Body Composition

*Body Composition
Body composition is the relative percentage of muscle, fat, bone and other tissue in
the body.
Primary concern is body fatness not body weight.
1. The average male carries between ________% body fat
2. The average female carries between ______% body fat
3. Overfat:
4. Under fat: Male:
greater than _______%
greater than _______%
less than _______%
less than _______%
5. What weighs more? 3 cups of lean muscle or 3 cups of fat?
*Eating Disorders
6. Define Obesity:
7. Anorexia Nervosa: mental disorder
List 3 symptoms:
8. If a person is binge eating and then vomiting to prevent digestion it is most likely
they are suffering from ______________________.
*Body Measurement Methods
9. _______- __________ tables- Measure the ideal weight you should be at for a certain
height, however does not account for ________ _________.
10. BMI (________ _________ __________): Does not assess body fat directly,
however, coupled with knowledge of a person’s _________ ___________, it does give an
accurate indication of a person’s __________ ___ ______________.
BMI is a measure of ___________ in relation to _____________.
BMI Formula = __________________________________________
11. Why would a BMI measurement be inaccurate for many athletes?
The method of body fat analysis done in class:
12. _________ __________ ____________ (“fat pinching”): using fat calipers, certain
areas of the body measured for body fat
13. List the 3 body areas measured in class for males or for females.
When used correctly they are fairly accurate and reliable.
14. The accuracy of a skin fold test is approximately this range:
+ or - _____%
15. ________________ _________________: calculates body
fat in seconds by running a weak electrical current through the
16. List the Disadvantages of #15 method that affect resultsa.
17. Describe Hydrostatic Weighing, its range of accuracy and disadvantages:
18. Teen growth: Complete the table for typical teenage growth pattern.
Teen Growth
Ages of Growth
Generally Stops
stops around 16
Describe Growth Spurt
height and weight spurt
occurs at the same time
19. Our success as athletes comes from a combination of:
20. There are 3 components to body build:
There are three extreme body types:
List the Name and/or all characteristics for each extreme body type:
21. Endomorph:
22. ___________________:
Wide broad shoulders
A minimum amount of fat
23. Ectomorph:
Receding chin
Narrow shoulders, hips, chest, and abdomen
Little muscle and fat
24. Define (BMR):
25. BMR fastest during __________ years and gradually ____________ as you get
Classes of Nutrients
26. Fill in the following blanks:
a. _______________________
:builds, repairs and maintains tissues
b. _______________________
:insulates body, cushions and protects vital
c. _______________________
: provide the body with energy
d. _______________________
: Regulate the release of energy and other
aspects of metabolism.
e. _______________________
: responsible for temperature control,
circulations and urine production.
f. _______________________
:your body needs these but cannot produce
them. Must be acquired through food.
g. _______________________
: nutrients manufactured in the body.
27. Canada Food Guide
Complete the chart for the 4 food groups, appropriate number of servings and a food
example for each group.
Food Group
# of Servings
Food Example
5 - 12
Vegetables and Fruit
Milk, cheese, yogurt
28. Name the five components of healthy eating
4. ____________
3. ____________
29. Name, define and give an example of the two types of Carbohydrates.
*Carbohydrate foods are needed to refill muscle glycogen stores. This is the
most accessible form of energy for athletes.
There are two types of fats:
a. Saturated
Solid at room temperature
Animal foods
Raises Cholesterol levels.
b. Unsaturated:
Polyunsaturated and Monounsaturated
Liquid at room temperature
Plant foods
Can help lower cholesterol level
Vegetable, corn oil – polyunsaturated
Olive and canola oil – monounsaturated
30. Trans fats are formed by what process? ____________________ of vegetable oil.
31. Provide an example of a food product containing trans fats. __________________
32. There are two types of cholesterol. Identify the “good and bad” cholesterol.
a. Good cholesterol: ______________________
b. Bad cholesterol: ______________
33. Match the following protein and vegetarian definitions:
______ Provide enough essential amino acids
A. Ovo – lacto Vege.
_______ Vegetarians get their protein from this source.
B. semi- Vege.
_______ This person does not consume any animal products
C. Complete protein
_______ This type of vegetarian consumes fish,
poultry and dairy
D. Vegan
_______ This type of vegetarian will consume dairy but
not eggs.
E. Lacto – Vege.
_______ This type of vegetarian will consume dairy and
F. Plants – Incomplete
______ This type of vegetarian will consume eggs.
G. Ovo – Vege.
Vitamins and Minerals do NOT supply energy, they regulate the release of energy.
34. List the four fat soluble vitamins. Why are they called fat soluble?
35. ____________________ What vitamin has the chief role of bone and tooth
formation and aids the absorption of calcium?
36. ____________________ This vitamin heals wounds, maintains bones, teeth
and increases your resistance for infections.
37. ____________________ This mineral’s chief role is fluid balance, nerve
transmission and muscle function.
Water is the most vital nutrient.
38. _____________________ Water makes up this percentage of the body
39. _____________________ How is water lost from the body?
Dehydration can be very serious and can directly affect an athlete’s performance as well
as general health.
40. Provide 3 methods of monitoring dehydration.
41. How much water should you consume every 15 minutes during activity?
42. Explain carbohydrate loading for competition.
43. List the guidelines for preparing a pre-event meal
High in:
Low in:
Plenty of:
Low in:
Low in:
Low in:
44. List the Key points for nutrition during exercise:
Post exercise nutrition is very important for athletes to recovery effectively from
45. Identify the type of food necessary for post event activity, what does it provide and
how soon after.
46. Match the following sport performance foods with the definition.
Convenient, simple and complex CHO,
use during exercise.
A. Power Protein Plus
Helps replenish muscle glycogen stores and
build strength. Use post exercise.
B. Sport Drink
Immediate and sustained energy.
Use 30 – 45 minutes prior to activity.
C. Carbohydrates
For continuous training for over an hour.
D. Power Gel
6 – 8% is the ideal amount of these.
E. Power Perf. Bar