probability that behavior will recur. –
What would happen if an extrinsic reward is administered to an intrinsically motivated activity? –
Research has shown that extrinsic rewards almost always have hidden cost The Hidden Costs –
To gain immediate compliance Because they are fair (punishment fits crime mentality) To express a negative emotional state To just do something (i.e., no perceived alternatives) Extrinsic rewards generally undermine intrinsic motivation but not always. It depends on •
Expectancy •
Salience •
Tangibility –
Process & quality of learning also affected –
Specific factors affected: •
attention •
preference for challenge •
emotional tone •
active information processing •
conceptual understanding •
cognitive flexibility •
creativity Cognitive Evaluation Theory –
Explain the variability of intrinsic motivation PSY345 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 4 •
Concern the environmental factors that facilitate vs. undermine intrinsic motivation –
Focus on Autonomy and Competence –
Controlling and informational aspects of external events •
Perceived locus of causality (External vs. Internal locus of causality) •
Perceived competence •
Relative salience ƒ
Informational aspect ƒ
Controlling aspect ƒ
Amotivating aspect Benefits of Facilitating Intrinsic Motivation –
Persistence (e.g., commitment to organization) –
Creativity (e.g., really using human resources o the fullest capacity) –
Conceptual Understanding/High Quality Learning –
Optimal Functioning & Well‐Being (e.g., self‐actualization) Self‐Determination Theory –
Organismic Meta‐Theory (vs. Mechanistic) –
Highlight the importance of inner resources for personal development and behavioral self‐regulation –
Focus on environmental factors that affect –
Self‐Motivation •
Inherent growth development •
Social development, social functioning and well‐being Investigate (using experiments) •
Innate psychological needs ƒ
Autonomy ƒ
Competence PSY345 ƒ
Extrinsic Motivation –
External Regulation –
Introjected Regulation –
Indentified Regulation –
Integrated Regulation Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation –
Relatedness Activity Characteristics •
Complexity •
Novelty •
Unpredictability •
Optimal Challenge Individual Self‐Perceptions •
Autonomy •
Competence •
Relatedness Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 5