The AP Art History course emphasizes the diverse historical and cultural contexts of Western art, with an introduction to art from a variety of cultures beyond the Western tradition. Students learn to examine and critically
analyze major forms of artistic expression, including architecture, painting, sculpture, and various other media
as a reflection of a given civilization and time period. Categories of visual representation will be examined in
terms of formal, imitational, expressive, and functional approaches to art. Issues such as patronage, gender, social issues, cultural relevance, and the functions and effects of a work of art will also be emphasized. This class
will give students the opportunity to also gain knowledge of world history, geography, politics, religion, philosophy, languages, literature, as well as the visual arts as they learn who created what, when, and most importantly why it was created.
The curriculum is modeled after introductory college level art history survey courses and reflects the College
Board A.P. Art History Course Description. The semester class covers art chronologically from Prehistoric
times through to the Post-Modern Era. Because of this, the class must be fast-paced. In order for students to
have an understanding of art beyond the European tradition, about 20% of the class will be focused on the ancient to present day art of other cultures.
Students will be asked to complete reading assignments prior to class to have in depth participation in class discussions. For homework, each week they will have various essay questions presented to them that deal with
material they will have read from their textbook. They will be graded on accuracy, staying concise but well
versed in regard to the question they are presented with and they must be handed in on time. Essays will not be
accepted late unless with an excused absence. Students will learn to write about art using a specialized “visual
vocabulary” to describe and critically analyze it.
Students will also be asked to devise their own multiple choice questions after reading each section of their assigned readings. Their questions will be part of their homework grade and will be compiled to be used as class
quizzes at key points after class discussions. At the beginning of each chapter vocabulary and terminology lists
will be presented for students to define, study, and recall.
Students will also be presented with a series of topics to be prepared to discuss in the next class for discussion/participation grades. Various outside research projects, presentations, and writing assignments are also required for their class grade. Pop quizzes in the form of matching lists of vocabulary, artists, historic figures, patrons, titles, dates, and places will be given as a review of completed material from the text chapters or from
sections of a chapter. Field Trips to the North Carolina Museum of Art, the Nasher Museum in Durham and the
Ackland Museum in Chapel Hill are also planned. At the museum they will be asked to complete assignments
based on critical thinking and analysis of the historical information presented in the exhibits. After the field trip
they will have written assignments asking for contextual evaluation in regards to what was viewed at the exhibit
and how it relates to other topics studied in class. The field trip will also allow them to be able experience art
mediums in person, as opposed to only viewing reproductions.
Periodic tests and quizzes are given throughout the year using the format of the AP Art History Exam with multiple choice, short answer, and long essay questions, some of which are based on slides. Students are strongly
encouraged to take the AP Art History exam in May, and if a qualifying score is earned, college credit may be
The AP Art History exam is divided by:
Ancient through Medieval 30%
Greece and Rome
Early Christian, Byzantine, Early Medieval
Renaissance to Present 50%
Fourteenth through Sixteenth Centuries
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
Nineteenth Century
Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries
Beyond European Artistic Traditions 20%
Africa, the Americas, Asia, Near East, Oceania, Islamic traditions
Also note that the current AP exam will take a specific focus on female artists as well as Non-European
influences on art and culture.
The exam will be multiple choice questions as well as essay and short answer questions which often will
refer to images students will be familiarized with from the text, reproductions presented in class, and
various videos and assigned websites.
The following general distributions will be used to study the various media used in creating art:
40-50% Painting and Drawing
25% Architecture
25% Sculpture
5-10% Other Media
Art objects will be identified through the study of their formal qualities, such as design, materials, techniques, subjects, artists, schools and styles.
Artworks throughout history will also be studied “thematically” according to some of the main themes
used to organize them, such as:
The human figure (male and female nudes)
Palaces and residences
“Sacred Spaces”, such as temples, basilicas, and cathedrals, and objects of worship (both western and
Evolution of religious themes in art
Narrative in art
Still Life
Genre (scenes of everyday life)
“Classical” vs- classical
Judaism, Early Christian, Christian- Catholic and Protestant
Secular nonreligious context
Philosophical theories
Aesthetic context of music, poetry, literature, dance, and theater
How art (and architecture) conveys power and authority
Context- meaning in reference to the culture and geography the work was produced. - Religious beliefs,
politics, societal issues, patronage, ethnicity, geography and economics.
Students will learn to discuss and write about art using skills that define critical thinking, including analysis,
inference, and interpretation, comparison, and contrast evaluation.
Students will also learn how to use critical thinking skills to make connections from concrete to abstract,
subjective to objective, and literal to figurative.
Students will gain an understanding of different cultural traditions through art as a reflection of those societies and then be able to compare and contrast various cultures near the end of the term.
Students will learn to observe details in art visually as well as symbolically. Students will learn to relate
those details to observation of their own world.
Students will observe the evolution of art and societies through the chronological approach to teaching of art
Students will develop an art vocabulary and be able to use the language of painting, sculpture and architecture.
Students will continually be required to understand and communicate in terms of the Elements of Art and
the Principles of Design.
Students will learn technical terms, stylistic devices and understand building methods.
Students will have an opportunity to experience hands-on approaches to various media and for a better understanding of the arts.
Students will develop a basic knowledge of world religions to understand religion’s relationship with art.
Students will make connections to literary works through paintings and sculptures as narrative forms of expression.
Students will learn the titles of the periods of art and will understand the characteristics of the period as well
as what it was inspired from and or rebelled from.
Students will come to understand the business of art and the patronage necessary for much of art’s “creation”.
Students will learn the value of art in relevance to how it connects humanity and how it documents human
Each class, assignments, and evaluations will address key questions: What is Art? What is Culture? Where
does Art come from? What is the function and purpose? What are the historic events of the time period? Who are the relevant people involved in the time period? How does each period respond to later periods? What is your first response to what you see? When and where was the art made? What area/space was
the work originally intended for? What was the purpose of the art? How did the work survive and in what
condition? What is the title of the piece? Who created the work? Where is the art located currently? (Exhibited and or geographic location)
Student Learning:
During the year of students will learn:
-to do rigorous homework and reading assignments in college level texts
-in-depth study and analysis of hundreds of works of art
-to develop an art, art history and technique vocabulary
-to analyze works of art and determine styles, time periods and influences
-to understand historical facts through fine art images
-to participate in classroom discussions
-to do formal analysis using the elements and principles and composition
-to research and interpret works of art
-to understand world cultures and religions
-to make connections between cultures
-to develop learning through supporting the arts (museum and gallery attendance)
-to organize information through daily notes and lectures, texts and images
-to write comparison essays using visual prompts and or referring to comparative ideas
-to prepare and present independent research done orally in class using a variety of perspectives, media, and
-to formally analyze artworks through color reproductions and various internet resources
Textbook: Gardner’s Art through the Ages, Kleiner, Mamiya, 11th Edition, Thomson/Wadsworth
Textbook: Discovering Art History, Gerald F. Brommer, 4th Edition, Davis
Class Website: www.fhiltonartteacher.com
Internet Resources:
Tests: 25%
Research Projects/Essays: 20%
Homework: 15%
In Class participation: 15%
Classwork/Quizzes: 15%
Art History Notes/Review Book 10%
Late work: Work is due on the assigned date unless there is an excused absence. Late homework, projects, essays, etc. will be accepted up to the time that interims/report cards are issued providing ample time to grade
(one week prior to the end of the quarter) however 5 points per day will be deducted because the work is late. A
student will receive a “0” if the work is never submitted.
Excused absence -2 days for completion or in the case of exceptional circumstances the extension time will be
discussed between teacher and student.
Art beyond the European Tradition Presentations
Corresponding Chapters in Gardner’s covered:
Chapter 6: South and Southeast Asia before 1300 (pgs 160-185)
Chapter 7: China and Korea to 1279 (pgs 186-213)
Chapter 8: Early Japan before 1333 (pgs 214-229)
Chapter 13: Islamic Art (pgs 358-383)
Chapter 14: Native Arts of the Americas before 1300 (pgs 384- 413)
Chapter 15: African Art before 1800 (pgs 414- 425)
Chapter 25 South and Southeast Asia after 1200 (pgs 788- 801)
Chapter 26 China and Korea after 1279 (pgs 802- 815)
Chapter 27 Japan after 1336 (pgs 816- 833)
Chapter 30 Native American Art after 1300 (pgs 942- 959)
Chapter 31 Oceania (pgs 960- 977)
Chapter 32 Africa after 1800 (pgs 978-999)
AP Exam Overview
The AP Art History exam is exactly three hours long. It consists of 115 multiple choice questions, seven short
essays, and two long essays. Part A of the multiple-choice section includes four sets of image-based questions
that will present either a single image or two images. Part B of the multiple choice section contains 85 questions, some of which do not pertain to any specific image. Overall, the multiple-choice section of the exam
takes one hour to complete. The seven short essays involve responding to an image or images. Students must
demonstrate their knowledge of characteristics in art history, identifying key characteristics of the works of different periods and cultures. This portion of the exam also takes one hour, with either five or ten minutes allotted
for each short essay question. Each of the two long essays pertains to various criteria and themes in art history.
Students are also expected to recall works from beyond the European tradition for at least one of the essays. The
two essays take 30 minutes each. One is written following the exam's 115 multiple-choice questions but before
the seven short essays. The other essay is the exam's final segment, after the seven short essays.
AP Art History Exam- May 7, 2015 @ 12:00 p.m. (location TBD)
Final Course Exam (Teacher made) Comprehensive material based on image recognition, multiple choice,
matching, short answer, choice of three essay questions.
Pacing Guide
Weeks 1&2
Class Introduction to AP Art History
How does art help us understand history? What Is Art, and What Is Not Art? What methods will we use to study art history and aesthetic concerns. Class discussion will address the measure of quality applied to works of art, aesthetics, the concept of beauty in art, ever-changing definitions, classifications, and fluctuating values in the history of art, and the value of
a creation that has stood against the test of time.
Why Is Art Made, and What Makes It Valuable to Humanity?
In class discussion will focus on varied functions of art. Students will learn the ways that artists are sponsored and commissioned to do works of art by persons or institutions (patronage) as well as the desire for personal expression from prehistoric to contemporary works
A central aim of art history is to determine the original context of artworks. Art may be examined by determining its age,
style, subject, who made it, who paid for it, and its unique formal characteristics.
 Identify key research questions art historians ask
 Define the terms of formal analysis
 Explain the role of formal analysis in art historical research
 Define the Art Elements and Principles to be able to use the vocabulary of art in discussion.
 Understand how art historians address different cultural perspectives
Class Activity: “Art History Detectives” examine various slide examples of art, architecture, and sculpture to practice following the research steps of the art historian in identifying its origin.
Overview of Prehistoric art and the Near East
Students will be required to read chapters 1 and 2 of Gardner’s, Art through the Ages and respond to guiding questions.
They will be asked to write brief but descriptive outlines on each chapter, exhibiting knowledge of the specific content on
the history, geography and to be able to identify key works from each chapter. They will also be advised that these chapters will provide a well-grounded contextual background on all later periods. They will need to understand how the art
movements beyond this period often influenced artistic approaches by Greek, Roman, Renaissance, and Modern art, as
well as the comparative reactions of those periods on early Christian, Judaic, Byzantium, Romanesque, and Gothic
art. Key concepts, “slide images”, terminology, and vocabulary will be reviewed and outlined with a quiz on each aspect
of first 2 chapters.
Introduction to Presentation project:
Ancient Art Beyond Europe presentationsEach student will be assigned to read and research from the chapters listed. They will select the best representative images and outline a common theme as well as comparing differences in context to the chapter material involved. Students will present a detailed lecture outline on their assigned chapter. Students will need to prepare a
handout for the class that includes a timeline of their assigned chapter in comparison to other regions/art history
of the time, an overview of the period, slide caption sheet of the images of the chapter and information about the
common themes. Each student will need to prepare10 multiple choice questions given to the other students at the
end of the presentation.
Students will be graded on:
-Accuracy of information presented -25 points
-How engaging and enthusiastically they presented the material – 15 points
-How visually helpful/coherent their PowerPoint (or Prezi.com) was produced- 20 points
-How relevant and informative their handout was -20
-How concise but helpfully challenging their quiz was -20
total 100 points
All students will read each chapter of material from Art beyond European tradition regardless of whether it is not
one of their presentation chapters. Students will have sufficient time to prepare their presentations as well as read
the other chapters for presentations.
Week 3
Homework: Read chapter 3 and take notes on each image in the text book. Write a summary and quiz questions for the
chapter in context to the culture and geography of Ancient Egypt
Chapter 3: Pharaohs and the Afterlife: The Art of Ancient Egypt
The study of Ancient Egyptian civilization and culture introduces spectacular monuments, tombs, and solemn and ageless
art created using a “divine” order that remained almost unchanged for thousands of years. Discussions on the canon for
sculpture and wall-paintings, Egyptian mythology; identifying traditional styles of the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms,
Akhenaton’s radical naturalism, and “Egyptology”; the Egyptian pursuit of “permanence” and immortality for their rulers.
Reading: Gardner’s Chapter Three
Glossary List and Key Concepts
Prehistoric and Near East review matching quiz
Egypt Slide Exam
Multiple choice exam with comparison between Egypt and the Near East (geography, function, materials, civilization,
nature of royal figures and divinities, funerary and temple structures)
Homework: Read chapter 4 on Aegean Art and take notes on each image in the text book. Write a summary and quiz
questions for the chapter in context to the culture and geography of the Ancient Aegean
Chapter Four: Minos and the Heroes of Homer: The Art of the Prehistoric Aegean
Discuss the prehistory of Greece in the Bronze Age, a shadowy and mythical time for scholars until archeology uncovered
the remains of that heroic era. Students focus attention on Cycladic marble sculptures, Minoan architecture and mural
paintings of palace life, and Mycenaean fortified citadels for times of war that reveal primitive but effective Aegean artistic styles and building techniques.
Quiz: Slide Identification asking for names, locations, and dates of the images from the chapter
Homework: Read Chapter 5 Ancient Greece- Students should read the chapter on Greek Art and take notes on each
image in the text book. Write a summary and quiz questions for the chapter in context to the culture, style characteristics, terminology, and geography.
Week 4
Chapter Five: The Art of Ancient Greece
Greek culture and its ideal of humanistic education and life are explored through its art and architecture from the eighth
century BCE when the human figure returned to Greek art. This unit features a focus on the art form of Sculpture: in Ancient Greece, “the quest for ideal form” involved changes in the representation of the human figure. Why did these styles
change from the Geometric and Orientalizing Periods, The Archaic Period, to the Early and High Classical Periods, and
finally, the Hellenistic Period? Students begin to define and identify the concepts of Greek idealism, beauty and individuality. The development of the styles of Greek Architecture will be traced with an emphasis on how these styles affected
later architecture. The influence of Greek heroes and gods in narrative art will be seen and discussed in vase paintings and
 Focus on Sculpture: Lecture, notes and discussion on the three-dimensional art of sculpture; the four major traditional sculpture techniques of relief, carving, modeling and casting, with examples of additive, reductive, assembled, freestanding and attached sculpture.
 Glossary of Key terms and Concepts: Ancient Greek Art and Architectural components
 In-Class Essay: Compare and contrast the emerging shape of the human figure in the sculptures of the Archaic period compared to the Hellenistic period.
 Quiz: Slide Identification asking for names, locations, and dates of the images from the chapter
 Homework: read chapter 9 Etruscan Art and take notes on each image in the text book and prepare quiz questions. Write a summary of the chapter in context to the culture and geography of the Etruscan Art.
 Also read: Writing About Art, Sylvan Barnet
Formal Analysis or Description? (pages 50-52)
Writing an Effective Art History Essay (pages 84-88)
Week 5
Chapter Nine: Italy Before the Romans: The Art of the Etruscans
During the Archaic Period in ancient Greece, the Etruscans dominated the Italian peninsula. There will be a discussion on
the importance and originality of Etruscan art, which was deeply influenced by, yet different from, Greek art. Etruscan
ideas of death and burial, the Etruscan temple, origins of the true arch, and elements of canopic urn portraiture are discussed. How did Etruscan sculpture, painting, and architecture provide the models for early Roman art and architecture?
 Glossary of Key Terms and Concepts of Etruscan art and architecture
 Quiz: Slide Identification asking for names, locations, and dates of the images from the chapter
 Homework: read chapter 10 pages 236- 288 on Roman Art and take notes on each image in the text book. Write a
summary and quiz questions for the chapter in context to the culture, artistic styles, and geography of the art
of Rome
Chapter 10 The Art of Ancient Rome
Address why Roman monuments of art and architecture are the most conspicuous and numerous of all the remains of ancient western civilization, and how many are still used as part of the fabric of modern life. Special attention is given to the
far-reaching influence of Roman society, their architectural revolution using concrete vault construction, Pompeii’s unearthed treasure houses of painted frescoes, role playing in Roman portraiture, Roman city planning, the building of great
aqueducts throughout Europe, the construction of the Coliseum, arches and columns celebrating the victories of the emperors, the Pantheon’s great dome, and the triumph of Constantine as the first Christian emperor.
 Glossary of Key Terms and Concepts on Ancient Rome
 Quiz: Slide Identification asking for names, locations, and dates of the images from the chapter
 Video Final Days of Pompeii
 Homework: write outlines of the major concepts of Aegean, Greek, Etruscan, and Roman art. The outline should
be one page for each of the 4 periods
Review Aegean/Greek and Etruscan/Roman Art
Test: The Art of Ancient Greece and Rome: Chapters 4,5,9,10
Part I. The first section is over chapters 4 and 5 (Aegean and Ancient Greek art). Questions based on the readings, slide identification, vocabulary and terms, and a compare/contrast essay question using images from two
separate time periods in ancient Greece:
“Compare and contrast these works; how are they significant and how are they different? What does each reveal
about ancient Greek society?”
Part II. The second section tests the students understanding of Etruscan and Roman art (chapters 9 and 10).
“ How does the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius convey the power of the emperor?”
 Homework: read chapter 11 Late Antiquity pages and take notes on each image in the text book. Students should
also do a summary and turn in quiz questions for the chapter in context to the culture, artistic styles, and geography of Late Antiquity Art
Week 6
Chapter 11: The Art of Late Antiquity (Pagans, Christians and Jews)
Discuss the Jewish and Christian art produced under Roman rule. Popular themes and iconography in Early Christian art,
the effects of classicism, and the changing attributes in the way the figure of Christ was represented (from Good Shepherd
to Judge) will be observed and discussed. Read excerpts from Augustine’s City of God to understand his influence on the
early Christian church. How did these Late Antiquity sculptures, paintings, mosaics, and buildings form the foundation
for the art and architecture of the Middle Ages?
Glossary of Key terms and Concepts of Late Antiquity art
Quiz: Slide Identification asking for names, locations, and dates of the images from the chapter
Homework: be prepared for ABE presentations and study for test on ABE chapters 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, and 15
Beyond Europe Group Presentation Assignments
Presentation details listed above.
Review for ABE exam
TEST Ancient A.B.E.: A slide-based test based on the chapters dealing with “Ancient Art Beyond Europe”. Both multiple choice and short essay questions concerning the subject matter (human figures, landscapes, sacred spaces and objects),
contextual issues like patronage, the origins of the various religions, gods and goddesses, and architectural styles will be
Homework: read chapter 12 on Byzantine Art and take notes on each image in the text book. Write a summary
and quiz questions for the chapter in context to the culture and geography of Byzantine art.
Chapter 12: The Art of Byzantium- Rome in the East
Understand the historical events following the foundation of Constantinople (Byzantium) in 330, and the resulting changes in art and architecture as the Christian world became divided into the Latin West, centered in Rome, and the Greek Orthodox East, with its capital at Constantinople.
Discuss how Justinian mosaicists carried on the formal, hieratic style of late antiquity and Justinian’s architects pioneered
the distinctive form of Byzantine churches. These centrally planned, dome-covered structures will be viewed and contrasted to the longitudinal basilicas of the West. What distinguishes the Early Christian and Byzantine styles?
Quiz: Slide Identification asking for names, locations, and dates of the images from the chapter
Homework: read chapter 16 on Early Medieval Art and take notes on each image in the text book. Write a summary and
quiz questions for the chapter in context to the culture and geography of Early Medieval art.
Chapter 16: Early Medieval Art: Europe after the Fall of Rome
Introduce early medieval civilization as reflected in the art and architecture of the thousand year period between 400
and 1400 in western Europe; a representation of a fusion of Christianity, the Greco-Roman heritage, and the cultures of
the non-Roman peoples north of the Alps. This “Northern” art includes the art of the Celts, Vikings, Hiberno-Saxon art,
illuminated manuscripts, Mozarabic art, Carolingian “Renaissance” art and architecture and Ottonian art and sculpture.
Focus is given to the transformations of the architectural support systems from the Carolingian to the Ottonian church.
Discuss importance of manuscript illumination and its iconography.
 Glossary of Key Terms and Concepts
 Quiz: Slide Identification asking for names, locations, and dates of the images from the chapter
 Homework: read chapter 17 pages 430- 458 on Romanesque Art and take notes on each image in the text
book. Write a summary and turn in quiz questions of the chapter in context to the culture and geography of Romanesque art.
Week 7
Chapter 17: Romanesque Art: The Age of Pilgrimages
“Romanesque” broadly designates the history and culture of western Europe between about 1050 and 1200. Reference
will be made to medieval society, its structure and its effect on art and architecture. The development of architectural elements of this period, based on and resembling those of ancient Roman architecture, including the groin and barrel vaults
and the round arch, along with regional and stylistic differences in structure and design will be analyzed. Pilgrimages to
monasteries and churches which housed relics of venerated saints are discussed as the primary economic and conceptual
catalyst for the art and architecture of the Romanesque period. Students compare Romanesque images of power and authority with those of earlier cultures and learn the importance of “telling stories in stone” through narrative relief sculptures, such as scenes of the Last Judgment and other biblical stories and images used to instruct the faithful.
Glossary of Key Terms and Concepts for Romanesque Art and Architecture
Quiz: Slide Identification asking for names, locations, and dates of the images from the chapter
Homework: read chapter 18 on Gothic Art and take notes on each image in the text book. Write a summary and
quiz questions for the chapter in context to the culture and geography of Gothic art.
Study for test on chapters 11, 12, 16, and 17
Review Chapters 11, 12, 16, and 17
Essays and Multiple Choice Questions, and 30 minute in-class essay comparing subjects from Western art with
subjects from Art Beyond Europe.
Test: Byzantine, Early Medieval and Romanesque Art: Chapters 11,12, 16, 17
A slide-based multiple choice test including key images from the text, identification of architectural features,
comparisons and contrasts between the East and West, (Byzantine figurative style, Romanesque portals, domes,
vaulting methods), icons and mosaics, early medieval manuscripts and books, cloister sculpture, and a short essay
on the growth of pilgrimages and the resulting effect on Medieval society.
Chapter 18: The Age of Great Cathedrals: Gothic Art
Students will be able to give a definition of the Gothic style and its evolution; describe the cult of the Virgin, and the
emergence of chivalry. The development of the French Gothic style, appearing in northern France about 1140; Gothic art
was at first a regional phenomenon occurring north of the Alps. Clergy and the lay public alike recognized the great cathedrals as images of the City of God on earth. The “art of architecture”: architectural innovations such as the rib vault
with pointed arches, flying buttresses, and stained glass windows emphasized the beauty and otherworldliness of these
magnificent churches and inspired believers as well as being the source of civic pride; compare these with the Romanesque church style and purpose. Minutely detailed tapestries such as those depicting the unicorn legend, the Parisian
court style of book illumination and freestanding sculpture are examined.
How did the acceptance of the writings of Aristotle influence figurative sculpture to become more naturalistic again?
Class discussion on how the Gothic style was later expressed through regional diversity in England and south of the Alps.
Emphasis is on Gothic building styles and engineering breakthroughs, vocabulary and techniques, with “light and height”
as two guiding principles.
 Focus: Architecture: Space-Spanning Construction Methods (Vaults, Arches, Frames)
 Glossary of Key Terms and Concepts for Gothic Art
 Handout: Architectural diagrams of Romanesque and Gothic Cathedral building construction to be labeled, Review of space-spanning methods from post and lintel to Gothic pointed arches.
 Quiz: Slide Identification asking for names, locations, and dates of the images from the chapter
 Homework: read chapter 19 pages 496-517 on Italian Art 1200-1400 and take notes on each image in the text
book. Write a summary of the chapter in context to the culture and geography of Early Renaissance art.
Week 8
Chapter 19: From Gothic to Renaissance: 14th Century Italian Art
The “Quattrocento”:
 Focus on the development of the Renaissance, Humanism, the emergence of movements in Sienna and Florence,
the importance of Giotto, the change in artistic training and the role of artists since the Medieval period.
 Understand the growing interest in the natural world and the interest in real space and explore how these elements
are depicted in the art.
 Dante and the rise of humanism, the humanist painter, wealthy patrons
 Giotto: the Bardi Chapel of Santa Croce, Scrovegni Chapel in Padua
 Nicola and Giovanni Pisano and Duccio’s departure from “Maniera Graeca” style
 Simone Martini and the International Style; the Lorenzetti’s secular frescoes in the Palazzo Publico
 diagrams of Romanesque and Gothic Cathedral building construction to be labeled, Review of space-spanning
methods from post and lintel to Gothic pointed arches.
 In Class essay: What stylistic characteristics separate Byzantine figurative painting and mosaics from the
14th century work of Giotto and Duccio?
 What were the societal and artistic changes which occurred that resulted in the Italian Renaissance?
 Quiz: Slide Identification asking for names, locations, and dates of the images from the chapter
 Homework: Write an essay on the concepts of the Renaissance. Discuss the predominant religious beliefs, political climate, societal issues, patronage, impact of geography, function, and any other cultural influences. Outline
how one piece of work fits in context to the period.
 Study for the unit exam
Chapters 3-19 Comprehensive Unit Exam
(Aegean times through the Proto-Renaissance) The format is mainly slide-based and multiple choice, matching terms with
definitions or examples, and an essay on the Aphrodite of Knidos, by Praxiteles. Why was it made? Why does it look the
way it does? What was it meant to communicate?
Homework :Read chapter 20 and take notes on each image in the text book. Write a summary of the chapter in
context to the culture and geography of Northern Europe of 1400-1500.
Chapter 20 Northern Europe and Spain: Piety, Passion, and Politics: 15th Century Art
The 15th century in Western Europe north of the Alps: the importance of Flanders to Europe’s economic development, the
migration of rural populations to the cities. How did these events influence the art produced during this period?
 The maturation of manuscript illumination (The Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry by the Limbourg Brothers)
 The increased use of oil paints in Flanders, (Large-scale devotional altarpieces such as the Ghent Altarpiece and
the Portinari Altarpiece)
 The importance of symbols (references to the secular and the sacred); Jan van Eyck’s portraits, and Bosch’s foreshadowing of surrealistic images.
 The development of the intaglio method of printmaking (metal engraving)
 Glossary Lists of terms and key concepts
 Painting and Graphic Arts Concepts Handout and Lecture: From Art Basics, main categories of painting throughout western history, processes, materials and techniques, mixed media, mosaic and stained glass. Graphic arts: the
various processes used to make prints (relief print techniques, intaglio techniques and photography).
 Quiz on Chapter 20: 15 century art in Northern Europe
Sections assessing student knowledge of the art of the north as it relates to social context, the formal qualities (of altarpieces for example), symbolism and religious iconography. Write essays on the stylistic characteristics of The
Book of Hours, symbolization in the Ghent Altarpiece, and comparing and contrasting works by Rogier van der Weyden (Deposition) and Giotto (Lamentation).
 Homework: read chapter 21 on Italian Art 1400-1500 and take notes on each image in the text book. Write a
summary and quiz questions for the chapter in context to the culture and geography of Italian art 1400- 1500.
Chapter 21: Italian Art of 1400-1500: Humanism and the Allure of Antiquity in the 15th Century
 Discuss the spread of humanism, emphasis on education and expanding knowledge (especially of classical antiquity), the desire to excel and the fulfillment of individual potential: how did this influence art in Italy?
 Look at the Met Museum’s Timeline of Art History/ Florence and Central Italy, 1400-1600 A.D. for information
on the Medici family’s rise to power, stylistic aspects of Florentine painting, etc.
 Watch YouTube video by the BBC on the Medici
 Glossary List of Renaissance terms and characteristics of Italian Renaissance Painting
 Begin with slides and discussion surrounding the 1401 competition for a design for the east doors of the Florence
Baptistery by Ghiberti and Brunelleschi.
 The invention of true linear perspective/ depicting objects in space by early Renaissance artists and architects, as
observed in Masaccio’s The Tribute Money and Holy Trinity.
 Brunelleschi’s dome of the Florence Cathedral and the interior of Santo Spirito
 “The Two Davids”: Donatello and Verrocchio
 Quiz 1 on Chapter 21
Italian Art Part II
The Birth of Venus by Botticelli marks the rebirth of classical mythology
Ghirlandio’s portraits of women: wealthy patronage promotes the secularization of sacred themes
Further developments in architecture, Alberti’s classical rationalism
Images of piety and devotion: Annunciations, Last Suppers, and Madonnas
Use of Linear Perspective (Perugino’s Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to Saint Peter)
Andrea Mantegna’s striking use of perspective and foreshortening of the human figure for dramatic effect (Dead
Discussion of the turmoil at the end of the century, Savonarola’s reaction to the Medici’s paganism, “bonfires of
the vanities”, Signorelli’s Damned Cast Into Hell
Read excerpts from Georgio Vasari’s Lives of the Painters, Sculptors and Architects
Quiz 2 on chapter 21
Homework: read chapter 22 on Northern Europe and Spain 1500- 1600 and take notes on each image in the text
book. Write a summary and quiz questions for the chapter in context to the culture and geography.
Weeks 9 and 10 /Midterm
Chapter 22: The High Renaissance and Mannerism- Beauty, Science and Spirit in Italian Art
 How did the patronage of wealthy families affect the direction of art in Italy during the “High” Renaissance?
 Recognize the achievements of individual artists: Leonardo, Bramante, Michelangelo, Raphael
 Leonardo’s breakthroughs: “unified representation of objects in an atmospheric setting” (Virgin of the Rocks), The
Last Supper fresco’s broad range of emotional responses
 Bramante “The Pope’s Architect”: Concrete, the dome, and the new St. Peter’s in Rome
 Michelangelo’s David: compare to Donatello and Verrocchio’s and Hellenistic Statuary
 Sistine Chapel ceiling fresco: How does it reflect Renaissance ideas? What is its humanistic interpretation?
 In-depth discussion of Raphael’s School of Athens
 Neo-Platonism’s influence on Renaissance art
 Venetian Art and Architecture: Describe Mannerist pictorial devices
 Titian’s “Arcadian” lyrical and sensual landscapes and the use of color
 Pontorma and Parmigianino’s “Stylish Mannerism”
 Contribution of women artists (Anguissola)
 Tintoretto’s dramatic “plunging diagonal” Last Supper. Compare to Leonardo’s balanced pyramidal structure
 Glossary list of terms and key concepts for the High Renaissance
Review Chapters 21 and 22
 Be able to describe and explain classical influences, identification of structures, and architectural terms used to
describe them, stylistic differences between artists and schools of art, compare and contrast Late Gothic with Renaissance work, identify characteristics of Italian Renaissance painting and be able to apply them when discussing
specific artworks.
Test on Chapters 21 and 22: The Renaissance in Italy
 Slide-based multiple choice and free-response (short essays) test.
Homework: read chapter 23 Northern Europe and Spain 1500-1600 and take notes on each image in the text
book. Write a summary and quiz questions for the chapter in context to the culture and geography.
Week 11
Chapter 23: Northern Europe and Spain- The Age of Reformation: 16th Century Art
 List of Key Terms and Concepts
 Class discussion on the background of the Protestant Reformation and its effect on art and architecture of
16th century Europe
 The use of allegory in art to express the differences in theology (Lucas Cranach the Elder’s Allegory of Law
and Grace)
 Divergent views on religious imagery, Iconoclasm and the reaction against religious art: how did this reveal
the power of art?
 Comparison between artworks: The Isenheim Altarpiece by Mathias Grunewald (pre-Reformation) and Albrecht Durer’s Last Supper, (produced after the Reformation began).
 Durer’s elevation of the art of engraving; the “capability of the graphic arts to convey intellectually and emotionally complex themes”.
 How does Hans Holbein the Younger’s French Ambassadors allude to the growing tension between secular
and religious authorities?
 Architecture in France: Francis I’s Chambord and Henry II’s Louvre
 Netherland Art: Pieter Bruegel the Elder, women painters (van Hemessen’s self-portrait)
 El Greco’s dramatic style: Modern art begins. Can he really be labeled a Mannerist?
 Quiz on Chapter 23: Discuss the impact Italy had on Durer. Use specific examples from his work.
 Homework: read chapter 24 Italy and Spain 1600-1700 and take notes on each image in the text book. Write a
summary and quiz questions for the chapter in context to the culture and geography.
Chapter 24: Italian and Spanish Baroque & Northern Baroque Art -Popes, Peasants, Monarchs and Merchants in
Baroque & Rococo Art
 17th century Europe: Discuss the “broad range” of the term Baroque; stylistic characteristics that define what
Baroque means in different countries. Numerous geo-political shifts in Europe, the Thirty Years War’s (16181648) movement towards the secularization of government, worldwide mercantilism (Bank of Amsterdam) permanently altered the face of Europe.
 Stylistic characteristics of the Baroque: Emotional, dramatic, sharply lit figures, “tenebrism”.
 Italian Baroque: Bernini, Caravaggio and his followers, ceiling frescoes and the glory of the Barberini, “a
theater for the production of a mystical drama”.
 Spanish Baroque: Political decline, Counter-Reformation devotion and piety, Velazquez, the greatest Spanish
painter of the age (and the greatest painting, Las Meninas).
 Quiz on Chapter 24 Italian and Spanish Baroque
Homework: read about Northern Europe and take notes on each image in the text book. Write a summary and
quiz questions for the chapter in context to the culture and geography.
Northern Europe 1600- 1700 Baroque Art Continued: Flanders, Holland, France and England
 Flemish Baroque: Peter Paul Rubens’ Elevation of the Cross: How he synthesized the high Renaissance style
with Italian Baroque to create first pan-European manner of painting. Example: the “Marie de Medici Series”
 Dutch Republic: Why was the 17th century referred to as the Golden Age of Dutch art? Franz Hals, Rembrandt van Rijn: Compare his religious art with overwhelming opulent Italian Baroque, his use of light and his desire to interpret biblical Narratives in human terms. Woman artist Judith Leyster, Dutch landscapes and interior
scenes (Vermeer). Dutch “Vanitas” Still-life and flower painters.
 Baroque in France: Poussin invoked classical order, Burial of Phocion from Plutarch’s Lives. Georges de la
Tour’s supernatural calm and stillness. Architectural Opulence: The Palace of Versailles. How does art reinforce
the royalty of the Baroque and Rococo Periods?
 Late Baroque Architecture in England: Sir Christopher Wren’s St. Paul’s Cathedral, Blenheim Palace
Essay exam: Research and write an essay describing how each of these artists represented Baroque art within
their own particular historical and cultural context. Use examples of their artwork to show how they expressed the
religious and other cultural values of the time and place: Group 1; Italian Baroque (Caravaggio), Group 2; Spanish
Baroque (Velasquez), Group 3; Flanders (Rubens), Group 4; Dutch Republic (Rembrandt), Group 5; French Baroque
Prepare for Art Beyond Europe AFTER 1200 In Class Presentation - given 2nd Quarter
Homework: read chapter 28 page Europe and North America 1700-1800 and take notes on each image in the text
book. Write a summary and quiz questions for the chapter in context to the culture and geography.
Weeks 12 and 13
Chapter 28: Europe and America 1700-1800 The Enlightenment and Its Legacy
 Glossary List of key terms and concepts for Chapter 28.
 Early 18th century was the great age of the aristocracy; privileged class sought to expand their power, as seen
in the decorative Rococo style.
 The Enlightenment at end of 18th century was a new way of thinking based on using reason to reflect on the
results of physical experiments, and involved critical analysis of texts: emphasis on tangible data and concrete experience.
 Enlightenment thinking rooted in ideas of Descartes, Pascal, Isaac Newton and John Locke. Voltaire was the
personification of the Enlightenment spirit. (Joseph Wright of Derby’s Orrery painting glorified scientific
 Science vs. a Taste for the Natural (Rousseau “ all our natural inclinations are right”, the simple life as seen
in The Village Bride, by Greuze) Chardin: “Happiness is a reward of natural virtue (Grace at Table)
 The English Grand Manner Portrait as an expression of the natural taste in Rococo forms: Gainsborough, Sir
Joshua Reynolds.
 Neo-Classicism (1780- 1820) reflected “The glory that was Greece and the Grandeur that was Rome”: David
and Ingres
 Classic craze influenced by excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum and the French Revolution.
 American themes of patriotism and “a sense of directness and faithfulness to visual fact.” (Copley and Stewart)
 Romanticism: The Power of Passion (1800-50) : Romantic painters chose emotion over reason: Gericault and
 Define the Romantic: Exotic themes, unrestrained color, emotional intensity, turbulent forms and
 Neoclassicism vs. Romanticism (Contrast the two movements, and the contexts out of which each arose, using examples from representative artists.)
 Quiz on chapter 28 Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Homework: read chapter 29 on Europe and North America on later 19th century and take notes on each image in
the text book. Write a summary and quiz questions for the chapter in context to the culture and geography.
Chapter 29 Europe and American 1800-1870 The Rise of Modernism: Art of the Later 19th Century
 List of terms and key concepts
 Realism: The “new” Realism emerged; a force that would dominate art for the second half of the century. Its
subjects were peasants and the working class, the style, a precise imitation of visual perceptions without alteration, used muted colors.
 Courbet, the father of Realism, “Show me an angel and I will paint one.”
 Millet and Corot: The Barbizon School influenced by Constable.
 American Realism: Winslow Homer, Thomas Eakins , James Whistler, John Singer Sargent
 The Pre-Raphaelites and the Arts and Crafts Movement: How were they a reaction against the Industrial
 Development of Photography: Travel ,War, Documentary, Portrait and Art Photography: How did the development of Photography impact painting?
 Quiz on chapter 29
 Homework: continue to read chapter 29 on Europe and North America 1870-1900 and take notes on each image
in the text book. Write a summary and quiz questions for the chapter in context to the culture and geography.
Week 14
 Impressionism (1863-1886): A product of Positivist thinking as evidenced by the scientific examination of
light. Each work is one artist’s intuitive response to nature; the transitory effect of light; capturing a moment.
 Salon de Refuses 1863: exhibition of artworks refused by the Paris Salon
 Exposition of the Impressionists 1874
 What were the major influences on Impressionism? Japanese prints, photography, speed of transportation(steam engine)
 Characteristics of Impressionism
 Major Painters and their work: Manet (also categorized as a realist), Monet, Renoir, and Degas, Mary Cassatt
and Berthe Morisot.
 Quiz: Identify the similarities and differences in subject matter, use of color, style and techniques between
the major impressionists.
 Post-Impressionism : The two camps of Post-Impressionism: Scientific vs. Sensation; How was each expressed, and through whom?
 Seurat and Cezanne: Concentrated on formal design. How did their art lead to Cubism and other forms of
20th century art?
 Gaugin, Lautrec and Van Gogh: Emphasized expressing their emotions and sensations. How did their art lead
to Expressionism and Fauvism?
 Symbolism: The forerunner of Surrealism: Moreau, Redon, Rousseau, Munch.
 Rodin: Impressionist Sculptor; prophet of modern sculpture
 Art Nouveau (New Art) an architectural and design movement that grew out of the ideas promoted by the
Arts and Crafts Movement.
 Fin de Siècle Culture and Architecture of the Late 19th Century
The Eiffel Tower; Sullivan, first Modern Architect; birth of skyscrapers.
 Quiz 2 on chapter 29
Homework: read chapter 33 on Europe and North America 1900-1945 and take notes on each image in the text
book. Write a summary and quiz questions for the chapter in context to the culture and geography.
Presentations on Art Beyond Europe part 2 (refer to presentations above)
Review Art Beyond Europe Part II exam
Week 15
Chapter 33 Europe and America 1900-1945
 Glossary List of key terms and concepts of Modernist Art.
 Fauvism: “Exploding Color”: The first major avant-garde movement of the twentieth century; exaggerated,
vibrant colors used to express feelings rather than to describe an object. The discovery of non-European tribal arts
played a formative role in modern art.
 Fauvist Painters: Matisse, Derain, Vlaminck, Dufy, Rouault
 Homework- Essay: How did the work of Van Gogh influence the Fauves?
 Expressionism: In Germany, the use of exaggerated forms and colors for emotional impact dominated the art
world from 1905-1930.
 Die Brucke “The Bridge”: Kirchner’s art of clashing colors, anguished figures and distorted forms expressed
rebellion against established authorities.
 Expressionist artist Emil Nolde: Forcefully expressing the ugliness of reality, influence of primitive art.
 Der Blaue Reiter- The Blue Rider group of Munich- Kandinsky and Franz Marc- using form to express feelings.
 Abstraction: Kandinsky, Spiritual, “pure” Abstractions
 How Science influenced culture in the early 20th century
 WW1 influence Neue Sachlichkeit – New Objectivity
 Analytic and Synthetic Cubism:
Picasso : The influence of primitive African and Iberian sculpture in Les DemoisellesD’Avignon and
Bracques Cubist Collage Still Lifes
 Sculpture
 Futurism: Political Atmosphere in Italy; Love of speed and motion: Boccioni’s paintings and sculpture.
 Dada: Anarchist reaction to a world gone mad; “artists were revolted by the butchery of the world war.” Jean
Arp, Marcel Duchamp.
 Art during WW11 Picasso response in 1937 Guernica
 Postwar Germany: European Expressionism after WWI: Max Beckmann, George Grosz
 Surrealism : Magritte and Dali’s dream images/ influence of psychoanalysis and Dada. The fantasy of Joan
Miro and Paul Klee.
 American Art: The Armory Show, 1913. Ashcan School, Sloan, Hopper, Marin’s American Abstractions,
the advance of Photography, the Harlem Renaissance, Georgia O’Keeffe
 Quiz on chapter 33
Week 16
Chapter 33 Part II
 Suprematism, Constructivism : Arose out of Utopian notions in Russia De Stijl in Holland and western Europe
 Piet Mondrian’s Composition in Red, Blue and Yellow, 1930
 Bauhaus: Modernism in Architecture and the International Style, Frank Lloyd Wright
 Art Deco : The different forms it took
 Sculpture: Henry Moore, Brancusi, Calder’s floating sculptures and Smith (metal), French-American Louise
Bourgeois’s constructions and Louise Nevelson’s environmental sculpture
 Art as Political Statement in the 1930’s: Picasso’s Guernica
 Depression art: Dorothea Lange’s Migrant Mother.
 Edward Hopper Nighthawks
 Jacob Lawrence Harlem Renaissance
 Regionalism: Grant Wood’s American Gothic, Thomas Hart Benton’s murals.
 Art reacts to social issues- Compare Benton’s American murals with Diego Rivera’s Mexican murals
 Architecture:
 Influence of Productivism, De Stijl,
 Walter Gropius and Bahaus in Germany vision of total architecture integrating the arts in constructions of
modern living environments.
 Le Corbusier – machines for living with modern construction materials with simple open plans and unadorned surfaces.
 Art Deco in America – descending from Art Nouveau but influencing modern ideas such as skyscrapersWilliam Van Alen’s Chrysler Building NYC
 American Frank Lloyd Wright - architecture of democracy, and the wandering plan, blending with nature
and using the natural materials of the structures locations
Homework: read chapter 34 on Europe and North America after 1945 and take notes on each image in the text
book. Write a summary and quiz questions for the chapter in context to the culture and geography.
Exam on Chapter 33
Week 17
Chapter 34: Europe and America after 1945- The Emergence of Postmodernism
 Postwar Expressionism Giacometti, Bacon, Dubuffet,
 Abstract Expressionism: Jackson Pollock, Gorky, De Kooning, Kline and Motherwell
 Color Field Painters: Rothko and Frankenthaler
 Post Painterly Abstraction- Ellsworth Kelly, Frank Stella, Clyfford Still
 Pop Art: Richard Hamilton, Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, Andy Warhol, Claes Oldenburg, Lichtenstein’s
comic strip imagery
 Minimalism: a reaction against Abstract Expressionism and Pop
 Minimalist Sculpture David Smith, Donald Judd
 Female Sculptors Louis Nevelson, Louis Bourgeosis, Eva Hesse
 Photo- Realism: Superrealism Audrey Flack, Chuck Close, Duane Hanson
 Neo Expressionism – Susan Rothenberg, Julian Schnabel, Anselm Kiefer
 Feminist Art- Judy Chicago, Miriam Schapiro, Cindy Sherman, Barbara Kruger, Ana Mendieta, Hannah
Wilke, Guerilla Girls
 Social and Political Art- Kiki Smith, Faith Ringgold, Lorna Simpson, Melvin Edwards,
 Public funding of controversial art, reaction to AIDS, race, pop culture, commodity culture, commentary of
art history,
 Architecture:
o Modernism: formalism stressing simplicity : Guggenheim Museum, Notre Dame du Haut, Trans
world airlines terminal JFK airport, Sydney Opera House, Seagram’s Building, Sears Tower, Maya Ying
Lin’s Vietnam Memorial,
o Post Modernism: reaction to impersonality and sterility of modernist, not a unified style, pluralism,
complexity, eclecticism, expansive, and inclusive
o Deconstructivism : disorienting disorder, dissonance, and imbalance.
 Environmental and Site Specific Art- Robert Smithson’s Spiral Jetty, Christo and Jean Claude’s Surrounded
Islands, Richard Serra’s Tilted Arc,
 Performance Art and Installation Art – John Cage, Fluxus, Kazuo Shiraga, Joseph Beuys,
 Conceptual Art: The dematerialization of the Art Object: process not product.
 New Media: video, computer graphics, multimedia
 Quiz on chapter 34
Week 18 Review and Final Exam
Review for AP Art History Exam
Comprehensive overview of the major works and contextual discussion on the important points of each period in relation
to the chronology of the history of art
Ancient through Medieval 30%
Greece and Rome 10–15%
Early Christian, Byzantine, Early Medieval 5–10%
Romanesque 3–7%
Renaissance to Present 50%
Fourteenth through Sixteenth Centuries 12–17%
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries 10–15%
Nineteenth Century 10–15%
Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries 10–15%
Beyond European Artistic traditions 20%
The Americas
Near East
Islamic traditions
Final Course Exam Comprehensive material based on image recognition, multiple choice, matching, short answer,
choice of three essay questions. (Teacher made using an abbreviated AP Art History Exam format)
Special Thanks to Art Educator Kristen Jones for permission to use and modify her AP Course Syllabus