PDF

Fatal Occupational Injuries and
Nonfatal Occupational Injuries
and Illnesses, 2008
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Report 1028
Fatal Occupational
Injuries and Nonfatal
Occupational Injuries
and Illnesses, 2008
U.S. Department of Labor
Hilda L. Solis, Secretary
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Keith Hall, Commissioner
May 2011
Report 1028
P R E FA C E
iii
The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS, the Bureau) reports
the number and frequency of work-related fatal injuries
and nonfatal injuries and illnesses each year. The Bureau
also provides detailed information on the circumstances of
the injuries and illnesses and on the characteristics of the
affected worker. These data come from two programs: the
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) and the Survey
of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII).
The CFOI, administered by the Bureau in conjunction
with the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and New
York City, compiles detailed information on all workrelated fatal injuries occurring in the United States.
In an effort to compile counts that are as complete as
possible, the CFOI uses diverse sources to identify, verify,
and profile fatal work injuries. Source documents such as
death certificates, news accounts, workers’ compensation
reports, and Federal and State agency administrative
records are cross-referenced to gather key information
about each workplace fatality.
The SOII produces data on work-related nonfatal
injuries and illnesses. These data identify the industrial,
occupational, and worker groups having a relatively
high risk of work-related injuries and illnesses. This
survey is made possible through the cooperation of
participating State agencies and nearly 200,000 business
establishments that provide information on workplace
injuries and illnesses to the Bureau. State agencies collect
and verify most of the data provided. BLS field offices
collect and verify data from nonparticipating States.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Two major enhancements are reflected in the data in this
report. For the first time, national data on nonfatal injuries
and illnesses are produced for government. Also for the
first time, fatal injury rates are calculated on the basis of
the number of hours worked rather than the number of
days worked. The number of hours worked provides a more
accurate picture of the risk experienced at work.
This report includes charts and text highlighting fatal
injuries and nonfatal injuries and illnesses by industry,
type of case, and case and worker characteristics.
Supplementary data, such as injury and illness rates,
broken down by detailed industry and establishment
size, as well as data on factors to calculate relative
standard errors for nonfatal injury and illness estimates
can be accessed on the Internet at http://www.bls.
gov/iif. The online version of the Occupational Injuries
and Illnesses Profiles System is found at http://data.
bls.gov/GQT/servlet/InitialPage.
Supplementary data also are available from the Bureau at
the following address:
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Office of Safety and Health Statistics
Room 3180
2 Massachusetts Avenue, NE.
Washington, DC 20212
(202) 691-6170
Fax: (202) 691-6196
Email: [email protected]
Jim Rice, Jill Janocha, Andrew Marsh, and Luis Felipe
Martínez, of the BLS Occupational Safety and Health
Statistics program, prepared this report under the
general direction of Katharine Newman. Production
of the report was coordinated by Edith S. Baker of the
Office of Publications and Special Studies under the
management of William Parks II. Bruce Boyd, of the
same office, designed and laid out the report. Many
other organizations contributed to the success of the
survey, including the participating State agencies that
collected the data, the BLS regional offices that helped
review and process them, and the BLS National Office of
Field Operations, whose staff members oversaw survey
processes in the State and regional offices. In addition,
the BLS National Office of Technology and Survey
Processing and the Statistical Methods Group of the BLS
Office of Compensation and Working Conditions helped
tabulate the data and performed quality control. The
Bureau expresses its appreciation to the many employers
who responded to the survey and without whose
cooperation this report would not have been possible.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and, with appropriate credit, may be used without
permission. The information is available to sensoryimpaired individuals upon request.
Voice phone: (202) 691–5200
Federal Relay Service: (800) 877–8339.
CONTENTS
iv
preface .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... iii
Total injuries and illnesses
Chart 1.
Chart 2.
Chart 3.
Chart 4.
Chart 5.
Chart 6.
Number of fatal work injuries, 1992–2008.............................................................................................................................................................. 6
Rate of fatal work injuries, per 100,000 full-time equivalent workers, 2005–08......................................................................................................... 7
Incidence rate of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses, by type of case, private industry, 2003–08.................................................................... 8
Incidence rate of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses, by type of case and category of ownership, 2008........................................................... 9
Number and rate of injuries and illnesses with days away from work, by category of ownership, 2008......................................................................10
Total recordable nonfatal occupational injury and illness rates, by employment size class, private industry, 2004–08................................................11
Industry
Chart 7. Number and rate of fatal occupational injuries, by industry sector, 2008.................................................................................................................12
Chart 8. Incidence rate and number of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses, by private industry sector, 2008..............................................................13
Chart 9. Incidence rate of cases with days away from work, job transfer, or restriction, by private industry sector, 2008..........................................................14
Chart 10. Number of cases with days away from work, job transfer, or restriction, by private industry sector, 2008...................................................................15
Chart 11. Incidence rate and number of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses, by industry, State government, 2008.......................................................16
Chart 12. Incidence rate and number of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses, by selected industries, local government, 2008........................................17
Chart 13. Incidence rate of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses of employees in public and private hospitals, by type of case, 2008...............................18
Chart 14. Highest nonfatal occupational injury and illness rates among NAICS industry subsectors, private industry, 2008.......................................................19
Injuries and Illnesses
Chart 15. Distribution of nonfatal occupational injury and illness cases, by category of illness, private industry, 2008...............................................................20
Chart 16. Incidence rate and number of nonfatal occupational illnesses, by private industry sector, 2008................................................................................21
Occupations
Chart 17. Number and rate of fatal occupational injuries, by major civilian occupation group, 2008.........................................................................................22
Chart 18. Selected occupations with high fatal injury rates, 2008..........................................................................................................................................23
Chart 19. Incidence rate and number of injuries and illnesses for occupations with high rates, 2008........................................................................................24
Chart 20. Occupations with 18,000 or more injuries and illnesses involving days away from work, 2005–08............................................................................25
Chart 21. Injuries and illnesses involving days away from work for selected occupations in State government with high numbers of cases,
by category of ownership, 2008............................................................................................................................................................................26
Chart 22. Injuries and illnesses involving days away from work for selected occupations in local government with high numbers of cases,
by ownership, 2008.............................................................................................................................................................................................27
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
CONTENTS
v
Events
Chart 23.Manner in which fatal work injuries occurred, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Chart 24.Difference in fatal work injury counts, by event, 2007–08. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Chart 25.Four most frequent work-related fatal events, 1992–2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Chart 26.Fatal falls, by type of fall, 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Chart 27.How workers died in multiple-fatality incidents, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Chart 28.Median days away from work and incidence rate of injuries and illnesses, by event or exposure, 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Chart 29.Distribution of injuries and illnesses, by event or exposure, 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Chart 30.Cases of bodily reaction and exertion, by occupation group and part of body, 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Chart 31.Incidence rate of injuries and illnesses with days away from work, by event and category of ownership, 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Chart 32.Percent change in incidence rate of injuries and illnesses, by selected events and exposures, 2007–08. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Gender, age, ethnicity, and region of worker
Chart 33.Fatal injury events, by gender of worker, 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Chart 34.Number of workplace homicides, by gender of decedent, 1997–2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Chart 35.Distribution of injuries and illnesses with days away from work, and employment, by gender, 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Chart 36.Fatal work injury rates, by age group, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Chart 37.Median days away from work and incidence rate of injuries and illnesses, by age of worker, 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Chart 38.Number of fatal work injuries involving Hispanic or Latino workers, 1992–2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Chart 39.Fatal occupational injuries to foreign-born workers, by region of birth, 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Chart 40.Number of injuries and illnesses, and percentage of cases with days away from work of Hispanic or Latino workers, by industry, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Musculoskeletal disorders
Chart 41.Incidence rate of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), by category of ownership, 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Chart 42.Distribution of musculoskeletal disorders, by nature of injury or illness, 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Chart 43.Incidence rate and number of musculoskeletal disorders, selected occupations, 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Special topic: Resident military
Chart 44.Fatal injuries to resident military, by event, 2003–08. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Special topic: Mining
Chart 45.Fatal occupational injuries in the private sector mining industry, 2003–08. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Chart 46.Incidence rate of nonfatal injuries and illnesses in mining, private sector, 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
T otal injuries and illnesses
Number of fatal work injuries,
1992–2008
CHART 1
A total of 5,214 work-related fatal
injuries was recorded in 2008, a
decrease of 8 percent from the 5,657
fatal work injuries reported for 2007.
6
The general trend of fatal workplace
injuries from CFOI’s inception in 1992 to
2008 has been downward. The number
of fatal work injuries in 2008 was the
lowest total recorded by the census.
The highest number of fatal workrelated injuries was recorded in 1994
(6,632 fatal injuries).
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Number of fatal work injuries
7,000
6,632
6,217
6,331
6,275
6,202
6,238
6,000
6,055
6,054
5,920
5,915
5,534
5,575
5,764
5,734
5,840
5,657
5,214
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
NOTE: Data from 2001 exclude fatalities resulting from the September 11 terrorist attacks.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, April 2010.
2006
2007
2008
T otal injuries and illnesses
CHART 2
In 2008, BLS implemented a new
method for calculating fatal work injury
rates. The new method uses hours
worked rather than employment.
7
The rate of fatal work injuries in
2008 was 3.7 per 100,000 full-time
equivalent workers, down from 4.0
in 2007.
Rates are expressed per 100,000
full-time equivalent workers. Additional
information on changes in the fatal
work injury rate methodology is found
on the Internet at http://www.bls.
gov/iif/oshnotice10.htm.
Estimates of total hours worked are
annual average estimates of total
employees at work multiplied by
average hours for civilians 16 years
and older from the Current Population
Survey (CPS). Workers under 16 years,
volunteer workers, and members of the
resident military are not included, in
order to maintain consistency with CPS
employment estimates.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Rate of fatal work injuries, per 100,000
full-time equivalent workers, 2005–08
Rate
5.0
4.2
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.8
4.0
3.7
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
2005
2006
 Employment-based rates
2007
2008
 Hours-based rates
NOTE: In 2005, BLS used only employment-based rates. Hours-based rates were phased in
in 2006, and employment-base rates were phased out in 2007.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, April 2010.
CHART 3
T otal injuries and illnesses
8
The total recordable case rate of
nonfatal injuries and illnesses in 2008
was 3.9 per 100 full-time workers,
down from 4.2 in 2007. The total
recordable case rate has declined every
year since 2003.
The incidence rate of nonfatal injuries
and illnesses for each type of case
declined from 2007 to 2008, with the
exception of cases that involved job
transfers or restricted work, which
remained unchanged at 0.9 per 100
full-time workers.
The total number of nonfatal
occupational injuries and illnesses
reported declined from about 4 million
cases in 2007 to about 3.7 million
cases in 2008, a drop that is reflected
in a corresponding decline in the total
recordable case rate.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Incidence rate of nonfatal occupational
injuries and illnesses, by type of case,
private industry, 2003–08
Rate per 100 full-time workers
6.0
5.0
5.0
4.8
4.6
4.4
4.2
3.9
4.0
3.0
2.6
2.4
2.0
0.0
2.3
2.4
2.3
2.1
2.0
1.4
2.2
1.4
2.1
1.3
2.1
1.2
1.9
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.0
1.0
0.9
0.9
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
1.5
1.0
2.5
Total recordable cases
Cases with days away from work, job transfer, or restriction
Other recordable cases
Cases with days away from work
Cases with days of job transfer or restriction only
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, October 2009.
CHART 4
T otal injuries and illnesses
9
The year 2008 marks the first year for
which national public sector data are
available. The private sector reported
a lower total recordable case rate than
did State and local government. Local
government had a rate of 7.0 cases per
100 full-time workers, the highest by
far of all three categories of ownership
in 2008.
Local government had the highest rate
for total recordable cases; (1) cases with
days away from work; (2) cases with
days away from work, job transfer, or
restriction; and (3) other recordable
cases. Private industry had a slightly
higher rate for the cases with job
transfer or restriction.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Incidence rate of nonfatal occupational
injuries and illnesses, by type of case
and category of ownership, 2008
Rate per 100 full-time workers
 Private industry
 State government
 Local government
8.0
7.0
7.0
6.0
4.7
5.0
4.0
4.2
3.9
2.7
3.0
2.0
2.4
2.3
1.7
2.0
1.1
1.0
0.0
Total recordable cases
Cases with days away
from work, job transfer,
or restriction
1.9
1.9
Cases with days away
from work
0.9
0.6
0.8
Cases with days of
job transfer or
restriction only
Type of case
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, October 2009.
Other recordable cases
CHART 5
T otal injuries and illnesses
10
Of the categories of ownership for
which data are available, private
industry reported the overwhelming
majority of the cases with days away
from work, with nearly 4 times as
many cases as occurred in State and
local government combined.
State and local government injury
and illness rates were 170.0 and
194.6 cases per 10,000 full-time
workers, respectively. These rates were
markedly higher than the private
industry incidence rate of 113.3 cases
per 10,000 full time-workers.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Number of injuries and illnesses with days away
from work, by category of ownership, 2008
Category of ownership
State government
71,100
Local government
206,580
Private industry
1,078,140
0
200,000
400,000
600,000
800,000
1,000,000
1,200,000
Rate of injuries and illnesses with days away
from work, by category of ownership, 2008
State government
170.0
Local government
194.6
Private industry
113.3
0
50.0
100.0
150.0
Rate per 10,000 full-time workers
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, November 2009.
200.0
250.0
CHART 6
T otal injuries and illnesses
11
The total recordable case rate in
2008 was highest among midsized
establishments (those with 50 to 249
employees), at 4.9 per 100 full-time
workers. The rate was lowest among
the smallest establishments (those
with 1 to 10 employees), at 1.8 per 100
full-time workers in 2008.
The rate for the largest establishments
(those with more than 1,000
employees) has declined the most out
of all size groups since 2004. In 2004,
the rate in this largest size class was 5.4
per 100 full-time workers. The rate has
since declined to 4.1 per 100 full-time
workers in 2008.
The total recordable case rate declined
by statistically significant amounts from
2004 to 2008 in all sizes classes except
the smallest (with 1 to 10 employees).
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Total recordable nonfatal occupational
injury and illness rates, by employment
size class, private industry, 2004–08
 2004  2005  2006  2007  2008
Rate per 100 full-time workers
7.0
5.9 5.8
6.0
5.5
5.4
5.3
4.9
5.0
4.2 4.1
4.0
5.2
5.4
5.0
4.7
4.4
3.9 3.8
5.2
4.9
4.5
4.1
3.4
3.0
2.0
1.9 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.8
1.0
0.0
1–10 employees
11–49 employees
50–249 employees
250–999 employees
Employment size class
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, October 2009.
1,000 or more employees
I ndustry
Number and rate of fatal occupational
injuries, by industry sector, 2008
CHART 7
The highest number of fatal work
injuries in 2008 occurred in the private
construction sector, followed by
transportation and warehousing.
12
However, the highest fatal work injury
rates were in the agriculture, forestry,
fishing, and hunting sector and the
mining sector. Both of these sectors
recorded a fatality rate that was more
than 4 times higher than the rate of 3.7
recorded for all workers.
Industry sector
672
544
411
Manufacturing
2.5
403
Professional and
business services
2.8
Total fatal work
injuries = 5,214
1,250
1,000
750
500
Number of fatal work injuries
2.0
Leisure and hospitality
2.2
Wholesale trade
178
Other services (except
public administration)
176
Mining
250
4.4
2.6
18.1
Educational and health
services
0.7
Financial activities
1.1
47
Information
1.5
37
Utilities
106
injury rate = 3.7
Retail trade
180
141
All-worker fatal work
30.4
2.4
238
14.9
Government
301
9.7
Transportation and
warehousing
Agriculture, forestry,
fishing, and hunting
796
In 2008, the Bureau implemented
a new methodology, using hours
worked, rather than employment, for
fatal work injury rate calculations.
Rates are expressed per 100,000
full-time equivalent workers. Additional
information on changes in the fatal
work injury rate methodology is found
on the Internet at http://www.bls.
gov/iif/oshnotice10.htm.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Construction
975
0
3.9
0
10
20
30
Fatal work injury rate
(per 100,000 full-time equivalent workers)
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, April 2010.
40
CHART 8
I ndustry
13
Incidence rate and number of nonfatal
occupational injuries and illnesses,
by private industry sector, 2008
Three sectors alone—manufacturing,
health care and social assistance, and
retail trade—combined to account
for about half of recordable cases
reported among all private industry
establishments in 2008.
Industry sector
The rate of nonfatal injuries and
illnesses among private industry
sectors in 2008 ranged from 5.7 cases
per 100 workers in transportation
and warehousing down to 0.9 case in
finance and insurance. Manufacturing
had the highest number of nonfatal
cases, 689,700.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Transportation and warehousing
5.7
5.4
Health care and social assistance
5.3
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting
5.1
Arts, entertainment, and recreation
5.0
Manufacturing
4.4
68.7
689.7
322.7
532.8
Accommodation and food services
3.7
218.5
19.6
Utilities
3.1
Administrative and waste services
3.1
Other services (except public administration)
3.1
Real estate and rental and leasing
2.9
154.3
95.0
57.2
24.3
Mining
2.3
2.0
1.6
39.1
Information
52.4
28.7
1.5
Incidence rate (per 100 full-time workers)
81.9
Professional and technical services
0.9
3.0
Educational services
Management of companies and enterprises
1.1
4.5
311.7
Wholesale trade
3.5
6.0
46.5
Retail trade
4.1
7.5
660.2
Construction
4.7
241.8
51.0
Finance and insurance
0
0
150
300
450
600
Number of cases (thousands)
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, October 2009.
750
CHART 9
I ndustry
14
Manufacturing was the only industry
sector in which the rate of cases
involving job transfer or restriction
exceeded the rate of cases involving
days away from work in 2008, a trend
that has continued since 1998.
In the goods-producing industries,
mining had the lowest rate for days
away from work, job transfer, or
restriction in 2008. In the serviceproviding industries, finance and
insurance had the lowest rate for
days away from work, job transfer, or
restriction in 2008.
Transportation and warehousing
had the highest rates for days away
from work, job transfer, or restriction
and days away from work among all
industries with a days-away-from-work
rate of 2.5 per 100 full-time workers.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Incidence rate of cases with days away
from work, job transfer, or restriction,
by private industry sector, 2008
Industry sector
2.5
Transportation and warehousing
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting
1.8
Construction
1.7
1.1
0.7
1.4
Health care and social assistance
1.1
1.3
Mining
Administrative and waste services
1.2
Arts, entertainment, and recreation
1.2
Manufacturing
1.2
Real estate and rental and leasing
1.2
Retail trade
1.2
Wholesale trade
1.2
0.7
0.6
1.1
1.5
0.6
1.1
1.0
1.1
Utilities
Other services (except public administration)
0.8
1.0
0.5
0.9
Accommodation and food services
Educational services
0.7
Information
0.7
Management of companies and enterprises
0.4
Professional and technical services
0.3
Finance and insurance
1.4
0.2
0
Cases with job transfer
0.6
0.3
or restriction
Cases with days away
0.4
from work
0.3
0.2
0.1
1.0
2.0
Incidence rate (per 100 full-time workers)
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, October 2009.
3.0
4.0
CHART 10
I ndustry
15
Manufacturing was the only industry
sector in which the number of cases
involving days of job transfer or
restriction was significantly higher
than the number of cases involving
days away from work. This sector also
reported more cases of job transfer
or restriction than any other industry
sector in 2008, with 70,800 more
estimated cases than the next-highest
industry.
The manufacturing, health care and
social assistance, and retail trade
industries made up about 58 percent of
all the cases involving job transfer and
restriction in private industry in 2008.
Health care and social assistance and
manufacturing were the two industries
with the most days-away-from-work
cases in 2008.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Number of cases with days away from
work, job transfer, or restriction,
by private industry sector, 2008
Industry sector
171.3
Health care and social assistance
Manufacturing
164.9
Retail trade
207.9
146.3
Construction
137.1
120.2
Transportation and warehousing
51.3
104.1
Wholesale trade
71.9
Accommodation and food services
69.5
Administrative and waste services
60.1
59.0
46.6
57.1
Other services (except public administration)
29.9
30.5
15.8
Real estate and rental and leasing
21.9 | 10.2
Professional and technical services
21.5 | 12.0
Information
18.1 | 9.9
Arts, entertainment, and recreation
16.7 | 15.1
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting
Cases involving transfer
16.1 | 9.9
Finance and insurance
13.1 | 5.6
Mining
11.4 | 4.6
Educational services
10.6 | 5.8
Management of companies and enterprises
7.0 | 5.8
Utilities
5.9 | 4.7
131.2
0
or restriction
Cases involving away
100
200
Number of cases (thousands)
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, October 2009.
from work
300
400
CHART 11
I ndustry
16
The year 2008 was the first year that
SOII produced national public sector
estimates for injuries and illnesses. The
survey covered nearly 5 million State
government employees.
In State government, hospitals had
36,900 injuries and illnesses, and a
rate of 11.9. Colleges and universities,
by contrast, had 31,500 injuries and
illnesses, and a rate of 2.6.
Incidence rate and number of nonfatal
occupational injuries and illnesses,
by industry, State government, 2008
Industry
Injuries and illnesses in hospitals,
correctional institutions, and colleges
and universities make up over 52
percent of the total recorded SOII cases
for State government in 2008.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Nursing and residential
care facilities
(NAICS 623)
12.5
Hospitals
(NAICS 622)
11.9
34.6
Construction
(NAICS 23)
6.9
3.5
Incidence rate (per 100 full-time workers)
6.6
Colleges and universities
(NAICS 6113)
2.6
7.0
5.1
Police protection
(NAICS 92212)
5.9
10.5
36.9
Correctional institutions
(NAICS 92214)
7.9
14.0
17.0
0
31.5
0
10
20
30
Number of cases (thousands)
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, October 2009.
40
CHART 12
I ndustry
17
The year 2008 was the first year that
SOII produced national public sector
estimates for injuries and illnesses. The
survey covered nearly 14 million local
government employees.
Almost 40 percent (a total of 284,500)
of all recordable local government
injuries and illnesses occurred
among elementary and secondary
school workers in 2008. The rate for
elementary and secondary schools
in local government was 5.6 per 100
full-time workers in 2008.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Incidence rate and number of nonfatal
occupational injuries and illnesses,
by selected industries,
local government, 2008
Industry
14.8
Fire protection
(NAICS 92216)
14.5
Police protection
(NAICS 92212)
9.5
9.0
5.2
13.5
39.2
Transit and ground
passenger transportation
(NAICS 485)
6.8
13.1
Elementary and
secondary schools
(NAICS 6111)
5.6
10.0
12.6
Hospitals
(NAICS 622)
7.3
15.0
61.8
Heavy and civil
engineering construction
(NAICS 237)
Nursing and residential
care facilities
(NAICS 623)
Water, sewage,
and other systems
(NAICS 2213)
12.9
26.2
5.0
Incidence rate (per 100 full-time workers)
0
284.5
0
100
200
Number of cases (thousands)
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, October 2009.
300
CHART 13
I ndustry
18
Employees at State hospitals
experienced nonfatal occupational
injuries and illnesses at a rate of 11.9
per 100 full-time workers, a rate
that was notably higher than that of
employees at either private or local
government hospitals. The latter two
rates were not significantly different
from each another.
There were about 275,600 nonfatal
occupational injuries and illnesses
in private hospitals, 36,900 in
State hospitals, and 39,200 in local
government hospitals in 2008.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Incidence rate of nonfatal occupational
injuries and illnesses of employees in public
and private hospitals, by type of case, 2008
Rate per 100 full-time workers
 Private industry
 State government
 Local government
11.9
12.0
10.0
8.0
7.6
7.3
6.1
5.8
6.0
4.6
4.0
3.0
2.7
1.7
2.0
0.0
4.6
4.0
Total recordable cases
Cases involving days away
from work, job transfer,
or restrictions
1.7
Cases involving days
away from work
1.3
1.8
1.0
Cases involving days
of job transfer or
restrictions only
Type of case
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, October 2009.
Other recordable cases
CHART 14
I ndustry
19
Injuries and illnesses are coded in the
North American Industry Classification
System (NAICS) of codes. Couriers and
messengers, air transportation, and
nursing and residential care facilities
had the highest incidences of nonfatal
occupational injuries and illnesses in
2008. All exhibited rates that were
more than twice the rate for all private
industry, which was 3.9 per 100
full-time workers.
Highest nonfatal occupational injury
and illness rates among NAICS industry
subsectors, private industry, 2008
Industry sector
Couriers and messengers (NAICS 492)
8.7
Air transportation (NAICS 481)
8.7
Nursing and residential care facilities (NAICS 623)
Four out of the 10 industries shown
in the chart experienced declines in
rates from 2007. The four were three
industries in transportation and
warehousing (couriers and messengers;
air transportation; and warehousing
and storage) and primary metal
manufacturing.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
8.4
Hospitals (NAICS 622)
7.6
Primary metal manufacturing (NAICS 331)
7.2
Wood product manufacturing (NAICS 321)
7.2
Animal production (NAICS 112)
6.9
Warehousing and storage (NAICS 493)
6.8
Fabricated metal product manufacturing (NAICS 332)
6.8
Beverage and tobacco product manufacturing (NAICS 312)
6.8
0.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
Incidence rate (per 100 full-time workers)
Total private industry rate: 3.9
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, October 2009.
8.0
10.0
CHART 15
I llnesses
20
Injuries accounted for the vast majority
of the nearly 3.7 million injury and
illness cases reported in the private
sector in 2008. Illnesses accounted
for 5.1 percent of all injury and illness
cases reported among private industry
workplaces in 2008, about the same
percentage as in 2007.
The number of reported occupational
illnesses in private industry declined
from 206,300 in 2007 to 187,400 in
2008, and the rate declined from 21.8
per 10,000 full-time workers in 2007
to 19.7 per 10,000 full-time workers
in 2008.
The rate and number for the “all other
illnesses” category fell significantly;
however, the rates and numbers for
skin diseases, respiratory conditions,
poisonings, and hearing loss stayed
about the same from 2007 to 2008.
Because illnesses make up a smaller
fraction of cases than injuries, the
rates are reported per 10,000 full-time
workers. Injuries are reported per 100
full-time workers.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Distribution of nonfatal occupational
injury and illness cases, by category
of illness, private industry, 2008
In percent
Respiratory conditions, 0.4
Skin diseases,
1.0
Poisoning, 0.1
Hearing loss, 0.6
Injuries,
94.9
Illnesses, 5.1
All other illnesses,
3.0
3,696,100 total cases
NOTE: Illness rates are per 10,000 full-time workers; injuries are reported per 100 full-time workers.
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, October 2009.
CHART 16
I llnesses
21
More cases of illness were reported
in manufacturing than in any other
industry sector in 2008. The rate of
illness in manufacturing was 43.2 cases
per 10,000 full-time workers, more than
twice the rate of illnesses in private
industry nationally, which was 19.7
cases per 10,000 full-time workers.
Incidence rate and number of nonfatal
occupational illnesses, by private
industry sector, 2008
Industry sector
43.2
36.1
In 2008, manufacturing, retail trade,
and wholesale trade were the only three
sectors in which illness rates changed
from 2007. Illness rates declined in
manufacturing and retail trade, while
they rose in wholesale trade.
32.2
26.3
19.4
17.7
14.0
Some conditions, such as long-term
latent illnesses caused by exposure
to carcinogens, often are difficult to
relate to the workplace and are not
adequately recognized and reported.
These are believed to be understated in
the SOII. The overwhelming majority of
new illnesses reported are those which
are easier to relate directly to workplace
activity (for example, contact dermatitis
or carpal tunnel syndrome).
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
44.3
Health care and social assistance
35.2
1.9
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting
2.8
Arts, entertainment, and recreation
3.5
Transportation and warehousing
8.2
Administrative and waste services
8.7
3.6
12.6
Real estate and rental and leasing
12.2
Construction
2.3
8.4
7.2
Wholesale trade
11.1
30.0
Utilities
Information
12.2
45.0
59.1
Manufacturing
Accommodation and food services
8.5
9.9
Retail trade
9.8
Other services (except public administration)
8.9
Educational services
1.5
8.7
Management of companies and enterprises
1.6
12.1
7.7
Professional and technical services
7.6
Finance and insurance
7.3
Mining
15.0
Incidence rate (per 10,000 full-time workers)
0
3.1
5.6
4.3
0.6
0
20
40
Number of cases (thousands)
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, October 2009.
60
CHART 17
O ccupations
22
Number and rate of fatal occupational
injuries, by major civilian occupation
group, 2008
Among major occupation groups,
transportation and material moving
occupations recorded the highest
number of fatal injuries in 2008,
followed by construction and extraction
occupations.
Occupational group
The fatal injury rate for farming, fishing,
and forestry occupations, the highest
of any occupational group, was more
than 7 times the overall rate of 3.7 fatal
work injuries per 100,000 full-time
equivalent workers.
681
Total fatal work injuries = 5,214
All-worker fatal injury rate = 3.7
1,250
1,000
750
500
Number of fatal work injuries
2.5
Installation, maintenance,
and repair
6.7
286
Farming, fishing,
and forestry
275
Sales and related
267
Production
267
Professional and related
0.9
Office and administrative
support
0.5
89
1,500
3.2
Management, business,
and financial
354
2,000
11.8
Service
577
16.1
Construction and
extraction
977
In 2008, the Bureau implemented
a new methodology, using hours
worked, rather than employment, for
fatal work injury rate calculations.
Rates are expressed per 100,000
full-time equivalent workers. Additional
information on changes in the fatal
work injury rate methodology is found
on the Internet at http://www.bls.
gov/iif/oshnotice10.htm.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Transportation and
material moving
1,376
250
0
28.4
1.8
3.0
0
5
10
15
20
25
Fatal work injury rate
(per 100,000 full-time equivalent workers)
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, April 2010.
30
CHART 18
O ccupations
23
Even though driver/sales workers and
truck drivers experienced the highest
number of fatal injuries, the highest
fatal work injury rates were recorded
by fishers and by logging workers. The
fatal injury rate of 128.2 recorded by
fishers was more than 30 times the rate
of 3.7 for all workers.
Selected occupations with high fatal
injury rates, 2008
Occupation
Fishers and related
fishing workers
128.2
119.7
Aircraft pilots and flight engineers also
recorded relatively high fatality rates.
73.2
In 2008, the Bureau implemented
a new methodology, using hours
worked, rather than employment, for
fatal work injury rate calculations.
Rates are expressed per 100,000
full-time equivalent workers. Additional
information on changes in the fatal
work injury rate methodology is found
on the Internet at http://www.bls.
gov/iif/oshnotice10.htm.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
85
Aircraft pilots and
flight engineers
91
35.5
Refuse and recyclable
material collectors
34.4
Roofers
36
324
30
69
Electrical power-line
installers and repairers
29.8
35
Driver/sales workers
and truck drivers
24.0
856
Taxi drivers and
chauffeurs
19.3
50
Total fatal work injuries = 5,214
All-worker fatal injury rate = 3.7
Farmers and ranchers
40.3
100
Logging workers
Structural iron and
steel workers
46.5
150
50
0
Fatal work injury rate
(per 100,000 full-time equivalent workers)
69
0
200
400
600
800
Number of fatal work injuries
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, April 2010.
1,000
CHART 19
O ccupations
24
Incidence rate and number of injuries and
illnesses for occupations with high rates, 2008
In private industry, 12 occupations with
at least 0.1 percent of employment had
incidence rates of cases involving days
away from work that were at least 2
1/2 times the average. Together, these
occupations accounted for 26.1 percent
of all cases involving days away from
work.
Days-away-from-work rate (Private industry rate = 113)
Number of cases (Total = 1,078,140)
Occupation
Of the 12 occupations, nursing
aides, orderlies, and attendants;
and laborers and freight, stock and
material movers had the highest rates.
Emergency medical technicians and
paramedics also had a high rate, but a
comparatively low number of cases.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Nursing aides, orderlies,
and attendants
449
Laborers and freight, stock,
and material movers
440
387
Emergency medical
technicians and paramedics
383
Construction laborers
Reservation and transportation
ticket agents and travel clerks
349
Roofers
57,700
4,920
3,400
Cooks, institution
and cafeteria
5,510
Light or delivery service
truck drivers
324
400
4,560
31,310
354
331
500
79,590
Heavy and tractor-trailer
truck drivers
362
44,610
28,040
300
Industrial machinery
mechanics
298
Food servers, nonrestaurant
292
Welders, cutters, solderers,
and brazers
300
200
100
Rate per 10,000 full-time workers
0
7,820
3,470
10,870
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
Number of cases
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, November 2009.
80,000
CHART 20
O ccupations
25
Occupations with 18,000 or more
injuries and illnesses involving days
away from work, 2005–08
In private industry, 12 occupations had
18,000 or more injuries and illnesses
involving days away from work in 2008,
making up 36.4 percent of days-awayfrom-work injuries and illnesses.
The three occupations shown from the
transportation and material moving
occupation group (laborers and freight,
stock, and material movers; heavy and
tractor-trailer truck drivers; and light
or delivery truck drivers) made up 15.3
percent of all injuries and illnesses
involving days away from work in 2008.
From 2007 to 2008, the number of
cases decreased for construction
laborers, retail salespersons, janitors
and cleaners, light or delivery truck
drivers, general maintenance and
repair workers, registered nurses, and
carpenters. The other occupations were
statistically unchanged from 2007.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Number of injuries and illnesses involving days away from work
100,000
80,000
 2005
 2006
 2007
 2008
60,000
40,000
20,000
0
Laborers and Heavy and Nursing aides, Construction
Retail
Janitors and Light or
General
Registered Maids and Carpenters
freight, stock, tractor- orderlies, and laborers salespersons cleaners
delivery maintenance nurses housekeeping
and material trailer truck attendants
truck drivers and repair
cleaners
movers
drivers
workers
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, November 2009.
Stock clerks
and order
fillers
CHART 21
O ccupations
26
Eight occupations in State government
experienced more than 2,000 cases
involving days away from work. Of
these occupations, correctional officers
and jailers had the highest number of
cases and accounted for 17.5 percent
of days-away-from-work cases in State
government. No other occupation had
more than 5,000 cases.
Psychiatric aides and psychiatric
technicians both had large numbers of
cases in State government but almost
no cases in local government.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Injuries and illnesses involving days away
from work for selected occupations in
State government with high numbers
of cases, by category of ownership, 2008
Occupation
12,420
Correctional officers and jailers
 State government
 Local government
 Private industry
4,620
Psychiatric aides
3,800
Janitors and cleaners, except maids and
housekeeping cleaners
3,140
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants
2,980
Police and sheriff’s patrol officers
2,920
Psychiatric technicians
2,440
Registered nurses
2,360
Transit and intercity bus drivers
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, November 2009.
40,000
45,000
50,000
CHART 22
O ccupations
27
In local government, 11 occupations
experienced more than 4,000 cases
involving days away from work. Of
these occupations, police and sheriffs’
patrol officers had the highest number
of cases and accounted for 11.6 percent
of days-away-from-work cases in local
government.
Firefighters had 16,800 cases and
accounted for 8.1 percent of cases
in local government; there were
fewer than 200 cases each in State
government and private industry.
Of the injuries to firefighters in local
government, 61.8 percent were sprains
and strains.
In addition to firefighters, several other
occupations exhibited many cases in
local government but few cases in State
government. This difference is due in
part to the different responsibilities of
State and local government.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Injuries and illnesses involving days away
from work for selected occupations in
local government with high numbers of
cases, by category of ownership, 2008
Occupation
24,020
Police and sheriffs’ patrol officers
16,800
Firefighters
8,430
Elementary school teachers, except special
education
8,290
Teacher assistants
4,750
Refuse and recyclable material collectors
4,750
Transit and intercity bus drivers
4,700
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants
4,660
General maintenance and repair workers
4,560
Landscaping and groundskeeping workers
4,560
School bus drivers
 Local government
 State government
 Private industry
20,880
Janitors and cleaners, except maids and
housekeeping cleaners
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, November 2009.
40,000
45,000
50,000
CHART 23
E vents
28
A number of different types of events
led to fatal work injuries in 2008.
Transportation-related incidents
accounted for the largest number of
fatal events—about 2 out of every 5
fatal work injuries. Highway incidents
alone accounted for almost 1 out of
every 4 fatal work injuries in 2008.
Contact with objects and equipment
accounted for another 18 percent of the
fatal injuries recorded.
Manner in which fatal work injuries
occurred, 2008
In percent
Exposure to harmful
substances or environments, 8
Falls, 13
Workers who were fatally injured as
a result of assaults and violent acts
accounted for 16 percent of all fatal
work injuries, and falls accounted for 13
percent.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Total = 5,214
Fires and explosions, 3
Highway,
23
Fall to lower level,
11
Assaults and violent acts, 16
Homicide,
10
Struck by object,
10
Contact with objects and equipment, 18
NOTE: Percentages may not add to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, April 2010.
Transportation incidents, 41
CHART 24
E vents
29
Although the total number of fatal work
injuries declined from 2007 to 2008,
fatal injuries resulting from contact
with objects and equipment and from
fires and explosions increased.
By contrast, fatal injuries resulting from
transportation incidents, falls, exposure
to harmful substances or environments,
and assaults and violent acts all
decreased in 2008.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Difference in fatal work injury counts,
by event, 2007–08
2007 total = 5,657; 2008 total = 5,214
2007 Level
Event
All events
–443
Transportation incidents
–221
Falls
–147
Exposure to harmful substances or
environments
–58
–48
Assaults and violent acts
Contact with objects and equipment
17
Fires and explosions
–450
22
–400
–350
–300
–250
–200
–150
–100
Change in fatal events from 2007 level
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, April 2010.
–50
0
50
CHART 25
E vents
30
Four types of fatal events in the
workplace—highway incidents,
homicides, falls, and incidents in which
a worker was struck by an object—
have been the most frequent since the
census began. Highway incidents have
been the leading fatal event since 1992.
Workplace homicides have declined
more than 50 percent since 1994.
Highway incidents declined from 1,414
in 2007 to 1,215 in 2008.
Homicides were the third most
frequent fatal event in 2007 and 2008,
overtaking struck-by-object deaths,
which had been third from 2004
through 2006.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Four most frequent work-related
fatal events, 1992–2008
Number of fatal work injuries
1,600
1,400
1,200
1,000
800
600
400
200
0
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
Highway incidents
Homicides
Falls
Struck by object
NOTE: Data from 2001 exclude fatal work injuries resulting from the September 11 terrorist attacks.
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, April 2010.
2007
2008
CHART 26
E vents
31
Falls accounted for about 13 percent of
fatal work injuries in 2008.
Of the 700 fatal falls in 2008, more
than one-third were falls from roofs or
ladders.
Fatal falls, by type of fall, 2008
Other or unknown, 15
Falls from scaffolds and staging, falls
from nonmoving vehicles, and falls on
the same level each accounted for about
one-tenth of fatal falls.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Total = 700
In percent
From roof, 18
Down stairs or steps, 4
From building
girders or structural steel, 5
From floor,
dock, or ground level, 6
From ladder, 17
On same level, 13
From scaffold, staging, 10
From nonmoving vehicle, 13
NOTE: Percentages may not add to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, April 2010.
CHART 27
E vents
32
In 2008, 495 workers were killed in 187
multiple-fatality incidents, defined as
single incidents in which two or more
workers were fatally injured. These
incidents involved 9 percent of all fatal
injuries.
How workers died in multiple-fatality
incidents, 2008
In percent
Total = 495
Transportation incidents accounted for
more than three-fifths of the workers
killed in multiple-fatality events.
Highway and aircraft transportation
incidents each made up a quarter of the
total number of multiple-fatality work
injuries.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Other, 16
Highway
incidents,
25
Fires and explosions, 9
Transportation incidents, 61
Homicides, 14
Aircraft
incidents,
All other
transportation
incidents,
25
11
NOTE: Percentages may not add to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, April 2010.
CHART 28
E vents
33
The median number of days away from
work is a key measure of the severity of
injuries and illnesses.
In private industry, repetitive motion
had the highest median days away
from work among leading events and
exposures, but it had a relatively low
incidence rate. At 18 median days away
from work, cases due to repetitive
motion injuries required more than
twice the median number of days away
from work than did all injuries and
illnesses in private industry. Women
accounted for 57.5 percent of injury and
illnesses cases due to repetitive motion
and 35.7 percent of days-away-fromwork cases.
With a median 15 days away from
work, falls to a lower level required
the second-highest median days away
from work among leading exposures. Of
cases due to falls to a lower level, 37.8
percent required more than 31 days
away from work, a higher number than
that for private industry cases, in which
26.0 percent required more than 31
days away from work.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Median days away from work and
incidence rate of injuries and illnesses,
by event or exposure, 2008
Median days away from work (private industry median days = 8)
Days-away-from-work rate (private industry rate = 113)
Event
Repetitive motion
18
Fall to lower level
15
10
Fall on same level
10
Slips, trips, loss of balance
without fall
10
Overexertion in lifting
17
4
14
5
Fires and explosions
7
0
Assaults by person
6
5
Struck by object
5
Struck against object
5
Median days away from work
2
16
7
Exposed to harmful substance
3
10
5
Caught in object, equipment,
or materials
9
15
7
Transportation accident
12
20
3
0
5
0
5
10
15
20
Rate per 10,000 full-time workers
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, November 2009.
25
CHART 29
E vents
34
In private industry, bodily reaction
and exertion, contact with objects and
equipment, and falls accounted for 9
out of 10 nonfatal injuries and illnesses
involving days away from work in 2008.
Of those cases that were due to contact
with objects and equipment, 46.5
percent involved the upper extremities
of the body and 30.7 percent resulted
in cuts, lacerations, and punctures. Men
accounted for 75.7 percent of cases due
to contact with objects and equipment,
and 63.9 percent of days-away-fromwork cases.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Distribution of injuries and illnesses, by
event or exposure, private industry, 2008
In percent
Contact with objects
and equipment, 27.1
Bodily reaction
and exertion, 38.6
Other events, 1.5
Fires and explosions, 0.2
Assaults and violent acts, 2.1
Falls, 21.8
Exposure to harmful substances, 4.2
Transportation accidents, 4.5
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, November 2009.
CHART 30
E vents
35
Bodily reaction and exertion cases made
up 38.6 percent of all cases involving
days away from work. These cases
most often afflicted workers in service
occupations and in transportation and
material moving occupations. In each
of these two occupational groups, more
than 9 in 10 of all bodily reaction and
exertion cases involved traumatic injury.
Cases of bodily reaction and exertion,
by occupation group and part
of body, 2008
In percent
Days-away-from-work cases = 1,078,140
Total cases, bodily reaction and exertion = 415,690
Cases with bodily reaction and exertion
most often resulted in injuries to the
back. Of these injuries, more than 4
out of 5 involved traumatic injury to
muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Service,
22.0
All other
occupation groups,
All other parts,
Back,
31.6
34.7
Transportation
and material
moving,
21.2
Production,
12.6
41.2
Wrist,
5.7
Knee,
9.7
Shoulder,
11.8
Construction
and extraction,
9.5
Bodily reaction and exertion, by occupation group
Bodily reaction and exertion, by part of body
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, November 2009.
CHART 31
E vents
36
Assaults against workers in State
government occurred at a rate of 28.6
cases per 10,000 full-time workers,
much higher than the rates for local
government (12.6) and private industry
(2.4). In State government, the rate
of assaults was especially high in
the health care and social assistance
industry, with 122.3 cases per 10,000
full-time employees. Most of these
assaults were injuries caused by health
care patients.
Local government and State
government had high rates for
overexertion and for falls on the same
level. In each ownership category,
patient handling was the source of
a large portion of total overexertion
cases, accounting for 24.8 percent of
cases in State government, 18.0 percent
in local government, and 14.8 percent
in private industry.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Incidence rate of injuries and illnesses
with days away from work, by event
and category of ownership, 2008
Category of event
Assaults
Overexertion
Fall on same level
Struck by object
Fall to lower level
Transportation accident
Struck against object
Slips or trips
 State government
 Local government
 Private industry
Harmful exposure
Repetitive motion
Caught in object
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Cases per 10,000 full-time workers
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, November 2009.
35
40
CHART 32
E vents
37
The days-away-from-work rate for all
events in private industry fell by 7.3
percent between 2007 and 2008.
Cases involving repetitive motion fell
by 17.9 percent, while cases involving
exposure to harmful substances fell by
14.3 percent. The 2008 incidence rate of
repetitive motion injuries was 3.2 per
10,000 full-time workers. Exposure to
harmful substances had an incidence
rate of 4.8 per 10,000 full-time workers.
Assaults by animals fell by 25.0 percent
(from 0.8 to 0.6 per 10,000 full-time
workers), while total assaults fell by 7.7
percent.
The rates for “struck by object,”“fall on
same level,” and “total overexertion” fell
by less than the average for all events
and exposures.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Percent change in incidence rate of
injuries and illnesses, by selected events
and exposures, 2007–08
Below-average improvement
Event or exposure
Above-average improvement
Assaults by animals
Repetitive motion
Exposure to harmful substances
All other assaults
Fall to lower level
Highway accident
Transportation accident
Caught in object
Total contact with an object
Total assaults
Struck against object
Slips or trips
Overexertion in lifting
All events or exposures, –7.3
Struck by object
Fall on same level
Total overexertion
0
–10.0
–20.0
Percent change
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, November 2009.
–30.0
CHART 33
G ender , age , ethnicity, and region of worker
38
Men experienced a disproportionate
share of fatal work injuries relative to
their hours worked in 2008. Although
men make up just over half of the
workforce, they experienced more than
90 percent of workplace fatalities.
In 2008, the number of fatal work
injuries fell to CFOI series lows for both
men and women, with 4,827 and 387
such injuries, respectively. In addition
to having fewer fatal work injuries
than men relative to their share of
employment, women experienced,
for the most part, different types of
fatal events than men. Women had a
higher percentage of fatal work injuries
resulting from highway incidents
and homicides. Men had a higher
percentage of fatal work injuries
resulting from contact with objects and
equipment, falls, exposure to harmful
substances or environments, and fires
and explosions.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Fatal injury events, by gender
of worker, 2008
Event
23
Highway incidents
28
9
Homicides
25
19
Contact with objects and
equipment
6
14
Falls
11
9
Exposure to harmful substances or
environments
3
Fires and explosions
Men = 4,827
Women = 387
6
2
0
5
10
15
20
Percent of fatal work injuries, by gender
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, April 2010.
25
30
CHART 34
G ender , age , ethnicity, and region of worker
39
Workplace homicides declined by 16
percent in 2008, following a 16-percent
increase between 2006 and 2007.
In 2008, workplace homicides with
women victims dropped to 98 (the
same level as in 2005), the lowest level
in the history of the CFOI. Men account
for about 80 percent of workplace
homicide victims each year.
Overall, workplace homicides declined
39 percent from 1997 to 2008.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Number of workplace homicides,
by gender of decedent, 1997–2008
 Men  Women
Number of homicides
1,000
900
860
800
145
714
700
651
164
600
126
677
134
643
609
128
136
632
119
500
400
628
559
567
99
98
540
113
120
526
98
715
550
300
525
543
515
473
513
460
515
469
428
420
200
100
0
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
NOTE: Data from 2001 exclude fatal work injuries resulting from the September 11 terrorist attacks.
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, April 2010.
2007
2008
CHART 35
G ender , age , ethnicity, and region of worker
40
In all categories of ownership (both
private and public) for which data are
available, men account for at least
52 percent or more of cases involving
days away from work. This is most
pronounced in private industry, where
men account for 64 percent of such
cases. In private industry, men compose
54 percent of employment.
Distribution of injuries and illnesses
with days away from work, and
employment, by gender, 2008
Private industry injuries and illnesses
In State and local government, men also
compose the majority of cases involving
days away from work, but in both of
these ownership categories women
make up the majority of employment,
with 58 percent in State government
and 61 percent in local government.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
State government injuries and illnesses
Women,
Local government injuries and illnesses
Women,
36
Women,
48
Men,
41
Men,
64
Men,
52
59
Employment
Employment
Employment
(Current Population Survey, wage and salary workers)
(Current Population Survey, wage and salary workers)
(Current Population Survey, wage and salary workers)
Percent
Percent
80
60
Percent
80
54
46
60
80
58
42
61
60
40
40
40
20
20
20
0
0
0
 Men  Women
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, November 2009.
39
CHART 36
G ender , age , ethnicity, and region of worker
41
Work-related fatal injury rates are higher
for older workers. In 2008, workers 45
years and older recorded rates higher
than the all-worker rate, while workers
44 years and younger recorded rates
lower than the all-worker rate.
The fatal injury rate for workers 65 years
and older (12.7 fatal work injuries per
100,000 full-time equivalent workers)
was more than 3 times higher than
the all-worker rate of 3.7. The rate for
workers 16 and 17 years old (2.5 fatal
work injuries per 100,000 full-time
equivalent workers) was considerably
lower than the all-worker rate.
In 2008, the Bureau implemented a
new methodology, using hours worked,
rather than employment, for fatal work
injury rate calculations. Data on hours
worked are provided by the Current
Population Survey. Rates are expressed
per 100,000 full-time equivalent
workers. Additional information
on charges in the fatal work injury
rate methodology are found on the
Internet at http://www.bls.gov/iif/
oshnotice10.htm.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Fatal work injury rates, by age group, 2008
Fatal work injury rate (per 100,000 full-time equivalent workers)
15.0
12.7
10.0
All-worker fatal work injury rate = 3.7
4.7
5.0
2.5
2.4
16 to 17
years
18 to 19
years
2.8
2.8
20 to 24
years
25 to 34
years
3.3
3.8
35 to 44
years
45 to 54
years
0.0
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, April 2010.
55 to 64
years
65 years
and older
CHART 37
G ender , age , ethnicity, and region of worker
42
Median days away from work and
incidence rate of injuries and illnesses,
by age of worker, 2008
The median number of days away from
work increases with age. Median days
away from work for workers ages 35
years and older are above the median
of 8 days away from work for all private
industry. Median days away from work
for workers in all age groups below age
35 are below the median for all private
industry.
Median days away from work (Private industry median days = 8)
Days-away-from-work rate (Private industry rate = 113)
Age group
Workers ages 25 to 44 years and
workers 65 years and older have rates
lower than the average of 113 cases
per 10,000 full-time workers for private
industry, while all other groups have
rates similar to or greater than the
average.
65 years and older
15
12
10
The rate of injuries to workers 65 years
and older increased 6.4 percent from
2007 to 2008. The rate for other groups
declined.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
9
6
4
20
15
10
5
Median days away from work
55 to 64 years
117
45 to 54 years
117
35 to 44 years
111
25 to 34 years
109
20 to 24 years
5
102
119
116
16 to 19 years
0
0
50
100
Rate per 10,000 full-time workers
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, November 2009.
150
CHART 38
G ender , age , ethnicity, and region of worker
43
The number of fatal work injuries
involving Hispanic or Latino workers
declined to 804 in 2008, after reaching
a series high of 990 in 2006.
Fatal injuries suffered by foreign-born
Hispanics or Latinos fell 21 percent from
2007, while those suffered by nativeborn Hispanics or Latinos fell 1 percent.
About three-fifths of fatally injured
Hispanic or Latino workers in 2008 were
born outside of the United States.
Since 1992, fatal work injuries to
foreign-born Hispanic or Latino workers
have increased 83 percent, while those
to native-born Hispanic or Latino
workers increased by 17 percent.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Number of fatal work injuries involving
Hispanic or Latino workers, 1992–2008
 Foreign born  Native born
Number of fatal work injuries
990
1,000
895
900
707
700
634
624
619
638
658
600
314
288
277
267
323
804
323
794
303
285
306
263
321
302
533
500
730
937
923
841
815
800
400
902
274
301
262
279
258
300
336
342
371
379
405
320
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
200
275
468
494
1999
2000
572
578
2001
2002
596
638
667
634
520
503
100
0
1992
2003
2004
2005
NOTE: Data from 2001 exclude fatal work injuries resulting from the September 11 terrorist attacks.
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, April 2010.
2006
2007
2008
CHART 39
G ender , age , ethnicity, and region of worker
44
In 2008, 16 percent of fatal work
injuries involved foreign-born workers.
The country of origin of foreign-born
workers fatally injured on the job
encompassed approximately 100
nations in 2008. Workers born in Mexico
accounted for the largest portion (43
percent) of foreign-born workers who
died from injuries at work in the United
States.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Fatal occupational injuries to foreignborn workers, by region of birth, 2008
In percent
Canada, 2
Africa, 5
Australia and Oceania, less than 1
South America, 5
Caribbean, 6
Central America,
except Mexico, 10
Mexico,
43
Europe, 11
Total = 835
Asia, 18
NOTE: Percentages may not add to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, April 2010.
CHART 40
G ender , age , ethnicity, and region of worker
45
Number of injuries and illnesses, and
percentage of cases with days away
from work of Hispanic or Latino workers,
by industry, 2008
In 2008, there were 145,870 injuries
and illnesses involving days away
from work among Hispanic or Latino
workers. Of these cases, 22 percent
were in the trade, transportation, and
utilities industry, while the construction
and manufacturing industries each
accounted for 17 percent of total cases
involving days away from work.
Industry
Trade, transportation, and utilities
31,810
Hispanic or Latino workers made up
20 percent of injuries and illnesses
where race or ethnicity was reported,
while accounting for 14 percent of total
employment.
25,360
Construction
25,090
Manufacturing
16,860
Neither race nor ethnicity is reported in
one-third of all cases.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
12.0
23.0
49.2
Natural resources and mining
5,310
22.8
Financial activities
Other services
3,960
810
20,000
28.8
Leisure and hospitality
9,110
30,000
19.8
Education and health services
12,850
40,000
25.7
Professional business services
14,730
17.4
10,000
Number of cases involving Hispanic or Latino workers
17.3
Information
0
10.7
0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
Cases involving Hispanic or Latino workers
as a percentage of total cases
(where race or ethnicity is reported)
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, November 2009.
60.0
CHART 41
musculoskeletal disorders
46
Local government had the highest
rate of musculoskeletal disorders, with
48.7 days-away-from-work cases per
10,000 full-time employees. State
government had a lower rate of 36.7,
while private industry had an even
lower 33.4.
In local government, the construction
industry had a high rate of 131.1 cases
per 10,000 full-time employees. The
rates in State government and private
industry construction were 67.0 and
41.1 per 10,000 full-time employees,
respectively.
MSDs accounted for the highest
percentage of total injuries in private
industry, composing 29.4 percent of
the total, compared with 25.0 percent
in local government and 21.6 percent
in State government.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Incidence rate of musculoskeletal
disorders (MSDs), by category of
ownership, 2008
Rate
60
48.7
50
40
36.7
33.4
30
20
21.6
25.0
29.4
of all cases
in State
government
of all cases
in local
government
of all cases
in private
industry
State government
Local government
Private industry
10
0
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, November 2009.
CHART 42
musculoskeletal disorders
47
In private industry, sprains, strains
and tears caused 236,260 cases of
musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs),
accounting for nearly three-quarters of
all MSD cases. Soreness, pain, and hurt
(except in the back) were the nextlargest proportion of MSDs, with 7.9
percent. Hernias of various types were
5.0 percent of MSDs, and carpal tunnel
syndrome made up 3.2 percent.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Distribution of musculoskeletal disorders,
by nature of injury or illness, 2008
In percent
Sprains, strains, tears, 74.4
Soreness, pain, hurt,
except the back, 7.9
Back pain, hurt back, 7.1
Hernia, 5.0
Tendonitis, 1.0
Carpal tunnel syndrome, 3.2
Musculoskeletal system and
connective tissue diseases and
disorders, except tendonitis, 1.4
SOURCE: Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, November 2009.
CHART 43
musculoskeletal disorders
48
Incidence rate and number of
musculoskeletal disorders, selected
occupations, 2008
Twelve occupations constituted at least
one-tenth of 1 percent of employment
and had an incidence rate of
musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) higher
than 75 per 10,000 full-time workers
in 2008.
Days-away-from-work MSD rate (Private industry MSD rate = 33)
Number of MSD cases (Total = 317,440)
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants;
and emergency medical technicians
and paramedics had the highest rates
of MSDs. Nursing aides, orderlies, and
attendants also had the second-highest
total MSD cases, behind laborers and
freight, stock, and material movers.
Occupation
87
Construction laborers
84
Cooks, institution
and cafeteria
79
Janitors and cleaners
76
Driver/sales workers
228
157
Three occupations—nursing aides,
orderlies, and attendants; laborers and
freight, stock, and material movers;
and heavy and tractor-trailer truck
drivers—accounted for more than 20
percent of all MSD cases.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
88
Nursing aides, orderlies,
and attendants
Emergency medical
technicians and paramedics
Reservation and transportation
ticket agents and travel clerks
Laborers and freight, stock,
and material movers
Light or delivery service
truck drivers
Industrial machinery
mechanics
Heavy and tractor-trailer
truck drivers
Maids and housekeeping
cleaners
232
148
113
101
90
300
200
100
Rate per 10,000 full-time workers
0
23,030
2,690
2,180
26,720
9,790
2,630
14,360
5,870
7,090
1,390
9,110
2,760
0
10,000
20,000
Number of cases
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, November 2009.
30,000
40,000
CHART 44
special topic : resident military
49
In 2008, 57 fatal occupational injuries, or
1 percent of all fatal occupational injuries
in the United States, were incurred by
members of the resident military.
From 2003 to 2008, there were 359 fatal
military injuries that occurred in the United
States.
In order to be included in the CFOI, the
fatalities must occur in the United States.
For the purposes of the CFOI, fatally
injured members of the resident military,
regardless of occupation, are deemed
to have been employed in military
occupations.
Fatal injuries to resident military,
by event, 2003–08
In percent
Falls, 4
Contact with objects and equipment, 7
Exposure to harmful
substances and environments, 9
Transportation incidents accounted for a
leading 60 percent (217) of all fatal injuries
to resident military from 2003 to 2008. Of
these 217 fatal injuries, 127 (59 percent)
were aircraft incidents, 65 of which
involved a helicopter.
Assaults and violent acts are the second
major event leading to resident military
fatalities, accounting for 62 fatalities
(17 percent). Over the 6- year period
examined, 92 percent of assaults and
violent acts were suicides while only 5
percent were homicides.
Other, 1
Transportation
Incidents,
60
Assaults and violent acts, 17
Total = 359
More information is found on the Internet
at http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/
cfoi/osar0011.pdf.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
NOTE: Percentages may not add to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, April 2010.
CHART 45
special topic : mining
50
In 2008, fatal work injuries in private
sector mining as a whole were up
25 percent from 2003, though down
slightly from 2007.
Fatal injuries in oil and gas extraction
industries accounted for more than
three-fifths of fatal work injuries in
mining from 2003 to 2008.
The Bureau classifies industries
according to the North American
Industry Classification System (NAICS).
Oil and gas industries include NAICS 211
(oil and gas extraction), NAICS 213111
(drilling oil and gas wells), and NAICS
213112 (support activities for oil and
gas operations). NAICS 213110 (support
activities for mining, unspecified) may
include some oil and gas activities.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Fatal occupational injuries in the private
sector mining industry, 2003–08
 Oil and gas extraction industries  All other mining
Number of fatal work injuries
200
192
183
150
152
159
67
61
141
54
176
56
61
56
100
125
50
0
85
2003
98
98
2004
2005
2006
122
120
2007
2008
SOURCE: Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, April 2010.
CHART 46
special topic : mining
51
Coal mining is a relatively dangerous
industry. Employees in coal mining
are more likely to be killed or to incur
a nonfatal injury or illness, and their
nonfatal injuries are more likely to be
severe, compared with workers in private
industry as a whole.
In 2008, the rate of total recordable
nonfatal injuries and illnesses in coal
mining was 4.4 cases per 100 full-time
workers, 13 percent higher than the rate
for all private industry. In bituminous coal
underground mining, the rate of nonfatal
injuries and illnesses was 67 percent
higher than that of all private industry.
Bituminous coal and lignite surface mining
had a rate that was 49 percent lower than
that of all private industry. Anthracite
mining had a rate 59 percent higher than
that of all private industry, but a very small
number of cases.
The severity of injuries and illnesses can be
measured by the median number of days
away from work. Injuries and illnesses in
coal mining required a median of at least
31 days to recover and return to work,
much higher than the 8 days required for
injuries and illnesses in all private industry.
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T AT I S T I C S • 2 0 0 8
Incidence rate of nonfatal injuries and
illnesses in mining, private industry, 2008
 Total recordable cases
Rate per 100 full-time workers
 Cases involving days away from work
7.0
6.5
6.2
6.0
5.0
4.7
4.4
4.0
3.9
3.9
3.5
3.0
2.6
2.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
1.7
1.2
1.1
Private industry
Mining
(except oil and gas)
Coal mining
Bituminous coal
and lignite
surface mining
Bituminous coal
underground
mining
SOURCE: Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, November 2009.
Anthracite mining