HONR 259C “Fearfully Great Lizards”: Topics in Dinosaur Research Test I Review The nature of Science and the nature of research Major events and figures in the history of dinosaur paleontology: Baron Georges Cuvier William Buckland Gideon & Mary Ann Mantell Richard Owen Joseph Leidy Edward Drinker Cope vs. Othniel Charles Marsh Henry Fairfield Osborn John Ostrom Rock Types, esp. Sedimentary Rocks: Igneous vs. Metamorphic vs. Sedimentary Environments of deposition of sedimentary rocks: how are they reflected in sedimentary structures? Process of fossilization; taphonomy Basics of Stratigraphy: Principles of Original Horizontality, Superposition, Cross-Cutting Relationships, Fossil Succession Relative vs. Numerical Ages Index fossils and correlation Radiometric dating The Geologic Column: Eras, Periods, Epochs (know the periods & epochs of the Mesozoic) Evolution = Descent with Modification Natural Selection = Differential Survival and Reproduction of Variants in a Population Resulting in a Net Change in Phenotype of the Descendants Basic observations of Natural Selection: I. Variation in all populations (Variability) II. Some (but not all) variation is inherited (Heritability) III. More are born in a population than can possibly survive (Superfecundity) Homology, Analogy, Divergence, Convergence, Adaptive Trends, Adaptive Radiations, Exaptation, Heterochrony (Pedomorphosis vs. Peramorphosis) Linnaean taxonomy & proper taxonomic grammar Genus species Principle of priority Lumping vs. Splitting Systematics: Be able to read and understand a cladogram! Phylogenetic definitions of taxa Symplesiomorphy, synapomorphy, autapomorphy, homoplasy (convergence & reversals) Monophyly vs. Paraphyly Inferring missing data Extant Phylogenetic Bracket (Type I inference: both EPB have same state that you infer for the fossil; Type II inference: one has one state, one has the other; Type III: neither EPB has same state that you infer for the fossil) Dinosaur Origins Where do dinosaurs fit among the amniotes? What is the definition of Dinosauria? (the concestor of Iguanodon and Megalosaurus and all of its descendants) Significance of Eoraptor, Pisanosaurus, Scutellosaurus, Saturnalia, Herrerasaurus Dinosaur Phylogeny Be familiar with the relationships and some of the main adaptations (I’ve listed some) and habits (diet, postulated behavior, distribution in time and space, etc.) of the major dinosaur clades listed below: Dinosauria: Perforated acetabulum; asymmetrical hand; semi-opposable manual digit I Ornithischia: Predentary bone; leaf –shaped teeth; backwards-pointing pubis (except for Pisanosaurus); cheeks in most forms Heterodontosauridae: Deep, powerful skulls; predentary margin ventral to maxillary margin; jaw joint ventral to dentary tooth row Thyreophora: Scutes; obligate quadrupedality (except for Scutellosaurus) Stegosauria: Plates and spikes; thagomizer Ankylosauria: Osteoderms fused to skull; rings of body armor on neck; wide hips Neornithischia: Enamel on only one side of teeth Ornithopoda: Predentary margin ventral to maxillary margin; jaw joint ventral to dentary tooth row Iguanodontia: Facultative bipeds; toothless premaxilla Hadrosauriformes: Hinged upper jaw; “Swiss Army Hand” (spike thumb; hoof-like digits II-IV; opposable digit V) Hadrosauridae: Enlarged snout; grinding dental battery; loss of thumb Hadrosaurinae: Very large nares; broad snout Lambeosaurinae: Hollow narial crest Marginocephalia: Ridge on back of skull Pachycephalosauria: Thickened skull roof (sometimes domed) Ceratopsia: Rostral bone; pointed jugals Neoceratopsia: Enlarged skull; frill; obligate quadrupedality Ceratopsidae: Horns (postorbital and nose); shearing dental battery Saurischia: Complex chambers in vertebrae Herrerasauria: ?Reversal to 2 sacrals; intramandibular joint Eusaurischia: Elongated neck; digit II longest in hand; big thumb claw Among the eusaurischians: Sauropodomorpha: Leaf-shaped teeth, very elongated neck, small head, elongate femur “Prosauropods” (life habits: no shared derived characters, since they are paraphyletic!!) Sauropoda: Enormous size; tooth occlusion; obligate quadrupedality; short snouts Neosauropoda: Dorsally-placed nares; columnar metacarpals Diplodocoidea: Forelimbs much shorter than hindlimb; pencil-shaped teeth Macronaria: Greatly enlarged nares (as big or bigger than orbits); elongated metacarpals Theropoda: Promaxillary fenestra; Intramandibular joint; loss of manual digit V; furcula; functionally three-toed pes Coelophysoidea: Subnarial gap Neotheropoda: Lacrimal fenestra Ceratosauria: 7 or more sacrals; reduced manual phalanges Tetanurae: Enlarged hands; stiffened tail Spinosauridae: Elongate narrow snouts; conical teeth; giant size Avetheropoda: Maxillary fenestra; very complex chambers in vertebrae; loss of manual digit IV Carnosauria: Enlarged naris; extra openings in antorbital region; giant size Coelurosauria: Simply downy feathers; enlarged brain; narrow hand; boat-shaped chevrons Tyrannosauroidea: Incisor-like premaxillary teeth; fused nasals Tyrannosauridae: Enlarged skull; thickened teeth; reduced arms; loss of manual digit III; elongate tibiae and metatarsi; arctometatarsus; giant size Ornithomimosauria: Small beaky skull; elongate neck; all three metacarpals the same length Ornithomimidae: Toothless skull; elongate tibiae and metatarsi; arctometatarsus Maniraptora: Elongate forelimb; enlarged ossified sternum; laterally-facing shoulder joints; semilunate carpal; backwards-pointing pubis; broad feathers on arms and tail Oviraptorosauria: Leaf-shaped teeth or toothless; boxy skull Therizinosauroidea: Small skull; leaf-shaped teeth; long neck; backwardspointing pubis; short metatarsi Eumaniraptora: VERY long arms, tail very mobile near base; distally-placed backwards-facing pedal digit I; backwards-facing pubis; long leg feathers Deinonychosauria: retractable second pedal digit with sickle-shaped claw Avialae: Elongate arms; Reduced number of caudals (and shorter tail) Pygostylia: Pygostyle From the Small Groups/Critical Reviews What kind of evidence is used to infer what dinosaurs ate what? What limitations exist for these methods? How do paleontologists employ trace fossils? What kind of information can trace fossils reveal that body fossils do not?
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