Eye tracking Reading- Dual route Model Dyslexia

Eye tracking
Reading- Dual route Model
Dyslexia
Linguaggio e Movimenti Oculari
TECNICA
Il laboratorio di eye-tracking
Linguaggio e Movimenti Oculari
TECNICA
Il laboratorio di eye-tracking
Linguaggio e Movimenti Oculari
TECNICA
Il laboratorio di eye-tracking
Linguaggio e Movimenti Oculari
TECNICA
Experimental Questions
•
•
•
•
Do
“which”-questions
require
more
processing than “who”-questions?
Are object-extraction more difficult than
subject-extraction?
Chi saluta/salutano i nonni in stazione?
Quale bambino saluta/salutano i nonni in
stazione?
Experimental items
1
1. Puoi dirmi chi
2. Puoi dirmi chi
2
3
saluta
4
5
i nonni alla partenza in stazione?
salutano
i nonni alla partenza in stazione?
3. Puoi dirmi quale nipote saluta
i nonni alla partenza in stazione?
4. Puoi dirmi quale nipote salutano
i nonni alla partenza in stazione?
Variables: Reading times
Total reading time: summation of the duration
across all fixations on the current interest
area.
First pass reading time: summation of the
duration across all fixations of the first run
within the current interest area.
Second pass reading time: summation of the
duration across all fixations of the second run
of fixations within the current interest area.
Variables: Regressions
• Regression in: whether the current interest
area received at least one regression from
later interest areas (e.g., later parts of the
sentence).
• Regression out: Whether regression(s) was
made from the current interest area to earlier
interest areas (e.g., previous parts of the
sentence) prior to leaving that interest area in
a forward direction.
Variables: Regressions
• Regression out full: whether regression(s) was
made from the current interest area to earlier
interest areas (e.g., previous parts of the
sentence). Note that Regression out only
considers first-pass regressions whereas
Regression out full considers all regressions,
regardless whether later areas have been
visited or not.
First pass reading time
350
300
250
sing
quale
150
plur
quale
ms
200
100
sing chi
50
CHI/QUALE NP
VERB
NP OBJ/SUBJ
0
2
3
Regions
4
plur chi
Reading
Learning to Read
• Reading emerges only with special instruction
in the vast majority of children
• Precursors to reading an alphabetic script:
– phonemic awareness
– the alphabetic principle:grapheme-phoneme
– Pre-readers’ phonemic awareness predicts how
rapidly and successfully they will learn to read
later on
• Tests for phonemic awareness:
– elision: take away / k/ from “cat”)
– blending: / k/ + / at/ = ?
– sound categorization: Which word doesn’t belong: fun,
pin, bun, gun?
• Letter-sound mapping is complicated in deep
orthographies
– / s/ goes with “s” and “c”
– “c” participates in “s,” “k,” “ch,” silent
• English orthography is a compromise between
conveying phonological information and preserving
morphological information
Cognitive Models of Reading
• Dual-Route
Dual-Route Model
2
1
Dual-Route Model
• Regular words are accessed via assembled
phonology
– so are novel words
• Irregular words are accessed by the
orthographic/direct route
Dual Route Model
• Advantages:
– models pronunciation performance under normal
conditions (model pronounces 7980/7981 words
correctly) and time pressure (model makes errors,
like people do)
– Models irregularity effects; location of irregularity
matters
Dual-Route Models
• Disadvantages:
– predicted visual uniqueness point effects are not
observed in natural reading
Dyslexia
• Dyslexia: When an individual has a problem
reading even though they are otherwise
intellectually and behaviorally normal and
have had the proper instruction and
opportunity to practice reading.
• Approximately 15% of males and 5% of
females have developmental dyslexia.
Dyslexia
• Phonological/deep dyslexia: more trouble
reading non-words than exception words.
• Surface dyslexia: more trouble reading
exception words than non-words.
– and over-regularization errors:
– pronouncing “pint” to rhyme with “mint”
• Most dyslexics fall into the mixed type.
Dyslexia
• Dual-route explanation:
– surface dyslexia: failure of the direct/orthographic
route
– phonological/deep dyslexia: failure of the
assembled phonology route
Dyslexia
• Single-Route Explanation:
– Reduced hidden units: problems with low
frequency words, especially exception words
– Mild damage to phonological units: phonological
dyslexia
– Severe damage to phonological units: surface
dyslexia (trouble with both exception words and
non-words)
DYS app iphone
Open Dyslexic font