Name: _______________________________________ Block: ____________ Date: _____________ LCPS Core Experience | Energy Investigation ONE Energy St ud ent N o tes OBJECTIVES Students will: define potential and kinetic energy describe the relationship between potential and kinetic energy. LINK Hold a racquet ball waist high and let it drop. Let it bounce once then catch it. Drop the racquet ball a second time by holding your arm straight in front of you. Let it bounce once then catch it. Question: What do you notice about how high the ball bounced when the ball was dropped from different heights? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Materials Per Lab Group 1 pre-made pendulum 1 small (4 g) bear 2 meter sticks 1 metric ruler 1 calculator Background The Law of Conservation of Energy says that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but energy can be changed from one form to another. This is known as an energy transformation. In this investigation, you will observe the Law of Conservation of Energy and two major types of energy: kinetic energy and potential energy. Potential energy is stored energy. The potential energy of an object depends on its mass and position. Kinetic energy is energy in motion. Make a Prediction: What will happen to the amount of kinetic energy if the amount of potential energy is increased? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Energy Investigation ONE Page 1 LCPS Core Experience | Energy Investigation ONE EXPERIMENT Lesson One: Model a Pendulum 1. Pull the pendulum ball back then let go of the ball. 2. Question: Describe when the ball had potential energy. ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. Question: Describe when the ball had kinetic energy. ___________________________________________________________________________ 4. Question: When did the potential energy become kinetic energy? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Lesson Two: The Effect of Increasing Potential Energy on Kinetic Energy 1. Place the gram bear between the meter sticks. The back of the bear should line up with the 0 cm marks on the meter sticks, with the bear facing the 100 cm ends of the two meter sticks. 2. Move the ring stand so that the base is outside of the meter sticks and the pendulum ball is hanging behind the bear. The pendulum ball and the gram bear should be touching. The string on the pendulum ball should be going straight down. 3. Pull the ball straight back to a height of 5 cm. Use a ruler to measure the height from the table surface to the bottom of the ball. 4. Let go of the pendulum ball. 5. Calculate: Measure the distance the bear traveled in cm. 6. Repeat the experiment two more times with the ball at 5 cm. 7. Repeat steps 1-6 by pulling the pendulum ball back to 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm. Table A: The Effect of Pendulum Pull on Bear Movement Height of Distance Bear Distance Bear Distance Bear Pendulum Traveled – 1 Traveled – 2 Traveled – 3 5 cm 10 cm 15 cm 20 cm Energy Investigation ONE Page 2 Average Distance LCPS Core Experience | Energy Investigation ONE 8. Question: Look at the data in Table A. The independent variable is the item that is changed in the experiment. What is the independent variable in the experiment? ______________________________________________________________________________ 9. Question: Look at the data in Table A. The dependent variable is the item that is being measured as the effect of the IV. What is the dependent variable in the experiment? ______________________________________________________________________________ 10. Graph: Use the grid to make a line graph that compares the potential energy of the ball (distance the ball is pulled back) with the average distance the bear traveled. Label the x-axis with the independent variable. Label the y-axis with the dependent variable. Title of Graph: __________________________________________________ Energy Investigation ONE Page 3 LCPS Core Experience | Energy Investigation ONE LEARNING REVIEW 1. What is potential energy? ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. What is kinetic energy? ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. When did the ball have the most potential energy? ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. When did the bear have the most kinetic energy? ______________________________________________________________________________ STOP AND DISCUSS EVALUATION 1. How did we increase the amount of potential energy in the pendulum ball? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. How did we measure the kinetic energy of the bear? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Based on the graph, what is the relationship between the potential energy of the pendulum ball and the kinetic energy of the bear? Use data to support your answer. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. Identify the relationship between potential energy and kinetic energy. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Energy Investigation ONE Page 4 LCPS Core Experience | Energy Investigation ONE 5. Predict what would happen to the kinetic energy of the bear if we made the wooden ball heavier. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 6. According to the Law of Conservation of Energy, what happened to the energy of the bear when it stopped moving? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 7. You are designing a roller coaster and you want your car to go fast. What changes to the track do you need to make? Why? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Energy Investigation ONE Page 5 LCPS Core Experience | Energy Investigation ONE Page intentionally left blank. Energy Investigation ONE Page 6

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