Motivation and Actions to Enhance Performance

Issue 42. No.2 2013
Motivation and Actions to Enhance Performance
Hector Edwards
All aspects of our lives are influenced by motivation. Everything we do or
say is directed towards an expected result, which is the motivational force
driving our behaviour. Cyclists are no exception to this process. Some of the
leading athletes in professional cycling have been accused, found guilty of doping,
and even admitted to such behavior. The motives along with the demographic
background of the athletes have been responsible for, and in some instances
contributed to their actions. The adoption and use of performance enhancement
practice has become unacceptable by most stakeholders – international sporting
bodies, sponsors, spectators, fellow athletes, and some pharmaceuticals, within
the society. The approach of some athletes to fulfill their various needs whether
perceived or in reality, can contribute to a decline in their behaviour. The
decline in behaviour can contribute to the negative publicity that the sport of
cycling has been experiencing in recent times. The policies adopted by cycling’s
governing body - Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), will therefore have
to address the underlining concerns of the athletes, rather than reacting to
their behaviour which would not change unless their needs are fulfilled.
Key words: motivations, cycling, doping
Why would an individual try to provide for the future, and at the same time
partake in behaviour that will jeopardise his or her chances of enjoying the fruits
of his or her labour? The sport of cycling has seen significant changes over the
last three decades, in both positive and negative ways. However, more recently,
the negatives have overshadowed the positives. The main negative issue to affect
cycling, and for that matter sports in general, is the use of illegal substances and
practices for the purpose of performance enhancement. Cycling has been
experiencing negative publicity as a result of doping scandals involving some of
the world’s best athletes – seven times Tour de France winner Lance Armstrong
(1999 – 2005), three times Tour the France winner Alberto Contador (2007, 2009,
2010), 2006 Tour de France winner Floyd Landis, and 2004 Olympic Time Trial
Transition 42
gold medallist Tyler Hamilton. Some of these scandals came to a conclusion with
the suspension of the athletes who were found guilty of doping, and subsequently
stripped of their titles. Landis and Hamilton have both admitted to the use of
performance enhancement drugs, after earlier denying such use and serving their
penalties. Contador was stripped of his 2010 Tour de France title, and banned for
two years after sport’s highest court - Court of Arbitration for Sports (CAS) found
him guilty of doping. The CAS decision was made after appeals by the Union
Cycliste Internationale (UCI) and World anti-doping Agency (WADA), which
challenged the decision of the Spanish Cycling governing body- that Contador
was not guilty of doping.
On the other hand, US Federal prosecutors dropped a doping investigation into
Armstrong’s participation in systematic doping, due to a lack of evidence. The
most recent attempt by cycling governing body Union Cycliste Internationale
(UCI) to address the doping problem is the adoption in May 2011 of a ‘no needle
policy’ in cycling. In effect this is a ban on the use of needles other than for a
medical indication on an active cyclist (Union Cycliste Internationale, 2011).
The question that has to be answered therefore is why do athletes participate in
doping when these practices are harmful to them, and can contribute to their
demise? To understand the thinking behind doping, one has to analyze the factors
that contribute to this kind of thinking, which is subsequently transferred to their
behaviour. The demographic background of the individual, the economic well-being
of the individual, the economic development of the country in which the athlete
participates, the extent of their motivation, and the cultural setting in which he/she
exists, may be significant factors that contribute towards an individual’s behaviour.
Some of the issues and concepts that will be discussed in the remainder of the
paper include doping by cyclists, which is seen as a core variable in enhancing
performance. This will be followed by content theories of motivation, which
provide the general framework for discussing the needs influencing the behaviour
of cyclists. Finally the motives of the cyclists will be addressed as they progress
in their cycling careers.
Doping by Cyclist
There is a paucity of literature with specific focus on motivation and doping by
cyclists. This has been due to a “lack of scholarly attention paid to the sport” of
Motivation and Actions to Enhance Performance
cycling (Brewer, 2002: 280). However, literature examined under Sport Sociology
indicated that doping in cycling has been with the sport from its earliest times,
due to the demands of frequent racing by top cyclists (Brewer, 2002). “The
Frenchman Jacques Anquetil, one of the best racers of all times, was notorious
for frankly acknowledging doping” (Brewer, 2002:284). In addition to
acknowledging such a practice, he also posited that a person “would be a fool to
imagine that a professional cyclist who rides 235 days in a year in all temperatures
and conditions can hold up without a stimulant” (Brewer, 2002 p. 284). This type
of behaviour was not just restricted to individuals, but was also institutionalised
as “team administrators, support staff, and teammates were all involved in the
organisation and expansion of doping” (Brewer, 2002:285). The 1998 Tour de
France scandal involving Team Festina and subsequent investigations exposed
the systematic doping of many major cycling teams (Brewer, 2002).
A study by Bilard et al. (2010) found that the ranked motives by cyclists for using
illegal substances were health concerns- due to intensive training, performance
enhancement- so as to gain financial and other rewards, and social norms
associated with the sport. Though these motives have contributed to the use of
illegal substances by some cyclists, a more careful analysis is needed of the
situations that influence their behaviour.
Motivation and Doping
Motivation is seen as the force that directs an individual’s behavior (Perry &
Porter, 1982; Wright, 2001; Steers et al., 2004), as well as the persistence and
intensity of their actions (Wright, 2001; Steers et al., 2004), so as to satisfy specific
needs. Cyclists are no exception, and as such their behaviours are also expected
to be influenced by motivation. According to Pelletier et al. (1995)
“Motivation is at the heart of many of sport’s most interesting
problems, both as a developmental outcome of social
environments such as competition and coaches’ behaviors, and
as a developmental influence on behavioral variables such as
persistence, learning and performance” (p 36).
The use of prohibited drugs by cyclists is therefore one such behaviour that can
be seen as having been influenced by motivation. Brewer (2002) in his study
referred to doping as routine and “an integral part of the culture of top-level
cycling” (p 277). Doping was not just an integral part of cycling, but this social
norm was one of the top ranked motives by cyclists based on a study by Bilard et
Transition 42
al. (2010). Another motive identified was that of performance enhancement,
which is reward-oriented. However, whether cyclists commenced this type of
activity to obtain financial reward is not certain, as it should be noted that success
is not guaranteed, and hence financial rewards may not follow.
Based on the writer’s own experience having competed over 19 years as a cyclist - 15
on the international circuit, which was followed by 13 years as an administrator, and
having discussions with numerous cyclists in my capacity as a cycling coach, I am of
the opinion that a sequence of motives would be activated over the life of a cyclist.
As such a theory that can be totally operative over a substantial period of a cyclist’s
career would be appropriate in an attempt to understand the behavior of cyclists.
Wahba and Bridwell (1976) posited that “Maslow’s hierarchy requires the length of a
life time to be totally operative” (p. 231), and as such can be seen as a useful theory.
Content Theories of Motivation
The framework that will be used to analyze the behaviour of cyclists is content
theories of motivation, which include humanistic theories such as Maslow’s 1954
needs hierarchy theory (Wright, 2001) see fig. 1. Content theories are concerned
with the needs or motives of individuals. The motives represent what the individual
wants or expects from their actions (Wright, 2001).
Maslow was of the opinion that as individuals develop, they prioritize which
group of needs are to be fulfilled (Steers et al., 2004) in a hierarchical manner
(Kolltko-Rivera, 2006). He also posited that the first three needs are deficiency
needs, while the upper two are growth needs (Wahba and Bridwell, 1976; Steers
et al., 2004). This model was later adapted by Alderfer (1972) who collapsed the
model into three needs; existence, relatedness and growth (Luthans, 1995). The need/
content-based perspective of motivation categorizes higher–level needs as intrinsic,
while lower-level needs are considered to be extrinsic in nature (Bright, 2009).
In addition to Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs and Alderfer’s ERG (Existence
Relatedness and Growth) theories, Frederick Herzberg two-Factor’s theory and
David McClelland’s acquired needs theory were other content theories developed
to provide a better understanding of human motivation. These theories will not
be used to any extent, since they focus on hygiene and motivator factors, and
learnt needs respectively. Herzberg addressed the issue of satisfaction, which is
derived from the presence of motivator factors. These factors are content related
and intrinsic in nature. On the other hand dissatisfaction which occurs due to the
absence of hygiene factors are context related, but extrinsic in nature (Iguisi, 2009).
Motivation and Actions to Enhance Performance
Also, Herzberg’s two-factor theory is more relevant to work redesign (Hackman
and Oldham, 1976), and as such less applicable to understanding the behaviour
of cyclists as it relates to doping. McClelland however focused on Need for
achievement (nAch), Need for affiliation (nAff), and Need for power (nPower)
(Schermerhorn et al., 2008). McClelland’s nAch will be discussed, as it will provide
an understanding of this learnt behavior. Maslow’s theory will be the primary
focus as it is “a theory of human behavior in general rather than work behavior in
particular” (Wahba and Bridwell, 1976:214).
Reinforcement theories will also be used to address resolving some of the issues
faced by this sporting discipline. These are not the only factors, but they can
assist in understanding the kind of behaviour that was mentioned earlier. This
paper will not be looking at empirical evidence regarding Maslow and the other
content theories, nor will a comparison between content theories and other
motivational theories be undertaken. Though these are important issues, they are
beyond the scope of this paper.
Figure 1- Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Esteem Needs
Social Needs
Safety Needs
Physiological Needs
Source: Luthans, 1995:150
High Achievers
Over the centuries man has taken various approaches to enhance his performance.
This desire is as a result of the secondary motive achievement, which is a learnt
motive, and identified in McClelland’s acquired needs theory. The extent of an
individual’s achievement, motive or drive will determine to some extent how the
individual will behave in most situations. High achievers are moderate risk takers.
This “…is probably the single most descriptive characteristic of the person
possessing high n Ach” (Luthans, 1995:145). Taking unnecessarily high risk can
result in failure (Mullis, 2007), which the high achiever tries to avoid. Another
important characteristic of high achievers is that they find “…accomplishing a task
Transition 42
intrinsically satisfying in and of itself; they do not expect or necessarily want the
accompanying material rewards” (Luthans, 1995:145). Material reward for a high
achiever is a measuring tool used to determine the extent of success (Luthans, 1995).
Intrinsic rewards unlike extrinsic rewards are generated by the individual internally,
and over which he can exercise personal control. Extrinsic rewards are those
provided by another party, which the individual has no control over (Crewson,
1997; Rainey and Steinbauer, 1999; Houston, 2000; Bright, 2009), and are often
material in nature. At all levels of cycling there will be some individuals who are
high achievers, trying to fulfil their personal objective within their physical
capabilities. It is important to note that an individual may be successful in certain
activities/events, but still not achieve their objective, while one may achieve
their objective without being successful in any event. Success is not necessarily
achievement, even though it may be, and achievement does not necessarily require
success. Success can only be considered achievement if it was the objective.
Cyclists have come from all aspects of life and various socio-economic and sociocultural backgrounds in their quest for success. The level of success desired by
these athletes varies from individual to individual and from country to country,
depending on the opportunities available. In their quest for success many cyclists
have sacrificed other social activities and even education, leaving them with very
little to fall back on if they are not successful in cycling. The sacrifice is necessary
due to the training intensity of the sport (Bilard et al., 2010), which includes long
hours of daily rides. Such activities by cyclists usually commence at an early age
so that the individuals can enhance their chances of realizing their potential.
Many of the top cyclists in various communities have come from low income
families (Brewer, 2002), and as such been forced to make ends meet. For these
individuals every step in life has been a struggle. Due to their life experiences
their survival skills have been enhanced, thus contributing to their determination
and aspiration, which are important ingredients for success in life.
Over the ages individuals have undertaken various activities to enhance their
performance. This has resulted in persons participating in activities that in their
Motivation and Actions to Enhance Performance
opinion- based on what is reported by others, will result in positive performance
(Brewer, 2002). Though not listed in any order, these include additional or longer
rest, more of certain types of exercises, the use of certain foods, the use of certain
clothing and equipment, and other forms of relaxation. Due to the advancement
of science and technology, most of these beliefs have been scientifically proven
or disproved (Brewer, 2002). However, in the lesser developed countries some
athletes still partake in unproven activities to enhance their performance, while other
activities are not done correctly to bring about the desired results.
Some of the products available in the developed countries are not available in
developing countries, and where they are available due to advancement in
information technology–online purchase- the cost far exceeds the material benefit.
In these countries success in cycling means participation at a ‘Games’ or Championship,
as well as temporary recognition. The more fortunate will achieve some level of
assistance during their formative years from their governments and/or the
corporate community. As such the reward for these individuals is more of an
intrinsic nature in terms of growth and recognition, than extrinsic in nature.
Individuals are motivated to do things as a result of a need, which can be as a
result of a “physiological or psychological imbalance” (Luthans, 1995:141). The
intensity of the drive is determined by the incentive to be achieved, which will
ultimately alleviate the need. Once that need has been satisfied, another
physiological or psychological deficiency will emerge (Maslow, 1943). “Although
psychological needs may be based on a deficiency, sometimes they are not”
(Luthans, 1995:141). Various theorists have tried to understand the cycle of needs
that an individual passes through during their life, with Maslow and his Needs
Hierarchy Theory, being one of the earliest of behavioural scientists. He was of
the opinion that “the strongest ‘felt needs’ determine behaviours of individuals
at given times” (Iguisi, 2009). Maslow was also of the opinion that an individual’s
needs could be grouped, and these needs will fall under the various categories,
progressing from the lowest to the highest (Maslow, 1943; Iguisi, 2009). They are
physiological, safety/security, social, esteem and self-actualization needs. He was
of the view that until a particular group of needs is satisfied, a person’s behaviour
will be dominated by them (Maslow, 1943). He also posited that needs are satisfied
in a step like fashion, and indicated that a false impression may have been given
during his discussion that a need must be satisfied fully before a subsequent need
Transition 42
emerges. He suggested that a more realistic description is in terms of the decreasing
percentages of satisfaction along levels of the hierarchy. Maslow proposed a
hypothetical example for an average citizen who is 85 percent satisfied in his
physiological/basic needs, 70 percent in his safety needs, 50 percent in his love/
social needs, 40 percent in the self-esteem category, and 10 percent in his selfactualization needs (Maslow, 1943; Luthans, 1995). Though Maslow provided
some insights in understanding the forces that determine an individual’s behaviour,
it does not fully explain certain behaviour, which is explained by another theorist
Alderfer’s ERG theory identifies existence, relatedness, and growth needs as the
main categories of needs. He collapsed Maslow’s two lower order needs into
existence, and the two upper order needs into growth. Unlike Maslow, Alderfer
was of the opinion that once a higher level need cannot be satisfied, the individual
will return to the lower level need. He also posited that more than one level of
needs may exist at a given time (Schermerhorn, 2000). This view is important if
one is to understand the behaviour of cyclists in their attempt to satisfy their
Physiological and Security Needs
For a ‘competitive cyclist,’ matters such as equipment, nutrition, clothing,
transportation and training conditions are at the physiological or basic level. With
limited success and the prospect of becoming a high performer, an individual has
a strong chance of securing a place on a recognized cycling team. Being on the
team will assist in the alleviation of these earlier needs, since these basic needs
would be taken care of by the team. Further success will result in the individual
being able to become a professional athlete. Being a professional athlete, cycling
becomes the job of the individual, as a result of this; his needs are expected to
Even though it may appear that he is at the esteem or actualization level (growth
level according to Alderfer) and realizing success, he has still not achieved his
objective. At this phase of his life he has moved to the security level in terms of
needs. At this level continued participation in the team, medical care, and existence
after his racing career has concluded are his primary concerns.
While in other professions or jobs individuals at the end of their work life can
retire and enjoy a pension, professional cyclists who have a shorter productive
work life are not that fortunate. The ‘after retirement’ life can only be meaningful
Motivation and Actions to Enhance Performance
or worthwhile if they provide for those less formative years. The more they earn
and set aside, the more likely are their chances of a comfortable retirement. They
are therefore driven to earn as much as they can, so that they can enjoy a better
‘after retirement’ life. In the developed market economies better results do not
only result in higher salaries, but also endorsements (Brewer, 2002), which can
be very lucrative, and will contribute to the overall income of the cyclist. As was
earlier stated many of the top cyclists have nothing of substance to fall back on,
making this phase a very important or defining period in their life.
The future for this type of cyclist is not their only concern, job security or
membership in the team is also dependent on their performance. The failure of a
cyclist to perform at an acceptable level will result in him no longer being a part
of the team. Here high performance can guarantee his place on the team, and at
the same time assist in providing for the future. At this level if the cyclist is
unable to alleviate these security needs, he is forced to return to the physiological
needs to ensure that the basic needs are satisfied, and must perform at a higher
level. During this phase of his career, in an attempt to enhance his performance
whatever is available would be considered important to improve his performance.
Improved performance will guarantee a place on a professional team. The team
will then take care of all the basic needs, which will no longer be a concern of the
Team Needs
The role of the team is not restricted to providing for the athlete’s needs. It also
must make certain that the athlete performs at a level that will promote the sponsor
of the team (Brewer, 2002). Highlighting the sponsor’s brand will also promote
the sponsor’s image, which will impact on the sale of the sponsor’s products. An
increase in sales will result in greater profits, and more investment in the team.
Corporate sponsors are aware that the more successful a team or event, the more
interest there will be in it. This places an additional burden on the team, since the
team has to perform so as to maintain sponsorship. Once again the security need
is activated but at a macro level. Here performance is not just the concern of the
athlete, but also the team. This concern often results in teams taking part in
activities that will enhance the performance of the team. At the macro level
team prestige and even national prestige are at stake. Not only is prestige at stake
at the macro level, but the financial resources available is also greater, so that
whatever is available can be obtained to enhance performance. While affordability
may have been an issue at the micro level, (individual) at the macro level (team)
this is not a factor.
Transition 42
Social Needs
Another level of need is also activated at this phase, and that is the social level
of needs. At this level the quality of the management team, professional
friendships, and compatible work group are all important issues for the cyclist. At
this level the cyclist is likely to partake in activities that are seen as in the team’s
best interest, and as such, activities done at the macro level to alleviate the security
needs are likely to continue. At this level bonding is highly desirable, with
affiliation, another secondary motive, becoming the most dominant force
influencing behaviour. This motive has accounted for institutionalised doping on
some teams as was earlier stated. Here individuals are more concerned with the
team than their individual well being (Brewer, 2002). This results in the evolution
of perverted collective security needs arising from the imperative for social
solidarity and confidentiality or a strong in-group mentality. Such behaviour has
been further influenced by the scientific training methods used by teams during
preparation for competition (Brewer, 2002). The successful application of drugs
to boost training requires “a level of meticulous monitoring, calibration, and
measurement beyond the capacities of the average professional rider” (Brewer,
2002:294). There have also been the inclusion of associated networks e.g.
pharmaceuticals. It must be noted that “sports medicine has actually been one of
the major contexts within which performance enhancing drugs have been developed
and used” (Brewer, 2002:295).
Higher Level Needs
Consideration as to when an individual is likely to resist the practice of risky
behaviour, which may occur at the lower levels of needs, is important, and can
reduce the likelihood of such behaviour. It is expected that at the higher levels of
needs, risky behaviour is less likely. After satisfying physiological, security and
social needs, an individual’s needs would become more intrinsic in nature, as
against lower order needs which are extrinsic. At this level the athlete is more
concerned with challenging activities, and is not concerned with the rewards in
themselves, but sees reward as a feedback mechanism. At this level he is at peace
with himself, his image is now an important issue in his life. The legacy to be left
behind is of foremost importance. At this level the cost will far exceed the benefit,
since the cost is borne only by the athlete. Once tarnished the image is irreparable.
Dopers are driven by extrinsic rewards, since there is no personal gratification
from success or high performance as a result of doping, regardless of how they
try to justify their actions inwardly, that others are doing the same thing (Brewer,
Motivation and Actions to Enhance Performance
In addition to UCI’s initiatives to prepare cyclists for alternatives through
educational training, local federations ought to develop programmes that will
provide a safety net for their cyclists, based on their uniqueness and the available
resources in their communities. The elimination of the fear of the cyclist- in
relation to the uncertainty of their future economically, has to be addressed if the
problem of doping is to be resolved. Like other jobs and professions there should
be a mechanism that caters for their less formative years. Knowing that they will
be taken care of– due to an established system/program to assist the former
athletes at the end of their careers before they participate in risky behaviour
would certainly contribute to a reduction in this kind of behaviour. Though the
extent of the security needs of every cyclist will vary, the reduction in the period
of time spent with these needs will also reduce the likelihood of individuals
resorting to desperate means to alleviate their needs.
Also of importance is the fact that high achievers are less likely to take part in
this type of risky behaviour when compared with moderate and low achievers.
Determining whether an individual is a high achiever or not, will allow those in
authority to identify those individuals who are less likely to be in the risky group.
This will allow them to design programs to reduce the likelihood of individuals in
riskier groups from resorting to illegal activities to enhance performance.
Individuals have resorted to various illegal means to enhance performance in
cycling regardless of their demographic background or geographic location. Their
continued participation in these activities can also be deterred with the application
of the law of effect.
Based on the law of effect, “…behaviour that results in a pleasing outcome is
likely to be repeated, while behaviour that results in an unpleasant outcome is
not likely to be repeated” (Schermerhorn, 2000:104). The consequences for
undesirable behaviour must therefore deter the athlete to such an extent that
consideration of this type of behaviour will remain just that. The consequences
for undesirable behaviour should exceed the benefit to such an extent that the
net benefit would have a negative value. On the other hand the consequence for
desirable behaviour must be so compelling that no other type of behaviour would
be considered. In the administration of punishment, which is used to reduce the
likelihood of repeating an undesirable behaviour, due care must be taken to make
certain that it is properly handled. If punishment is offset by positive
reinforcement, through future lucrative contracts or other incentives, then the
Transition 42
desired effect would not be realised. While at the various levels of needs various
forces will motivate an individual, at all the levels addressed, the single driving
force is deprivation, which dominates the organism of the individuals (Wahba
and Bridwell, 1976). Regardless of an individual’s thinking or circumstance, his
physical wellbeing must be the foremost consideration when decisions are to be
made as it relates to the enhancement of his performance, not the team, the
sponsor, not the nation, and certainly not the spectators.
Though it is not the intention of this paper to address policy matters, an important
development in cycling as was earlier stated should not be overlooked. The effect
of the current ‘no needle policy’ adopted by the UCI is likely to have a short term
effect rather than the desired long term eradication of doping, if the needs of the
athletes are not addressed. The advancement in medicine as it relates to the
absorption of substances into the body, will much sooner than later be applied to
cycling. It is therefore imperative that the problem be solved rather than the
symptoms to the problem addressed. The problem should therefore be looked at
from various areas or disciplines within the social sciences. Content theories of
motivation are just one approach in the attempt to understand the problem of
doping in cycling. As was earlier stated, “motivation is at the heart of many of
sport’s most interesting problems” (Pelletier et al.,1995:36). Therefore future
studies can look at the effect of process theories such as expectancy on doping in
cycling. Also other motivation theories such as self-determination theory and
intrinsic and extrinsic motivation theories can be used as a framework to provide
a better understanding of this problem in cycling.
Motivation and Actions to Enhance Performance
Bilard, Jean. Gregory Ninot, and Denis Hauw (2010). “Motives for Illicit Use of
Doping substances Among Athletes Calling a National Antidoping PhoneHelp service: An Exploratory Study”, Informa Healthcare USA Inc.
Brewer, Benjamin D., (2002). “Commercialization in Professional Cycling 19502001: Institutional Transformations and the Rationalization of ‘Doping’,”
Sociology of Sports Journal, 19, 276 – 301.
Bright, Leonard (2009). “Why Do Public Employees Desire Intrinsic Nonmonetary
Opportunities?” Public Personnel Management, 38, 3: 15-37.
Crewson, Philip E., (1997). “Public-Service Motivation Building Empirical Evidence
of Incidence”, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 7, 2: 499-519.
Hackman, J. Richard, and Greg R. Oldham, (1976). “Motivation through the Design
of Work: Test of a Theory”, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance,
16, 250-279.
Houston, David J., (2000). “Public-Service Motivation: A Multivariate Test”, Journal
of Public Administration Research and Theory, 10, 4: 713-727.
Iguisi, Osarumwense, (2009). “Motivation-related values across cultures”, African
Journal of Business Management, Vol.3, 4: 141-150.
Koltko-Rivera, Mark E. (2006). “Rediscovering the Later Version of Maslow’s
Hierarchy of Needs: Self-Transcendence and Opportunities for Theory, Research
and Unification”, Review of General Psychology, Vol. 10, 4: 302-317.
Luthans, Fred. (1995). Organizational Behaviour (7th ed) NY. McGRAW-HILL Inc.
Maslow, Abraham H. (1943). “A Theory of Human motivation”, Psychological Review,
50: 370-396.
Mullins, Laurie J (2007). Management and Organizational Behaviour (8th ed). New
York. Prentice Hall.
Pelletier, Luc G. Michelle S. Fortier, Robert J. Vallerand, Kim M. Tuson, Nathalie
M. Briere, and Marc R. Blais. (1995). “Toward a New Measure of Intrinsic
Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, and Amotivation in Sports: The Sport
Motivation Scale (SMS)”, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17, 35-53.
Perry, James L., and Lyman W. Porter (1982). “Factors Affecting the Context for
Motivation in Public Organizations”, Academy Of Management Review, 7, 11:
Rainey, H. G., and P. Steinbauer (1999). “Galloping Elephants: Developing Elements
of a Theory of Effective Government Organizations”, Journal of Public Administration
Research and Theory, 9, 1-32.
Schermerhorn, John R. James G. Hunt and Richard N. Osborn (2008).
Organizational Behaviour (10th ed.) New York. John Wiley & Sons.
Transition 42
Steers, Richard M., Richard T. Mowday, and Debra L. Shapiro (2004). “The Future
of Work Motivation Theory”, Academy of Management Review, 29, 3: 379-387.
Union Cycliste Internationale (2011). Press release ‘No needle policy’, [Internet]. =MTI2 Mjc
&LangId=1&1602917X57X56Page=2. Retrieved June 15, 2011.
Wahba, Mahmoud A., and Lawrence G. Bridwell (1976). “Maslow Reconsidered:
A Review of Research on the Need Hierarchy Theory, Organizational
Behavior and Human Performance”, 15, 212 – 240.
Wright, Bradley E., (2001). “Public-Sector Work Motivation: A Review of the Current
Literature and a Revised Conceptual Model”, Journal of Public Administration
Research and Theory, 11, 4: 559-586.