Supernova Remnant - University of Manitoba

Supernova Remnant
Kirsten Chan
Kepler’s Supernova Remnant
Photo Credit: NASA/CXC/NCSU/M.Burkey et al;
• Supernova: Explosive death of a star, caused
by onset of nuclear burning (Type 1) or an
enormously energetic shock (Type 2)
• Supernova Remnant: The scattered glowing
remains from a supernova
(Chaisson et al. 2005)
Formation of Supernova Remnant
• When a supernova explosion occurs, energy is
released as
– Energetic neutrinos (majority)
– Kinetic Energy
• The kinetic energy accelerates through stellar
– Causes shock waves to plows outwards into
interstellar medium
• Interstellar medium gets enriched
• Expanding/additional material from blast travels
to interstellar medium, and Supernova Remnants
are formed
Types of Supernova Remnants
• Shell Type
– Nothing in the center (ring-like structure)
Supernova Remnant E0102-72
Photo credit: NASA/CXC/SAO
(Germany, et al. 1999)
• Crab-like (aka. Plerions)
– Pulsar in the center (blob-like shape)
Supernova Remnant: Crab Nebula
Photo Credit: Malin/Pasachoff/Caltech
(Germany, et al. 1999)
• Composite Types
– Mix between Shell and Crab-like
Supernova Remnant IC 433
Photo Credit: Jonathan Keohane
(Germany, et al. 1999)
Article #1: Cooling neutron star in the
Cassiopeia A supernova remnant:
Evidence for super fluidity in the core
Cassiopeia A Background Information
• The one of the youngest supernova remnant
in the Milky Way Galaxy
• Approx 11 000 light years away
• Approx 27 light years across
Cassiopeia A
Photo Credit:
NASA/CXC/UNAM/Ioffe/D.Page,P.Shternin et al
(Hwang et al. 2012)
 Approx 330 year old Neutron Star
Carbon Atmosphere
Declining surface temperature
• After a 10 year Chandra observation
– Studies concludes to ~4% temperature decline
• Declining surface temperature is explained by the
neutrons star core becomes superfluid
– Produce a splash of neutrino emission due to cooper
pair formation
(Shternin et al. 2011)
Press Article: NASA’s Chandra Finds
New Evidence on Origin of Supernovas
Tycho Background Information
• Supernova remnant of Tycho was discovered
in 1572
• Estimated distance ~ 13 000 light years
• Estimated Size: ~20 light years
Supernova Remnant Tycho
Photo Credit: NASA/CXC/Chinese Academy of Science/ F.Lu
et al
(Eriksen, et al. 2011)
• Researchers study remnant of supernova
• In x-ray emission of the supernova remnant,
found an arc
• This supports that shock waves created the arc
• Understanding Type 1a supernovas
• Properties of x-ray arc was able to determine
– Separation: 1/10 of distance from earth to sun
– Orbital Period: 5 days
(CXC 2011)
Article #2: Supernova Evolution in an
Interstellar Medium with Evaporating Clouds
Stages of Expansion
• Three standard stages of expanding supernova
– Free Expansion Stage
– Adiabatic
– Radiactive Phase
(White at al. 1991)
• Mathematical models of evolution of a
supernova remnant expansion in a cloudy
interstellar medium
• Detailed calculations of Supernova Remnant
Expansion in Cloudy Interstellar Medium
– X-ray, infrared, optical luminosities
(White et al. 1991)
– Formation
– Classification Types
– Supernova Expansion
– Cassiopeia A Neutron’s Star
– Supernova Evolution in Interstellar Medium with
Evaporating Cloud
– Tycho Supernova Remnant
Work Cited
 Chaisson E, McMillan S. 2011. Astronomy Today. 7th ed. San Francisco, CA. Pearson Education
 CXC. 2011. NASA’S Chandra finds new Evidence on Origin of Supernovas. Chandra X-Ray
Observatory. NASA.
 CXC. 2011. Tycho’s Supernova Remnant: Exploding Stars and Stripes. Chandra X-Ray
Observatory. NASA.
 CXC. 2012. Cassiopeia A: A Star Explodes and Turns Inside Out. Chandra X-Ray Observatory.
 DoITPoMS. 2013. Cooper Pair Formation. University of Cambridge.
 Germany L, Proctor R, Fluke C, Gaztelu A, Mackie G, et al. 1999. Supernova Remnant Type. The
SAO Encyclopedia of Astronomy. Swinburne University of Technology.
 Shternin P, Yakovlev D, Heinke C, Ho W, Patnaude D. 2011. Cooling neutron star in the
Cassiopeia A supernova remnant: evidence for superfluidity in the core. MNRAS. 412:108-112
 White R, Long K. 1991. Supernova Remnant Evolution in an Interstellar Medium with
Evaporating Clouds. ApJ. 373:543-555
 Introduction to Supernova Remnants.
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