Russian Revolution Guide

19th Century: Years of Unrest
 The Russian Revolution
Revolutions in Russia
was a bomb with a very
long fuse…the explosion
occurs in 1917 but trouble
was present long before.
Red Tide Rising
Alexander III
Assassination of the Czar
 A Secret revolutionary group
 Alexander III rules Russia with
wanting extreme reform
assassinates Czar Alexander II
with a bomb in 1881
 Ironically:
 Strict censorship enforced
 _____________________ keep
an eye on the population
 Stresses Russian language and
culture throughout the empire
 The assassination will cause
future Czars to rule Russia
more ____________________.
Nicholas II
 Becomes Czar in 1894
 Promises to uphold the
powerful reign of his
father, Alexander III.
 Commits to
 Trans-Siberian Railway
completed in
Industrialization in Russia
Effects of Russian Industrialization:
-increased gap between ________________
-oppressed workers form Marxist
revolutionary groups…2 Main groups by 1903
1. Bolsheviks –
2. Mensheviks
1904-1917 Years of Crisis
 Nicholas II was not present at the palace
 His ________________________________________
1905 – Defeat in the Russo-Japanese
War causes revolt
1905 – “Bloody Sunday”
October 1905
into the crowd to disperse the protestors
 _________________ unarmed Russians murdered
by the Czar’s troops
World War I: The Final Blow
 Revolts & unrest followed the Bloody Sunday
event from January on
 Nicholas II reluctantly agrees to set up the
Duma –
 The first Duma met in May 1906, Czar
Nicholas II ______________________, not
wanting to share his power.
Rasputin 1872-1916
 A self-described “holy
man” who claimed to have
magical ________________
 Has extreme influence over
Czarina Alexandra
 Appears to ease the royal
couple’s son, Alexis, of his
suffering with Hemophilia
 Defeat follows the Russian soldier
in WWI
 1915 – Czar Nicholas moves his
headquarters to the front
 The war destroys Russian morale,
food & fuel supplies dwindle inside
 Rasputin spreads
corruption throughout
the royal court, obtains
powerful positions for
his friends, virtually
runs the Russian
government while
Nicholas II is away
The March Revolution 1917
March Revolution-1917
 ____________ Revolution (1917)
 Workers rioted in Petrograd; eventually gained
support from soldiers
 Forces Czar Nicholas II to ______________________
 Creation of Provisional Government
 Lead by ________________________
 Decides to continue Russia’s involvement in WWI
The Soviets
 As the war drags on,
angry peasants
demanded land, city
workers grew more
 Social revolutionaries
formed Soviets.
 Soviets –
Provisional Government Topples
The Bolshevik Revolution
 1917: Vladimir Lenin is
secretly sent back to
Russia (from exile) with
help from the Germans
 Bolsheviks & Lenin gain
control of many soviets in
Western Russia
The Russian Revolution
 Execution of the Romanov
 Known as ___________________ Revolution
 Bolsheviks storm the Winter Palace in
Petrograd &
 Provisional government officials are arrested
 Lenin orders all farmland to be distributed to
the __________________.
 Signs the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with
Germany in 1918 (Many Russians resent this).
 During the early hours of
Czar Nicholas II, his wife,
children and servants were
herded into the cellar of
their prison house and
 In addition to the royal
family, the executed
included: their doctor, cook,
valet, maid, and dog
Russian Civil War: 1918-1920
 The White Army includes, Russians,
 The Bolsheviks, although popular, still have
many enemies at home in Russia
 White Army: Monarchists, Supporters of the
__________, Industrialists, Landlords
 Red Army (Bolsheviks) led by Leon Trotsky:
Controlled factories, seized resources,
controlled Petrograd & Moscow,
 Trotsky leads the Red Army to many victories
over the scattered and disorganized White
Army…the Whites also lacked an appealing
program for Russia.
 The civil war will cost Russia over ___ million
people from battle and starvation
 The _________________ will be victorious
 WWI & the civil war
leave Russia in
 March, 1921 – Lenin’s New Economic Policy
 The N.E.P. temporarily puts aside Lenin’s
Lenin now steers Russia
on the course towards
recovery with his New
Economic Policy (N.E.P.)
Creation of the USSR
 To avoid any problems
associated with the many
nationalities in Russia, Lenin
divides the nation into
state-controlled economy in favor of smallscale version of capitalism.
-peasants able to sell crops for __________.
-some small factories, businesses and farms
operate under _______________ ownership.
-Government still keeps control of major
 Bolshevik party is
renamed as the
Communist Party.
 Lenin will die in _____
after several strokes.
 His death leaves a
dangerous power
struggle in Russia,
with one man coming
out on
 Union of Soviet Socialist
 New capital = Moscow