Sprinting From Sandy - Arthur W. Page Society

Sprinting From Sandy:
The Public Relations Storm Surrounding New York Road Runners
and the Cancellation of the 2012 ING New York City Marathon
Arthur W. Page Society
Case Study Competition 2013
On October 29th, 2012, Hurricane Sandy, described as a “freak storm,” ripped through New
England, destroying parts of the five boroughs of New York City. As such, the 43rd annual New York
City Marathon was cancelled. New York Road Runners (NYRR), the organization that runs the
event, failed to communicate with its principle stakeholders about financial reimbursement, plans
for 2013, or express empathy for losses and inconveniences. NYRR's primary stakeholders lost their
faith and trust in the organization, which in turn severely tarnished NYRR's reputation.
This case study identifies the public relations miscalculations and missteps made by NYRR
and its CEO, Mary Wittenberg, as well as suggesting possible strategies for the organization’s return
to runners’ graces.
Sprinting From Sandy: The PR Storm Surrounding NYRR and the Cancellation of the 2012 ING NYC Marathon
Table of Contents
I. Case Study
1. Overview
2. History of the ING New York City Marathon
2.1 New York Road Runners
2.2 New York City Marathon Course
2.3 New York City Marathon Finances and Charity Involvement
3. Hurricane Sandy
3.1 Path of Destruction
3.2 Death Toll, Property Damage, & Financial Implications
4. The Cancellation of a Marathon
5. Public Perception
5.1 Stakeholder Impact
5.2 Financial Impact
6. Summary
II. Appendices
III. References
Sprinting From Sandy: The PR Storm Surrounding NYRR and the Cancellation of the 2012 ING NYC Marathon
Case Study
1. Overview
On Monday, October 29th, 2012, Hurricane Sandy violently raged across New England.
Businesses and homes were destroyed from New Jersey to Massachusetts. Over 100 people were killed.
There was irreparable damage to entire communities, both physical and emotional. In New York City
alone, there were 85 deaths between the five boroughs: Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, Bronx, and
Staten Island. Hundreds more lost their homes, cars, and personal belongings.
Six days after Hurricane Sandy hit the Northeast, the 2012 ING New York City Marathon was
scheduled to run its 43rd annual marathon. The 26.2 miles were scheduled to span across the five
boroughs of the city, starting in Staten Island and finishing in Manhattan. Residents of the city were
torn between two emotions: outrage and the need to persevere. Those who were outraged felt that it
was inappropriate for the marathon to continue as planned; that the marathon's resources could be
better used to help those affected by the storm. Others thought the city should show strength and
perseverance and continue with the marathon as planned. As the confusion built, New York Road
Runners, the organization behind the NYC Marathon, failed to communicate with its stakeholders.
They failed to answer questions, to be proactive, and to empathize with an entire city. Two days before
the scheduled start, the marathon was cancelled, culminating in a plethora of communication and public
relations missteps, and a firestorm of public backlash.
2. History of the ING New York City Marathon
2.1 New York Road Runners
Founded in 1958, New York Road Runners (NYRR) was originally a small group of male and
female runners. Lead by legendary African-American running pioneer, Ted Corbitt, the group grew
slowly throughout the years, finally launching the first New York City Marathon in 1970. The inaugural
marathon consisted of 127 people who paid $1.00 each to register. The 26.2 miles looped only around
Central Park, and only 55 of the 127 runners crossed the finish line. Despite the small number of
participants, running was a booming sport, and the desire for high-profile running competitions grew
accordingly. In 1972, marathon co-founder, Fred Lebow, took over as president of NYRR and four
years later, in 1976, reorganized the path of the marathon to go through the five boroughs of New York
Sprinting From Sandy: The PR Storm Surrounding NYRR and the Cancellation of the 2012 ING NYC Marathon
City. NYRR revolutionized the competitive world of running; they became the first organization to
offer substantial cash prizes to its top finishers, as well has launching sub-marathon categories such as
the NYRR New York Mini 10K, the Midnight Run, the Empire State Building Run-Up, the Fifth
Avenue Mile, and even a wheelchair division in 2000 (“History,” n.d.)
2.2 New York City Marathon Course
The modern path of the Marathon can be seen in Appendix 1. The start line is on Staten Island
near the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge. After crossing the bridge, the next 11 miles wind through
Brooklyn - Bay Ridge, Sunset Park, Park Slope, Bedford-Stuyvesant, Williamsburg, and Greenpoint. At
mile 13, about the halfway point of the marathon, runners pass over the Pulaski Bridge and cross into
Queens at Long Island City. They continue for two and a half miles before crossing over the
Queensboro Bridge and entering Manhattan. Runners then cross into the Bronx for a mile before
returning to Manhattan and completing the final miles of the course in Central Park before crossing the
finish line at Columbus Circle. It is important to note that bridges, streets, and avenues are closed to
vehicular and foot traffic during the marathon, making any form of transportation virtually impossible.
2.3 New York City Marathon & NYRR Finances and Charity Involvement
Although many were skeptical of Lebow's decision to stretch the marathon throughout the
boroughs, in 1976, 2,090 runners were at the starting line in Staten Island. In 1978, 9,000 people were
at the starting line, including world class runner, Grete Waitz, who broke the women's record at the
NYC Marathon. As the marathon continued to grow, and more world class runners began to register, so
did the city's support for the event and its runners. Today, thousands of people from New York and
around the world line the streets of New York City to cheer on their favorite runners, friends, and
family members. Many say the marathon creates a sense of unity between the boroughs; even more
appreciate the revenue stream it brings to the city. According to a 2010 study, the marathon itself is
worth $320 million. In 2010, there were 45,350 runners (Wile, 2012). The entry fee was $149 for US
NYRR members, and $185 for US non-NYRR members (2012 prices were raised to $216 and $255,
respectively). The fee for internationals in 2010 was $265, raised to $347 in 2012 (Smiley, 2012). On
average, a single runner spent $1,800 throughout the course of the weekend, which included food,
hotels, and shopping. When you factor in that each runner has an average of three guests with them, the
Sprinting From Sandy: The PR Storm Surrounding NYRR and the Cancellation of the 2012 ING NYC Marathon
amount of money that pours into the city during marathon weekend is staggering. The race also yields
tax revenues of between $10.8 and $11.2 million dollars per year (Wile, 2012).
NYRR stresses their involvement in charity organizations and promotes charity fundraising as a
large part of the race, on both an individual and corporate level. Individual runners can raise a specific
amount of money, between $3,000 and $5,000, for an official ING charity to defer their entrance fee.
These charities include NYRR Champion's Circle, Fred's Team, and Team for Kids. Many runners will
partner with a charity on their own to raise money, as well. In 2011, runners raised $34 million for
various charities, including the official ING charities. NYRR, however, has been under fire for their
own lack of charitable contribution. Their 2011 revenue was $53.8 million, however, they only donated
$494,000 to charities, $208,340 of which went to its own programs. Consequently, NYRR CEO, Mary
Wittenberg, currently earns a yearly salary of $500,843 (Macintosh, 2012).
Hurricane Sandy
3.1 The Path of Destruction [Appendix 2]
Hurricane Sandy started as a tropical depression in the Caribbean Sea, became a Category 1
Hurricane in Jamaica, moved to Cuba and destroyed the city of Santiago de Cuba, and finally turned
towards the Northeast. It first hit North Carolina, sending violent waves into the Outer Banks and
washing out part of NC Highway 12. As the storm's path continued to move west, a high pressure cold
front from the north was forcing the storm to move towards New York. Adding to the equation of a
perfect storm was the fact that it was a full moon cycle; the moon's gravitational pull, when full, creates
a stronger-than-usual high-tide. Therefore, the full moon would amplify any storm surge, even ones
that were already predicted to be historically large. At 8:00pm on October 29th, high tide, Hurricane
Sandy hit land in Atlantic City, New Jersey. A historic surge of nearly 14 feet smashed over the Atlantic
City sea wall, destroying the historic boardwalks and many of its memorable attractions (Drye, 2012).
From Atlantic City, Sandy crashed through New York City's boroughs, swirled across Connecticut, and
finally dissipated over Pennsylvania.
3.2 Death Tolls, Property Damage, and Financial Implications.
From the time the hurricane hit land to when it finally dissipated over Pennsylvania, it had
ripped through Breezy Point, Brooklyn, where it destroyed more than 80 homes. It destroyed
Sprinting From Sandy: The PR Storm Surrounding NYRR and the Cancellation of the 2012 ING NYC Marathon
coastlines and even more homes along Long Beach Island and Fire Island. Highways and subway
stations were closed for days in Manhattan, Queens, and the Bronx. 108 people lost their lives. The
New York Times Stock Exchange was closed for two full business days. Hospitals were evacuated,
including the entire Premature Baby unit at New York University. 656,000 homes and businesses lost
power for days and some for weeks (Deprez, Goldman, Vekshin, 2012).
The total cost of repairs due to Hurricane Sandy across New York has been totaled to exceed
$42 billion. Included in that amount is $32 billion for “repairs and restoration” and $9 billion for
preventative measures for a future storm. According the New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg,
the total amount for public and private losses in New York City alone are $19 billion, and only $3.8
billion of that will be covered by insurance. FEMA will provide an additional $5.4 billion in help,
which leaves the total cost not covered by any type of financial assistance to be about $9.8 billion
(“Hurricane Sandy losses hit $42B across New York,” 2012).
The Cancellation of the Marathon
Hurricane Sandy hit the Northeast on Monday, October 29th, 2012 at approximately 8:00pm. At
11:02pm of that night, SportsIllustrated.com published an article with a quote from New York Road
Runners President and CEO, Mary Wittenberg, in which she said that the marathon would not be
affected by Hurricane Sandy and that NYRR had time on their side which would allow them to be able
to prepare the course accordingly (“NYC Marathon not expected to be hurt by Sandy,” 2012).
The storm subsided on Tuesday, October 30th, and for many, the marathon was the last thing on
their minds. But for some, it was the only thing on their minds. Runners in New York and across the
country were wondering if the course would be changed or if the marathon would even happen. After
much speculation, Wittenberg issued the following statement:
"The Marathon has always been a special day for New Yorkers as a symbol of the vitality and
resiliency of this City. NYRR continues to move ahead with its planning and preparation. We
will keep all options open with regard to making any accommodations and adjustments
necessary to race day and race weekend events." (Scott, 2012)
There was no indication from NYRR that the marathon would be cancelled. Wittenberg, the highestranking person at NYRR, made a public statement addressing their intentions to proceed as planned. In
addition, her statement went on to say that NYRR empathized with the people of New York and gladly
offered their help (Scott, 2012).
Sprinting From Sandy: The PR Storm Surrounding NYRR and the Cancellation of the 2012 ING NYC Marathon
On Wednesday, October 31st, Mayor Bloomberg issued a statement, saying that the marathon
would continue as planned as a symbol of vigilance that New York City is known for.
“It’s a great event for New York, and I think for those who were lost, you know, you’ve got
to believe they would want us to have an economy and have a city go on for those that they
left behind (Belson, Pilon, 2012).”
Despite the intention for the marathon to continue, there were many people across the country
and around the world that were unable to get to New York City as a result of the hurricane. With many
people on Facebook, online message boards, and directly contacting NYRR wondering about the status
of their entry and entry fees if they were unable to make it to New York, Wittenberg issued a statement
saying that if runners were to withdraw from the race, they would be guaranteed a spot in 2013's event,
but they would lose their 2012 entrance fee and still have to pay a new fee in 2013 (Belson, Pilon,
Contact between NYRR and the registered marathon runners was slim to none in the days
following Wittenberg's and Bloomberg's original statements. Many runners and marathon enthusiasts
took to online message boards to vent their frustrations, opinions, and share rumors and truths.
What I am trying to avoid is spending a few thousands of dollars to get to NY and THEN
the race gets cancelled. I know...tough decision but this is why Mary gets the big bucks....to
make the big decisions!! Make them by 4PM tomorrow and be done with this. It is fair to
NO ONE!! (claman1022, 2012)
Seems like a foregone conclusion that it's over. How are all the out of town runners going to
make it there with airport closed and thousands of flights cancelled? It could take a week or
10 days for the transportation systems to be back online and through the backlog. (Raging
Bull, 2012)
...they've made NO specific policy announcements regarding this so far, other than I believe
the extension to Saturday. But they're going to have to give more details pretty soon, you
would think this morning. (CFByrne, 2012)
“I had been looking forward to this race forever. But now I just don't feel right about
running it. The more I think on it, the worse it sits with me. It's too soon, people are still
suffering too much. It seems disrespectful...” (Furry_Monkeys, 2012)
Sprinting From Sandy: The PR Storm Surrounding NYRR and the Cancellation of the 2012 ING NYC Marathon
As the days passed with no new information or official statements from NYRR or New York
City officials, and frustration and skepticism continuing to rise, the fact remained that the city was still
in desperate need of supplies: food, water, clothing, and power resources. But since Wittenberg and
Bloomberg were determined to continue with the marathon as planned, NYRR volunteers continued to
set up around the city and two event tents were erected in Central Park. Two large generators, with an
unused generator being kept as “backup”, were running power for the tents. According to an article
published on nypost.com, the three diesel-powered generators were capable of outputting 80 kilowats
of power, which was enough to supply power to nearly 400 homes in destroyed areas around New York
(Auer, Celona, Fasick, Palmeri, 2012). The pictures of the generators went viral, showing up on
running blogs and national news websites. The reputation of NYRR had dropped considerably in the
eyes of people across the nation.
Despite the onslaught of public backlash, NYRR had not released a statement regarding the
marathon since the first on October 29th. Event preparation continued and runners and running
enthusiasts kept making their way into the city. The marathon expo at the Jacob K. Javits Center, a
massive convention center in midtown Manhattan, still took place. On the morning of Friday
November, 2nd, Bloomberg issued a statement that the marathon was still going to be run, and
specifically addressed those who felt that the marathon's resources could have been better used
"There will be no diversion of resources, there will be no redistribution of our efforts, no
diminution of our efforts. We have a 24/7 operation going that I'm confident
we're going to do (“Outrage grows over decision to run NYC marathon,” 2012).”
And then finally, in late afternoon on November 2nd, three days after Hurricane Sandy wreaked
havoc on the five boroughs of New York City, Bloomberg and Wittenberg released joint statements
announcing the cancellation of the 2012 ING New York City Marathon. The first from Bloomberg,
“We cannot allow a controversy over an athletic event -- even one as meaningful as this -- to
distract attention away from all the critically important work that is being done to recover
from the storm and get our city back on track. The New York Road Runners will have
additional information in the days ahead for participants (Powers, 2012)."
Sprinting From Sandy: The PR Storm Surrounding NYRR and the Cancellation of the 2012 ING NYC Marathon
Followed by Wittenberg,
“Earlier this week, we sat down with the Mayor and decided that the ING New York City
Marathon would be an amazing opportunity to honor the city, embrace those hurt and lost in
the storms, and help the city move forward. From the earliest days this week, the
Marathon had ceased to be about running and was all about how best to aid New York City.
Today it is my job to say there will not be a 2012 ING New York City Marathon (Huebner,
Many were happy and many were frustrated, but all were relieved that a decision had finally
been made. However, with only two days until the marathon was supposed to start, almost all runners
from around the world had landed in New York City, spending hundreds, sometimes thousands, of
dollars to get there. The only statement regarding any type of financial information came from
Wittenberg's email on October 29th, when she relayed information about people willingly withdrawing
from the race.
While the public announcement regarding the cancellation was made on Friday, the marathon's
principle stakeholders didn't receive any type of contact from NYRR until Saturday, November 3rd,
shown in Appendix 3. In the email, Wittenberg suggested the media's “antagonistic” coverage created
safety issues for runners and marathon workers. She didn't make any apologies for her lack of
communication. Instead, she asked runners for more money in the form of donations for its “Race to
Recover” Marathon fund, in which donations would be used to help New Yorkers impacted by
Hurricane Sandy. There was no information regarding financial refunds, which steps to take for the
2013 marathon entry, or even ways that runners could volunteer around New York (Feller, personal
communication, November 26th, 2012).
No further information was relayed to runners until November 7th, 2012, five days after the
cancellation announcement. The letter thanked the runners for their patience and said that NYRR's
priorities were “to address your concerns.” Again, there was no specific or detailed information for the
runners specifically. Since that November 7th email, the 2012 ING New York City Marathon registered
runners have received no direct communication from NYRR (Feller, personal communication,
November 26th, 2012).
Public Perception
5.1 Stakeholder Response
Sprinting From Sandy: The PR Storm Surrounding NYRR and the Cancellation of the 2012 ING NYC Marathon
New York Road Runners and Wittenberg have received an incredible amount of backlash from
its stakeholders due to their lack of communication during and after the hurricane. In public relations,
the attribution theory, identified by Timothy Coombs (2012), “is based on the belief that people assign
responsibility for negative, unexpected events.” Despite Bloomberg's declaration that city resources
were not being diverted for the marathon, many people blamed NYRR and Wittenberg for the lack of
power in their homes and offices. This feeling was only fueled by the sight of the generators for the
marathon event tents in Central Park.
In response to Wittenberg's blame on the media, Michael Vaccaro, a well known writer for the
New York Post, wrote a scathing response to Wittenberg's November 2nd cancellation letter, saying that
she “tarnished the legacy of Fred Lebow,” calling her “heartless,” and suggesting she resign as CEO of
“Blame the media? Please. I wish the media could take the credit for making a fool like
Wittenberg understand how wrong it was to pursue running this race. The media? It was a
public outcry, an opinion raging in the name of common sense and common decency — and
flying in the face of the arrogance embodied by the NYRR (Vaccaro, 2012).”
Registered runners, as well as non-registered runners, were infuriated with NYRR and their lack
of information. Earlier in the week, Wittenberg announced the financial implications of withdrawing
from the race; however, there was no information on what would happen if the race was cancelled.
When the cancellation was officially announced, the focus of the runners turned towards their
expenses: the amount they spent on entry fees, travel, hotels, and food. Would fees be reimbursed?
Would they have automatic reentry into the 2013 marathon? For those who were running for charities,
would they have to re-raise money? Once again they took to online message boards and social media to
vent their frustrations and seek answers.
If they keep peoples money, I will NEVER run another NYRR race. That would be
incredibly unfair. (CPA Iglesias, 2012)
Will Mary Wittenberg be forced to return her $500k salary. Just saying hypocrisy. She can
give away millions of runners of money, many of whom are barely scraping by, but she
will gladly keep her bloated salary. (clarkpark, 2012)
Can you please tell all runners, those who deferred and those who didn't, what we are
supposed to do now to be able to run next year? Will we receive automatic entry? Will our
entries for next year be covered by the costs we have already paid? (Brooke Nicholls
Sprinting From Sandy: The PR Storm Surrounding NYRR and the Cancellation of the 2012 ING NYC Marathon
Nelson, November 3).
Coombs (2012) writes, “When delays are necessary, tell stakeholders why the question cannot be
answered and when they might be able to expect a response.” There was no acknowledgement of the
runners' questions, despite the fact that NYRR's Facebook page and running message boards were
dominated with questions. Had Wittenberg responded quickly and honestly, runners may have had
more patience with NYRR and the lack of information. Had she taken responsibility for the lack of
communication to runners, praised Mayor Bloomberg for his support of NYRR and New York City,
and used the media to her advantage, she could have potentially saved NYRR's reputation. Instead, she
blamed the media and made perhaps her biggest ally turn against her.
5.2 Financial Impact
As stated above, NYRR has not made any public statements regarding any type of financial
reimbursement of entry fees or travel expenses for the registered runners. In her letter from November
2nd announcing the cancellation, Wittenberg stated that $1.1 million had been donated to its own charity
fund, “Race to Recover.” One can speculate that part of that $1.1 million came from runners' entry fees.
Another financial gain for NYRR is the fact that they did not have to award the cash prizes for
the top marathon finishers. The male and female winners of the marathon were set to receive $130,000
each. Additionally, for anyone who finished the full 26.2 miles in under 2 hours and 5 minutes, they
would have received $60,000; $50,000 for running the race under 2 hours and 6 minutes. The top
American male and female finishers would have received $20,000 (Longman, 2012). For runners who
depend on those winnings for a major source of income, that is an incredible blow to their finances. For
NYRR, it's a financial win.
New York City was not terribly hurt financially from the cancellation of the marathon. Had the
cancellation happened on Tuesday, or even Wednesday, many people would have been able to cancel
their travel plans and not spend the time and money to get to New York. However, 40,000 of the 47,500
runners, and their guests, had already arrived in the city (Robbins, Belson, 2012), and spent their
money on hotels, food, and entertainment. While the financial loss from the cancellation to New York
City wasn't large, the cancellation itself was a conundrum; in a time of great despair, a financial
stimulus due to a large, annual event is welcomed to help curb disaster expenses.
Sprinting From Sandy: The PR Storm Surrounding NYRR and the Cancellation of the 2012 ING NYC Marathon
Summary: How Can NYRR Move Forward?
The New York Road Runners organization has many miles ahead of them to fix their broken
reputation. An organization that was founded on the combined love of running and New York City,
NYRR's love appeared to change to only money. Not only did Wittenberg have a complete lack of
communication with NYRR's primary stakeholders, but when she finally did communicate, more
money was asked of them. She didn't comment on entry fee reimbursement, travel expenses, or even
list places where runners could volunteer around the city. Throughout the heartbreaking natural disaster
that was Hurricane Sandy, Wittenberg ran NYRR like a business rather than an integral part of a
devastated city.
Not only did Wittenberg ignore her stakeholders, she then insulted the media. In public
relations, the media can be your best friend or your mortal enemy. In this case, Wittenberg's accusatory
tone towards the media resulted in a backlash of negative press and a public request for her resignation
in one of the city's most popular media outlets. Social media, such as Facebook and running enthusiast
message boards, became a place for people to vent. While NYRR vaguely and sporadically
communicated with their stakeholders through their Facebook page, they failed to acknowledge a main,
central site for questions and information. Therefore, a wild fire of rumors and rage ignited throughout
the online running community; a fire that was, and still is, nearly impossible to put out.
Rebuilding Posture and Bolstering Posture are two crisis response strategies that Wittenberg
needs to use in order to successfully rebound from this crisis. Coombs (2012) suggests using
compensation and apology during the Rebuilding Posture strategy, providing financial compensation or
gifts, as well as taking full responsibility for the crisis. By using the Bolstering Posture strategy, NYRR
can remind its stakeholders of past positive actions, as well as praising its stakeholders and relating to
what they are going through.
Running will continue to be a dominant and popular sport, and NYRR will continue to be one
of its premier organizations. The New York City Marathon will continue to flourish in years to come
and people will still add it to their “bucket lists.” However, NYRR is now branded as an organization
that doesn't care for the people who make it successful, the people who pour their heart and soul into
training and successfully completing its events. It is a branding which may be as devastating to NYRR
as Superstorm Sandy was to New York City.
Sprinting From Sandy: The PR Storm Surrounding NYRR and the Cancellation of the 2012 ING NYC Marathon
Appendix 1
NYC Marathon Course Map
Source: www.ingnycmarathon.org/entrantinfo/course.htm
Sprinting From Sandy: The PR Storm Surrounding NYRR and the Cancellation of the 2012 ING NYC Marathon
Appendix 2
Hurricane Sandy Path
Source: “Superstorm Sandy,” All Hands Volunteers 10/27/12. Accessed November 30th, 2012 from
Sprinting From Sandy: The PR Storm Surrounding NYRR and the Cancellation of the 2012 ING NYC Marathon
Appendix 3
Cancellation Letter from NYRR to Registered Marathon Runners
Source: A. Feller (personal communication, November 26 th, 2012)
Sprinting From Sandy: The PR Storm Surrounding NYRR and the Cancellation of the 2012 ING NYC Marathon
Belson, K., Pilson, M. (2012, October 31). Marathon Is Set to Go On, Stirring Debate. Retrieved from
Brook Nicholls Nelson (2012, November 3). Retrieved from
CFByrne (2012, October 31). Cancellation/Deferral. Message posted to
http://forums.runnersworld.com/forums/races-places/new-york-citymarathon/cancellation-deferral(claman1022 10/30/12)
claman1022 (2012, October 30). Cancellation/Deferral. Message posted to
marathon/cancellation-deferral(claman1022 10/30/12)
Clarkpark (2012, November 3). Refund. Message posted to
Coombs, T. (2012). Ongoing crisis communication: Planning, managing, and responding. Thousand
Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
CPA Iglesias (2012, November 3). Refund. Message posted to
Sprinting From Sandy: The PR Storm Surrounding NYRR and the Cancellation of the 2012 ING NYC Marathon
Deprez, E. E., Goldman, H., Vekshin, A. (2012, October 31). New York Mops Up as Sandy’s Floods
Recede, Deaths Climb. Retrieved from
Drye, W. (2012, November 2). A Timeline of Hurricane Sandy’s Path of Destruction. Retrieved from
Furry_Monkeys (2012, November 2). Who else is local and thinking of canceling. Message posted to
“History,” n.d. Retrieved from http://www.nyrr.org/about-us/history
Huebner, B. (2012, November 2). 2012 ING New York City Marathon Cancelled. Retrieved from
Hurricane Sandy losses hit $42B across New York. (2012, November 26). Retrieved from
Longman, J. (2012, November 3). Contenders Miss Out on Chance for Big Payday. Retrieved from
Macintosh, J. (2012, November 12). New York Road Runners, organizers of New York City
Marathon, paid only $494,000 to charity last year. Retrieved from
Sprinting From Sandy: The PR Storm Surrounding NYRR and the Cancellation of the 2012 ING NYC Marathon
NYC Marathon not expected to be hurt by Sandy. (2012, October 29). Retrieved from
Outrage grows over decision to run NYC marathon. (2012, November 2). Retrieved from
Palmeri, T., Celona, L., Auer, D., Fasick, K. (2012, November 2). This is no way to get us up &
running. Retrieved from
Powers, C. (2012, November 2). Michael Bloomberg statement on NYC Marathon cancellation.
Retrieved from http://newyork.sbnation.com/2012/11/2/3592772/new-york-marathon-cancelledmichael-bloomberg-statement
Raging Bull (2012, October 30). Looks like NYC Marathon cancelled. Message posted to
Robbins, L., Belson, K. (2012, November 3). Costs of Canceling Marathon are Uncounted but
Immense.Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/04/sports/marathons-cancellationsure-to-carry-huge-costs.html?_r=1&adxnnl=1&smid=fbshare&pagewanted=1&adxnnlx=1354388629-rD1MUqwFBdwhg1SM44jmew
Scott, R. (2012, October 30). New York Marathon still on for Sunday despite storm.Retrieved from
Sprinting From Sandy: The PR Storm Surrounding NYRR and the Cancellation of the 2012 ING NYC Marathon
Smiley, B. (2012, January 2). New York City Marathon Significantly Raises Entry Fee. Retrieved
from nymag.com/daily/intel/2012/01/nyc-marathon-raises-entry-fee.html
Vaccaro, M. (2012, November 4). Vaccaro: NYRR head deserves to be fired for blaming media over
canceled marathon. Retrieved from
Wile, R. (2012, November 2). Look how much money the marathon brings to NYC.
Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/lets-look-at-all-the-ways-themarathon-brings-money-to-nyc-2012-11