Ch. 13 Packet DNA Technology Name _____________________________ Period _________ California State Standards covered by this chapter: Genetics 5. The genetic composition of cells can be altered by incorporation of exogenous DNA into the cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: c. Students know how genetic engineering (biotechnology) is used to produce novel biomedical and agricultural products. d.* Students know how basic DNA technology (restriction digestion by endonucleases, gel electrophoresis, ligation, and transformation) is used to construct recombinant DNA molecules. e.* Students know how exogenous DNA can be inserted into bacterial cells to alter their genetic makeup and support expression of new protein products. Read the appropriate section in the textbook and lecture notes before answering the following questions. You must put all answers and definitions in your own words for full credit. 13-1 Changing the Living World Define the following vocabulary terms. 1. Selective breeding: 2. Hybridization: 3. Inbreeding: 4. In selective breeding, a person decides which traits he or she would like an animal to have. The breeder then chooses a male and female animal that have those traits and breeds them. The breeder expects that they will have offspring with the same traits. Identify the parents a breeder would select in order to breed offspring with the traits listed. Offspring traits Black fur, floppy ears a. White fur, short ears b. Black fur, short ears c. White fur, floppy ears Parents 3 and 5 Use the information in question 4. 5. A breeder breeds rabbits 2 and 8. What trait(s) is/are the breeder most interested in? 6. Complete the table describing the types of selective breeding. Type Description Example Crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms. The continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics. On the lines provided, complete the following sentences using these terms: mutations, generation, organisms, selective breeding, genetic variation, traits, and genetic variability. 7. In the process of _______________________, animals are bred to produce desired a. _______________________ in the next _______________________ of _______________________, c. b. d. such as dogs and horses. Breeders can increase the _______________________ in a population by including _______________________, which are the source of _______________________. e. f. 8. Describe a benefit and a drawback of inbreeding. a. Benefit: b. Drawback: 13-2 Manipulating DNA To answer some of these questions you may need to use your lecture notes. 9. What is genetic engineering? 10. Scientists use their knowledge of the _______________________ of DNA and its a. _______________________ properties to study and change DNA molecules. b. 11. How do biologists get DNA out of a cell? 12. What are restriction enzymes and what are they used for? 13. What process is used to separate DNA fragments by size? 14. How is DNA fingerprinting being used as a tool in forensic science? What is a DNA fingerprint? 15. Examine the gel to the right. Why is Suspect 1 considered more likely to have committed the crime than Suspect 2? 16. Examine the gel to the right. Could the alleged father be the father of this child? Explain your reasoning. 17. How can macromolecules be physically sorted? (There are 2 primary criteria.) a. b. 18. What is recombinant DNA? 19. What enzymes are used to splice DNA sequences together? 20. How is recombinant DNA produced? 21. What is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)? 22. Why are primers necessary for the PCR reaction? 13-3 Cell Transformation During transformation, plasmids are taken out of bacterial cells. 23. What is a plasmid? 24. What occurs during transformation? 25. Complete the flowchart to show the steps in transformation. a. b. c. d. 26. Use the following terms to complete the diagram: foreign DNA, plasmid, recombinant DNA, and transformed bacterium. a. b. c. d. 27. Why might a scientist insert a gene that codes for a human growth hormone into bacteria cells? 28. How can you tell if a transformation experiment has been successful? 13-4 Application of Genetic Engineering 29. What is a transgenic organism? 30. Describe how to make a transgenic organism. 31. List four ways in which transgenic animals have been used. a. b. c. d. 32. Describe are 2 examples of how transgenic plants might be used. a. b. 33. What is a clone? 34. Complete the sentences in the diagram below to show the steps in cloning a sheep.
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