Study Island Copyright © 2014 Edmentum - All rights reserved. Generation Date: 12/11/2014 Generated By: Cheryl Shelton Title: Grade 8 Blizzard Bag 2014-2015 Social Studies-Day 1 Like any historical event, the causes of the Civil War were complicated, but the biggest underlying issue was the disagreement concerning slavery. Some historians have said that economics was the main cause. They argue that the agricultural system of the South was at odds with the industrial, free labor system of the North. The economy of the South revolved around agriculture and slavery. The South was completely committed to a single crop, cotton, which was picked entirely by slave labor. Therefore, virtually all of the labor in the South was slave labor. Many in the northern states felt that slavery was morally wrong, but this was just one cause for concern. The North also worried that slave labor would undermine the position of free white laborers. People in the North worried that the South had intentions to expand slavery, which would make it hard for white laborers to find work. Still other historians might argue that a rise in sectionalism was the cause of war. The nation seemed to be splitting down social and political lines, becoming two different cultures that embraced very different ideas. These cultures were most strongly divided, however, on the issue of allowing slavery and not allowing slavery. The southern states believed they had the right to practice slavery. To them, ending slavery would mean an end to their culture. Due to these societal differences, the North and South found it difficult to agree on political issues. The two areas of the country grew further apart until it seemed that war was inevitable. 1. Which of the following choices best describes the opinion of the author of the passage above? A. People in the North thought slavery was wrong. B. Slavery was the main cause of the Civil War. C. The North and South had two different cultures. D. Cotton was an important crop in the South. 2. With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan—to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations. —Second Inaugural Address by Abraham Lincoln; March 4, 1865 What situation was Lincoln addressing during this speech? A. Great Britain was threatening to support the Confederacy. B. Abolitionists were pressuring Lincoln to end slavery. C. The Confederacy had begun an invasion of the North. D. The United States was close to winning the Civil War. 3. Of all the dispositions and habits, which lead to political prosperity, Religion and Morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that man claim the tribute of Patriotism, who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness, these firmest props of the duties of Men and Citizens. The mere Politician, equally with the pious man, ought to respect and to cherish them. A volume could not trace all their connexions with private and public felicity. Let it simply be asked, Where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths, which are the instruments of investigation in Courts of Justice? And let us with caution indulge the supposition, that morality can be maintained without religion. Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect, that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle. —George Washington's Farewell Address From the text above, what was George Washington's opinion on the relationship between religion and government? A. A true democratic government is one that is separate from religious teachings. B. Religion is important to government because it teaches people about morality. C. Governments will only be successful by having an official religion. D. Leaders of government should be moral even without being religious. 4. The Articles of Confederation set up the first government in the United States and went into effect in 1781. Under the Articles, there was a legislative branch made up of a single house, and each state in the Union was given one vote. This government was very weak because the national government had to share a great deal of power with the states. The government had no authority to tax and could not control trade between the states. In 1787, delegates gathered in Philadelphia in order to come up with a new form of government to replace the Articles of Confederation. They drafted the Constitution, which would create a stronger central government with power divided among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. They created a system of checks and balances to limit the power of each branch. In the legislative branch, they created one house in which representation was based on a state's population and one house in which each state had equal representation. The author of the passage above would most likely agree with which of the following statements? A. The legislative branch should have more power than the executive branch. B. The government set up by the Articles of Confederation was not effective. C. The central government was stronger under the Articles than the Constitution. D. The best way to organize a government is to have one house make up the legislature. 5. Up to our own day American history has been in a large degree the history of the colonization of the Great West. The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward, explain American development... The peculiarity of American institutions is, the fact that they have been compelled to adapt themselves to the changes of an expanding people—to the changes involved in crossing a continent, in winning a wilderness, and in developing at each area of this progress out of the primitive economic and political conditions of the frontier into the complexity of city life... Thus American development has exhibited not merely advance along a single line, but a return to primitive conditions on a continually advancing frontier line, and a new development for that area. —Frederick Jackson Turner, 1893 Frederick Jackson Turner was a historian from the late 1800s and early 1900s. The quotation above is from his most famous essay. Turner's opinion in this passage is that A. the American frontier was extinct as of the early 1890s. B. the settlement of the frontier has defined American history. C. American development banished more primitive cultures. D. Americans should not have settled the western territories. 6. The Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom was adopted in 1786. It was written by Thomas Jefferson, who hoped to avoid having any church endorsed by the state. The statute affirms that "our civil rights have no dependence on our religious opinions, any more than our opinions on physics or geometry," and it refers to religious freedom as a "natural right." The statute is among the most influential documents in American history; it is echoed in both the U.S. Constitution and the Constitution of Virginia. Identify one opinion given in the passage. A. It was written by Thomas Jefferson, who hoped to avoid having any church endorsed by the state. B. The Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom was adopted in 1786. C. The statute affirms that "our civil rights have no dependence on our religious opinions…" D. The statute is among the most influential documents in American history… 7. The diagram above shows resources of the Union and the Confederacy in 1860. Based on what you know of U.S. history, which of the following statements is supported by the information in the diagram? A. The Union's economy was very industrial and this helped them win the Civil War. B. The construction of railroads had little impact on the outcome of the Civil War. C. The southern farming economy had more real value than northern industries. D. The Confederacy's manufacturing was done by slaves who sabotaged their work. 8. When studying history, it is important to understand bias and its possible impact on a historical narrative. Historians are a product of their various opinions and backgrounds, and the student of history must keep this in mind when studying a secondary historical source. One historian, for example, might place emphasis on the social causes of a historical event while another historian might argue for economic causes. These two points of view would have the potential to greatly impact the historical narrative told by these historians. Which of the following is the main point of the passage used here? A. Bias should be excluded from historical analysis as much as possible. B. There can only be a few causes of any particular historical event. C. A historian's narrative will reflect his or her own opinions. D. Social causes of events are usually overshadowed by economic causes. 9. The main purpose of the timeline above is to A. argue that Virginia was the first state to allow slavery in the U.S. B. illustrate attitudes about slavery of the settlers in South Carolina. C. depict the African American experience before the American Revolution. D. show how attitudes about slavery changed over time in colonial America. 10. Imagine that you are researching the Reconstruction time period in U.S. history. Your teacher tells you that you are allowed to use sources from the Internet. Which of the following would most likely be a valid source that you could use in your research? A. an online letter to the editor on a book called Reconstruction B. an online article from the Journal of Southern History C. a Wikipedia article on the Reconstruction time period D. a post by a blogger who is taking a class on U.S. history 11. But every difference of opinion is not a difference of principle. We have called by different names brethren of the same principle. We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists . . . I know, indeed, that some honest men fear that a Republican government cannot be strong, that this government is not strong enough; but would the honest patriot, in the full tide of successful experiment, abandon a government which has so far kept us free and firm on the theoretic and visionary fear that this government, the world's best hope, may by possibility want energy to preserve itself? I trust not. I believe this, on the contrary, the strongest government on earth. —Thomas Jefferson's first inaugural address; March 4, 1801 Thomas Jefferson's first inaugural address came after a controversial election between himself and John Adams, the former president. Jefferson belonged to the early Republican Party while Adams belonged to the Federalist Party. What was one of the main points of Jefferson's speech? A. Both political parties believed in democratic government. B. The Republican Party was stronger than the Federalist Party. C. Both political parties would have turns to govern the country. D. The Federalist Party had made many mistakes in the past.
© Copyright 2021 Paperzz