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Native americans; Confederated Tribes of
Umatilla Indian Reservation (Oregon - USA)
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172 acres between North-East Oregon, South-East
Washington and West Idaho
Climate: continental cold-temperate
Two river basins: Columbia River and Snake River
Landscape: hilly and mountainous
Rich vegetation (flora and fauna diversity)
Moderate infrastructure
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Population: 2,927
Male: 48,3%
Female: 51,7%
Median age: 35,2
Population growth rate
(1990 – 2000):
Number of householders: 1,013
Age composition
(on total population, 2000)
0 – 21 years: 42%
22 – 64 years: 52%
65 and older: 6%
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Commercial activities, light industries
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In labor force population
Unemployed population
Less than $10.000 income households
Median household income: $37,827
Poverty status families
Poverty status individuals
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Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation is a union
of three tribes: Cayuse, Umatilla, and Walla Walla.
Decision on: health and human services, natural resources,
economic and community development, tribal services,
education, fire protection and police.
Regional Government: Umatilla County
Some actors in the region:
Fish and Wildlife Commission (land-use policy and
Old Celilo Fish Committee (inter-tribal association for
fish resources management)
Columbia River Inter Tribal Fish Commission (
ETHOS: a quick view
Drums session
Traditional clothing
Indian tipical tent
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Historical inhabitants of the Columbia River system
Many events held at the Tribal Longhouse are ceremonies
that often involve elements of traditional religion. Examples
include Root Feast, funerals, weddings, and namings.
Cultural traits
music: many religious songs honoring births, deaths and the
changing of the seasons
gastronomy: salmon, kowsh (couse root), berries
craft: utensils, clothing and tools mainly made from wood,
stone and bone
Nomadic herders of the extreme lands (Olziit
soum, Arkhangai aimag, Mongolia)
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Total area surface: 172000 hectares
Mountains: Bayanbaishir, Norjinchamba, Bayanhairhan, Dulaanhairhan, Tahilt
Rivers: the biggest river of the soum is the Orkhon river; there are some other
smaller river, in particular the Bodont and the Kharkhiraa river;
Wild animals: deer, wild boar, antelopes, siberian ibex, wild sheep, marmot, sable,
wolf, polar fox, fox and squirrel; wild cat; dorgo; fish
Forest: the main forest are situated in the north and northwest of the soum area
and they are made of mainly birches and larches.
Mineral: the soum doesn’t have any mining sites, but the ground has trace of
plumbum; stones and sand are utilized as building materials.
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Population, 2009
Natural movement of population, 2009
Major health related problems
The main human diseases and mortality are related to:
heart and blood circulation system (high blood pressure);
kidneys and liver;
digestive system;
apoplexy and nervous system disease.
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Commerce and services
Handicraft and wool
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In labor force population
Employed population in primary sector
Employed population in secondary sector
Employed population in tertiary sector
Employed by age group, 2009
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Mongolia is divided in:
- Province (Aimags) plus capital city (Ulaanbaatar) with
provincial status
- Districts (Sums)
- Clusters of households (Bags)
ETHOS: a quick view
Ancient stone
Monastic temple
ETHOS: selected information
Historically, the people (uuld) in Ulziit soum are originated from
the Western Mongolia. Offically, the Ulziit Soum, Arkhangai
aimag, established in 1931, with 512 households in 7 bags.
Main cultural resources
Ancient traditions reminiscence of the Bronze Age (i.e. Deer
4 monuments of Turkish empires.
Two old Buddhist temples, built in 1843.
Ethnicity: 99% of Oold, 1% of of Khalh
Religious tradition: Buddhist
Farmers of Bombali District – Northern
Province (Sierra Leone, western Africa)
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Tropical climate, with two seasons
(rainy – May to November and dry
– December to April)
Forest area diminished by:
-Slash and burn
-Land conversion for cattle grazing
Bombali District: lowland plains
with forest, savannah and
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Major health related problems
(percentage of total death)
Source: Sierra Leone Census, 2004
Source: Sierra Leone Census, 2004
Source: Sierra Leone Census, 2004
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Commerce and services
Foreign aid
BUSINESS (Bombali District) : selected information
Source: Sierra Leone Census, 2004
INSTITUTIONS: selected information
Constitutional Republic
The President is the head of the State, head of the Government and
Commander in Chief of the Army.
Sierra Leone is divided in 4 regions: Northern Province, Southern Province,
Eastern Province and Western Area (the capital area of Freetown).
The Province are divided into District and, furthermore, into Chiefdoms.
Sierra Leone is a member of Commonwealth and Economic Community
of West African States (ECOWAS).
ETHOS: a quick view
Inter-religion coexistence
Inter-ethnic coexistence
Arts (music, dance…)
ETHOS: selected information
The population of Sierra Leone comprises 16 ethnic groups.
The four largest are the Mende, Temne, Limba and Kono who represent
about 50% of the population. Other smaller ethnic group are Mandingo, Krio,
Loko, Fula, Susu...
Lebanese community (descendants of Lebanese settlers who settled in
Sierra Leone during the late 19th century) is spread all over the country.
• Islam believers are approximately 60% of Sierra Leone’s population
• Christians are approximately 30% of Sierra Leone’s population
• African traditional religion cover the remaining 10%
The two main religions present often some traits of traditional religion.
Otatitlán (Veracruz), México
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Alluvial, costal plain (Papalopan River basin)
Hot-wet climate
Medium-high natural vulnerability
Seasonal agriculture (banana, beans, corn)
Moderate infrastructure
Papaloapan River has been, traditionally, the most
important economic and cultural trait of the habitat
Very hot temperatures can be hard to bear,
in several months of the year
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Population: 5,562
Population density
Crude Birth rate
Crude Death rate
Sex ratio
Annual population growth rate
Illiterates, 15 years old or more
(% of 2005 population):
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Fishing, fish farming
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Economically active population
Working people with wage<minimum (2000): 9.21%
Working people between 1 and 2 minimum wages: 41%
Medium industries: 1 (bananas)
Average of 700,000 annual visitors to Cristo Negro
Hotels: 3
Restaurants: 16
Big, annual, regional fair
INSTITUTIONS: selected information
Local Government: Ayuntamiento de Otatitlán, Ver.
Regional Government: Estado de Veracruz
Some National actors in the region:
- CONAGUA (Comisión Nacional del Agua)
- SAGARPA (Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería,
Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación)
- Gobierno Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos
Some internacional actors in the Region
- UNESCO, in Tlacotalpan, World Cultural Heritage
- Other ONGs
ETHOS: a quick view
Potcheca (Aztec) origin
Cristo Negro Pilgrimage
and Sanctuary
Jarocho (Veracruz) culture: relaxed, warm, alive
ETHOS: selected information
pre-Hispanic origin (along an Aztec trade route)
Cristo Negro (Black Christ)
cultural and economic local asset
Regional jarocho culture
music: Son Jarocho, Fandango
gastronomy: mariscos y pescado (sea and river food)
craft: tejidos, maderas (textiles, wood)