Motivation and Emotion, VoL 4, No. 1, 1980 Social Facilitation A u d i e n c e versus E v a l u a t i o n A p p r e h e n s i o n Effects I Jerry L. Cohen 2 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign The effects o f the presence o f another individual and evaluation apprehension were independently manipulated within a 3 (alone, mere presence, observation) × 4 (none, low, medium, high evaluation)factorial design. Ten subjects (five male, five female) were randomly assigned to each o f the 12 conditions. Subjects" behavioral performance on a hidden-word task and a measure o f autonomic arousal were the main dependent variables. Analysis o f variance results showed a significant performance difference on the hidden-word task among the f o u r evaluation apprehension conditions as predicted. No significant effects were f o u n d f o r the palmar sweat conductivity measures. The results add support f o r the concept o f evaluation apprehension as the mediating variable in producing socialfacilitation effects, and suggest that arousal as an intervening variable may be multidimensional. One of the oldest and most interesting of phenomena within social psychology is the area of social facilitation-inhibition. The concern with how the presence of others affects the task performance of an individual dates back to Triplett's (1897) work on cycling performance and racing. Since that time, there have been many investigators using sundry tasks and procedures to gain a better understanding of this problem (for details see the reviews by Cottrelt, 1972; Geen & Gange, 1977). Zajonc (1965) provided a theoretical explanation based on general drive notions that coalesces the early research findings into a single explanatory system: "To put the statement in conventional psychological 'The author wishes to thank Joseph E. McGrath, James H. Davis, and Samuel S. Komorita for their helpful comments on a previous draft of this article. 2Address all correspondence to Jerry L. Cohen, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois 61820. 21 0146-7239[80/0300-0021503,00]0 © 1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation 22 Cohen language, performance is facilitated and learning is impaired by the presence of spectators" (p. 270). The presence of an audience is assumed to have arousal (i.e., drive or activation) consequences. The "audience enhances the emission of dominant responses" (p. 270), thus inhibiting acquisition of new responses (i.e., learning) and facilitating the performance of already well-learned responses. Zajonc and Sales (1966), using a pseudorecognition task, found experimental evidence in support of this explanation. The presence of passive spectators increased the emission of dominant responses at the expense of subordinate responses, as compared to conditions in which no observers were present. Martens (1969a) also found support for Zajonc's (1965) explanation using a complex motor task. Cottrell, Rittle, and Wack (1967) found results that supported Zajonc's proposal in a paired-associate learning task. Using a very simple, familiar task of changing mode of dress, Markus (1978) found the mere presence of another individual sufficient to facilitate task performance. Cottretl (1968) has modifed Zajonc's (1965) explanation by emphasizing potential evaluative aspects of an audience. According to Cottrell, "the presence of others has nondirective energizing effects upon performance only when their presence creates anticipations of positive or negative outcomes" (p. 103). This notion of evaluation apprehension is considered to be a learned drive that affects the emission of dominant responses within the task situation. Evaluation apprehension is generally manipulated by attributing task performance expertise to members of the audience (i.e., expert or nonexpert) or by procedures that prevent knowledge of relevant task information from reaching the audience (e.g., blindfolding spectators or withholding outcome feedback from the audience). The role of evaluation apprehension within social facilitation has received wide support (e.g., see Cottrell, Wack, Sekerak, & Rittle, 1968; Henchy & Glass, 1968; Paulus & Murdock, 1971; Landers & Goodstadt, 1972; Sasfy & Okun, 1974; Cohen, 1979). The distinction between these two proposals is the explanation given for the occurrence of the drive or arousal produced by the presence of others. Zajonc assumes that the mere presence of others increases the individual's general drive tevel, while Cottrell postulates that "the physical presence of others is neither a necessary condition nor a sufficient condition for producing audience and coaction effects upon performance" (p. 197). According to Cottrell, the individual has acquired a learned drive of anticipation of positive or negative outcomes in the presence of others. As Cohen and Davis (1973) have pointed out, these explanations are not necessarily in conflict with one another, but rather Cottrell's explanation is a refinement of Zajonc's more general explanation. The results of the Cohen and Davis (1973) study found support for the effect of the mere Social Facilitation 23 presence of an audience and also found that evaluation apprehension exacerbates the mere presence effect. Their interpretation was that the presence of others implies some form of evaluation and that explicitly labeling the others within an evaluative role increases the intensity of the effect. The present study was designed to address two crucial aspects of the mere-presence evaluation:apprehension distinction. First, it provided a means for quasi-independently testing the effects of mere presence and of evaluation apprehension, as well as testing these effects in combination. Although virtually impossible to completely separate the effects of mere presence and evaluation, these two variables were manipulated orthogonally so that the mere presence manipulation was not affected by nor influenced the manipulation of evaluation apprehension. Second, it provides a basis for assessing the effects of the manipulations upon arousal (postulated by both Zajonc and Cottrell) separately from the performance consequences of the task. The arousal assessment occurs at several stages throughout the experiment. Thus it is possible to assess whether mere presence and evaluation apprehension have separate and measurable effects on arousal and on task performance and whether those effects are additive when the two variables are manipulated in combination. The importance of the separate measurement of arousal and of task performance arises both because arousal is postulated by both Zajonc and Cottrell as the key intervening variable responsible for social facilitationinhibition effects and because of indications within the stress literature that the form of arousal may be conceived of in three different forms: electrocortical, autonomic, and behavioral. In the context of the present study, we can consider the palmar sweat measure as an indicator of autonomic arousal, and the task performance measures as indicators of behavioral arousal. No direct indicator of electrocortical arousal was included in the study, but one might presume that electrocortical arousal would affect task performance in a highly cognitive task like the one used in this study. It is also possible that the two main independent variables--presence and evaluation apprehension--have differential effects on the different forms of arousal. In the context of the present study, one variable might show greater effects on the sweat (autonomic) measure, while the other shows greater effects of the task performance measures (behavioral). It is hard to untangle the evidence from prior studies on this question, since by and large they did not deal with the possibility of different forms of arousal and separate measurements of each. The presence of the experimenter within the experimental situation was varied over three levels: (a) the subject alone, (b) the experimenter present in the room but not attending to the subject, and (c) the experimenter observing the subject performing the task without the 24 Cohen potential for evaluation. On the basis of the previously cited studies, it was hypothesized that the presence of the experimenter in the room with the subject would be more arousing and would increase the emission of the dominant response as compared to the subject performing the task alone, and that the experimenter observing the subject would produce the highest level of arousal and therefore the greatest number of dominant responses. Evaluation apprehension was manipulated through the use of instructional sets and the utilization of a computer-assisted instructional system. Four levels of evaluation apprehension were used: (1) no evaluation of task performance, (2) a low, (3) a moderate, and (4) a high degree of evaluation apprehension of task performance. It was hypothesized that as the level of evaluation apprehension increased, arousal would increase and that subjects would emit a greater number of dominant responses. The combination of mere presence and evaluation apprehension was predicted to produce an incremental increase across all levels of these variables, and therefore, no significant interaction between these variables was expected. METHOD Subjects One hundred and twenty undergraduate students (60 males and 60 females), enrolled in the introductory psychology course at the University of Illinois, participated in the study. Their participation fulfilled a course requirement. Ten subjects (five males and five females) were randomly assigned to each of the 12 conditions formed by a 3 X 4 factorial design of experimenter's presence (absent, mere presence, or observation) and evaluation apprehension (none, low, medium, or high degree). Apparatus and Stimulus Materials The hidden-word task used by Cohen and Davis (1973) was adapted for use on the PLATO computer system. This system is composed of a plasma panel display terminal and keyset connected to a central computer. Information is displayed on the terminal screen and the individual can type a response on the keyset; the system can be programmed to evaluate the individual's response and provide appropriately designated feedback. The task used in this study was a hidden-word task in which the subject has to find a word embedded in a string of letters without transposing Social Facilitation 25 the order of the string of letters. The first 13 problem words (the training trials) were constructed so that only one solution could be achieved. Through this procedure, an Einstellung or set solution is achieved, producing a dominant response. The next four problems (the performance trials) were constructed in such a way that the set solution (dominant response) or an alternative solution (subordinate response) could provide a correct response. These are the crucial trials in the assessment of the use of the dominant response in the behavioral task performance. The last problem (the extinction trial) required the subjects to break set in order to produce the correct response. Arousal Measure A simple measure of palmar sweating known as the sweat bottle measure (Strahan, Todd, & Inglis, 1974) was used to assess physiological arousal. This procedure involved the collection of sweat samples by inverting a small bottle of distilled water on the fingertip. This inversion procedure collects ions from the sweat, which increases the electrical conductivity of the bottle's content; the more sweat (i.e., ions) collected, the greater the conductivity. A very small, nearly constant, alternating current is passed through the sweat solution and the voltage drop across the solution is measured by a digital multimeter (Heathkit Model IM-1202). The more sweat (ions) contained in the solution, the less the voltage drop across the soIution; reciprocals of the voltage readings provide measures of conductivity. In the present experiment, eight sweat bottle measures were taken for each subject. This measure was chosen because of the ease of administration and the need for subjects to perform the arousal assessment by themselves. Each bottle contained 25 ml of distilled water and was inverted on the middle finger of the subject's right hand for 10 seconds. Before the start of the experiment, all subjects washed their hands with soap and water to remove any surface contaminants. Procedure All subjects were tested individually by the same male experimenter. Each subject was greeted at a separate waiting room and escorted to the experimental room; the room contained one PLATO terminal and chair for the subject and another small table and chair in the far corner. Figure 1 is a schematic representation of the experimental room. After the subject was seated, the experimenter explained that data for a physiological measure (the sweat bottles) were also being collected in the 26 Cohen PLATO MERE PRESENCE L~ OBSERVATION m I N #Z17 Fig, l. Schematic representation of experimentalsetting. experimental session. The experimenter instructed the subject concerning the procedure to be followed and watched the subject undertake the f i r s t m e a sure. The subject was unaware of the nature of the experiment at this time, as no explanation nor instructions had been given. After the first bottle measure was completed, the experimenter moved away from the subject to the table in the corner of the room. The subject was instructed to sign on to the PLATO system to begin the experiment. The instructions and explanations of the experiment were presented on the PLATO screen. This sign-on procedure itself was part of the evaluation apprehension manipulation. Individuals in the no-evaluation and low-evaluation conditions signed onto the system without using their names. They chose a number between 1 and 20 and used this value instead of their name. This value was unknown to the experimenter, as he stood behind the terminal and could not see the subject's choice. Subjects in the medium- and high-evaluation conditions used their names for the sign-on procedure, which implied that their individual performance could be readily retrieved for inspection if necessary. Each subject first saw an introduction to the PLATO system and instructions on using the keyboard and the use of special functions (e.g., erasing). Next, all individuals saw an explanation of the sweat bottle procedure and instructions of the procedure to be followed while on the computer system. On the subject's right were eight bottles designated la through 8a; on the subject's left was an empty rack with the spaces designated I b through 8b for the placement of the bottle after its use. The instructions on the computer screen specified the procedure to be followed (i.e., uncapping, inversion, timing, recapping, and placement) for each bottle during the experiment. After the sweat bottle procedures were presented on the screen, the subject was asked to take the s e c o n d m e a s u r e . The subject proceeded on through the general task instructions followed by the instructional set that manipulated evaluation apprehension. Social Facilitation 27 The task instructions indicated that the task was to find a hidden four- or five-letter word embedded in a sequence of letters without changing the order of the letters as they appeared; each trial consisted of a period of 2½ minutes. For the no evaluation apprehension conditions, the subjects were instructed that the purpose of the experiment was to assess their reactions to performing the task on a computerized system and that the present study was to pretest the task, and that no performance data were being collected. It should be pointed out that these subjects signed on to the system without using their names. The subjects in the low degree o f evaluation apprehension condition were instructed that the interest of the experiment was word recognition performance. Their task data would "automatically be combined with the already existing data" so that "up-to-the-minute records for each problem" would exist since the interest of the experiment was "in the overall group performance and not in individual performance." These subjects also did not use their names in the sign-on procedure. In the medium degree o f evaluation apprehension condition, subjects were instructed that by using a computerized system it was possible to compare and evaluate their task performance against preestablished standards. Subjects were further instructed that "in this manner, we can evaluate and rate your performance on the word recognition task." These individuals had used their names in the sign-on procedure and thus their task performance was readily identifiable. The strongest manipulation of evaluation apprehension (high degree) contained the same information presented to the medium degree conditions with the addition of one statement: " I f your performance is rated below the minimum performance level, we will reschedule you to come back and perform the task again." These individuals also used their names to sign on to the computer system. After the evaluation apprehension instructional set was presented, the experimenter answered questions concerning the task and initiated the manipulation of the variable of experimenter's presence. In the absence conditions, the experimenter told the subject that he (the experimenter) had some work to do in the next room and left the subject alone to complete the task. Mere presence was obtained by the experimenter telling the subject that he (the experimenter) had some work to do and then sat down at the table in the far corner of the experimental room. The experimenter then absorbed himself in reading a book and could not observe the subject without radically changing his position. (See Figure 1 for positioning representation.) In the observation conditions, the experimenter placed a chair 1.2 m from the subject at an angel of 180 °. The experimenter could observe the subject's movements but could not see (and thus not evaluate) the subject's response, which appeared on the terminal screen. The subject was told in this condition that the experimenter was available to correct any 28 Cohen difficulties that may be encountered in interacting with the computer system. In this manner, task-relevant evaluations by the experimenter were eliminated. After the manipulation of the experimenter's presence, the subject carried out the third sweat bottle measure. The subject then encountered a practice trial and feedback concerning the task. The subject then started the first trial and continued on through the sixth trial. After the sixth trial, the fourth sweat bottle measure was taken and then the subject continued on through the 15th trial, after which the f i f t h sweat bottle measure was self-administered by the subject. The sixth sweat bottle measure followed the extinction trial. The subject was then informed (on the screen) that the hidden-word task was completed and was asked to respond to 10 questions presented individually on the terminal screen. These questions served as manipulation checks for the procedures. Each question was answered by the subject choosing one of the seven scale positions on a bipolar scale with appropriate end points for the question being asked. The questions dealt with (a) clarity of instructions, (b) rating of own performance, (c) description of mood, (d) task interest, (e) task difficulty, (f) concern with bottle measure, (g) task suitability for computer system, (b) description of motivation, (i) comfort in situation, and (j) concern about performance. After the 10th question, the subject was informed that the experiment was over and was asked to take the seventh sweat bottle measure. After the bottle procedure was completed, the subject was instructed to sign off the computer system and to inform the experimenter that the experiment was completed. The experimenter then debriefed the subject and answered any questions that the subject had. After the debriefing, the eighth and final sweat bottle measure was taken just before the subject left the experimental room. The entire experiment lasted approximately 20 minutes. Dependent Variables The computer recorded the subject's response for all trials, the latency of each response, and the responses to the postsession questions. The main dependent variables of interest were the nonset solutions in the performance phase and the conductivity measures for each of the eight sweat bottles. RESULTS Each dependent variable was analyzed within an analysis of variance factorial design. The basic design was a 3 (experimenter's presence) × 4 Social Facilitation 29 (evaluation apprehension) factorial2 For the training and performance measures and the sweat bottle measures, an additional within-subject factor of trials or time of bottle measure was added as a repeated measure. Training Trial Measures The latency of solution and the number of incorrect solutions (nonsense words) were analyzed within separate 3 (experimenter's presence) X 4 (evaluation) X 13 (trials) factorial designs. These analyses were performed to assess any differences among the various conditions that might affect the later performance measures. No differences among the conditions were expected on these measures. Latency. The main effect of experimenter's presence was found to be significant (F(2,108) = 3.63, p < .05). The mean time to solution for the 13 training trials was 24.88 for the mere presence group, 24.91 for the observation group, and 33.53 for the alone group. A significant Experimenter's Presence X Evaluation Apprehension interaction was found for the training latencies (F(6,108) = 3.19, p < .01). This interaction cannot be interpreted in a meaningful way as the latency values form no systematic pattern over the combined levels of the variables. The effect of trials was also found to be significant (F(12,1296) = tl.20, p < .01). Previous use of the hidden-word task (Cohen & Davis, 1973; Cohen, 1979) has indicated that trials 1, 4, 8, and 12 required longer latencies for solutions than the other nine trials and that this effect was assessed by the use of Scheff6's post hoc comparison test. The average latency for trials 1, 4, 8, and 12 ()7 = 35.488) was compared to the average latency of the remaining nine trials (Y7 = 24.342) and was found to be significantly greater (F(1,1547) = 34.20, p < .01). Errors. A significant effect of trials (F(12,t152) = 9.19, p < .01) was found for the training errors. The average number o f errors on trials 1, 4, 8, and 12 ()~ = . 117) exceeded the average number of errors made on the other nine trials (J7 = .063) (F(1,1547) = 15.32, p < .01), Scheff6 test. Performance Trial Measures Latency. A 3 (experimenter's presence) X 4 (evaluation) X 4 (trials) analysis of variance of the time to solution for the four words in the performance phase of the experiment found a significant effect for trials sSex o f subject was initially included as a factor in the analyses but is not included here because no a priori differences were expected and sex o f subject was f o u n d to be a factor only in higher order interactions with no meaningful interpretations. 30 Cohen (F(3,324) = 7.06, p < .01). The mean times to solution for the four trials were 15.89, 12.22, 15.09, and 13.12 seconds. Solutions. For the performance phase, the dominant set response or a more direct (subordinate) response would provide a correct solution to the problem. All subjects gave either the set response or the alternative response to these problems. This dependent variable is of primary concern because the type o f response given at this stage is inferred to be an indicant o f arousal within social-facilitation theory. The analysis looked at the number o f alternative solutions given to each o f the four problems; thus the higher the mean value, the less the dominant response was offered as a solution. Within the analysis o f variance, a significant main effect o f evaluation apprehension was found (F(3,108) = 3.39, p < .05). The no-evaluation conditions had a mean value o f alternative responses of .450; the tow evaluation conditions, .283; the medium conditions, .258; and the high evaluation apprehension condition, .200. This result indicates that as the degree o f evaluation apprehension increases, the number of dominant responses emitted also increases (i.e., the continuance o f using the set response). A post hoc comparison, using the Scheff6 method, was performed for the performance solution data. The no- and low-evaluation conditions were compared to the medium- and high-evaluation conditions and were found to be significantly different (/7(1,108) = 5.58, p < .05). The trial effect was also found to be significant (F(3,324) = 17.53, p < .01). The first o f the four performance trials had the lowest mean value of alternative solutions as compared to the other three trials. The means for the four trials were: .100, .391, .341, and .358. Extinction Trial The extinction trial was constructed in such way to obtain a meaningful solution (i.e., not a break the set (i.e., dominant response) pattern and tion (i.e., a subordinate response). No significant for either latency or solution for this trial. a manner that the only nonsense word) was to find a more direct soludifferences were found Sweat Bottle Measures The mean conductivity o f the first sweat bottle measure was analyzed within a 3 X 4 factorial design in order to assess the initial level o f palmar sweating. No significant differences were found on this intial measure and the subsequent analysis o f the sweat bottle measures was undertaken using the raw conductivity scores for all the eight measures. Social Facilitation 31 For the 3 (experimenter's presence) X 4 (evaluation) X 8 (measures) analysis of variance of the sweat conductivity scores, no significant effects were found. Subjects' autonomic arousal, as assessed by the sweat bottle measure, did not significantly differ among the various conditions. Postsession Questionnaire Subjects' responses to each o f the postsession questions were analyzed within a 3 X 4 factorial design. Two questions showed a significant main effect of evaluation apprehension. For the question of "describing your mood during the experiment" (F(3,108) = 3.24, p < .05) from extremely anxious (1) to extremely at ease (7), the four conditions ordered themselves as follows: high degree of evaluation (X = 3.93), no evaluation (.,Y = 4.20), medium evaluation ()7 = 4.70), and low degree of evaluation (Y7 = 5.16). A post hoc comparison of the no- and low-evaluation conditions and the medium- and high-evaluation conditions for the mood question found no significant difference between the sets of conditions (F(1,108) = t.45, p > .05). The same ordering was found for the question of "how comfortable were you in this experimental situation" (F(3,108) = 4.05, p < .01). The response scale had end points of extremely uncomfortable (1) to extremely comfortable (7). The means for the four conditions were: high evaluation = 4.20, no evaluation = 5.26, medium evaluation = 5.33, and low evaluation = 5.43. A significant difference for the post hoc comparison of the no- and low-evaluation conditions and the medium- and high-evaluation conditions was found for this question (F(1,108) = 4.10, p < .05). DISCUSSION The emphasis of the present study was to assess independently the effects of the presence of another individual and the effects of evaluation apprehension upon task performance. The results indicated that only the variable of evaluation apprehension affected the performance on the hidden-word task. This effect was as predicted: the greater the degree o f evaluation apprehension, the greater the tendency for the subject to emit the dominant response (the set solution). The intent of the manipulation of the variable of evaluation apprehension was to produce different degrees of the effect among the four conditions. The labels applied to the conditions should be thought of as an ordinal relation and not in absolute terms. The condition labeled " n o evaluation" was intended as a base reference point in order to compare the 32 Cohen other conditions and should not be interpreted as a condition with the complete absence of evaluation apprehension. Such a condition would be virtually impossible to create in a laboratory setting using college sophomores as the subject population. Evaluation apprehension appears to have been successfully manipulated wkhin the present context as reflected in the results of the performance solution data and the results of the postsession questionnaire data. The two conditions intended to be at the low end of the evaluation continuum (the no- and low-evaluation conditions) produced significantly more nonset solutions on the performance trials than the two conditions (medium and high) intended to reflect a high degree of evaluation apprehension. According to Zajonc's (1965) explanation, this result is an indicant of the different drive levels induced within the subjects. The subjects' self-report of mood did not reflect this difference between the two sets of conditions, but the self-reports o f " c o m f o r t within the situation" did show a significant difference between the no and low conditions and the medium and high conditions. The responses to the mood and comfort questions were moderately related (r = .45, p < .05) but loaded on different factors in a principal-components analysis. It may be the case that subjects found it easier to respond to the more general question concerning how comfortable they felt in the experimental situation than to express their subjective mood in terms of anxiety. It thus appears that in the context of the present results, the anticipated evaluation is the mediating variable in producing the social-facilitation effects and not the presence or absence of another individual. This result indicates that the evaluation apprehension is the stronger of the two effects and does not rule out mere presence as a sufficient condition for the social-facilitation effect. Previous research has shown that a small audience has produced the intended social-facilitation effects but these audiences were not orthogonally manipulated from the effect of evaluation apprehension (e.g., Zajonc & Sales, 1966; Henchy & Glass, 1968). Zajonc's explanation states that the presence of others is suficient to increase the arousal level of the performer, thus affecting the task performance. Cottrell's explanation postulates that the anticipation of positive or negative outcomes in the presence of others is necessary to increase the arousal level and thereby affect the task performance. According to Cohen and Davis (1973), the apparent effect of the mere presence of other individuals within a task setting is that the presence of others implies some form of evaluation to the performer. Within the present study, mere presence was orthogonally manipulated from evaluation apprehension and no significant effects were found for the presence of an audience. It may be the case, as Lacey (1967) has suggested, that arousal is not a unitary concept but may have different forms. The present results suggest that evaluation apprehension results in behavioral arousal and thus affects Social Facilitation 33 task performance and self-reports of mood and comfort, while no significant effects were found for the physiological measurements of sweat conductivity. This distinction of arousal modes may have important implications for future attempts to assess arousal as the mediating variable within the framework of social-facilitation theory. Arousal is postulated by both Zajonc and CottreI1 as the key intervening variable in producing social-facilitation effects. In general, those investigators who attempt to measure arousal use autonomic measures that may not be appropriate for the performance task utilized. Autonomic arousal may have direct effects upon psychomotor performance tasks (Martens, 1969b) but not upon more cognitively demanding tasks (Henchy & Glass, t968). The present results suggestothe necessity of using independent measures of arousal in more than one form in order to better understanding the role of arousal in producing social-facilitation effects. The present study has demonstrated the effect of evaluation apprehension as opposed to the presence of an audience in affecting behavioral task performance. Future research in the area should now be focused on understanding the determinants of the subjects' evaluation apprehension. This formulation should encompass concepts from attribution theory and achievement motivation as well as social comparison notions. Work in the area of social facilitation has consistently demonstrated that the presence of other individuals (or the implied presence) does affect a subject's task performance and that the mediating construct of greatest impact is evaluation apprehension. It is now time to seek iflformafion concerning the subject's perception of the task demands, his resources and capabilities to meet those demands, and the consequence of his behavioral performance to the situational outcome. REFERENCES Cohen, J. L. Social facilitation: Increased evaluation apprehension through permanency of record. Motivation and Emotion, 1979, 3, 19-33. Cohen, J. L., & Davis, J. H. Effects of audience status, evaluation and time of action on performance with hidden-word problems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1973, 27, 74-85. Cottrell, N. B. Performance in the presence of other human beings: Mere presence, audience, and affiliation effects. In E. C. Simmel, R. A. Hoppe, & G. A. 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