Geographic Location, the Inca and the Spanish

Geography, the Inca,
and the Spanish
What is Geography?
“Synoptic discipline synthesizing finding of other sciences through the
concept of Raum (area or space).” –Immanuel Kant, c. 1780
“Man in society and local variation in environment.” –Halford Mackinder, 1887
“To provide accurate, orderly, and rational description and interpretation
of the variable character of the earth surface.” –Richard Hartshorne, 1959
“Geography is the study of the patterns and processes of human (built)
and environmental (natural) landscapes, where landscapes comprise real
(objective) and perceived (subjective) space.” –Gregg Wassmansdorf, 1995
Mercator vs. Peters Projections
Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons
Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons
Energy Consumption
Nuclear Explosions
Physical Map
Physical Map of North America
Physical Map of Europe and Russia
Physical Map of China
Politics and
• United States
• Germany
• Iraq
• China
• Reconquista
• Castile and Aragon
• Alfonso X of Castile, 1221-1284
• Crown of Aragon
• The Catholic Monarchs
• Spanish Inquisition
• The New World
• The Spanish Empire
Spain and Geopolitics
• The Beginning
• Kingdom of Cusco, c. 1200s
• Sinchi Rocca, c. 1240s
• Capac Yupanqui, c. 1320s
• Pachacuti, 1438-1471
• The Empire
• The People
Inca and Geopolitics