Focus Intonation in Turkish

Focus Intonation in Turkish
LabPhon 14
Canan Ipek1 ([email protected]) & Sun-Ah Jun2 ([email protected])
1University of Southern California, 2University of California Los Angeles
Max f0 (H*) on each word in neutral & 4 narrow focus conditions
•  Turkish – SOV word order, but flexible; Lexical stress mostly on
word-final syllable (Lees 1961, Lewis 1967, Sezer 1981)
(* = significantly different from the neutral condition)
•  Would a narrowly focused word (being nuclear word of a sentence)
still be realized in partially compressed pitch range?(replicating Ipek 2011)
•  Would the left edge of a narrowly focused word still be marked by a
high tone (H*n, or LHn)? If so, how are they realized?
•  What happens when a sentence-initial word is narrowly focused?
•  Would post-focus words be all deaccented?
•  Focus prosody in stress accent languages
•  pitch accent (often different from the default type) on focused wd;
deaccenting all post-focus words (e.g. Beckman & Pierrehumbert 1986, Jun 2014)
•  on-focus word in expanded pitch range, but post-focus words in
compressed pitch-range (e.g. Botinis et. al. 1999, Rump & Collier 1996, Xu & Xu 2005)
Word carries !H* (i.e., partially compressed pitch range)
German tourist.plu Alanya.dat Friday.dat arrive.fut
“German tourists will arrive Alanya on Friday.”
•  Max f0: peak f0 of the final syll (stressed) of each word in Type 1 set,
and peak f0 of H* syllable and final syllable of Word1 in Type2 set.
When the last syllable is not
stressed, LH is added => LHn
Type-1 sentences
⇒  on-focus word’s pitch-range is lower than the same word in neutral
condition, even when the focused word is sentence-initial (supporting !
H* nuclear accent category in neutral focus)
⇒  f0 on the final syllable of the immediately pre-focus word (H*n) is
higher than that in neutral condition (H*).
(** = Word1’s f0 in the 3 focus conditions below are all significantly different)
Neutral Condition !
Word 1 focused!
Word 2 focused!
Type 2 sentences: as in neutral focus, a high phrasal tone (LHn) is
added just before the narrowly focused word (Noun), with its peak
f0 significantly higher than that of the preceding H* (p <.001).
Noun Focused!
•  5 speakers of Turkish (2m, 3f) read five Type-1 sentences under 5 focus
conditions (neutral, focus on each word) and six Type 2 sentences under
two focus conditions (neutral, focus on the 2nd word).
•  Sentences displayed on a computer screen one at a time, and speakers
read each as an answer to a wh-question produced by the first author.
•  used Linear Mixed Effects model with f0 as the fixed effect, and
SUBJECT and SENTENCE as random effects.
same word (“completely”)
disappears when the word is not
immediately before nuclear
•  Type 2: sentences beginning with a two-word subject NP (nonfinally stressed Adjective + finally stressed Noun)
ex: Almanyalı turistler Alanya’ya cumaya varacak.
Fig. B: But, the 2nd f0 rise of the
Emine tea.poss.acc hankerchief.dat drip.past
“Emine dripped her tea onto the hankerchief.”
•  However, a nuclear word is also marked by a High tone (labeled H*n or
LHn; ‘n’ for nuclear marking) realized on the last syllable of the
immediately pre-nuclear Word. When the last syll is stressed, the H*
tone is realized higher than the preceding H => H*n
“completely” has two rises when
immediately before nuclear
word : the first one on its
stressed syllable (H* on penult)
and the 2nd one on its last syll
•  Type 1: four-word sentences. Each word has final stress.
ex: Emine çayını mendile damlatmış.
•  Each word carries H* pitch accent on its stressed syllable but Nuclear
Fig. A: the 3rd word
Stimuli: Two types of declarative sentences
•  Ipek & Jun’s (2013) model of intonational phonology of
Turkish based on neutral focus declaratives
H* LHn
⇒  f0 is highest immediately BEFORE, not ON the focused word!
⇒  post-focus words are all deaccented showing low f0
The Experiment
•  Focus in Turkish (Ipek 2011):
•  Pitch range is partially compressed on-focus word, but expanded over
the immediately preceding word.
July 25-27, 2014
Tokyo, Japan
Noun !
Discussion and Conclusion
•  Phonologically, narrow focus in Turkish maintains the prosodic markers
of nuclear word in neutral focus condition proposed in Ipek & Jun
(2013), i.e., !H* on focused/nuclear word and Tn (=H*n or LHn) on the final
syllable of the immediately pre-focus/nuclear word.
•  Phonetically, the peak f0 in Tn is significantly higher than the neutral
focus H* and the pre-focus H*, but the peak f0 of focused word is still
partially compressed, even when the foc word is sentence-initial
•  Turkish is similar to other languages in manipulating pitch range to cue
focus but differs from most languages in the target of pitch range
compression/expansion (i.e., on-focus compression and pre-focus
expansion) as well as by having a high phrasal tone marking the left edge
of focus, realized on the final syll of pre-focus word.
Selected References
Word 1
Word 2 !
Ipek, C. (2011) Phonetic realization of focus with no on-focus pitch-range expansion in Turkish,
Proceedings of International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhs), pp. 140-143.
Ipek, C. & Jun, S.-A. (2013) “Towards a Model of Intonational Phonology of Turkish: Neutral Intonation”, in
the Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics (POMA), Vol. 19. 060230.