Photo Interpretation - Waikato Regional Council

Photo Interpretation –
The Issues, Values, and Relationships
Task: People use and abuse the coast in a variety of ways. Use the key questions and/or
the extension/complementary activities below for each photograph to encourage
students to understand some of the important values, relationships and issues in the
coastal environment.
1 Cultural Use (food gathering)
Key Questions
1. What do you think the people in this picture could be doing?
Refer Photograph 1, Cultural Use
Gathering shellfish.
2. There are limits on the amount of kai moana people can take from the coast.
Why is it necessary that we do this?
Read Shellfish Collecting Factsheet and the newspaper article “Snapper
Snaffling”, photocopy masters 7 and 8, and discuss what people think about
taking undersized seafood. You could carry out a PMI activity based around the
heading “Do you think we should have limits on the amount of seafood that is
allowed to be taken?” (see example below).
PMI Chart
(positive points)
(negative points)
(whatever ideas you can come up with
that aren’t positive or negative)
Extension/Complementary Activities
• Research other ways that Maori people use coastal resources. For example, Pingao
(a native sand binding grass) is traditionally used for many articles of weaving.
Students could collect flax (pingao is a threatened species) and try weaving some
traditional items. Refer to the Reference List for relevant books.
• Investigate some of the ways Maori have traditionally protected coastal resources.
Students could invite a Maori elder to share their knowledge with the class about
collecting kai moana and how the coast is changing all the time. Read the school
journal article “A Gift from Tangaroa” Part 3 Number 3 1990 (article 11 –13 years).
• Build up a glossary of Maori terms relating to the coast. Include in your glossary
Maori terms for sand, estuary, sea, shellfish, tide and some of the plants and animals
that live at the coast. See Appendix 2 for a list of Maori words.
2 People Use: Recreation
In New Zealand, the coast has traditionally been a place where people go to spend
their summer holidays. There are a variety of ways people enjoy their holidays at the
Key Questions
1. What things can you see people doing in these pictures?
Refer to Photograph 2, People Use - Recreation
2. What do you do when you go to the coast?
3. Do you think any of these activities could harm the coast? In what ways?
Recall observations from video.
4. What type of coast do you think would be more popular? Why?
More families visit sandy beaches because they are more suited for swimming,
barbecues, building sandcastles and they fit our “ideal” image of what a beach is.
Therefore it follows that these coasts are the ones we damage the most. Study the
Dune Care Code Photocopy Master 14, and discuss what it means.
5. As part of a homework activity or in class students could discuss with their
families and friends what they would do differently to ensure that they were
caring for coastal environments next time that they visited the coast.
Extension/Complementary Activities
• Debate this statement: “Boogie board the waves, not the dunes.”
• Design and draw a sign which “Beachcare groups” could erect on the dunes,
outlining why the dunes need to be protected.
3 People Use: Commercial
(marine farming)
Since the arrival of Europeans in the
1800’s, with more people and more
industry, pressure on the sea and its
resources has increased.
Key Questions
1. What do you think this picture is of?
Refer to Photograph 3, People Use - Commercial
A long-line mussel farm.
2. Can you think of any other types of marine farming?
In New Zealand oysters, salmon, and paua are also farmed. Overseas, seaweed,
prawns, shrimp and even sea horses are some of the species farmed.
Coasts and Us: A Teachers’ Resource Photo Interpretation: The Issues, Values and Relationship
3. What other ways do people commercially (i.e. for profit) use the coast?
E.g. commercial fishing, tourism, sand mining, big game fishing, fishing charters.
4. What effects do you think marine farming might have on other coastal users,
on other marine life and on water quality? Marine farms may be established in
areas that have been historically used for boating and other water activities. Human
activities may disturb wildlife in and around the marine farm. It may disrupt
important breeding colonies and feeding areas and attract predatory species of fish
that would not normally come into this area. Native species can be threatened by
introduced species for food, space and habitat damage. Increased sedimentation
can occur where structures have been built in the water, slowing the current flow and
allowing sediment to fall to the seabed. Pollution of the sea from farming operations
leaving litter or when parts break.
Every year
three times as
much rubbish
is dumped in
the ocean,
as the weight
of the fish
5. What could people do to make sure that any effects are kept to a minimum?
Coastal consents for marine farming now address most of these issues to ensure that
our coastal environments are protected. Refer to reference list at back for booklets
available from Environment Waikato regarding marine farming – effects on the
environment and people. Think of both positive and negative effects.
Extension/Complementary Activities
• Students’ research and mark the location of marine farms in the Waikato Region,
using Photocopy Master 3 “The Waikato Coastline” from Activity 1.
• Use the supplied Blank Consequence Wheel (Photocopy Master 9) to brainstorm both
the positive and negative effects of marine farming. In the centre of the circle you
need to write your event that will have “consequences” on the environment. For
example marine farm opened in the Firth of Thames. In each outward radiating circle
write consequences, which in turn lead to other effects. Effects can be both positive
and negative. A partly completed consequence wheel is supplied (Photocopy Master
10) for the teacher to begin discussions. Consequence wheels could also be
completed on the effects of the different ways people use the coast.
• Read Photocopy Masters 7 and 8 on The Shellfish Gathering Limits in the Waikato
Region and Snapper Snaffling. Have a class discussion using a values continuum.
This could be done by actually having the student’s position themselves along a
physical continuum, e.g. a line on the floor at one end “strongly agree” at the other
end “strongly disagree”. Children can position themselves where they think they are
on the values continuum and argue their stance. Use any of the following discussion
the people caught with undersized or too many fish or shellfish should be
only those who are way over the limit should be charged.
people should be allowed to take what shellfish they like, i.e. there
should be no limit.
there should be no shellfish gathered for one year to allow stocks to build
• Read school journal article “One Day At The Beach” Part 3, Number 3, 1990 (Article
9-10), where a fisheries officer talks to a diver about the need for him to return some
of his catch due to it being undersized.
4 Historical (New Zealand’s changing coastline)
Use Photocopy Master 11 to investigate the changes in New Zealand’s
Key Questions
1. What things have occurred to change the coastline of the islands of New
Zealand over time?
The forces of plate tectonics (e.g. the crustal plates under the earth’s surface which
move and cause mountain building, earthquakes and volcanism) and severe erosion.
2. In what ways do you think the coastline of New Zealand is still changing?
The coastline is continuously changing as part of a natural process. Recall the
destructive and constructive waves from the video – building up and eroding away
the coastline.
3. Is there anything people are doing to accelerate (speed up) this natural
process of change? What do you think these things might be?
E.g. Building houses too close to the sea, removing the sand resource. Recall
observations from the video.
Extension/Complementary Activities
• Research the dates and correctly label the outline maps of New Zealand’s changing
coastline over time using Photocopy Master 11 (dated) and 12 (blank).
5 Erosion
Key Questions
1. What do you think has happened
in this photo?
Refer to Photograph 4, Erosion
2. Is this something that you would expect to happen
on the coast, i.e. is it a natural process?
Recall discussion from above.
3. Do you think it is a good idea to build houses near the beach like this? Why
or why not? If you build too close you are encroaching on the dunes and therefore
interfering with the natural processes that will occur on the coast. Also refer back to
the video where it talked about the impact on dunes from being built on.
4. There are two main factors that cause erosion. Do you think any of these
factors could be controlled? How?
Natural erosion and human/cultural erosion, the human impacts can be lessened
through the careful use of the coast. The Resource Management Act is legislation that
is designed to specifically ensure that natural resources are used sustainably. People
wishing to use coastal resources such as the land or sand require resource consent to
do so. Everyone can take action by following the Dune Care Code when they visit the
beach and ensure that their boats, jet skis etc., do not leak oil and petrol or litter
Coasts and Us: A Teachers’ Resource Photo Interpretation: The Issues, Values and Relationship
Annually, 6.5 million tonnes of
litter finds its way into the ocean,
5. Natural erosion is caused by storms. What different elements of the storm
cause erosion?
Wind and wave action.
6. Read the school journal article “Shifting Sands” by Andrew Crowe, Part 4
Number 2, 1996 (Article 10 – 12 years). Depending on the ability of your students
either discuss as a class or read in pairs answering the sub-heading questions or
preparing summary statements for the headings about the information presented in
the article.
7. How do you think nature works to protect the coast from erosion?
Sand dunes provide a buffer for the waves coming on shore, especially during a
When big waves hit sand dunes some of the sand is dragged out to sea. This sand
builds a sandhill on the sea floor under the water called a sand bar. After the storm
passes the waves bring the sand from the sand bar back to the beach. Onshore
winds blow the sand to the dunes and therefore help to rebuild the sand dune again,
in preparation for the next storm.
Extension/Complementary Activities
• Use Beach Erosion Flow Chart Photocopy Master 13 to initiate discussion on cause
and effect of coastal erosion.
• Complete a Consequence Wheel (refer to Photocopy Master 9), using ‘Coastal
property owner builds a sea wall’ as the central statement. Encourage students to
consider both negative and positive ‘consequences’.
• Students could role-play the following situation – imagining that it is happening at
their favourite beach.
A resource consent application has been lodged to the Regional Council for a new
coastal subdivision. At the resource consent hearing process, all interested parties
are given an opportunity to express their views for or against the project.
Commissioners need to be appointed to hear the submissions and decide whether
the subdivision should go ahead or not. Students work in groups to plan their
submission and nominate a representative to present to the commission. The
interested parties represented could include local landowners, fisherpeople, beach
users, conservationists, iwi, Regional Council, District Council and the proposed
subdivision landowner.
6 Dune Plants
Key Questions
1. Why are these plants important – what is their job?
Refer to Photograph 5, Coastal Plants
Kowhangatara and Pingao act as sand binding plants. Refer to the section on
Coastal Plants at the beginning of this unit.
2. Why are these important sand-binding grasses disappearing along some of
our coastlines?
Exotic (foreign) plants grow faster and take up the space that the native plants would
grow on. People damage the native grasses when they walk or picnic on it, when they
ride bikes or horses or boogie board over it. Farm animals that are allowed to graze
on sand dunes and they squash and eat the native grasses.
3. What can we do to save these protected dune plants?
Formation of Beachcare groups, instalment of accessways, learning and adhering to
the dune care code. Recall observations from the video.
4. What other types of plants are characteristic of the other types of coastline
and what role do they play in the ecosystem?
E.g. mangroves grow in estuaries and provide unique habitat for both marine and
freshwater animal species; kelp and lichens grow on the rocky shore and provide an
important food source for many marine animals. Recall coastal profiles activity.
Extension/Complementary Activities
• Use the copy of the Dune Care Code Photocopy Master 14, to initiate a class
discussion on dune protection. Students take one of the golden rules from the code
and create a poster, slogan, bumper sticker or story based
around it.
• For more activities about sand dunes, contact Environment Waikato for a copy of
Seaweek ’96 Marine Education Kit for Primary Schools – “Sand Dunes in the
Waikato Region”.
• Invite a member of your local Beachcare group to talk to the class about what they
are doing to protect dunes and dune vegetation.
7 Animal Life
Key Questions
1. Do you think these animals belong here?
Why or why not?
Refer to Photograph 6, Animal Life
2. What might change so that these animals
don’t like it here anymore or can’t live here?
Dunes have eroded and are no longer a suitable
breeding habitat, fish/shellfish may have declined
due to over-harvesting and food is no longer available.
Coasts and Us: A Teachers’ Resource Photo Interpretation: The Issues, Values and Relationship
3. What other types of non-marine animals live on the coast and what do they
need to be able to live there?
E.g. bugs such as insects, spiders and snails, live on the dunes and need washed up
drift wood and seaweed (also discuss what may happen if people take large
quantities of this natural sea debris away).
4. Unfortunately there are animals on the coast that don’t belong, who do you
think these could be and what problems they cause?
Rabbits eat young dune plants and shrubs, stoats kill coastal birds and eat their eggs,
and possums destroy coastal forests (pohutukawa is a favourite).
Extension/Complementary Activities
• Build a marine food web using the students as creatures in the food chain. Introduce
events that effect the food web, such as, an oil spill, over harvesting and dredge
netting. After each event, eliminate some of your species (students) and discuss the
effects on the rest of the food web. A master copy of species cards and more detailed
instruction on how to play the game are part of the activities for the field trip.
8 Coastal Structures
With the increased use of coastal resources by people, there is a corresponding need
for the facilities and structures to cope with those uses.
Number and type of coastal structures
in the Waikato Region (surveyed in 1995)*
Type of Structure
Sea walls and groynes
Culverts and storm water pipes
Power poles
Boat ramps
Fence lines
Wharves and jetties
Buildings and mai-mais
Bridges, causeways and fords
Dump sites and derelict structures
*Excludes structures associated with marinas, mooring areas, marine farms and whitebait stands.
Key Questions
1. What things do you see in the photo that could be a coastal structure?
Refer to Photograph 7, Coastal Structures
2. Can you think of other types of coastal structures?
Coastal structures include such things as sea walls, storm water pipes, boat ramps,
jetties and maimais.
3. Why do people need permission to build coastal structures?
Coastal structures require resource consents from Environment Waikato because they
can effect the natural character of the coast. E.g. storm water outlets and their
associated discharges can result in the erosion of local beaches and dunes, rock and
other hazard protection devices placed in an attempt to minimise these effects can
further degrade the natural character or beauty of the coast.
Extension/Complementary Activities
A resource consent application has been lodged to the Regional Council to build a
new jetty. Students can role-play the resource consent hearing process, where all
interested parties are given an opportunity to express their views for or against the
project. Commissioners need to be appointed to hear the submissions and decide
whether the building consent should be granted or not. Students work in groups to
plan their submission and nominate a representative to present to the commission.
The interested parties represented could include local landowners, fisherpeople,
beach users, conservationists, iwi, Regional Council, District Council and boat
9 Pollution
Key Questions
1. How do you feel when you look at this
photo? Why do you feel that way?
Refer to Photograph 8, Pollution
2. Where does the rubbish in these
pictures come from?
People dumping rubbish on the beach,
into rivers, out at sea, blown by the wind.
3. What other sorts of rubbish/pollution is
found along the coast and how does it affect the coastal environment?
E.g. plastic in small pieces, such as lids and broken containers, get stuck in birds’
stomachs when they mistake it for food – they then die of starvation. Refer to the
section on pollution at the beginning of the unit.
Coasts and Us: A Teachers’ Resource Photo Interpretation: The Issues, Values and Relationship
Extension/Complementary Activities
• Create your own oil spill in the classroom using a tray of water and an eyedropper of
oil. Use different materials to try to contain or clean up your spill, for example cotton
wool, wool, cotton rags, and synthetic materials. Oil booms could be made out of
straws, string, and fabric. Experiment with which materials are the most appropriate!
• Your class or school could organise a beach clean up of your local beach. You would
be helping contribute data from the Waikato Region, improving the beauty of the
beach and maybe saving some marine creature from a nasty death. Use the beach
clean-up log, photocopy master 15. Separate the rubbish into different categories
and create a graph of your class results.
• As a class brainstorm how some of these issues could be resolved. What action
would need to be taken by the government? The community? Individuals? What
actions can you as a class take immediately? Next time you go to the coast?
Coasts and Us: A Teachers’ Resource Photo Interpretation: The Issues, Values and Relationship