Teacher Resource Book B British Antarctic Expedition 1910-1913 Captain R F Scott 13 April 1911 H Ponting Photograph Pennell Collection Canterbury Museum HOW TO USE THE EDUCATION RESOURCES Antarctica, Robert Falcon Scott, and the historical debate about his Terra Nova expedition, as well as scientific endeavour, all intersect in this exhibition, Scott’s Last Expedition. A wide variety of activities for students working at level 2 - 5 are offered in the resources. Resource Kit A is designed to provide a general introduction to Scott and the Terra Nova expedition and includes focus questions to get you started. Resource Kit B focuses on Antarctica, the planning of the Terra Nova expedition and the setting up of base camp at Cape Evans. Resource Kit C turns to the scientific endeavours that were carried out by Scott and his men and what scientists are doing on the Ice today. Resource Kit D examines the journey to the South Pole and the subsequent death of Scott and the Polar party. These activities can be used for pre-visit, post-visit, revision, or as stand alone activities in the classroom. Teachers may freely adapt the activities to suit the needs of the their own students. Many of the activities have associated web links to other resource material. All websites are correct at the time of publication. Many thanks to the Australian National Maritime Museum who developed all of these activities for Scott’s Last Expedition. Exhibition Sub-themes RESOURCE KIT A RESOURCE KIT B Timeline Activity Geography and Mapping Mapping Landscape and Fauna Glaciology Climate Change Introducing Antarctica Animals in Antarctica Identifying Animals Food Web RESOURCE KIT C Clothing Food Medical Issues Science and Geography Antarctic Ecosystem Adaptation Penguins and sponges - a comparison Scientific Data Collection Fossils Geological Wall Chart Documentation The Dry Valleys Dry Valleys and Life on Mars RESOURCE KIT D Exhibition Overview Historical Inquiry Planning the Terra Nova expedition Base Camp at Cape Evans Science and Human Endeavour The journey to the South Pole The last camp The death of Scott and Polar Party Reflections CURRICULUM LINKS SCIENCE: PLANET EARTH AND BEYOND LEVEL 2: Students will: Explore and describe natural features and resources Describe how natural features are changed and resources affected by natural events and human actions LEVEL 3: Appreciate that water, air, rocks and soil, and life forms make up our planet and recognise that these are also Earth’s resources Investigate the water cycle and its effect on climate, landforms, and life LEVEL 4: Develop an understanding that water, air, rocks, soil and life forms make up our planet and recognise that these are also Earth’s Resources Investigate the water cycle and its effect on the climate, landforms, and life LIVING WORLD LEVEL 2: Recognise that all living things have certain requirements so they can stay alive Recognise that living things are suited to their particular habitat Recognise that there are lots of different living things in the world and that they can be grouped in different ways LEVEL 3 and 4: Recognise that there are life processes common to all living things and that these occur in different ways Explain how living things are suited to their particular habitat and how they respond to environment changes, both natural and human-induced Begin to group plant, animals, and other living things into science-based classifications LEVEL 5: Investigate the interdependence of living things (including humans) in an ecosystem CURRICULUM LINKS SOCIAL SCIENCES: SOCIAL STUDIES LEVEL 2: Students will gain knowledge, skills, and experience to: Understand how people make choices to meet their needs and wants Understand how places influence people and people influence places Understand how people make significant contributions to New Zealand society LEVEL 3: Understand how people view and use places differently Understand how people make decisions about access to and use of re- sources Understand how people remember and record the past in different ways LEVEL 4: Understand how exploration and innovation create opportunities and challenges for people, places and environments Understand that events have causes and effects TECHNOLOGY: NATURE OF TECHNOLOGY LEVEL 2: Students will: Understand that technology both reflects and changes society and the environment and increases people’s capability Understand that technological outcomes are developed through technological practice and have related physical and functional natures. LEVEL 3: Understand how society and environments impact on and are influ- enced by technology in historical and contemporary contexts and that technological knowledge is validated by successful function Understand that technological outcomes are recognisable as fit for purpose by the relationship between their physical and functional natures LEVEL 4: Understand how technological development expands human possibili- ties and how technology draws on knowledge from a wide range of disciplines Understand that technological outcomes can be interpreted in terms of how they might be used and by whom and that each has a proper function as well as possible alternative functions ICONS Icons are used next to activities to indicate skills being addressed. Think carefully about the question and what you want to say in reply. Discuss something with a friend, within a group or with your teacher. Write a response in the space provided. This could be following discussion. Perform mathematical calculations. Read some information. Look at some visual material. Research an issue. This is an interactive activity. Make something. GLOSSARY Antarctic bottom water The coldest and densest water mass in the ocean. Formed in particular places in Antarctica when surface water cools and becomes more dense and so sinks to the ocean floor. Anthropologist Anthropologists examine, analyse, report on and compare different communities and how they grow, develop and interact. Avalanche A fall or slide of a large mass of snow and ice which has detached from where it rested. Biologist Biologists study humans, plants, animals and the environments in which they live. Calve When ice from a glacier reaches a body of water it may break off and form an iceberg. This is known as calving Desert An area where precipitation is low and evaporation is high creating very little moisture in the air. Antarctica is a “white desert”. Ecosystem A system formed by the interactions of the living organisms (plants, animals and humans) and physical elements of the environment. Environment The total physical and biotic features and influences surrounding a place or organism. Geographical issues Areas of concern that arise due to changes in environments and which can be in spatial and ecological dimensions. Geologist Geologists study the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes and history that has shaped it. Glaciers Glaciers are snow, compressed over many years, which thicken into ice masses. They are like rivers of ice and move slowly. Habitat The environment in which an organism lives: the land and resources (food and shelter) required to support an organism. Hypothesis A predictive statement which can be tested using a range of methods: most often associated with experimental procedure. Ice floe A large, flat, sheet of sea ice that has broken off contact with the coast where it was formed and is floating in open water. Ice sheet A large, thick mass of ice that covers the land beneath it and is greater than 50,000 square kilometres. Ice sheets cover Antarctica. Ice shelf A large flat sheet of ice that is attached to land along one side and floats in the ocean. Formed where a glacier or ice shelf has reached the water and kept flowing. Ice tongue A mass of ice projecting from a glacier into the sea. It is still fixed to and forms a part of the larger glacier. Iceberg A massive piece of floating ice that has calved off a glacier or ice shelf. Icebergs occur in lakes and the ocean and can be the size of islands or small countries. Only about 10% of its mass is above the surface of the water. Inuit The Inuit is a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions. Investigation Systematic inquiry. Physical environment Includes water, air, living things, sunlight and natural features of the earth’s environment . Phytoplankton (Plant plankton) Microscopic plant organisms which grow and live in the upper layers of the ocean and form the basis of the marine food web. Primary materials (History) Original material written, composed, constructed at the time that is being studied and about the topic that is being studied. Primary materials (Science) Original material collected by the author. It includes measurements, survey responses, photographs, digital images, maps and sketches. Secondary sources (History) Material written, composed, constructed after the event being studied; not first-hand knowledge. Secondary sources (Science) A range of forms of information and data that have resulted from the investigations of other people, including graphs, diagrams, South Pole The southern-most point on the surface of the Earth where the Earth’s axis of rotation intersects. Validity of first hand data The extent to which the processes and resultant data measure what was intended. Zooplankton (Animal plankton) Microscopic animal organisms, such as tiny crustaceans and fish larvae, that drift in bodies of water. Zooplankton cannot produce their own food so are consumers. PRIMARY STAGE 3 Timeline Construct a timeline of exploration in the Antarctic region and other world events to understand the significance of Scott’s expedition. The timeline needs to be to scale and record at least ten of the events listed below. Label each event with a date and title. 1642 Dutch explorer Abel Tasman discovers New Zealand in his search for Terra Australis Incognito—The Great Southern Land. 1773 British explorer James Cook crosses the Antarctic Circle in January and circumnavigates Antarctica. He does not sight land, but finds evidence that a southern continent exists. . 1819-1821 Thaddeus Bellingshausen, a Russian naval officer, circumnavigates Antarctica and is the first person to cross the Antarctic Circle since Captain Cook. 1823 British whaler James Weddell discovers the sea later named after him and reaches the most southerly point to date. No one else penetrates the Weddell Sea again for 80 years. 1840 British naval officer and scientist James Clark Ross takes two ships, the Erebus and the Terror, to within 80 miles of the Antarctic coast. He is stopped by a massive ice barrier, known as the Ross Ice Shelf. He also discovers an active volcano that he names after his ship Erebus. 1840 The Treaty of Waitangi is signed by Iwi and Crown 1850 The First Four Ships arrive in Canterbury NZ 1885 Karl Benz builds the first motorcar. 1899 Carsten Borchgrevink leads a British expedition to Cape Adare and builds huts. This was the first time that anyone had spent a winter on land in Antarctica. 1902 Robert Falcon Scott leads his first Antarctic expedition to the South Pole, with Ernest Shackleton and Edward Wilson. They are forced to turn back two months later having reached 82˚ south, suffering from snow blindness and scurvy. 1903 The Wright brothers make the first powered airplane flight. 1907 - 1909 1912 - December 1912 – January Ernest Shackleton leads an expedition to within 156 km of the South Pole, but turns back after supplies are exhausted. Norwegian Roald Amundsen is the first to reach the South Pole. Robert Falcon Scott reaches the South Pole three weeks after Amundsen. 1914 World War One begins 1915 Ernest Shackleton returns to Antarctica in October in an attempt to complete the first crossing of the continent. The attempt is unsuccessful. 1956 A United States of America aircraft lands at the South Pole, the first people to arrive at this place since Scott in 1912. 1958 The first successful land crossing via the South Pole is led by British geologist Vivian Fuchs with New Zealander Edmund Hillary leading the backup party. 1961 Antarctic Treaty comes into effect. Geography and Climate Getting Started Map Work Use an atlas or other reference to identify geographic features A blank outline of Antarctica is available for free download from the following web page: www.worldatlas.com/webimage/ countrys/polar/anaroutl.htm and significant sites within Antarctica. Locate each of the places listed below and mark them as directed. Use a black pen unless otherwise instructed. 1. Mark the Trans Antarctic Mountain Range with a series of small black crosses and label it. 2. Label East and West Antarctica. 3. Label the Antarctic Peninsula. 4. Mark the South Pole with a black spot and label it. 5. Add Ross Island by drawing its outline and labelling it. 6. Draw a line to show the Ross Ice Shelf, the Ronne Ice Shelf and the Larsen Ice Shelf. Colour each ice shelf pink. 7. Label the following seas: Ross, Amundsen, Bellinghausen, Weddell, and colour them light blue. 8. Use a compass to draw the Antarctic Circle and label it. 9. Mark Scott’s base at Camp Evans with a black spot and label it. Research Use an encyclopaedia or the internet to learn about how Scott travelled from Cape Evans to the South Pole.. On the map where you have already marked the geographical features draw a dotted line to show the route that Scott’s party followed from their base to the South Pole. British Antarctic Expedition 1910-1913 Entering the Pack. Fo’castle of the Terra Nova 10 December 1910 H.G. Ponting photograph Pennell Collection Canterbury Museum 1975.289.20 Collage Create a visual summary of the environment in Antarctica by making a collage. Collect images of Antarctica from travel brochures, magazines, reference books and the internet which depict the landscape and fauna (land and sea) evident on the continent. British Antarctic Expedition 1910-1913 Lt Evans washing up 7 January 1911 H.G. Ponting photograph Pennell Collection Canterbury Museum Pennell Album 108 Glaciology and Rising Temperatures View: www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/2886106.htm This can be streamed from the ABC website or alternatively can be downloaded. In addition, the narration is available for download. Once you have viewed the programme, answer the questions on the following page. British Antarctic Expedition 1910-1913 F Drake bringing ice to ship 10 January 1911 H.G. Ponting photograph Pennell Collection Canterbury Museum 1975. 289.26 Questions - Glaciology and Rising Temperatures. 1. What percentage of the world’s snow and ice are found in Antarctica? 2. What is happening to the world’s biggest ice sheet? 3. If air temperature has increased by half a degree Celsius for each decade over the past 50 years, what is the overall increase in temperature in that time? 4. What is one effect of this increase in temperature? 5. What is the major concern about the ice shelves collapsing? 6. Why is water warming in the Southern Ocean? 7. How can scientists measure the depth of the ice mass? 8. How is ice melting from below the ice mass? 9. Explain how sea levels may rise. 10. How many metres do scientists predict that sea levels may increase this century? Something to Think About - Rising Sea Levels Half of the world’s population live in low-lying places close to the coast. A rise in sea level would have a huge impact on many communities. Here are some scenarios of what would happen if the sea levels rise by one metre. Tuvalu is a tiny country made up of a group of islands in the South Pacific. It would be almost completely underwater with a one metre rise of the ocean. Its entire population of 11,000 people would have to be evacuated. London, the capital city of England, would completely change as the Thames River would flood putting important landmarks such as the Houses of Parliament at risk. China is the world’s most populated country. If the sea level rises by one metre one third of Shanghai would be underwater. Throughout the country more than 70 million people would be affected. Handout: What happens when icebergs melt? nsidc.org/quickfacts/icebergs.html An informative handout about icebergs. Others also available on ice sheets and ice shelves. Experiment: Melting ice www.theteacherscorner.net/lesson-plans/science/ experiments/turnice.php An excellent experiment which demonstrates the behaviour of ice as it melts. British Antarctic Expedition 1910-1913 The first warm sunny spring day 17 September 1911 H.G. Ponting photograph Pennell Collection Canterbury Museum 1975.289.15 Climate Change – Should we be worried? To encourage discussion on climate change and other environmental issues view and discuss this eight minute extract from ABC’s Catalyst: Southern Ocean Sentinel. This extract is in two related parts about the effects of climate change. 1. Focus on the Mertz Glacier, which snapped off the Antarctic mainland in February 2010. Extension Activity - View Antarctica is the most pristine and untouched environment in the world. Scientists believe that signs of climate change will become evident first in Antarctica. The rest of the world can then be informed about possible risks and the impact on the environment so that necessary precautions and action can be taken. www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/2886137.htm This can either be streamed from the ABC website or downloaded. Also, the narration is available for download. 2. Look at pteropods (phytoplankton) and how they can warn society of future climate change. Exposition, Debate or Oral Presentation Consolidate learning in this area and express a point of view. Students will be required to do additional research. Use resources in the library and the internet to research the topic. Students could write an exposition covering some or all of the points OR conduct a debate on one of the questions listed below OR make an oral presentation. 1. Are you concerned about how environmental change will affect the Antarctic region? Consider land, air and sea when responding. 2. As Antarctic tourism increases, the pressures on the environment will only grow. Should tourism be permitted in Antarctica and if so how should it be managed? 3. What are the consequences of Antarctic environmental change? 4. How are science and technology used to limit the impacts of human activities in Antarctica? Just for fun! www.antarctica.gov.au/about-antarctica/education-resources/ puzzles-and-games A source of PDF puzzle handouts available for students who finish work early: 1. The Antarctic Environment 2. A Journey South British Antarctic Expedition 1910-1913 Curious penguin November 1911 H.G. Ponting photograph Pennell Collection Canterbury Museum Pennell Album A110 Animals in Antarctica Australian Antarctic Division Resources www.antarctica.gov.au/about-antarctica/fact-files/animals Detailed information about animals in Antarctica which can be viewed for discussion or note taking. It provides excellent visual images of the animals. www.antarctica.gov.au/about-antarctica/educationresources/whos-eating-who Who’s eating who? This is a wonderful PDF resource that can be printed off for classroom use. education-resources/whos-eating-who Identifying animals from Antarctica Play the interactive game as a pre-activity or reward www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/crittercam-virtual-worldThere are PDF sheets available for download for each animal. These would provide good visual aids for the classroom wall or could be utilised by the students to locate and record a few key points of information about the animal. antarctica/ These animals from Antarctica provide important links in the food web within that ecosystem. Some of these animals are unique to Antarctica. The objective is to identify different animals. Once selected, photographs appear on screen plus general information about the animal including their prey and predators. Research and then draw and appropriately colour each of the following onto A4 paper Krill: groups Fish: icefish, toothfish, cod Squid Flying birds: South Polar skua, petrel, albatross Penguins: Adélie, Emperor, Chinstrap, Gentoo Seals: crabeater, Weddell, fur and leopard Whales: humpback and Orca (killer) Allocate an animal to each child to ensure that suitable numbers of each animal are represented to create a food web. Cut out the pictures and keep for use later when building a food web representing Antarctica. The Food Web Food webs are representations of the predator-prey relationship between species within an ecosystem. Organisms are connected by the fact that each member of the group feeds on the one below it. Watch: www.youtube.com/watch?v=LR9L_k_GJEo View this four minute David Attenborough clip from BBC Worldwide. It provides a good introduction to krill and the humpback whale, which is relevant for constructing a food web. Create an Antarctic Food Web Start to understand the ecosystem in Antarctica by creating a visual food web on the classroom wall. Follow the instructions below. Step 1: On the classroom wall mark out a large triangle, with the base at the bottom. Divide this into four layers to represent different levels of the Antarctic food web. Step 2: Discuss and define what a food web is. Label each level as: Tertiary Consumers (Predators) Secondary Consumers Primary Consumers Primary Producers Step 3: Have students create small drawings, paintings or craft items to represent life from the Antarctic seabed. eg: small crustaceans, worms, shellfish, molluscs, sea urchin, starfish, sea cucumbers, small corals and sponges. Step 4: Paint the lowest level at the base with sponge technique and finger painting to demonstrate the mass of micro-organism life forms. Explain phytoplankton and zooplankton. Step 5: Along the very bottom of the base paste the art and craft representing the seabed. Step 6: Scatter the drawings of animals from the activity in C1 on the floor of the classroom. Select various pictures, identify the animal and get the students to name it and give some basic information about it. Discuss what it might eat and where it belongs in the food web. Start categorising different groups and then pin the pictures into each relevant section of the food web, ensuring that the top level has the least pictures to demonstrate that at the top there are very few. Do animals adapt to their environment? Experiment: The “Blubber Glove” experiment demonstrates how Teacher information only animals such as seals and penguins have adapted to their The class should produce a web that reflects the following: environment, allowing them to keep warm in such a freezing Tertiary Consumers (Predators): Orca (Killer) whales environment. It is an excellent exercise. Secondary Consumers: whales, seals, large fish, penguins www.gma.org/surfing/antarctica/blubber.html Primary Consumers: krill, shrimp, small fish, squid Primary Producers: phytoplankton, zooplankton and seabed communities Conclusion To summarise what has been learned write an exposition explaining the food web, specifically with reference to krill. Exposition: Just for fun! Puzzle sheet about krill. It is available for download as a PDF www.antarctica.gov.au/aboutantarctica/education-resources/ puzzles-and-games Make penguins out of pipe cleaners What is the importance of krill to the Antarctic ecosystem? British Antarctic Expedition 1910-1913 Captain Scott, Simpson, Bowers and Evans leaving for the Western Mountains. 15 September 1911 H.G. Ponting photograph Pennell Collection Canterbury Museum Clothing How do you dress to survive in the coldest, windiest place on earth? Polar explorers both in Scott’s time and now need to wear clothes that protect them from ferocious winds and extreme cold temperatures that could drop to 50˚ Celsius below freezing. Layers work best as air is trapped between each layer and this air acts as insulation. Layers could be added or removed depending on the current weather conditions. Headwear and footwear was very important too. The clothing had to: keep the body warm cover extremities such as ears and fingers allow sweat to disperse be light and comfortable to allow for movement British explorers to the South Pole used clothing made from woollen and cotton fabrics, favouring gabardine. They rarely wore fur except for their long wolf skin outer mittens. The Norwegians adopted Inuit clothing, wearing animal skins (seal, fox, wolf, reindeer, bear) from head to foot. Modern synthetic materials have revolutionised cold weather clothing. They are thermally efficient, breathable and windproof. Watch: What to wear in Antarctica? www.youtube.com/watch?v=rkNWIKaPX70 View this four minute film from the Natural History Museum showing what types of clothing are worn in Antarctica today. It references Scott’s base and puts it in the geographical context of being on the Ross Ice Shelf. Modern Antarctic Clothing Read: Modern Antarctic Clothing. www.coolantarctica.com/Antarctica%20fact%20file/science/ clothing_in_antarctica.htm What do you wear? This article discusses different clothing required for active and passive situations in Antarctica. www.antarctica.gov.au/about-antarctica/fact-files/people-inantarctica/clothing Table: Use the YouTube video, previously read articles and catalogues to find pictures of appropriate clothing for living and working in Antarctica today. Create a table following the sample below. From your research cut out and paste in or draw the garments. Example of Layers of Clothing Garment Picture Socks Fabrics Natural – wool. Or synthetic Outer Shell Add your own View photos: www.spri.cam.ac.uk/library/ pictures/catalogue/bae1910-13/ gallery/page3.html View photographs online from the Scott Polar Research Centre to see examples of the clothing that Scott and his party wore during their expedition. Note that these photographs cannot be downloaded or printed. Alternatively use resources from the library. Clothing used by Scott: 1910-1912 Four main layers were worn over the body, but often multiple items were worn making seven or eight layers. Imagine wearing that many layers of clothes! snow goggles neck gaiter (you will need to research the meaning of this) woollen cap and helmet thick shirt woollen sweater jacket underwear; vest and long johns woollen socks woollen gloves wolf skin mittens gabardine trousers puttees (you will need to research the meaning of this.) How many layers? Make a model of a polar explorer wearing multiple layers of clothing. Go to: www.antarctica.gov.au/about-antarctica/educationresources/puzzles-and-games Blank outlines of polar explorers and their layers of clothing are available as PDF sheets from this website. There is a male and female character. Download and make the required number of copies so each student can have one blank outline and enough copies of the relevant clothing. Have samples of appropriate fabric available: woollen fabric of varying textures, thick gabardine, fur, various cotton fabrics, etc. Goggles used by William Lashly ca 1910 Canterbury Museum 2010.10.2 Step 1: Select which items of clothing to dress the figure in and cut them out, removing the tabs. Step 2: Use the paper clothing to trace the shape onto a piece of suitable fabric for the item. Cut out the shape and paste the piece of fabric over the paper. Repeat this process for every item. Extra fabric can be cut out to represent multiple layers. Step 3: Piece together the clothing of the explorer by pasting every layer onto the blank outline. Make sure that the under garments are pasted on first and the outer garments are pasted on last. Which materials provide the best insulation for extreme cold conditions? Experiment: Working in pairs, conduct an experiment to test the insulating properties of different fibres and fabrics. Follow the instructions below. Materials required: Procedure: Outcomes: Empty baby food jar with lid Warm water Rubber band Thermometer Graph paper Fabrics cut into 20cm squares. Try polar fleece, T-shirt material, woollen fabrics, towelling, woven linen, sweatshirt fabric, fur, various knits Select a square of material and describe its properties. eg: type, thickness, knitted or woven, natural or man-made synthetic. Pour warm water into the jar. Take the temperature of the water and record. Immediately put the lid on the jar, wrap the fabric around and fasten it with a rubber band. Record the exact time that the lid was put on. After exactly 20 minutes remove the fabric and the lid. Record the temperature of the water. Work out the difference between the start and finish temperatures. Record the difference in temperature on the graph, labelling the type of fabric used. Make a judgement about which materials provide good insulation. Discuss the common features of good insulators. Decide what fibres/fabric you think provide the best insulation. Record responses on the next page and graph the data. What is the best insulator? Polar fleece T-shirt material Materials Tested Wool Towelling Woven linen Sweatshirt fabric Fur Knitted 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Heat Loss - Degree of Difference Which fabrics are best for extremely cold weather? What were some of the common features of good insulators? Which fibres/fabric provides the best insulation? 16 E. Food Food was very important to the men who were on expeditions to the Antarctic. Scott planned to be in Antarctica for two summers and a winter, at the very least, so a huge amount of food had to be taken with them. There was no access to shops. Fodder and food also had to be taken for the horses and dogs. These animals were of critical importance to their mission so they had to be well cared for. All food supplies were taken on board the Terra Nova. Rowntree’s cocoa tin ca 1907 Canterbury Museum 19XX.4.464 Food was rationed to ensure that they would have enough for the duration of their stay. The Antarctic explorers did not have access to enough fruit and vegetables. These foods were often dried or powdered as they were not able to grow food in the Antarctic climate. The lack in nutrients from fresh fruit and vegetables often resulted in illnesses such as scurvy. It was important that the Antarctic explorers ate a good diet, to provide sufficient nutrition and energy. The cook had to be very resourceful and create new dishes with what was available. Local wildlife was often captured for food. Kilojoules – Calories Every item a person eats each day adds to the energy that they are able to use. Today this energy is measured in kilojoules, but at the time of Scott’s expedition to Antarctica it was measured as calories. The explorers had to eat food that was high in calories to keep their energy levels high while living in the difficult Antarctic conditions. Convert these figures into kilojoules. These two web pages outline what types of food were available to Polar explorers in the early 1900’s and why diet was important to their health. Includes Instructions for making pemmican www.coolantarctica.com/ Antarctica%20fact%20file/ science/food.htm www.coolantarctica.com/ Antarctica%20fact%20file/ science/food2.htm Today children need about 2100 calories a day. Today adult men need about 2500 calories a day. In the early 1900s explorers in Polar regions needed about 6000 calories a day. 4.2 kilojoules = 1 calorie. E1. Compare your diet to that of a polar explorer Table Track your eating habits for one day. Construct a table in order to compare this to the diet of an explorer in Antarctica to understand the significance of nutrition and energy in their daily diet. Use the table provided and follow the instructions below. Step 1: Over the course of one day track everything you eat. Record it on the table in the relevant category of carbohydrate, protein, fat, and fruit and vegetables. Try to work out an accurate amount of kilojoules per item. A list of some foods has been included as a guide. Step 2: Compare the total amount of kilojoules you consumed in one day to the sledging rations in the web document at: www.coolantarctica.com/Antarctica%20fact%20file/science/ food.htm. Step 3: Calculate the kilojoule differences for each item of food. Step 4: Discuss why explorers in Antarctica needed to consume more calories than an adult male living in normal conditions. Kilojoule Count Chart Meal Food Kilojoules Breakfast Porridge 470 Toasted muesli 510 Rice Bubbles 450 Corn Flakes 455 Weetbix 420 Piece of toast 300 English muffin 500 Raisin toast 355 Boiled or poached egg 300 Milk 1 cup 700 Banana 360 Orange Juice 200 Slice of bread 300 Slice of ham 135 Slice of cheese 340 Butter 460 Tomato 60 Peanut Butter 515 Apple 265 ½ Mango 280 Popper 465 Soft drink 625 Water 0 Hamburger pattie 660 Roast beef 895 Steak 985 Chicken breast baked 940 Lamb chop 1015 Roast lamb 890 Grilled bacon 810 Pork butterfly 810 Grilled fish finger 235 Snapper grilled 245 Potato 270 Spaghetti 285 Rice 445 Peas 160 Spinach 15 Carrots 90 Lunch Dinner My Daily Food Intake Food Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snacks TOTAL KJ Carbohydrate Protein Fat Fruit & Veg Kilojoules British Antarctic Expedition 1910-1913 Midwinter Day tree 22 June 1911 Pennell Collection Canterbury Museum 1975.289.98 Read more from Scott’s diary: www.spri.cam.ac.uk/museum/ diaries/scottslastexpedition/ 1911/06/22/thursday-june-22nd1911-midwinter/ A Midwinter Meal Scott and his men had an extravagant meal to celebrate Midwinters Day on 22 June 1911. They had been in Antarctica for five months. It was the middle of winter and dark for most of the day. The special meal was like a celebration of Christmas and everyone looked forward to it. They decorated the hut with Union Jacks and sledging flags. The table was set with glassware instead of the enamel mugs which they usually drank from and the cook served up a feast! The Menu for Midwinter Day Feast Starter Seal Soup Main Roast Beef with Yorkshire Pudding Fried Potatoes and Brussel Sprouts Dessert Flaming Plum Pudding Mince Pies Savoury Anchovy & Cod’s Roe Garnishes Burnt Almonds Crystallised Fruits Chocolates Drinks Champagne Liqueur Tasty or terrible? The men who accompanied Scott on his expedition were extremely excited about the Midwinter meal. As well as decorating the hut, some of them made special menu cards for the table. Display the menu on the board. Discuss the different foods that were served and think about what ingredients would have been sourced locally from Antarctica. Create: Design an illustrated menu card for this feast. Write up each item and decorate the menu appropriately using images relating to Antarctic animals, flags, winter, etc. Gloves and/or mittens can be worn during this exercise to help recreate the conditions that the explorers experienced and to understand how difficult it was to use pens/pencils/paints in extreme cold F. Medical Issues in Antarctica For Robert Scott and his men on the Terra Nova expedition racing to the South Pole, the conditions for exploration in Antarctica were very difficult. The weather was extreme. Many experts say that it was some of the worst weather ever recorded in Antarctica. Their diet was very limited and rationed to ensure they would not run out of food. Living conditions were not comfortable at the base camp and particularly harsh when trekking and camping in the ice and snow. These three things impacted the health of the explorers and there were many medical issues and illnesses that were common. Some of the problems experienced were frostbite, snow blindness, hypothermia, dehydration, scurvy and sunburn. Memory Game: Create cards to memorise six different illnesses or medical conditions experienced by Polar explorers. Use the cards to play a memory matching game. Use the table and follow the instructions below. Students require: 24 cardboard cards the same size Pictures collected from the internet - at least one for each of the illnesses Scissors, glue, pen/pencil Table of information (see next two pages for template) Name Symptoms Prevention FROSTBITE Partial freezing of exposed body parts such as fingers, ears, toes, and nose. Includes tingling, blister formation, and gangrene. Avoid tight fitting boots, being wet; change wet clothes ASAP. Wear beanies, mittens instead of gloves. Maintain good circulation. SNOW BLINDNESS A loss of vision and inflammation of the eyes. Caused by the bright glare off ice and snow. Serious and painful, but usually temporary. Wear protective goggles with UV protective lenses. HYPOTHERMIA An abnormally low body temperature resulting from extreme exposure to cold weather. Wear layers of waterproof and windproof clothing to create insulation. Avoid sweating too much; change wet clothes ASAP. DEHYDRATION Excessive loss of water Carry good water supplies from the body. If unor a stove to melt snow treated can lead to shock. when travelling. SCURVY (LACK OF VITAMIN C) Spongy and bleeding gums, bleeding under the skin, and extreme weakness. Eat lots of fresh food. In particular eat fruit and vegetables that are high in vitamin C. SUNBURN Inflammation or blistering of the skin caused by overexposure to direct sunlight. Wear sunscreen when outside and reapply hourly. Cover as much skin as possible. Picture Aim of the game: To match and group four cards together for each medical issue. How to prepare: There are 24 cards, six of which are blank. There are four cards for each illness: Name, Symptoms, Prevention, Picture Pack of playing cards in case ca 1910 De Larue & Co Ltd playing cards Whitford collection Canterbury Museum 2008.36.12 For each blank picture card do a Google image search and find a suitable picture for that illness. Print the image and paste onto the card. Cut out the cards. How to play: · Shuffle the cards and lay all of them face down. · Select a card and turn it over to display the information · Select another card and turn it over. If the information matches, take the cards and have another turn. If the information does not match, turn both cards face down. · Memorise where the cards are so that you can remember where matching cards lie Players may only keep cards when all four matching cards have been found What was life like? Imagine you are an explorer in Antarctica. You are ill and have been suffering from some of the complaints mentioned above. How are you feeling? What are you going to do? Diary: Write a diary entry, while wearing gloves or mittens, to experience empathy with the men from Scott’s party. Imagine you are ill with one or two of the medical issues experienced by polar explorers. Explain where you are, what you are doing, what your condition is and express how you feel physically and mentally.
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