Focus Intonation in Turkish LabPhon 14 Canan Ipek1 ([email protected]) & Sun-Ah Jun2 ([email protected]) 1University of Southern California, 2University of California Los Angeles Max f0 (H*) on each word in neutral & 4 narrow focus conditions Questions Introduction • Turkish – SOV word order, but flexible; Lexical stress mostly on word-final syllable (Lees 1961, Lewis 1967, Sezer 1981) (* = significantly different from the neutral condition) • Would a narrowly focused word (being nuclear word of a sentence) still be realized in partially compressed pitch range?(replicating Ipek 2011) • Would the left edge of a narrowly focused word still be marked by a high tone (H*n, or LHn)? If so, how are they realized? • What happens when a sentence-initial word is narrowly focused? • Would post-focus words be all deaccented? the • Focus prosody in stress accent languages • pitch accent (often different from the default type) on focused wd; deaccenting all post-focus words (e.g. Beckman & Pierrehumbert 1986, Jun 2014) • on-focus word in expanded pitch range, but post-focus words in compressed pitch-range (e.g. Botinis et. al. 1999, Rump & Collier 1996, Xu & Xu 2005) Word carries !H* (i.e., partially compressed pitch range) German tourist.plu Alanya.dat Friday.dat arrive.fut “German tourists will arrive Alanya on Friday.” Measurement • Max f0: peak f0 of the final syll (stressed) of each word in Type 1 set, and peak f0 of H* syllable and final syllable of Word1 in Type2 set. !H* Results When the last syllable is not stressed, LH is added => LHn Type-1 sentences TEMPLATE DESIGN © 2008 www.PosterPresentations.com !H* Fig.A L% ⇒ on-focus word’s pitch-range is lower than the same word in neutral condition, even when the focused word is sentence-initial (supporting ! H* nuclear accent category in neutral focus) ⇒ f0 on the final syllable of the immediately pre-focus word (H*n) is higher than that in neutral condition (H*). (** = Word1’s f0 in the 3 focus conditions below are all significantly different) Neutral Condition ! Word 1 focused! Word 2 focused! ** H* !H* * * * Type 2 sentences: as in neutral focus, a high phrasal tone (LHn) is added just before the narrowly focused word (Noun), with its peak f0 significantly higher than that of the preceding H* (p <.001). LHn Neutral Condition! Noun Focused! H* • 5 speakers of Turkish (2m, 3f) read five Type-1 sentences under 5 focus conditions (neutral, focus on each word) and six Type 2 sentences under two focus conditions (neutral, focus on the 2nd word). • Sentences displayed on a computer screen one at a time, and speakers read each as an answer to a wh-question produced by the first author. • used Linear Mixed Effects model with f0 as the fixed effect, and SUBJECT and SENTENCE as random effects. L% same word (“completely”) disappears when the word is not immediately before nuclear word * * • Type 2: sentences beginning with a two-word subject NP (nonfinally stressed Adjective + finally stressed Noun) ex: Almanyalı turistler Alanya’ya cumaya varacak. Procedure Fig. B: But, the 2nd f0 rise of the * * Emine tea.poss.acc hankerchief.dat drip.past “Emine dripped her tea onto the hankerchief.” • However, a nuclear word is also marked by a High tone (labeled H*n or LHn; ‘n’ for nuclear marking) realized on the last syllable of the immediately pre-nuclear Word. When the last syll is stressed, the H* tone is realized higher than the preceding H => H*n “completely” has two rises when immediately before nuclear word : the first one on its stressed syllable (H* on penult) and the 2nd one on its last syll (LHn). * • Type 1: four-word sentences. Each word has final stress. ex: Emine çayını mendile damlatmış. • Each word carries H* pitch accent on its stressed syllable but Nuclear Fig. A: the 3rd word * * Stimuli: Two types of declarative sentences • Ipek & Jun’s (2013) model of intonational phonology of Turkish based on neutral focus declaratives H* LHn ⇒ f0 is highest immediately BEFORE, not ON the focused word! ⇒ post-focus words are all deaccented showing low f0 The Experiment • Focus in Turkish (Ipek 2011): • Pitch range is partially compressed on-focus word, but expanded over the immediately preceding word. H* n July 25-27, 2014 Tokyo, Japan Adjective Noun ! Discussion and Conclusion • Phonologically, narrow focus in Turkish maintains the prosodic markers of nuclear word in neutral focus condition proposed in Ipek & Jun (2013), i.e., !H* on focused/nuclear word and Tn (=H*n or LHn) on the final syllable of the immediately pre-focus/nuclear word. • Phonetically, the peak f0 in Tn is significantly higher than the neutral focus H* and the pre-focus H*, but the peak f0 of focused word is still partially compressed, even when the foc word is sentence-initial • Turkish is similar to other languages in manipulating pitch range to cue focus but differs from most languages in the target of pitch range compression/expansion (i.e., on-focus compression and pre-focus expansion) as well as by having a high phrasal tone marking the left edge of focus, realized on the final syll of pre-focus word. Selected References Fig.B L% Word 1 Word 2 ! Ipek, C. (2011) Phonetic realization of focus with no on-focus pitch-range expansion in Turkish, Proceedings of International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhs), pp. 140-143. Ipek, C. & Jun, S.-A. (2013) “Towards a Model of Intonational Phonology of Turkish: Neutral Intonation”, in the Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics (POMA), Vol. 19. 060230.
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