IPSec slides

EJ Jung
TCP/IP Example
IP Security Issues
 Eavesdropping
 Modification of packets in transit
 Identity spoofing (forged source IP addresses)
 Denial of service
 Many solutions are application-specific
•  TLS for Web, S/MIME for email, SSH for remote login
 IPSec aims to provide a framework of open
standards for secure communications over IP
•  Protect every protocol running on top of IPv4 and IPv6
IPSec: Network Layer Security
IPSec = AH + ESP + IPcomp + IKE
Protection for IP traffic
AH provides integrity and
origin authentication
ESP also confidentiality
Sets up keys and algorithms
for AH and ESP
AH and ESP rely on an existing security association
Idea: parties must share a set of secret keys and agree on each other’s IP
addresses and crypto algorithms
Internet Key Exchange (IKE)
Goal: establish security association for AH and ESP
If IKE is broken, AH and ESP provide no protection!
IPSec Security Services
 Authentication and integrity for packet sources
•  Ensures connectionless integrity (for a single packet)
and partial sequence integrity (prevent packet replay)
 Confidentiality (encapsulation) for packet contents
•  Also partial protection against traffic analysis
 Authentication and encapsulation can be used
separately or together
 Either provided in one of two modes
 These services are transparent to applications
above transport (TCP/UDP) layer
IPSec Modes
 Transport mode
•  Used to deliver services from host to host or from
host to gateway
•  Usually within the same network, but can also be
end-to-end across networks
 Tunnel mode
•  Used to deliver services from gateway to gateway or
from host to gateway
•  Usually gateways owned by the same organization
–  With an insecure network in the middle
Transport Mode vs. Tunnel Mode
 Transport mode secures packet payload and
leaves IP header unchanged
IP header
(real dest)
IPSec header
TCP/UDP header + data
 Tunnel mode encapsulates both IP header and
payload into IPSec packets
IP header
IPSec header
IP header
TCP/UDP header + data
(real dest)
IPSec in Transport Mode
 End-to-end security between two hosts
•  Typically, client to gateway (e.g., PC to remote host)
 Requires IPSec support at each host
IPSec in Tunnel Mode
 Gateway-to-gateway security
•  Internal traffic behind gateways not protected
•  Typical application: virtual private network (VPN)
 Only requires IPSec support at gateways
Security Association (SA)
 One-way sender-recipient relationship
 SA determines how packets are processed
•  Cryptographic algorithms, keys, IVs, lifetimes, sequence
numbers, mode (transport or tunnel)
 SA is uniquely identified by SPI (Security
Parameters Index)…
•  Each IPSec keeps a database of SAs
•  SPI is sent with packet, tells recipient which SA to use
 …destination IP address, and
 …protocol identifier (AH or ESP)
SA Components
 Each IPSec connection is viewed as one-way so
two SAs required for a two-way conversation
•  Hence need for Security Parameter Index
 Security association (SA) defines
Protocol used (AH, ESP)
Mode (transport, tunnel)
Encryption or hashing algorithm to be used
Negotiated keys and key lifetimes
Lifetime of this SA
… plus other info
Security Association Issues
 How is SA established?
•  How do parties negotiate a common set of
cryptographic algorithms and keys to use?
 More than one SA can apply to a packet!
•  E.g., end-to-end authentication (AH) and additional
encryption (ESP) on the public part of the network
AH: Authentication Header
 Sender authentication
 Integrity for packet contents and IP header
 Sender and receiver must share a secret key
•  This key is used in HMAC computation
•  The key is set up by IKE key establishment protocol
and recorded in the Security Association (SA)
–  SA also records protocol being used (AH) and mode
(transport or tunnel) plus hashing algorithm used
–  MD5 or SHA-1 supported as hashing algorithms
Recap: MAC
IP Headers
Packet Id
Source IP
IP address
AH sets mutable fields to zero and predictable fields to
final value and then uses this header plus packet
contents as input to HMAC
AH in Transport Mode
Before AH is applied
AH in Tunnel Mode
Before AH is applied
Authentication Header Format
 Provides integrity and sender authentication
 Authenticates portions of the IP header
 Anti-replay service (to counter denial of service)
 No confidentiality
Next header
Payload length
Security parameters index (SPI)
Sequence number
ICV: Integrity Check Value
(HMAC of IP header, AH, TCP payload)
Identifies security
association (shared
keys and algorithms)
Authenticates source,
verifies integrity of
Prevention of Replay Attacks
 When SA is established, sender initializes 32-bit
counter to 0, increments by 1 for each packet
•  If wraps around 232-1, new SA must be established
 Recipient maintains a sliding 64-bit window
•  If a packet with high sequence number is received,
do not advance window until packet is authenticated
ESP: Encapsulating Security Payload
 Adds new header and trailer fields to packet
 Transport mode
•  Confidentiality of packet between two hosts
•  Complete hole through firewalls
•  Used sparingly
 Tunnel mode
•  Confidentiality of packet between two gateways or a
host and a gateway
•  Implements VPN tunnels
ESP Security Guarantees
 Confidentiality and integrity for packet payload
•  Symmetric cipher negotiated as part of security assoc
 Optionally provides authentication (similar to AH)
 Can work in transport…
Original IP
ESP header
 …or tunnel mode
New IP
ESP header
Original IP
TCP/UDP segment
ESP trailer
ESP auth
TCP/UDP segment
ESP trailer
ESP auth
ESP Packet
Identifies security
association (shared
keys and algorithms)
TCP segment (transport mode)
entire IP packet (tunnel mode)
Pad to block size for cipher,
also hide actual payload length
Type of payload
HMAC-based Integrity
Check Value (similar to AH)
Virtual Private Networks (VPN)
 ESP is often used to implement a VPN
•  Packets go from internal network to a gateway with
TCP / IP headers for address in another network
•  Entire packet hidden by encryption
–  Including original headers so destination addresses are hidden
•  Receiving gateway decrypts packet and forwards
original IP packet to receiving address in the network
that it protects
 This is known as a VPN tunnel
•  Secure communication between parts of the same
organization over public untrusted Internet
ESP Together With AH
 AH and ESP are often combined
 End-to-end AH in transport mode
•  Authenticate packet sources
 Gateway-to-gateway ESP in tunnel mode
•  Hide packet contents and addresses on the insecure
part of the network
 Significant cryptographic overhead
•  Even with AH