Patented Dec. '4, 1928..
‘ '
UNITED .STATESTPATENT "oi-"rice. 1 4 ,
,wmin KILLER AND mmnon or mums WEEDS. . -_ ' ‘
No Drawing.
Application ?led April 15, 1926. Serial-‘No. 102,312.
This invention relates to a weed killer and
suitable combination has the distinct advan
method of killingweeds. Its object is to pro tage
of utilizing relatively inexpensive raw
duce a Weed killer which, when in use on and
andof yielding a combination of .
within plants, has a much morev intense, weed materials
ultimatel v‘which cooperate to re- 60
5 killing quality or property than has hereto
fore beenknown and which contains a hygro tard
'not'as well
as those
sof plant-inixtures,i.e.,‘
ofmarine origin.
sco ic ingredient that is compatible with the 'In the lattery‘form'ula, all ofthe sodium
her icidal agent and which is coactive with
constituents of the plants or vegetation to be chlorate by chemical combination with all but the excess of the calcium chloride is converted B5 .
10 killed, the hygroscopicity of the herbicide into
calcium chlorate
keeping‘ it from drying out on and within following equation: in accordance with the
plants and prolonging its herbicidal effect.
One substantial, material and crucial factor
in my new conception of means to this end
- 15 v is the incorporation in the weed killing liquor
By metathesis, the sodium chemically @co'm- 70
of an ineredient which constantly draws bines with the chlorine of the calcium chloride
- moisture from the air,_during the period of and may or~may not precipitate out as salt
( N2101) according to. the. ‘regulation ’_of the *
the activity of the weed killer on and within water
content, as may be pre'iaerredf The-re‘
plants, and of another ingredient which, at
20 the same time effects a constant liberation of sultant liquor is a calcium chlorate-calcium 76
chloride liquor which may for special uses'be
nascent oxygen.
I herein below set forth chemicals and. the substantially freed of salt (NaCl , as is ‘some
times desirable, because salt (Na 1) is promo
approximate proportions thereof which are tive
of the growth of some weeds and plants
severally. and combinatively now preferred of marine
25 for forming an aqueous, herbicidal liquor con
in each ' v v
taining this invention; but it is to be under of the foregoin liquors, (the' onethat,
stood. that the proportions may be varied
.without de arture from the invention and chloride%,
no and thetheother
chloride some
is an element
‘that I intend to cover all chemical equivalents. constant
y acting to draw moisturefrom the 85's, I
Preferably, but not necessaril , for the best
results‘as now known to me or plants of atmosphere and it may ‘be considered as an"
evaporation retarder compatible with a 'chlo
marine origin, I mix together about
0 1818/? lbs. avoirdupois of calcium chlorate
G2 a 2;) lbs. avoirdupois of ‘calcium chloride
( Adding waterlto make one gallon of solu
rate'of an alkaline earth. ase; and'in its-bef-l
havior in conjunction with the chlorates, ma- ' ‘ '.
‘ terially adds to the destruction of the ui- 90
librium of the plant processes, as hereina
-In In
'r .
search and experimentation for a - -
ki ing, aqueous liquor which would be
I The foregoing ingredients resultin about weed
b and become lethal both onv'fand 95
40 one gallon of liquor of about 29% calcium
vwithin. a p ant and be intensively deadlyyto. ‘
chlorate and ofvabout 16%"caIcium, chloride,v chlorophyll (considered as the l
‘of. a‘ '
whereby my new weed killer solution has
plant) and of other constituents of plant life,
j l
about 45% of active weed killing content,_and ,,the
. ing free from sodium chloride, is- especially
45 useful for regions teeming with ‘ marine the chemically active, waten-drawin . ele-y 100
ment) are the best of ‘various types 0
drying, aqueousv herbicides known to me;
Another suitable liquor‘ of the same nature I Th
for a more eneral u
be, con
mafe'by thelfollggjine may
,_ 3to4
ey are non-poisonous to‘anim'al life, their '- " ‘
constantly effective water-drawing content ‘
lbs. avoirdupois ofso ium chlorate _ keeps
of combustion
‘constantly "whenin-eontact
moist and reducesthewith 1,08
. 1
. (Na-C102?
21X) 5 be.'tothe'
matter. . ~
avoirdupois calcium
chloride‘. organic
t. is necessary, armada. desirable, before ‘if’.
Adding'water to make one gallon of solu considering the functionsiand effects of such a
slow-dryin ' weedlkiller, when it is on and 110
This method of ‘making thecompounds in within a p ant, brie?yltofconsider the plant - -
area ;.and, as a plant is sprayed or cov
j- The form and arrangement of the parts of minute
ered with the weed killer, the number of such
.a typical‘ foliage leaf are intlmately associated continuously active, herbicidal ?elds,‘ which
with the part played by the leafy in the life of
The ?at surface is spread to allow
the maximum amount of sunlight to fall upon
it; as it is by the absorption of energy from
. the sun’s rays by ( means of the chlorophyll
' v the plant.
are contiguous and overlapping, are multitu-v
dinous. In this way, the vegetation sprayed
is coated and very thoroughly saturated with
multi ' inous herbicidal ?elds of ‘intense,
weed " netratin and weed killing activity. ,
in the cells of the leaf) ‘that “the
o the plant is automatic as
building up-ot the plant food is rendered pos Thesaturation
a result of keeping the weed killing constitu
. contained
sible. This rocess is known as photo-syn ent-s moi-st. All the time during the active
thesis. .The ?rst stage is the combination of life of the weed killer, in situ, the calcium
carbon-dioxide absorbed from the air,'taken chloride draws moisture from the air, and so
in through the stomata into the living cells of long as the calcium chlorate, in situ, is ke t
' the leaf, with water which is brought into the moist, so long is-it in condition to be a -
leaf by wood vessels. The wood vessels form sorbed by and chloritize the plant. Such ab—
?bro-vasc-ular bundles of veins of
causes the calcium chlorate, in situ,
the leaf and are continuous through‘ the leaf sorption
to decompose with the plant juices and car
stalk and stem with the root by which water» bon dioxide gas, ever present in air and in ’
is obsorbed from the soil. ' .
plants to form carbonic acid and a certain 85
The Palisade layers of the mesoph'yll 'con-' amount of chloric acid (H0103) is liberated.
tain the larger number of chlorophyll grains This chloric acid has a very corrosive and
or corpuscles while the absorption of carbon erosive action on all constituents of living
dioxide is carried on chie?y through the
lower epidermis which is. generally vmuch plants.
_ As above described, the chlorophyll cellu
‘ part of the
* richer in stomatag
lar structure is destroyed and at the same
The Water taken up by the roots from the time the chemical and physical equilibrium
soil contains nitrogenous and mineral salts of‘the plant procemes and sap are destroyed.
which combine ‘with the ?rst product of
plant root, being deprived of any fur
photo-synthesis'——a carbohydrate-to form The
ability to continue its function, cannot
more complicated nitrogen containing food
further absorb nutriment or moisture from
substances of a protein nature. These are the soil or receive the vitall necessary chemi
then distributed by other ‘elements of the cal and physical support rom the leaves, so
vascular bundles through the leaf to the stem that the entire root structure atrophies and
and so throughout the plant to wherever
growth or development is oing on;
"A large proportion of t e water which as
cends to the leaf acts merel as a carrier for.
the other raw food materia s, and is got rid
of from the leaf in the form of water vapor
through the stomata. The lprocess is known
The calcium chlorate, by its continued con
tact with the organic material, will ulti
mately be deprived of all of its ox gen and
will‘ ?nally exist as a residue 0
chloride. In that hase it forms, in coopera
tion with such so ium chloride as may con
as transpiration. ‘Hence t e extended sur
currently be present, an eifective agency for
‘face'oi the leaf exposing a large area to retardin germination of the various plant
light and air is eminently adaptel for the types. I or example, sodium chloride is det- ' A
carrying out of the process 0 photo-syn rimental to some growthswhile stimulative 110
thesis and transpiration._
to others but the calcium chloride, being a
When the weed killer is applied to plants distinct retardant to germination, will in'
or vegetation to be killed y spraying or turn negative the stimulative tendency ‘of the
otherwise, the calcium chloride continually sodium chloride towards plants of marine
draws moisture from the air, so long as the
50 calcium chloride is active as such.
What I claim is:
I i
How the actual destructive processes en
1. A weed killer decomposable ultimately
sue must be largely speculative until the into lime and constituted fundamentally of
present mysteries in agricultural chemistry
become less obscure.
calcium as a base, the calcium being combined
t seemspossible that chemically with chlorine and oxygen-chlorine
the calcium chlorate, due to its chemical
a?inity for carbon dioxide gas in the air and
2. A herbicidal preparation composed es
leaf, and taken therein from the air, in break vsentially of an element the carbonate oi
ilng down, liberates nascent oxygen as fol which is relatively insoluble; said element be
ing combined with oxygen and chlorine to
form a water-soluble compound adapted in
presence of CO2 gas and plant tissue
in which atoms of nascent oxygen serve to the
gradually to liberate oxygen, chlorine and
form, on and within the plant, a'new, con combinations thereof and to form insoluble
centrated, herbicidal ?eld of intense plant
killing activity. This ?eld, as I call it, is a carbonates.
3. A non-poisonous herbicide comprised es
rate maydecompose- by destructive contact
sentially of calcium chlorate.
4. A complex weed killer decoin osable ul- ' with ‘the organic tissue to produce a highly
chloride of said base and there 39
timatel into lime and constituted. undamen hytgroscopic
a er cooperate with said common salt tolre
tally 0 calcium as a base, the calcium being tard
secondary growths.
combined chemicall with chlorine‘ and oxy
en-chlorine radicals, and associated with a
eliquescent salt.
retarding secondary, gcrminations thereof
which consists in sprayingthe leaves thereof 35
with ‘an aqueous solution of the oxidizing
sentially of an element the carbonate of chlorate
an alkaline earth base and the '
which is relatively insoluble; said element be liquescen'tofchloride
of an alkaline earth base.
ing combined with both oxy en and chlorine,
9. The art of wilting grown weeds and of
, 5. An herbicidal preparation composed es~
and being combined with c lorine alone, to retarding secondary ge'rminations thereof
pounds adapted in the presence of CO2 gas consists in spraying the leaves thereof with
and plant tissue gradually, to liberate oxy an aqueous solution composed of sodium onlo
ride, and the chloride and chlorate of an al-_
gen, chlorine and combinations thereof and kaline
earth base.
‘form two associated water-soluble com
to form insoluble carbonates.
. A non-poisonous herbicide comprised es
cium chloride.
7. The art of wilting grown weeds of
, mixed origins and
_10. A non-poisonous non~explosive ‘liquid
sentially of both calcium chlorate and cal‘ for wilting grown weeds ‘of mixed ori 'ns
of retarding secondary
germinations thereof which consists in spray
ing the leaves thereof with an aqueous solu
and for inhibiting secondary igerminations‘
thereof, said liquid being an aqueous solution
of the chlorate andthe chloride of an alkaline
earth base; each in a considerable quantity.
Signed at- New York city in the county of
tion‘composedof the chlorate of an alkaline New York and State of New York this 24th
earth base and common salt whereby the chlo day of March, A. D. 1926..
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