1 Glossary of Terms and Concepts Origins This book has grown out

Glossary of Terms and Concepts
This book has grown out of my desire to better serve
my congregation in the long term.
• I want my people to be armed against the
corrosive influences of the world’s culture and
• I want them to be able to recognize wolves in
sheep’s clothing.
• This volume is unabashedly messianic in its
approach to theology (see Ezrach’). I feel that my
people need to understand the essentially Jewish
concepts that are intrinsic to the Tanakh and the
B’rit Hadashah (the Old and New Covenant).
I also teach a class called “Ironworks” whose
purpose is to train workers for the Master’s fields: elders,
deacons, teachers, preachers, missionaries. I began
sharing with them the Jewish culture and the Hebrew
language so that they could better understand the roots
of the Christian faith. However, I soon discovered that
most were not familiar with the English theological terms
either. So I began trying to define transubstantiation,
Calvinism, Arminianism, supralapsarianism,
infralapsarianism, orthodoxy, heresy… Out of that
ongoing effort came this little volume.
For non-Hebrew theological terms I have relied
heavily on Baker's Dictionary of Theology, ed. E.
Harrison, (Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan),
1960. However, much of it has been modified
substantially in order to clarify positions that are unique
within Adonaism.
Though I would by no means characterize myself as
an authoritative Hebrew scholar, I have a great love of
Hebrew and Yiddish. In fact, I believe that because its
authors were Jewish, even the New Testament can only
be fully understood by those with a grasp of Hebrew.
Therefore, I speak to you of Hebrew out of the passion
of a starved user, rather than the satiety of a scholar.
These definitions are not meant to be exhaustive but
referral. They reflect the way I choose to use them in my
approach to Scriptural midrash. Since this is not meant
to be a technical treatise, some issues, such as the use
of masculine and feminine, or the technically appropriate
use of plurals, have been largely ignored. The terms are
spelled as they are generally used, rather than as they
probably SHOULD be used.
In many cases, I’ve included the appropriate
reference number found in Strong’s concordance and
many other study tools so that further biblical research
can be facilitated.
Choosing English letters to replace Hebrew
characters (a process referred to as “transliteration”) is
an incredible challenge. It almost seems that there are
as many ways to transliterate as there are Hebrew
scholars! After changing the way I spelled words a
couple dozen times, out of frustration, I finally settled on
a few protocols of my own. They include:
1. With few exceptions, I have chosen to use
Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th
edition as my guide.
2. Most Hebrew words emphasize the last syllable.
This emphasis is indicated by the capitalized
letters in my pronunciation guides.
3. Generally, if the Hebrew word begins with the
letter hay I have chosen to use the English “h” as
in home.
4. If the Hebrew word begins with the letter het (a
guttural sound not found in English), or if the word
has het or haf in the middle, I generally use “ch’”
to indicate this sound in my transliteration and
“kh” in the pronunciation guide. The same usage
applies to an ending khaf. Generally, I’ve found
that anywhere you see ch in anyone’s
transliteration it indicates this guttural sound
rather than the Anglit soft ch as in “church” or
hard ch as in “character”. The reason I use the
apostrophe is that I found myself often forgetting
that difference when I saw the simple ch and
sometimes accidentally memorized the word
wrong. Then it was very difficult to get that wrong
pronunciation out of my head. So, I started using
the apostrophe to make it look just different
enough to help me remember. I’m kind of slow. I
have to use those kinds of tricks. So sue me.
5. Ch’ indicates a guttural h sound. Any other time
an apostrophe is found in a word indicates a
glottal stop. For example Ani Ma’amin is
pronounced ah-NEE mah-ah-MEEN with a glottal
stop between “mah” and “ah”
6. For the sake of simplicity (and space), I have not
painstakingly phoneticized every single phrase.
Most of the principle words have pronunciation
helps. A person who wants to make sure they are
pronouncing a phrase correctly only has to scan a
few surrounding words to get a gist of the
appropriate sounds.
7. Generally:
o A – ah as in “father”
o Ai – igh as in “high”
o Ch’ – kh; this guttural h sound has no
English equivalent
o Ei – ay as in “day”
o Er – air as in “air”
o I – ee as in “feet”
o Im – eem as in “redeem”
o In – een as in “seen”
o It – eet as in “beet”
o Kn – kuh-n…as in “connection”
o Shon – shone as in “shone”
o Ur – oor as in “boor”
When it comes to alphabetizing this glossary, I
have chosen to use the word-by-word system. In
word-by-word alphabetizning there are a few rules to
keep in mind:
1. The space character is assigned a value
lower than that assigned to any letter. This
can be easily remembered with the phrase
“nothing before something.”
2. Dashes, hyphens and slashes are
assigned the same value as the space
3. Other punctuation marks, such as
commas, apostrophes, and single or
double quotation marks are ignored.
May the peace of God, which passes all understanding,
keep your heart and mind in the knowledge and love of
God, and of His Son Jesus Christ our Lord; and the
blessing of God Almighty, the Father, the Son, and the
Holy Spirit, be upon you, and remain with you always.
before all ages of the Father according to the Godhead,
and in these latter days, for us and for our salvation,
born of the Virgin Mary, the God-bearer, according to the
Manhood; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Onlybegotten, to be acknowledged in two natures,
inconfusedly, unchangeable, indivisibly, inseparably; the
distinction of natures being by no means taken away by
the union, but rather the property of each nature being
preserved, and concurring in one Person and one
Subsistence, not parted or divided into two persons, but
one and the same Son, and only begotten, God, the
Word, the Lord Jesus Christ, as the prophets from the
beginning [have declared] concerning Him, and the Lord
Jesus Christ Himself has taught us, and the Creed of the
holy Fathers has been handed down to us.
The Communicatio Idiomatum
A doctrine that is related to the Hypostatic Union is the
communicatio idiomatum (Latin for "communication of
properties"). It is the teaching that the attributes of both
the divine and human natures are ascribed to the one
person of Jesus. This means that the man Jesus could
lay claim to the glory He had with the Father before the
world was made,1claim that He descended from
heaven,2 and also claim omnipresence.3 All of these are
divine qualities that are laid claim to by Jesus; therefore,
the attributes of the divine properties were claimed by
the person of Jesus.
John 17:5
John 3:13
Matthew 28:20
Job – Lyov
The Five Megiloth
Song of Songs – Shir ha Shirim
Ruth – Rut
Lamentations – Eich’ah
Ecclesiastes – Kohelet
Esther – Esther
The Rest
Daniel – Dani’el
Ezra/Nehemiah - Ezra v'Nekhemia
Chronicles (1&2) - Divrei Hayamim
Adonaism’s Theological Nomenclature
• In the context of epistemology (the nature and
scope of knowledge) I compare the terms Light
vs. Dark or Enlightened vs. Darkened or Children
of Light vs. Children of the Dark.
• In the context of soteriology (the study of
salvation) I compare the terms Ransomed vs.
Imprisoned or Shackled
• In the context of general theology I compare the
terms Adonaism vs. Cultural Christianity
• In the context of culture I compare the terms
Highlander vs. Lowlander. Sometimes I’ll refer to
us as Wayfarers.
The Council of Calcedon’s Statement
We, then, following the holy Fathers, all with one
consent, confess one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus
Christ, the same perfect in Godhead and also perfect in
manhood; truly God and truly man, of a reasonable
[rational] soul and body; consubstantial [coessential, of
the same substance] with the Father according to the
Godhead, and consubstantial with us according to the
Manhood; in all things like unto us, without sin; begotten
A priori – Latin. Knowledge, judgments, and principles
which are true without verification or testing. It is
universally true.
Abaddon – The head angel in charge of the Bottomless
Pit. In Hebrew the word means “lose or destroy.” The
Greek version (Apollyon; Revelation 9:11) also
means “destroyer.”
ַ (AH-bah); (Strong’s #1); Lit., “father,” but
Abba – ‫ָא‬
less formal and more affectionate. Better understood
as “dad” or “daddy”. It was originally Aramaic but was
later adopted into Hebrew.
Abur ach’er – (ah-BOOR ah-KHAIR); (Strong’s #5668
+309); Altruism; literally for the sake of another
Ach’arei aruch’at hatzohorayim - After lunch
Ach’arei hatzohorayim - In the afternoon
Ach’arit ha yamim – Lit., “after the days”; the end of
days. When olam hazeh ends and olam habah
begins for everyone. Matthew 13:39-40, 49; 24:3;
28:20; 1 Corinthians 10:11
Ach’aron shel Pesach’ – The last day of Passover
Acharonim – ‫ִים‬
‫ — ח‬Rabbis who were authorities
on Halakha, since the publication of the Shulchan
Aruch until today.
Ach’at – One
Ach’avah – Brotherhood, fraternity.
Ach’eret - Otherwise
Ach’i - My brother
Ach’ich’em - Your brother
Ach’inu - Our brother
Ach’iv - His brother
Ach’otenu - Our sister
Ach’oti - My sister
Ach’otich’em - Your sister
Ad ha erev - Until this evening (response upon
Ad mach’ar - Until tomorrow (response upon departing)
Ad me’ah ve’esrim shanah! - May you live to be 120!
Adam – the first human. Rather than being created ex
nihilo he was fabricated out of earth (Genesis 2:7).
Thus his name comes from the Hebrew root a-d-m
from which the word a-da-mah, or “earth” is derived.
Adar - Jewish month; the 12th of the biblical year but the
6th of the modern Jewish year. It generally
corresponds to February-March.
Adar Sheni – Adar 2, the 13th month of the biblical year
added in order to give the barley time to ripen for the
firstfurits offering during the first month. It occurs in
mid-March to mid-April
Adat ha E-l Ch’ai - Community of the Living God
Adat Hashem - Congregation of Hashem
Adiaphora – Latin. Teachings and practices that are
neither commanded nor forbidden in scripture. An
example might be whether or not to use a soundboard in a church, to meet in a tent or a building, to
have 2 or more services or simply one on the day of
worship. See also shikul ha da’at.
Admat kodesh - (Heb. Holy Land or Holy Ground)
Phrase which appears but once in the Five Books of
Moses (Exodus 3.5), in reference to the ground
which Moses stood upon during the story of the
burning bush. ("And he (God) said: 'do not come
closer, remove your sandals from upon your feet, for
the place you stand is holy ground").
Admor - Leader and teacher of Adonaists. See also:
Tzaddik, Rav, Reb, Rebbe.
Adon ha shamayim ve Eretz - Master of heaven and
Adon olam - Master of the Universe
Yom Tov Yontif – Festival day - work prohibited.
Books of the Tanach’
Torah or Chumash
Genesis – Breishit
Exodus – Shmot
Leviticus – Vaiyikra
Numbers – Bamidbar
Deuteronomy – D’varim
Earlier Prophets
Joshua – Y’hoshua
Judges – Shophtim
Samuel – Sh’muel
Kings (1&2) – M’lakhim
Isaiah - Y'shayahu
Jeremiah - Yir'mi'yahu
Ezekiel - Y'khezqel
Later Prophets
Hosea – Hoshea
Joel – Yo’el
Amos – Amos
Obadiah – Ovadyah
Jonah – Yonah
Micah – Mikhah
Nahum – Nach’um
Habakkuk – Ch’avakuk
Zephaniah - Ts'phanyah
Haggai – Ch’agai
Zechariah - Z'kharyah
Malachi - Mal'akhi
Sifrei Emet – books of truth
Psalms – Tehilim
Proverbs – Mishlei
Aron hakodesh – Holy ark, resting place of Torah
Beit k'nesset – House of Assembly = synagogue.
Beit midrash – Study House = shul.
Beit tefillah – House of Prayer.
Bimah – Platform at front of sanctuary.
Brakha – Blessing; basic unit of prayer.
Hallel – Psalms of praise added to service on selected
Hol Hamo-ed – Intermediate festival days.
Kaddish – Prayer of praise; concludes service sections
Kavannah – Devotional intent in worship
Kedusha – Prayer of sanctification in amidah.
Kevah – Fixed prayers
Kippah, Yarmulke – Head covering
Korbanot – Sacrifices / section of prayers which reviews
sacrifices which were offered.
Ma-ariv – Evening service.
Mahzor – Prayer book for High Holy days.
Minha – Afternoon service.
Minyan – Quorum of 10 adults required for public
Musaf – Additional service. Said on Shabbat, Rosh
Hodesh and major holidays.
Nosah – Melodic themes of prayer
P'sukei d'zimra – Introductory morning service.
Shaliah tzibbur – Congregation's representative in
prayer. (Cantor)
Shaharit – Morning service.
Siddur – Prayer book (except High Holy days)
Tallit – Prayer shawl
Tefilah – Prayer
Tefillin – Phylacteries
Tzitzit – Knots required in corners of four-corner
Adonai – literally “my great lord.” Though it can be used
as an honorific between humans, it is usually used to
address or refer to God. Many Jews refrain from
pronouncing the tetragrammaton YHWH and choose
instead to insert the name Adonai in its stead.
Because it implies the sovereignty of the Lord God,
Adonaists have chosen to adopt the name for their
belief system. This is done in order to contrast their
messianic approach and emphasis on the
sovereignty of God to what we refer to as “Cultural
Adonai Elohei Tzva’ot – Lord God of Hosts
Aonai Eloheinu – Lord our God; Mark 12:29
Adonai Elohim – The Lord our God
Adonai Elohim Tzva’ot – the Lord God of Hosts
Adonai Nissi – the Lord my Banner/Miracle
Adonai Shalom - the Lord of Peace
Adonai Shamah – the Lord is there
Adonai Tzidkenu – the Lord our Righteousness
Adonai Tzva’ot – The Lord of Sabaoth; Lord of
Heaven’s Armies; Lord of Hosts; Romans 9:29
Adonai Yireh – the Lord will see to it. The Lord my
Adonaic Law - See Halakha
Adonaism - Adonai is a Hebrew name of God that
literally means “Lord.” Yahweh is considered not only
“Lord” but actually “Adonai adonaim” or “Lord of
lords.” Adonaism emphasizes the Sovereignty and
Lordship of the Master Lord Yeshua. It makes Him
King and firmly establishes Him on the throne. It
places a high value on demonstrating one’s love and
gratitude for salvation by humbly obeying His
commands. So Adonaism takes its name from its
emphasis on this lordship of God.
Adonaists believe that what is important is neither
intellectual methodology, nor external rites, nor
hierarchical ecclesiology nor ecstatic experience. We
believe that nothing is more important than a
person’s redemption from the consequences of sin
and the restoration of the human/divine relationship.
Adonaists believe that this redemption is dependent
on our humble acquiescence to the sovereignty of
God in our lives.
Adonaists claim the carpenter, Yeshua of
Nazareth, was the only begotten Son of God, God in
Flesh. As such He is our Messiah and rightful King.
See also Highlander; Lowlander; Ransomed
Adoptionism - Adoptionism is an error concerning
Christ that first appeared in the second century.
Adoptionists denied the preexistence of Christ and,
therefore, His deity. They taught that Yeshua was
tested by God and after passing this test and upon
His baptism, He was granted supernatural powers by
God and adopted as the Son. As a reward for His
great accomplishments and perfect character Yeshua
was raised from the dead and adopted into the
Godhead. Please see Heresies for more information.
Advent - From the Latin, “coming.” The coming of or the
arrival of something very important as in the advent
of Christ’s return. Advent is also a Christian time of
preparation preceding Christmas.
Af al pe ch’ain - Despite that it is so; In spite of it all
Afikomen – Literally “dessert.” During the Pesach’ seder
it is the broken matzah that is hidden and finally
brought out at the end of the meal.
Aggadah – (ah-gah-DAH); This is the singular Aramaic
form. The plural is aggadoth (ah-gah-DOTE). It
literally means “narrative” or “telling”. Something that
is aggadah is a non-halach’ic (non legal) matter.
Muktzeh – Items not touched on Shabbat either
because they might lead to a violation of Shabbat or
because it was not prepared before Shabbat for use
on Shabbat.
Se-udah Shlishit – Third meal on Shabbat
Zemirot – Special table songs for Shabbat.
Textual Terms
Torah - Five books of Moses. Hebrew root means "to
guide" or "to teach." Also means the Law.
Tanakh - Acronym for the Bible: Torah; Neviim
(Prophets); Ketuvim (Writings)
Pentateuch - Five books of Moses, the Torah.
Decalogue - Ten Commandments
Asseret Hadibrot - Ten Commandments
Talmud Torah - Mitzvah of study
Midrash - Rabbinic Commentary, based on Biblical text
Mishnah Legal text, compiled around 200, by Judah the
Gemara - Commentary on Mishnah.
Talmud - Combination of the Mishnah and the Gemara
Mitzvah - a command/blessing of God
Aggadah - Legend
Halakha - Law
B’rit - Covenant
B’rit Hadashah – The New Covenant
Sefer Torah - Torah Scroll
Kiddush HaShem - Sanctifying God.
Hillul HaShem - Desecrating God.
Amidah – Private prayers, "The Prayer," recited while
Teruah - Shofar sound: wavering sound of nine staccato
Akedah - "Binding," Biblical account of near-sacrifice of
Malkhuyot - "Kingship verses," one of three special
additional sections added to Yom Teruah’s Musaf
Shofarot - "Shofar verses," one of three special
additional sections added to Yom Teruah’s Musaf
Zikhronot - "Remembrance verses," one of three
special additional sections added to Yom Teruah’s
Musaf amidah.
Middat Hadin - God's attribute of Divine justice.
Middat harahamim - God's attribute of Divine mercy.
Piyyut - Religious poem.
Viddui - confession, included in every Yom Kippur
Al Het - Series of confessions, alphabetically arranged,
said on Yom Kippur.
Kol Nidre - Formula for absolution of vows, said
immediately before Yom Kippur begins.
Avodah - Yom Kippur service of the High Priest in the
Neilah - Final service on Yom Kippur.
Havdalah – Service of separation to mark end of
Kabbalat – Shabbat service of welcome for Shabbat.
Kiddush – Sanctification of the day, usually said using
Melakha – Creative work.
Menuha – Rest.
Motza-i Shabbat – Leaving of Shabbat (Saturday night)
Aggadoth are stories, legends, historical stories,
jokes, ethical tales, and sermons. They are not
considered legally binding but are used to explain
and elaborate on the Scriptures and the required
behavior of Adonaists. aggadic — pertaining to
aggadah. Aggadic material makes up a good
portionof the Talmud and the midrashim. See
also Haggadah.
Agnosticism - The belief that it is not possible to know if
there is or is not a God. (Compare Atheism, Deism,
and Theism.)
Agunah – (ah-goo-NAH); Lit., “chained”. A person who
has divorced for the wrong reasons is considered
“agunah” or “chained”. They are not permitted to
remarry with the blessing of the church. Of course
they may seek a civil marriage and they will be loved
and allowed to attend church and even have certain
forms of ministry. However, they are considered to be
living in adultery and are thus barred from leadership
or teaching positions.
Ahadah – Sympathy, pity, understanding
Ahavah – (Strong’s #160) Love
Ahavah olam - Everlasting love or eternal love
Ahavat Adonai la Olam – The love of God for the world.
Consider John 3:16.
Ahavat ch’esed - Love of kindness
Ahavat ha briyot – “Love of creatures”. Consider
Proverbs 12:10.
Ahavat ha emet - Love of the truth
Ahavat Hashem – Love of the Name. Love of the Lord.
Ahavat limud – Love of learning
Ahavat olam – Everlasting love
Ahavat Yisra’el – (ah-hah-VAHT yis-rah-ALE); Lit., “love
of the Jewish people.”
Ahuv – Beloved; ahuvi would be “my beloved”
Ain davar k’zeh - There is no such thing; drop it, it
doesn’t exist
Ain mazel b’Yisrael - The people of Yisrael transcend
astrological influences
Ain shaliach’ le-dvar aveierah – (ighn shah-LEE-akh
lay-duh-VAHR ah-vay-RAH); Lit., “there is no
messenger in a case of sin. Normally a messenger is
not responsible for the content of the message he
delivers; responsibility is borne by the one who sent
it. But if a messenger is sent to perform an evil act (a
hired assassin, for example), he cannot defend
himself with the claim that he was acting at someone
else’s command. The messenger bears responsibility
for the evil he does. (insight by Rabbi J. Telushkin)
Akedah – (ah-kay-DAH); Lit., “binding.” This term refers
to the time depicted in Genesis 22 when God
commanded Abraham to bind his son Isaac and
sacrifice him. It is thus also sometimes referred to as
“akedat Yitzchak.” The term is used in Adonaism to
communicate Adonaists’s willingness to sacrifice, if
necessary, their own lives or the lives of their families
for their beliefs. ( also spelled Aqedah/Akedat)
Al hanissim – A prayer of thanksgiving
Al tedag - Don’t worry
Alav ha shalom – (ah-LAHV hah-shah-LOME); A
phrase customarily said immediately after mentioning
the name of someone who has died that is similar to
“may he/she rest in peace.” The masculine is alav.
The feminine is alev. Sometimes it is simply
abbreviated A”H. and placed after the name as in
“my Grandfather, A”H, taught me that…”
Albigenses – A heresy during the middle ages that
developed in the town Albi in Southern France. This
error taught that there were two gods: the good god
of light usually referred to as Yeshua in the New
Omer - Sheaf offering brought to Temple on 16 Nisan;
name for period between the second day of Pesach
and Shavuot.
Yom Hashoa - Holocaust Commemoration day. 27
Yom Hazikaron - Israel Memorial Day. 3 Iyar.
Yom Ha-atzmaut - Israel Independence Day. 4 Iyar.
Lag B'omer – In Judaism, 33rd day of omer. Minor
festival day. 18 Iyar
Yom Yerushalyim - Reunification of Jerusalem, 1967.
28 Iyar.
Shevah Asar B'Tammuz – In Judaism, 17th of
Tammuz; Minor fast day noting Babylonians entering
Jerusalem, 587 B.C.E.
Tisha B'av – In Judaism, 9th of Av. Day of mourning for
Jewish tragedies, including: loss of two Temples,
expulsion from Spain 1492.
Eikha – In Judaism, Lamentations. Megillah read on
Tisha B'av. 26. Kinot Dirges of mourning read on
Tisha B'av.
Shalosh Regalim
Yamim Nora-im - Days of Awe
Selihot - Prayers asking Divine forgiveness.
Yom Hadin - Day of Judgment; a name for Yom Teruah
aka Rosh Hashanna
Yom Hazikarom - Day of Remembering; a name for
Yom Teruah aka Rosh Hashanna
Yom Teruah - Day of Shofar Sound; a biblical name for
Rosh Hashanna
Avinu Malkeinu - "Our Father, our King," list of brief
supplications, all begin with that phrase.
Shevarim - Shofar sound: three notes
Tekiah - Shofar sound: one blast
Nisu-in – The wedding portion of marriage ceremony.
Shevah brakhot – Seven marriage blessings said at the
wedding ceremony and at the festive meal
T'na-im – Terms of dowry and marriage.
Minor Holidays
Hanukkah - "Dedication," holiday celebrating the victory
of the Maccabees against the Assyrian-Greeks.
Hasmoneans - Dynasty of kings set up by Judah the
Menorah - 7 branch candelabra used in the Temple.
Hanukkiah - 9 branch candelabra used for Hanukkah
Al Hanissim - Prayer of thanksgiving added to amidah
on Hanukkah and Purim.
Latkes - Potato pancakes; traditional Hanukkah meal.
Sufganiot - Jelly doughnuts; traditional Hanukkah meal.
Dreidel - Top; used in children's games at Hanukkah.
Asara B'Tevet – In Judaism, 10th of Tevet. Minor fast
day noting start of Babylonian siege of Jerusalem,
587 B.C.E.
Tu Bishevat - Fifteenth of Shevat; "new year" for trees.
Purim - Lots; holiday celebrating the victory of Mordecai
and Esther over Haman.
Ta-anit Ester - Fast day preceding Purim.
Megillat Ester - Megillah read on Purim.
Mishloah manot - Gifts of food (2 kinds) sent to friends
on Purim.
Matanot l'evyonim - Gifts of tzedakah given to poor on
Seudat Purim - Special meal of celebration at Purim's
Testament and the god of darkness and evil usually
associated with Satan and the "God of the Old
Testament." Anything material was considered evil
including the body which was created by Satan. The
soul, created by the good god, was imprisoned in the
evil flesh and salvation was possible only through
holy living and doing good works. Please see
Heresies for more information.
Alef – the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet.
Alefbet – (also Alephbet); the Hebrew alphabet.
Alef v’Tav – The First and the Last; i.e. the Alpha and
Aliyah - (Heb. To go up) Term used in reference to
immigration to Israel. Those who immigrate to Israel
“make aliyah”. However, aliyah can also be used to
refer to when one is called to the altar (bema) to read
from the Torah or recite a blessing.
Altar of Incense – An acacia wood altar, approximately
18 inches square and three feet tall that was overlaid
with pure gold, designed for the burning of incense in
front of the Holy of Holies. It was from this altar that
Gabriel spoke to Zechariah in Luke 1:11.
‫ — ע‬people.
Am – ‫ַם‬
Am ch’ophsi – A free people; a free nation
Am Ha'aretz - (Heb. Person of the Land). A term used in
Jewish scriptures for citizens, or some particular
class of citizens; in rabbinic literature, for persons or
groups that dissented from or were uninstructed in
rabbinic halakha and rigorous purity and tithing
norms. It sometimes signifies the unlearned,
sometimes is used condescendingly (boor). It was
also used to describe the broad mass of Jewish
people of the 1st century CE, who cannot be
categorized into any of the sub-groups of the time.
Am Hasefer – (ahm-ha-say-FAIR); “People of the Book”
referring to godly people’s love for the Scriptures.
Am Kadshech’a - People of Your Holiness
Am Yisrael - The People of Israel [all Jews]
Amah – (a-MA) a cubit
Aman – (ah-MAHN) (Strong’s #539) Steadfastness,
faithfulness, to stand firm, to trust, to be certain, to
believe in.
Amarta amarta - You said, you said; You said it, so it’s
good enough for me
Amen – (ah-MEN); Lit., “so be it.” It is generally used as
either an ending statement for prayer or as a
statement of agreement to a point another has made.
Sometimes it is written “amein” or “amain”.
ֲ — a.k.a. the Shemoneh Esrei,
Amidah – ‫ָה‬
“Eighteen Benedictions.” These are private, personal,
devotional prayers. These may include a kedusha, a
prayer in which one sanctifies the day and sets one’s
self aside in a committal to obey Hashem’s mitzvoth
and to serve Him faithfully throughout the day.
THE Amidah is the central prayer in Jewish life
and liturgy, considered to be the prayer par
excellence. Every Jew is religiously obligated to pray
the "Amidah" daily; however, in times of emergency
saying an abbreviated form of the prayer may fulfill
this obligation.
It is also known as Amidah (Standing), because it
is said standing; or simply Tefilah (Prayer)
Sometimes it is referred to as “Eighteen” (shemoneh
esreh) because the prayer originally consisted of
eighteen benedictions. However, its final version
dates from about 90-100 A.D. when a nineteenth
point was added, a curse, that some consider to be
pointed at those who consider Yeshua ben Adonai to
be the Mashiach.
Tikkun Lel Shavuot - All night study session to recall
giving of Ten Commandments
Sukkot / Shmini Atzeret/ Simch’at Torah
Sukkah - Booth erected for Sukkot.
Sekhakh - Roofing material for sukkah.
Arbah minim - Four plant species used during Sukkot
Lulav - Palm; also name given for arbah minim.
Hadas - Myrtle; twigs (3) used in "lulav."
Arava - Willow; twigs (2) used in "lulav."
Etrog - Citron
Hoshana - "Save, I pray," prayer added each morning
during Sukkot. Extra verses are added on the last
day of Sukkot, Hoshanna Rabbah.
Hoshana Rabba - Last day of hol hamo-ed Sukkot; last
chance for repentance.
Geshem - Prayer for rain; said on Shmini Atzeret at
Kohelet - Ecclesiastes; megillah read on Sukkot
Shmini Atzeret - Eighth day of assembly; last day of
Sukkot but, liturgically, a separate holiday.
Simch’at Torah - Rejoicing in the Torah; holiday
marking completion and beginning of Torah reading
Hakkafot – In Judaism, circuits around sanctuary with
Torah Scrolls.
Aufrufin – Pre-marriage aliyah taken before wedding
Edim – Witnesses
Erusin – Engagement portion of marriage ceremony.
Gett – A religious decree of divorce.
Huppah – Marriage canopy.
Ketubah – The marriage contract.
T'hiyat hametim – Resurrection of the dead.
Yahrzeit – The anniversary of date of a loved one’s
Yizkor – Memorial service added to services on: Yom
Kippur, Shmini Atzeret, Pesach’ and Shavuot.
Seder - Special meal of retelling the Exodus from Egypt.
Bedikat Hametz - Search for hametz, held night before
first seder.
Bittul Hametz - Formula renouncing any hametz we
may have inadvertently missed in our cleaning. Said
morning of the first seder.
Be'ur Hametz - Destruction of hametz, morning of first
seder, by 11:00.
Siyyum Bekhorim – In Judaism, the ceremony of
celebration of completing Rabbinic section of study.
Hametz - Fermented; wheat, oats, rye, barley or spelt
after they come in contact with water for 18 minutes after
harvest. Also dishes and utensils which have been in
contact with hametz foods during the year.
Mekhirat Hametz – In Judaism, the symbolic selling of
hametz to a non-Jew.
Ma'ot Hittim - Funds collected before Pesach’ to provide
money for matzah and other Passover essentials for the
Hagadah - Book used at the seder to retell the story.
Shavuot - Pentecost; feast of weeks. 50 days after
second day of Pesach.
Bikkurim - First fruits, brought to Temple on Shavuot.
Megillah – The book of Ruth which is read on Shavuot.
Amillennialism - The teaching that there is no literal
1000 year reign of Christ as referenced in Revelation
20. It sees the 1000 year period spoken of in
Revelation 20 as figurative. Instead, it teaches that
we are in the millennium now, and that at the return
of Christ (1 Thessalonians 4:16-5:2) there will be the
final judgment and the heavens and the earth will
then be destroyed and remade (2 Pet. 3:10). The
Amillennial view is as old as the Premillennial view.
(Also compare to Postmillennialism).
Amoraic — pertaining to the amoraim; the singular
is amora.
ָ ‫ — א‬Literally, “speakers.” The
Amoraim – ‫ִים‬
amoraim are the sages of the talmudic period, as
distinguished from the earlier tannaim which are
the sages of the mishnaic period. Rabbis who
lived between 200 and 500 C.E.and compiled the
Gemarot of the Talmud. Roughly speaking, the
tannaim are the sages quoted in the Mishnah
and contemporary rabbinic works, while the
amoraim are the sages mentioned in the
Germara. The different Gemarot are actually
what make the two Talmuds different. The
Mishnah is the same for both.
Amos – ‫ָמֹוס‬
‫ — ע‬One of the smaller prophetic books in
the Tanach’.
Amud - Page
Anabaptists - Any of a group of sects of the early
Reformation period of the 16th century that believed
in rebaptism of people as adults. Infant baptism was
not recognized as valid and the Catholic Mass was
rejected. Anabaptist means “one who baptizes
again.” They believed in non-violence and opposed
state run churches.
Anach’nu – We
Analogy – a similarity between two things that is
purposely pointed out. A type of reasoning (see
middot) in which (because one thing is considered to
be similar to another) a conclusion may be drawn.
Angel - Angel means messenger. Angels are created
(Psalm 148:2,5; Colossians 1:16), non-human, spirit
beings (Hebrews 1:14). They are immortal (Luke
20:36), innumerable (Hebrews 12:22), invisible
(Numbers 22:22-31), and do the will of God (Psalm
103:20). There are good angels (Genesis 28:12;
Psalm 91:11) and bad angels (2 Peter 2:4; Jude 1:6).
Holy angels have a ministry to believers. They guide
(Genesis 24:7, 40), protect (Psalm 34:7), and comfort
(Acts 27:2, 24). The only angels mentioned by name
are Gabriel (Daniel 8:16; 9:21), Michael (Daniel
10:13, 21; 12:1), and Lucifer (Luke 10:18). Michael is
always mentioned in the context of battle (Daniel
10:13) and Gabriel as a messenger (Luke 1:26). Of
course, Lucifer, who became Satan, is the one who
opposes God. Angels were originally created for the
purpose of serving and carrying out the will of God.
The fallen angels rebelled and became evil angels.
Satan is such an angel (Isaiah 14:12-16; Ezekiel
Anglit - English
Ani - I
Ani Ch’ai - I live
Ani etkasher ele’ch’a - I’ll call you
Ani hoev otka! – I love you.
Ani koreh Ivrit, aval lo medaber (masc.) - I read
Hebrew but do not speak
Ani koreh vekotev, aval lo medaber (fem.) - I read and
write [Hebrew] but do not speak
Ani ledodi vedodi li - I am my beloved’s and my
beloved is mine
believe de Leon was merely redistributing a text
originally written in the 1st century by Rabbi Shimon
Bar Yokhai. Kabbalists tend to early-date the Zohar,
others tend to late-date it.
Zot omeret - In other words
ZT'L - Hebrew initials of the words “Zechor Tzaddik
LeVaracha” which means “The memory of a Tzaddik
- Righteous person is a blessing.” Cp. Hebrews 13:7
HCSB Remember your leaders who have spoken
God's word to you. As you carefully observe the
outcome of their lives, imitate their faith.
Life Cycle Events
Aninut – Time period between death and funeral.
Avel – Mourner
Ch’esed shel emet – “True lovingkindness;" helping
with interment.
Hesped – Eulogy
Hiyyuv – a religious obligation.
Kaddish yatom – The mourner’s kaddish. Prayer of
praise of God, said by mourners.
Kevurah – Interment
Kri-ah – Tearing of one’s garment as sign of mourning.
K'vod hamet – Respect for the dead.
Levayah – Funeral service.
Nihum avelim – The mitzvah of comforting mourners.
Seudat havra-ah – The meal of condolence.
Sh'mirah – Watching over the body.
Shivah – First seven days of mourning.
Sh'loshim – First 30 days of mourning.
Tahrihim – Burial shrouds.
Zealots — a fanatical sect of Jewish extremists during
the Great Revolt (66-73 A.D.) who urged a war to the
death against the Roman occupiers of the Land, and
ruthlessly persecuted Jews who held more moderate
views. One of Jesus’ disciples, Simon, was such a
person (Matthew 10:4; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts
Zebla - Sometimes two parties may choose to resolve
their dispute through the procedure by which each
side chooses an arbitrator, and the two chosen
arbitrators agree on a third party to round out the Beit
Din. This third person is referred to as the zebla.
Zech’ut – Honor, merit
Zech’ut Avot - Merit of the Fathers
Zeh ch’ashuv - It’s important
Zeh hakol - That’s it
Zeh klum! - It’s nothing!
Zeh lo meshane - It doesn’t matter
Zeh mah sheyesh - This is what there is; There is no
more. A line stated at the end of an extensive quote.
Or a statement that the previous sentences
summarize a teacher’s words or instructions on a
Zeh mean’yen - It’s interesting
Zeh mesukan - It’s dangerous
Zei mir gezunt! - Be well!
Zemiroth - Liturgical songs. Also songs or choruses that
are sung during the Sabbath meal. See also Niggun.
Ziknei ha am - Elders of the people
Zoche – worthy of merit. It would be used like “May we
all be zoche to follow in Moshe's footsteps.” Or “May
you be zoche to build a bayis ne’eman
b’yisroel together
Zohar - Most likely written by Spanish kabbalist named
Moses de Leon in the thirteenth century, some
Ani lo mevin (masc.); Ani lo mevinah (fem.) - I do not
Ani lo mevin otch’a (masc.); ani lo mevin otach’
(fem.) - I don’t understand you
Ani lo yode’a (masc.); Ani lo yoda’at (fem.) - I don’t
Ani ma’amin – (ah-NEE mah-ah-MEEN); Lit., “I
believe.” It is sometimes used as the first words of a
series of doctrinal statements.
Ani medaber Ivrit (masc.); Ani medaberet Ivrit (fem.) I speak Hebrew
Ani mitzta’er (masc.); Ani mitzta’eret (fem.) - I’m sorry
Ani ohev otach’ (masc.); Ani ohevet otch’a (fem.) - I
love you
Ani tzarich’ lalech’et ach’shav - I must go now
Ani ve’atah neshane et ha’olam! - You and I will
change the world!
Ani yode’a (masc.); Ani yoda’at (fem.) - I know
Ani yode’a Ivrit (masc.); Ani yoda’at Ivrit (fem.) - I
know Hebrew
Ani yode’a milim ach’adot (masc.) - I know a few
words [of Hebrew]
Ani yoda’at rak milim ach’adot (fem.) - I know only a
few words [of Hebrew]
Annihilationism - The teaching that when a person
dies, he is annihilated, most often this doctrine is
applied to the wicked, thereby negating eternal hell
fire. This is contradicted by the Bible in Matthew
25:46 which says “And these will go away into eternal
punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.” Also,
degrees of punishment will be given on the Day of
Judgment (Revelation 20:11-15). If all, or only the
wicked are annihilated, then degrees of punishment
would be pointless.
Anninut – The time period of mourning between death
and the funeral.
Anomianism – Lawlessness. The New Testament
Greek word for “law” is nomos. Nomos is the Greek
word that was used by the translators of the
Septuagint to translate the Hebrew word Torah.
Several times in the New Covenant, the word nomos
appears with an a- prefix attached to it, making a new
word, anomos. The a- prefix in Greek means “no,”
“not,” or “without.” When the a- prefix is attached to a
Greek word it gives the word a negative meaning,
just like the a- prefix does in English words such as
amoral, asexual, atheist, etc. So a-nomos or
anomiansim literally means “without or against the
Torah.” See Antinomianism.
Antichrist - A figure who opposes God. The word is
used to describe a spirit of rebellion against God,
"...the spirit of the Antichrist..." (1 John 4:3) and of a
specific future person identified as the man of
lawlessness (2 Thessalonians 2:3). He actively
opposes Christ (2 Thessalonians 2:4) and when he
arrives, he will be able to perform miracles (2
Thessalonians 2:9). Some believe he will be an
incarnation of Satan and as such will be able to
deceive many. His number is 666 (Revelation 13:18).
A further possible description of him might be found
in Zechariah 11:15-17).
Antinomianism - The word comes from the Greek anti,
against, and nomos, law. It is the unbiblical practice
of living without regard to the righteousness of God,
using God's grace as a license to sin, and trusting
grace to cleanse of sin. In other words, since grace is
infinite and we are saved by grace, then we can sin
all we want and still be saved. It is wrong because
even though as Christians we are not under the Law
to God nor pure faith but instead means “to wrestle
with God.”
Yitach’en - It is possible
Yizkor – (“remembrance”). A special prayer said for
loved ones who have passed away. Also it is the
name of the memorial service on Yom Kippur.
Yom; yamim - Day; days
Yom ha Atzmaut - Modern Israel's Independance Day
Yom ha Din – The Day of Judgment; another name for
Rosh Hashanah.Yom ha Shabbat - The day of
Yom ha Shoah – A day in which we commemorate the
Shoah (aka the Holocaust). Held on the 27th of Nisan.
Yom ha Zikaron - Modern Israel's Memorial Day
Yom huledet - Birthday
Yom huledet same’ach’! - Happy Birthday!
Yom iyyun – A designated day of learning.
Yom Kippur - (Heb., “Day of Atonement”). Day of
Atonement. Annual day of fasting and repentance
and atonement, occurring in the fall on Tishri 10 (just
after Rosh Hashanah). (Leviticus 23:27)
Yom tov - A good day; a festival – usually applied to the
Festivals or holy days.
Yom tov yontif – “Festival day – not working”
Yoshev al hagader - Straddling the fence
Yoshev al sir ha basar - [He is] living the good life
Yoter - More
Yotzei - (“gone out”) One who has properly fulfilled an
Zaide – Grandfather (see also Saba)
Zakain (masc.); Zekainah (fem.) - Old
Zaquen (pl. Zaquenim) - Elders. See also Dayan,
Moreh Tzedek
natural affection or kindness, any leaning toward
positive behavior we may possess. The yetzer hatov
is not something that we come by on our own. It is a
grace of God.
Yich’us – A distinguished Yich’ud - A short time of
seclusion immediately following the marriage
ceremony that the bride and groom spend alone
Yiddish - A composite language that uses the same
alphabet as Hebrew that developed in Eastern
Europe as a result of Jews being moved around by
unfriendly governments. It is mainly composed of
German, but many dialects contain large amounts of
Hungarian, Russian, Polish and other Eastern
European languages. It is commonly used today
amongst Orthodox Jews whose origins lie within the
old Eastern European communities. It has had such
an impact on the Jewish culture that many of the
words are carried over into our daily lives. And
frankly – a lot of Yiddish is just plain cool!
Yiddishkeit – (Yid.) Lit., “Jewishness”; living the Torah
Yihyeh beseder - It will be in order; Everything will be
ok; It will all work out
Yin and Yang - A dualistic philosophy of passive and
active, good and bad, light and dark, positive and
negative, male and female, etc., and that they are in
opposition, each is part of the whole and works
Yirah - Religious awe.
Yishtabach’ – A prayer of praise uttered during morning
Yisra’el – The Romanized Hebrew version of Israel. It is
significant that the name neither implies submission
(Romans 6:14), we still fulfill the Law in the Law of
love (Romans 13:8, 10; Galatians 5:14; 6:2). We are
to love God with all our heart, soul, strength, and
mind, and our neighbor as ourselves (Luke 10:27)
and, thereby, avoid the offense of sin which cost God
His only begotten Son. Paul speaks against the
concept of antinomianism in Romans 6:1-2: "Are we
to continue in sin that grace may abound? May it
never be! How shall we who died to sin still live in it?"
We are not to use the grace of God as a means of
sin. Instead, we are to be controlled by the love of
God and in that way bear the fruit of the Holy Spirit
(Galatians 5:22-25). See Anomianism.
Antiochus Epiphanes – A mad Greek ruler whose
tyranny lasted from 175-165 BC. His entry of and
desecration of the Beit haMikdash prefigures the
ultimate “abomination of desolation” that will be
visited upon us by the coming Anti-Christ.
Antisemitism – Literally “against Semites” but is used
particularly against the Jewish people. Racism that
targets Jewish people specifically. Antisemitism is in
direct violation to the Word of God since the Apostle
Paul said,
• Romans 9:3-5 HCSB For I could wish that I
myself were cursed and cut off from the Messiah
for the benefit of my brothers, my countrymen by
physical descent. (4) They are Israelites, and to
them belong the adoption, the glory, the
covenants, the giving of the law, the temple
service, and the promises. (5) The forefathers
are theirs, and from them, by physical descent,
came the Messiah, who is God over all, blessed
forever. Amen.
Apikoros - (Aram. Non-believer) Term for an apostate.
Apocrypha - The word apocrypha means hidden. It is
used in a general sense to describe a list of books
written by Jews between 300 and 100 B.C. More
specifically, it is used of the seven additional books
accepted by the Catholic church as being inspired.
The entire list of books of the apocrypha are: 1 and 2
Esdras, Tobit, Judith, the Rest of Esther, the Wisdom
of Solomon, Sirach, (also titled Ecclesiasticus),
Baruch, The Letter of Jeremiah, Song of the Three
Young Men, Susanna, Bel and the Dragon, The
Additions to Daniel, The Prayer of Manasseh, and
1and 2 Maccabees. The books accepted as inspired
and included in the Catholic Bible are Tobit, Judith,
1and 2 Maccabees Wisdom of Solomon Sirach (also
known as Ecclesiasticus), and Baruch The Jews
never recognized these books as being canonical
(inspired). There is no record that Yeshua or the
apostles ever quoted from the apocryphal books. The
Septuagint (LXX) includes the books, not as
scripture, but as part of the translation of the Hebrew
manuscripts as a whole.
Apollinarianism - Apollinarianism was the heresy
taught by Apollinaris the Younger, bishop of Laodicea
in Syria about 361. He taught that the Logos of God,
which became the divine nature of Christ, took the
place of the rational human soul of Yeshua and that
the body of Christ was a glorified form of human
nature. In other words, though Yeshua was a man,
He did not have a human mind but that the mind of
Christ was solely divine. Please see Heresies for
more information.
Apologetics - The word "apologetics" is derived from
the Greek word "apologia," which means to make a
defense. It has come to mean defense of the faith.
Apologetics covers many areas: who Yeshua is, the
Yeshua - Means 'Salvation' and is the name of 'Jesus' in
Hebrew. "She will give birth to a son, and you are to
name Him Yeshua, because He will save His people
from their sins." (Matthew 1:21)
Yetzer - Lit., Inclination. Adonaic theology holds that
every person has both an evil and good inclination
within him, that are at 'war' to see which of them the
person will follow. The evil inclination (called by many
the “sin nature”) is the yetzer hara (sometimes
rendered yetzer ra). The good inclination, which
Adonaists believe to be the conscience stimulated by
the Ruach’ ha Kodesh, is referred to as the yetzer
hatov (sometimes rendered yetzer tov).
Yetzer hara – (YET-zehr hah-RAH); (Strong’s #3336
+#7451) ‫ יֵצֶר הָ ַרע‬The yetzer hara is the human heart’s
inner impulse or tendency to sin. We find the first
occurrence of the word yetzer in Genesis 6:5, where
humanity is described as having every imagination of
their thoughts being only evil. The opposite of yetzer
hara is yetzer hatov or the “good inclination.” Yetzer
hara is not necessarily demonically inspired. Our own
sensuality and pride is more than enough to take
down the strongest among us. And Yetzer hara is not
necessarily based on an evil thing. If taken too far or
emphasized too much, even a good thing can
become evil and transform into yetzer hara.
Yetzer hara war – The war against our negative
impulses. The struggle with our sin nature. The
attempt to make our practical holiness match our
imputed holiness. The goal of this war is to obey
God’s command “be holy as I am holy.” The method
is conformity to the Master’s way of thinking and
Yetzer hatov – (YET-sehr hah-TOV); (Strong’s #3336
+#2896) ‫ יֵצֶר הַ ּטֹוב‬One’s inclination toward good; a
Yech’idus – A private interview at which a Believer
seeks guidance and enlightenment from his or her
Yehareg v’al ya’avor – (yeh-hah-REG v-al yah-ahvore); Lit., “one should be killed and not transgress.”
Adonaists are, like their Lord and the many wonderful
examples of the saints before us, will to give up their
life rather than transgress the Lord’s commands.
(Esther 4:16; Matthew 10:39; 16:25; Mark 8:35-36;
Luke 9:24; 17:23; John 12:25)
Yehi ratzon - May it be your will
Yehiyeh asher yehiyeh - What will be will be; Come
what may (cp Mah she ba tuach’, ba tuach’)
Yehud/Yehudi - Jew and Jews
Yeled (masc.); Yaldah (fem.) - Child
Yerushalayim/Yerushalom - Jerusalem
Yerushalayim shelanu - Our Jerusalem
Yesh – An entity which enjoys seemingly self-sufficient
existence, as if independent of its Creator; an
egocentric, narcissistic person. The state or condition
of being a yesh is called “yeshus”.
Yesh me’ayin – Lit., “something from nothing”; creation
ex nihilo.
YESHA (acronym) – Hebrew acronym for Judea,
Shomrom, and Azza, also referred to as “the
Yehudah (territories of Judea)
Shomrom (territories of Samaria)
Azza (territories of Gaza)
Yeshivah (pl. Yeshivoth) – Seminary. A higher school
dedicated to the study of Scripture and designed for
advanced students. See also Beit midrash, Beit
Yeshiva Bocher - Unmarried male student student at
reliability of the Bible, refuting cults, biblical
evidences in the history and archeology, answering
objections, etc. In short, it deals with giving reasons
for Christianity being the true religion. We are called
by God to give an apologia, a defense: "but sanctify
Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to
make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an
account for the hope that is in you, yet with
gentleness and reverence" (1 Peter 3:15).
Apostasy - The falling away from the faith. It is a revolt
against the truth of God’s word by a believer. It can
also describe a group or church organization that has
"fallen away" from the truths of Christianity as
revealed in the Bible.
Apostle - Someone sent with a special message or
commission. Yeshua is called the apostle and high
Priest of our confession in Hebrews 3:1. The twelve
apostles of Yeshua were Simon Peter, Andrew,
James the son of Zebedee, John, Philip,
Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, James the son of
Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon the Zealot, and Judas
Iscariot. Paul became an apostle after Yeshua'
resurrection (2 Corinthians 1:1), along with Barnabas
(Acts 14:14), and others. Apostles established
churches (Romans 15:17-20), exposed error
(Galatians 1:6-9), and defended the truth of the
gospel (Philippians 1:7, 17). Some were empowered
by the Holy Spirit to perform Miracles (Matthew 10:1,
8) and they were to preach the gospel (Matthew
Aramaic — a northwest Semitic language that is
closely related to Hebrew. The earliest Aramaic
inscriptions date from the ninth-tenth centuries
B.C. Some 200 verses of the Bible are in
Aramaic. Major sections of the books of Daniel
(2:4-7:28) and Ezra (4:6-6:18 and 7:12-26) were
originally written in Aramaic. Jeremiah 10:11,
which was a later insertion, was oddly enough
written in Aramaic. Two words in Genesis (31:47)
and possibly small portions of Numbers and Job
appear to be Aramaic in origin. Aramaic’s square
script eventually replaced the archaic Hebrew
script. By the time of coming of the Messiah
Aramaic was the normal script for writing in
Arba – Four
Arba minim – The four species of vegetation used in
ritual observance during the holiday of Sukkot (see
Leviticus 23:40) to fulfill the commandment to “rejoice
before the Lord”. Traditionally they are:
• Lulav – a ripe green closed frond from a
date palm tree.
• Hadass – boughs with leaves from a myrtle
• Aravah – branches with leaves from a
willow tree
• Etrog – the fruit of a citron tree
Arba pinot ha Eretz - The four corners of the Earth
Arbaim yom ve’arbaim lailah - Forty days and forty
Arch of Titus –
This monument
to the
destruction of
Jerusalem and
the Beit
haMikdash was
built in AD 81.
On it can be seen the Temple’s Golden Lampstand
and the Table of Showbread.
Ya’aleh ve yavo - May it ascend and arrive
Yach’as enoshi - Benevolence; thoughtfulness
Yad - A hand-shaped pointer used in Judaism when
reading from Torah lest one desecrate the scroll.
Yahrtzeit – (Yid.) A yearly memorial. The anniversary
date of a loved one’s death. Sometimes also spelled
Yam Hamelakh - The Salt Sea; the Dead Sea.
Yam Kineret - Lake Tiberias.
Yamim noraim - Penitential Days; Days of Awe. The ten
days starting with Rosh Hashanah and ending with
Yom Kippur.
Yamim Nor'aim - Days of Awe. The Hebrew name for
the High Holy Days.
Yare – (YAH-reh); (Strong’s #3372, 3373) To fear,
dread, or be terrified within the context of worship. To
revere. To hold in holy awe.
Yarmulke – A head covering. Adonaic males, unlike
their Judaic friends, do not wear these in prayer for:
• 1 Corinthians 11:4 HCSB Every man who prays
or prophesies with something on his head
dishonors his head.
See also Kippah.
Yasher koach’! – “May your strength be firm; go on
straight!” An expression of commendation made by
one congregant to another after performance of a
part in the worship service. In other words “You did
well. Do that a lot more!”
Yatziv patgam - True is the Word
through our Lord Jesus Christ" (1 Thessalonians
word "became flesh and dwelt among us" (John
1:14). In other words, Jesus is the Word of God who
represents God to us and us to God. The term is also
used to describe the Scriptures (Romans 9:6;
Hebrews 4:12), Christ's teaching (Luke 5:1), and the
gospel message (Acts 4:31). The Word of God is
inspired (2 Timothy 3:16; truth (Psalm 119:160);
makes free (John 8:32); produces faith (Romans
10:17); and judges (Hebrews 4:12).
World to Come – See Olam Haba -- the coming
messianic kingdom when there will be peace on
Worship - The obligation of God's creation to give to
Him all honor, praise, adoration, and glory due Him
because He is the holy and divine creator. Worship is
to be given to God only (Exodus 20:3; Matthew 4:10).
Jesus, being God in flesh (John 1:1, 14; Colossians
2:9), was worshipped (Matthew 2:2, 11; John 9:3540; Hebrews 1:6).
Wrath - Biblically, it is the divine judgment upon sin and
sinners. It does not merely mean that it is a casual
response by God to ungodliness, but carries the
meaning of hatred, revulsion, and indignation. God is
by nature love (1 John 4:16), however, in His justice
He must punish sin. The punishment is called the
wrath of God. It will occur on the final Day of
Judgment when those who are unsaved will incur the
wrath of God. It is, though, presently being released
upon the ungodly (Romans 1:18-32) in the hardening
of their hearts. Wrath is described as God's anger
(Numbers 32:10-13), as stored up (Romans 2:5-8),
and as great (Zechariah 7:12). The believer's
deliverance from God's wrath is through the
atonement (Romans 5:8-10). "For God has not
destined us for wrath, but for obtaining salvation
Argumentum ad hominem – Latin. It is an irrelevant
attack upon a person to deflect the argument from
the facts and reasons.
Argumentum ad judicium - Latin. This is an argument
where appeal is made to common sense and the
judgment of people as validating a point.
Argumentum ad populum – Latin. This is an argument
where appeal is made to emotions: loyalties,
patriotism, prejudices, etc.
Argumentum ad verecundiam – Latin. This is an
argument using respect for great men, customs,
institutions, and authority in an attempt to strengthen
one's argument and provide an illusion of proof.
Arianism - An ancient theological error that appeared
around the year 320. It taught that God could not
appear on the earth, that Yeshua was not eternal and
could not be God. Additionally, it taught that there
was only one person in the Godhead: the Father.
Yeshua, then, was a creation. It was condemned by
the Council of Nicea in 325. The Jehovah's Witness
cult is an equivalent, though not exactly, of this
ancient error. Please see Heresies for more
Arminianism - There are five main tenets of
Arminianism: 1) God elects or reproves on the basis
of foreseen faith or unbelief, 2) Christ died for all men
and for every man, although only believers are
saved, 3) Man is so depraved that divine grace is
necessary unto faith or any good deed, 4) This grace
may be resisted, 5) Whether all who are truly
regenerate will certainly persevere in the faith is a
point which needs further investigation.1 (Compare
with Calvinism)
Aruch’at boker - Breakfast
Aruch’at erev - Dinner
Aruch’at tzohorayim – Lunch
Aseret ha Devarim – The Decalogue; the Ten
Commandments that were written on two stone
tablets (luch’ot). This is the scriptural term. The
rabbinical term is “aseret ha diberot”.
Aseret ha Diberot – The Decalogue; the Ten
Commandments that were written on two stone
tablets (luch’ot). In the Scriptures these are called the
“aseret ha devarim”, the “ten words” or “ten
utterances”. Aseret ha Diberot is a rabbinical term.
Asherah – The plural is asherim. A carved image of a
pagan fertility goddess often symbolized by a dove or
a sphinx (emphasizing wisdom); usually a version of
Astarte (from the Northwestern Semitic regions) who
is also known as:
• Athtart (Ugaritic)
• Astartu (Akkadian)
• Uni-Astre (Etruscan; later becoming Juno)
• Inanna (Sumerian for “Queen of Heaven),
• Isis (Egyptian),
• Ishtar (Assyrian and Babylonian and for whom the
pagan holiday of Easter is named),
• Ashtoreth (Hebrew pronunciation of the
Phoenician; some question the correlation to
Asherah but when considering their descriptions
they seem to me to be one and the same),
• Aphrodite (Greek),
• Venus (Roman).
Ashkenazi – Eastern and Central European Jew.
Ashkenazi culture and transliteration differs from
Sephardic Jews. See Sephardic.
Asir todah (masc.); Asirat todah (fem.) - Ever so
Vellum - A material used for writing, like paper. It was
made from animal skins, usually from cattle, sheep,
goats, and antelope. The hair was scraped off of the
skins, then they were washed, smoothed, and
dressed with chalk. Vellum was used until the late
Middle Ages until paper was introduced into Europe
from China via Arab traders. Vellum lasted longer
than papyrus and was tougher, but the edges
sometimes became torn and tattered. The two oldest
complete parchment manuscripts are the Codex
Vaticanus (from Egypt) and the Codex Sinaiticus.
There are older manuscripts but they are fragments
of verses or chapters.
Vicarious Atonement - The theory of the atonement
which states that Christ's death was "legal." It
satisfied the legal justice of God. Jesus bore the
penalty of sin when he died on the cross. His death
was a substitution for the believers. In other words,
he substituted himself for them upon the cross. Jesus
hung in our place as He bore our sin in his body on
the cross. See 1 Peter 2:24.
Vidui – (vee-DOO-ee); Confession of sins. Usually
included in every Yom Kippur amidah. These may
take the form of “al het”, a series of confessions that
are listed alphabetically as a guide for the penitent on
Yom Kippur.
Western Wall - The remaining portion of the old temple
on the temple mount, also called the 'wailing wall.'
Word, the - In Greek the word for "word" is logos. It
is used in many places, but of special interest is how
it is used of Jesus. In John 1:1 it says, "In the
beginning was the Word and the Word was with God
and the Word was God." The Word is divine and the
Va ye ma’ain - The Hebrew word for “refused”. As in
Joseph refused the advances of Potiphar’s wife.
Va Yikra - Leviticus
Vadai, be vadai! - Of course!
Varmkeit – (Yid.) A kind of acceptance that enables
people to feel that they are of value. The capacity to
lift the spirits of another person through a simple
word, gesture or small joke. The ability to make a
person feel better about themselves, to make him or
her feel that they are living in a meaningful world and
are themselves having an impact.
Vayikrah - (“and He called”). The third book of the Torah
(Leviticus). Sometimes also spelled V’yikra.
Ve yitten lech’a - [May God] grant you
Assur - (Heb. forbidden) Term used to denote
something prohibited by Jewish law. (E.g. "It's assur
to east milk with meat").
Assurance - Theologically, assurance is the state of
being confident in a condition or outcome. Usually it
is applied to one’s assurance of salvation. Texts
often used to support assurance of salvation are
John 10:28 “and I give eternal life to them, and they
shall never perish; and no one shall snatch them out
of My hand,” and 1 John 5:13, “These things I have
written to you who believe in the name of the Son of
God, in order that you may know that you have
eternal life.”
At mevinah et hamilim (fem.) - Do you understand the
Possible Responses:
Ken, ani mevinah et hamilim (fem.) - Yes, I
understand the words;
Ani mevin et hamilim, aval lo et hamishpat
(masc.) - I understand the words, but not the
Ani mevin, aval lo medaber (masc.) - I understand
but do not speak;
Atah (masc. sing.); At (fem. sing.) - You
Atah bech’artanu - You have chosen us
Atah lo mevin (masc.); At lo mevina’ (fem.) - You don’t
Atah lo tzodek (masc.); Ata lo tzodeket (fem.) - You
are wrong
Atah medaber Ivrit? (masc.); At medaberet Ivrit (fem.)
- Do you speak Hebrew?
Possible Responses:
Me’at - A little;
Ken, me’at - Yes, a little;
Me’at me’od - Very little;
the deity of the Holy Spirit. An over-emphasis of the
unity of the Godhead that ends up contradicting the
clear teaching of the Scriptures by saying that only
the Father is God and that Christ and the Holy Spirit
are lesser and servile beings. Though Unitarians
often profess to have no dogma, they teach the unity
of God and hold to a common system of believing as
you will about God, salvation, sin, etc. Unitarians also
hold to the universal redemption of all mankind.
Unitarianism is a complete heresy. See also
Modalism, Sabellianism, and Tritheism.
Universalism The teaching that all people will
eventually be saved through the universal
redemption of Jesus. Some universalists teach that
even the devil, after a time of punishment, will be
Ushpitzin - A false rabbinic concept of inviting ancestors
to one's sukkah (like Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph,
Moses, Aaron and David).
Rak me’at - Just a little;
Lo, ani lo medaber (masc.) - No, I do not speak
Atah mevin Ivrit? (masc.) - Do you understand
Atah mevine? (masc.); At mevina? (fem.) - Do you
Atah tzodek (masc.); At tzodeket (fem.) - You are right
Atem (masc. plural); Aten (fem. plural) – You
Atheism - This word comes from two Greek words, a
the negator, and theos, God. Atheism teaches that
there is no God of any kind, anywhere, anytime.
Logically, an atheist would be an evolutionist though
not all evolutionists are atheists. The Bible teaches
that all men know there is a God (Romans 2:14-15).
Therefore, they will be without excuse (Romans 1:20)
on the Day of Judgment. Instead, atheists willingly
suppress the knowledge of God by their
unrighteousness (Romans 1:18-19).
Atonement - To atone means to make amends, to
repair a wrong. Biblically, it means to remove sin.
The Old Testament atonements offered by the high
priest were temporary and a foreshadow of the real
and final atonement made by Yeshua. Yeshua
atoned for the sins of the world (1 John 2:2). This
atonement is received by faith (Romans 5:1;
Ephesians 2:8). Man is a sinner (Romans 5:8) and
cannot atone for himself. Therefore, it was the love of
the Father that sent Yeshua (1 John 4:10) to die in
our place (1 Peter 3:18) for our sins (1 Peter 2:24).
Because of the atonement, our fellowship with God is
restored (Romans 5:10). (See Reconciliation.)
Autograph - An original writing of a biblical document.
The original manuscript written. The autographs
would be the actual, original written document from
which copies are made.
Ulai’ – Perhaps
Ulpan - Class or school for intensive study of Hebrew
Uncial - The Greek characters of upper case: ABGDE,
etc. Different copies of Greek manuscripts appear in
Uncial form. Minuscules are the lower case letters of
the Greek alphabet order and rank.
Unitarianism - A theological error that holds to the unity
of God by denying the Trinity, the deity of Jesus, and
and implies that in each moment and in each choice,
right living and choosing are taking place. There are
two kinds of righteousness: imputed righteousness
(when another’s righteousness is applied to one’s
account or credit) and practical righteousness (when
one tries to reflect one’s imputed righteousness in
one’s day to day life). Generally people confuse the
two terms, using tzedakah and tzedekah
synonymously. However, Gesenius clearly saw a
difference between the two and I have tried to reflect
his and Strong’s view in my application.
Tzelem Elohim - In the image of God.
Tzeniut – (tseh-nee-YOOT); Modesty or decorum.
Tzetech’ le shalom ve shuvech’ le shalom (masc.) Go in peace and return in peace
Tzetch’a le shalom ve shuvch’a le shalom (fem.) - Go
in peace and return in peace
Tzimch’oni – Vegetarian
Tzit tzit – Fringes on the corners of the tallith.
Specifically the knots in the corners.
Tzniut – Modesty. The most fundamental way to use
your outside to tell other who you are on the inside.
Tzom kal - May you have an easy fast
Tzuris/Tzooris - Trouble, woe, suffering.
21, 23, 28, 30-31; 12:3, 5, 7, 10, 12-13, 21, 26; 13:5,
9, 21-22, 25; 14:19, 32; 15:6, 28-29; 17:15, 26; 18:5,
10, 17; 20:7; 21:12, 15, 18, 26; 23:24; 24:15-16;
24:24; 25:26; 28:1, 12, 28; 29:2, 6-7, 16, 27;
Ecclesiastes 3:17; 7:15-16, 20; 8:14; 9:1-2; Isaiah
3:10; 5:23; 24:16; 26:2, 7; 29:21; 41:26; 45:21; 49:24;
53:11; 57:1; 60:21; Jeremiah 12:1; 20:12; 23:5;
Lamentations 1:18; 4:13; Ezekiel 3:20-21; 13:22;
18:5, 9, 20, 24, 26; 21:3-4; 23:45; 33:12-13, 18;
Daniel 9:14; Hosea 14:9; Amos 2:6; 5:12; Habakkuk
1:4, 13; 2:4; Zephaniah 3:5; Zechariah 9:9; Malachi
Tzaharaim tovim - Good afternoon (response upon
Tzar Li - I’m Sorry
Tzarfatit - French
Tzedakah – (tseh-DOCK-ah); (Strong’s #6666) Straight
paths; straight living; rectitude; doing what is right. In
practice this term is usually used to refer to acts of
charity or kindness (whether physical, emotional,
political or monetary) to the needy. However, if we
stopped there, we would have the wrong idea of what
tzedakah entails because “charity” suggests the
magnanimous acts of the wealthy and powerful for
the benefit of the poor and lowly. But that is not the
proper understanding of tzedakah, because it derives
from the Hebrew root tzade-dalet-qof meaning
righteousness, justice or fairness. Generally people
confuse the two terms, using tzedakah and tzedekah
synonymously. However, Gesenius clearly saw a
difference between the two and I have tried to reflect
his and Strong’s view in my application.
Tzedekah – (tseh-DEHK-ah); (Strong’s #6664) Right
thought and action at the right time and place for the
right reason. It is concerned with living righteously
Autonomy - Freedom from all external constraints.
Independence consisting of self-determination.
Av - (Heb.) The eleventh month of the Hebrew calendar
(which begins with the month of Tishrei); and fifth
according to the Jewish calendar (which starts in the
month of Nissan). (See also "Tisha B'av").
Av - (Heb. father or father of). Used in numerous
phrases and constructions, such "as av beit din" (lit.
father of the house of judgment), one who presides
over a Jewish court. (See also beit)
Av Beit Din - The supervisor of the Beit Din and all of its
functions. In Adonaic Christianity the senior teaching
elder of the church is appointed the Av Beit Din or his
designee as the administrator in any Beit Din
proceeding or hearing.
Av haroeh beseter - Father Who sees in secret
Av she bashamayim - Father in heaven
Avad – (Strong’s #6) (Jonah 1:6,14; 3:9; 4:10) To
wander away; to go astray; to be lost. To die, perish,
or be destroyed (but not annihilated). To lose
usefulness. Adonaists believe that before they
submitted their will to Hashem’s, and made Him their
King, their Master, or their Shepherd, they were
Avak lashon hara – (ah-VAK lah-SHONE hah-RAH)
Lit., “the dust of an evil tongue.” In this case a person
is not making a positive statement that could entrap
him if the lie is discovered. What the person does is
simply choose which part of the truth to tell. It is in
the lack of full disclosure or the timing of the telling in
which the sin lies. Because it is more insidious, in my
opinion this is a far more dangerous sin and should
be dealt with more harshly by the elders.
Avel - Mourner
Avelut - (Heb. mourning) The year of mourning after the
burial of a parent. (See also Shiva)
Averah (aveira) - (Heb.) Sin, transgression of God's will.
Avi - My father
Avi ‘Ad – Eternal Father
Avi ch’ol - Father of all
Avich’em - Your father
Avinu – Our Father; Luke 1:73
Avinu Malkeinu – “Our Father, our King”; a form of
address for Hashem, often used in prayer.
ֶ ‫ִינּו‬
ָ — Our
Avinu she bashamayim - ‫ּב‬
Father in heaven
Aviv – First month of the biblical year corresponding to
the modern month of Nisan.
Avodah – (ah-voh-DAH); Lit., “divine service.” There are
three great pillars upon which righteous behavior
rests: 1) Study of the Scripture; 2) Acts of kindness
toward our fellow man; 3) Humble service to and
worship of God. This is often used in the Christian
sense of “sanctification” i.e. efforts made toward selfrefinement empowered by the Ruach’ ha Kodesh.
Avodah zarah - (ah-voh-DAH zah-RAH) Idolatry
Avodat Hashem – Service rendered to the Name.
Avoteinu - Our fathers
Avraham – ‫ָם‬
ָ‫ — ב‬Abraham, the father of the Jewish
people. His name was originally Avram (‫ְרם‬
ָ‫)ב‬. He is
also sometimes called ‫ִינּו‬
ֲ ‫ָם‬
ָ‫ ב‬Avraham
Avinu, “Abraham Our Father”.
Avraham avinu - Avraham our father
Ayin – (ah-YEEN); The Hebrew word for “well” or
“spring”. Oddly enough, it also means “eye”. It is also
the 16th letter of the Hebrew alphabet.
Az haroth - Exhortations.
Az mah? - So what?
Servant offered ten gifts to bride
6:23; Romans 12; 1 Corinthians 12
Genesis 24:10;
Tritheism - Tritheism is the teaching that the Godhead
is really three separate beings forming three separate
gods. This erring view is often misplaced for the
doctrine of the Trinity which states that there is but
one God in three persons: Father, Son, and Holy
Tzaddik – (tsah-DEEK); (Strong’s #6662); A Hebrew
word that occurs hundreds of times in the Old
Testament and can be literally translated “righteous
person.” A Tzaddik is a holy person; someone who
dedicates themselves to serve God and to reconcile
others to Him. The opposite of a Tzaddik is a Rasha.
The feminine version is “tzedekas”. It is generally
considered to be a step up from a rabbi or a zaquen
because one can hold either one of those offices and
not be particularly holy or have a strong d’vekut. A
Tzaddik is generally considered to be not only wise
and learned but also holier or more God-centered
than his fellows. Tzaddik is also one of God’s names,
as in “the Righteous One.” Becoming a tzaddik, being
holy as God is holy, is my goal in life.
References to Tzaddik: Genesis 6:9; 7:1; 18:2326, 28; 20:4; Exodus 9:27; 23:7-8; Deuteronomy 4:8;
16:19; 25:1; 32:4; 1 Samuel 24:17; 2 Samuel 4:11;
23:3; 1 Kings 2:32; 8:32; 2 Kings 10:9; 2 Chronicles
6:23; 12:6; Ezra 9:15; Nehemiah 9:8, 33; Job 12:4;
17:9; 22:19; 27:17; 32:1; 34:17; 36:7; Psalm 1:5-6;
5:12; 7:9, 11; 11:3, 5, 7; 14:5; 31:18; 32:11; 33:1;
34:15, 19, 21; 37:12, 16-17, 21, 25, 29-30, 32, 39;
52:6; 55:22; 58:10-11; 64:10; 68:3; 69:28; 72:7;
75:10; 92:12; 94:21; 97:11-12; 112:4, 6; 116:5;
118:15, 20; 119:137; 125:3; 129:4; 140:13; 141:5;
142:7; 145:17; 146:8; Proverbs 2:20; 3:33; 4:18; 9:9;
10:3, 6-7, 11, 16, 20-21, 24-25, 28, 30-32; 11:8-10,
Tsniut - Modesty.
Tu B'Shevat - New year for trees, an Israeli-style Arbor
day celebrated by planting trees on the 15th of
Tuch’al la’azor li? - Can you help me?
Tut mir hano’eh - It gives me pleasure (can also be
meant sarcastically)
Type, Typology - A type is a representation by one
thing of another. Adam was a type of Christ (Romans
5:14) and so was Isaac (Hebrews 11:19). The
Passover was a type of Christ (1 Corinthians 5:7).
There are many types in the Bible and most of them
are too extensive and deep to be listed. An example
of a typology follows: Isaac a type of Jesus.
Only begotten Son
Genesis 22:2;
John 3:16
Offered on a mountain, hill
Genesis 22:2;
Matt 21:10
Took donkey to place of sacrifice
Genesis 22:3;
Matthew 21:2-11
Two men went with him.
Genesis 22:3;
Mark 15:27; Luke 23:33
Three day journey. Jesus: three days in the grave Genesis 22:4;
Luke 24:13-21
Son carried wood on his back up hill
Genesis 22:6;
John 19:17
God will provide for Himself the lamb
Genesis 22:8;
John 1:29
Son was offered on the wood
Genesis 22:9;
Luke 23:33
Ram in thicket of thorns
Genesis 22:13;
John 19:2
The seed will be multiplied
Genesis 22:17;
John 1:12; Isaiah 53:10
Abraham went down, Son didn't, "not mentioned." Genesis 22:19;
Luke 23:46
Servant gets bride for son
Genesis 24:1-4;
Ephesians 5:22-32; Revelation 21:2, 9; 22:17
The bride was a beautiful virgin
Genesis 24:16; 2
Corinthians 11:2
Azazel – a scape goat or a goat demon. Leviticus 16:810, 26
Azkarah – A memorial service.
Azoi? - Really?
Azov oti - Leave me [alone]
Azru li! - Help me!
Azuvah - Abandoned
Ba li - I felt/feel like it
Ba Midbar – Lit., “In the wilderness”; Used of the fourth
book of the Torah which is called in English
Ba’al – the principle male Phoenician and Canaanite
god. It literally means “lord” or “master” and was
further used to imply “husband” in the context of
fertility worship. Numbers 25:3-5; Deuteronomy 4:3;
Judges 2:13; 6:25; Hosea 9:10; Zephaniah 1:4;
Romans 11:4.
Ba’al bayit - Master of the house
Ba’al hakerem - Master of the vineyard
Ba'al Korai - (Heb.) Torah reader at public prayer
Ba’al midot tovot (masc.); Ba’alat midot tovot Master of good attributes; a person of good character
Baal Nefesh – A religious Jew
Ba’al Tefillah - Prayer leader also known as a chazzan.
Ba’al Zibbul – (also rendered Ba’al Zebub or
Beelzebub); A derogatory name for Satan (Matthew
4:1). I say derogatory because the Philistines
originally meant “lord of heaven” or “lord of a high
abode” but the name was changed by the author of 2
Kings to mean “lord of the flies” in 2 Kings 1:2. It is
also used as a play on the word “zevel” which means
“rubbish or excrement” (Matthew 10:25).
Ba’alei din - litigants
Ba’ali - My husband
Ba’alim – pagan gods
Babel, Tower of - The tower built the builders at Babel
constructed which became a symbol of their defiance
against God (Genesis 11:1-6). It was probably
modeled after a ziggurat which is a mound of sundried bricks and was probably constructed before
4,000 BC.
Baboker - In the morning
Bach’ur (masc.); Bach’urah (fem.) - Young man; Young
B’ahavah - With love
Bain haarbayim – (Exodus 12:3) “Twilight” but literally
“between the evenings.” The last half of the daylight
hours (from about noon to 6:00 p.m.) was divided into
two parts: the minor evening oblation (noon to 3:00
p.m.) and the major evening oblation (3:00 p.m. to
6:00 p.m.). Thus, “between the evenings” means
between these two periods, or about 3:00 p.m. This
was the time midway between the beginning of the
sun’s descent into the west (about noon) and its
setting (about 6:00 p.m.). So the Passover lamb was
killed at about 3:00 p.m. on Aviv 14.
Baleboss - (Yid. M. From the Heb. Ba'al ha'bayit) Head
(lit. master) Of the household.
Baleboosteh - (Yid. F, From the Heb. Ba'alat Ha'bayit)
The lady of the house, and usually an especially
praiseworthy one.
Balnes - Miracle worker
Balshem - Faith healer; performer of miracles
ְ — Numbers, the fourth book of the
Bamidbar – ‫ַר‬
Baptism - An immersion or sprinkling of water that
signifies one's identification with a belief or cause. In
His ways" (Deuteronomy 28:9). Perhaps the Jewish
attitude toward animals is best summarized by
Proverbs 12:10: "The righteous person considers the
soul (life) of his or her animal." Moses and King
David were considered worthy to be leaders of
Hashem’s people because of their compassionate
treatment of animals, when they were shepherds.
Rebecca was judged suitable to be a wife of the
patriarch Isaac because of her kindness in watering
the ten camels of Eleazer, Abraham's servant. Many
Torah laws mandate proper treatment of animals.
One may not muzzle an ox while it is working in the
field nor yoke a strong and a weak animal together.
Animals, as well as people, are to rest on the
Sabbath day. the Torah prohibits both cooking a kid
in its mother's milk and taking eggs or chicks from a
nest while the mother bird is present (Deuteronomy
22:6). These two laws indicate a concern for the
emotional pain of the mother bird or cow, who should
neither see nor participate in the killing of her
children. Even though it is permissible [to cause pain
to animals] in order to satisfy human needs, by
slaughtering animals for food, or by employing
animals to plow, to carry burdens or other such
things, it is not permissible otherwise to cause them
suffering, even when one stands to profit from such
practices. The importance of this concept is indicated
by the fact that it is part of the Ten Commandments.
Tsava’ah - A person’s will or testament.
Tshuva – The Hebrew word for repentence. Of course
the best test to determine if a person has truly
repented is to put them in exactly the same
circumstances and see how they’ll react. Cp. Joseph
testing his brothers in regards to Benjamin. See also
as non-Christian cults). The Bible says there is only
one God. Yet, it says Jesus is God (John 1:1, 14); it
says the Father is God (Philippians 1:2); and it says
the Holy Spirit is God (Acts 5:3-4). Since the Son
speaks to the Father, they are separate persons.
Since the Holy Spirit speaks also (Acts 13:2), He is a
separate person. There is one God who exists in
three persons.
Tritheism – An over-emphasis of the distinctiveness of
each person of the Trinity to the point where it
becomes polytheism, or belief in three separate
gods. See also Modalism, Sabellianism, and
Triunity - The word “Trinity” as such does not appear in
the Bible. It is a name that humans have applied to
identify the concept that is clearly taught in the
Scriptures. A recent preference is to refer to the
Trinity as the “Triunity” in order to hopefully avoid
common misconceptions such as tritheism or
Tropaik – (troe-PIKE); A very small, bordering on
insignificant, sum of money involving a few pennies.
A tropaik could be compared to “the widow’s mite.” It
is also sometimes spelled “tropika.” It was found in
the Middle East from the 1st century BC to the 8th
century AD.
Tsa’ar balei ch’ayim – The prohibition against causing
unnecessary harm to animals. The Torah prohibits
Adonaists from causing tsa'ar ba'alei chayim, any
unnecessary pain, including psychological pain, to
living creatures. The psalmist indicates God's
concern for animals, for "His compassion is over all
of His creatures" (Psalm 145:9). And there is a
mitzvah-precept in the Torah to emulate the Divine
compassion, as it is written: "And you shall walk in
Christianity it is the believer's identification with Christ
in His death, burial, and resurrection (Romans 6:4-5).
It is done in the name and authority (Acts 4:7) of
Christ with the baptismal formula of Father, Son, and
Holy Spirit (Matthew 28:19). It does not save us (1
Peter 3:21). However, it is our obligation, as
believers, to receive it. Some maintain that baptism is
necessary for salvation. It is not. If you want to read
more on this see Is Baptism Necessary for
Salvation? See also Mikveh.
Baptismal Regeneration - The belief that baptism is
essential to salvation, that it is the means where
forgiveness of sins is made real to the believer. This
is incorrect. Paul said that he came to preach the
gospel, not to baptize (1 Corinthians 1:14-17). If
baptism were essential to salvation, then Paul would
have included it in his standard practice and
preaching of the salvation message of Yeshua, but
he did not. (See also Colossians 2:10-11.) See also
Bar – This is the Aramaic word for “son” or by
implication “son of”. If it is placed before a name is
means “son of” or “descendant of”. It began to be
used as a primary means of identification during the
Second Temple period. Females with the same
personal name often were distinguished by
adding berat (daughter, daughter of) and the
father's name. The Hebrew equivalents of bar
and berat are ben (son, son of) and bat
(daughter, daughter of).
Bar Kochba, Simeon – He led a revolt against Roman
rule in 132 AD. He was held by many in his day to be
the Mashiach. Because many Messianic Jews
disagreed and failed to participate in his rebellion, the
relationship between Judaizers and Messianists
began to seriously degrade.
ִ ‫ַר‬
‫ ; ּב‬Bat Mitzvah (fem.) Bar Mitzvah (masc.) ‫ָה‬
Son/Daughter of the Commandment. A boy who has
completed a childhood course of study on the
Torah and Jewish practice, culminating in the boy
leading a shach’arit service and reading his parasha.
This ceremony happens most often at the age of 13.
The term actually refers to the person, not to the
event, e.g. “Isaac has become a bar mitzvah.” The
ceremony of Bar Mitzvah or Bat Mitzvah which is
performed by observant Judaizers is not found in the
Barch’ot vetefillot - Blessings and prayers
Barei lev - Pure in heart
Bari veshalem - Safe and sound
Baruch’ – Blessed or blessing. The plural is baruch’ot
(sometimes seen as berachot).
Baruch’ atah Adonai – (bah-RUKH ah-TAH ah-doeNYE); These three words begin many prayerful
blessings (brach’ot). It can be translated “Blessed are
You, Adonai.”
Baruch’ habah! (pl. Bruch’im habaim) – Traditional
greeting meaning “Welcome!”
Baruch’ habah b’Shem Adonai - Blessed is the Name
of the Lord
Baruch’ Hashem – (bah-RUKH hah-SHEM); Lit.,
“Blessed be the Name”. An expression meaning
“Thank God!”
Baruch’ Hu vebaruch’ Shmo - Blessed be He and
blessed be His Name
Baruch’ She’amar - Blessed be He who spoke
Baruch’ Shem kivod leolam va’ed - Blessed be His
glorious majesty forever and ever
known as the Great Tribulation) will be an apocalyptic
period marked by great war and catastrophic events.
The Great Tribulation will involve the whole world
(Revelation 3:10). (See Matthew 24; Mark 13; Luke
Trichotomy - The teaching that the human consists of
three parts: body, soul, and spirit. (Compare with
Trinity – Thoughthe word “trinity” does not appear
anywhere in the Bible the concept pervades God’s
Word. For a summary of the Biblical evidence for the
Trinity see the appendix. Briefly, the Trinity may be
defined as “God is undivided unity expressed in the
threefold and equal nature of Father, Son and Holy
Spirit.” Being so far beyond our normal human
experience, it is and will likely ever be a great and
incomprehensible mystery. There are three persons
in one God, not three Gods. The persons are known
as the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit and they
have all always existed as three separate persons.
The person of the Father is not the same person as
the Son. The person of the Son is not the same
person as the Holy Spirit. The person of the Holy
Spirit is not the same person as the Father. If you
take away any one, there is no God. God has always
been a trinity from all eternity: "From everlasting to
everlasting, Thou art God" (Psalm 90:2). God is not
one person who took three forms, i.e., the Father
who became the Son, who then became the Holy
Spirit. This belief is known today as the "Jesus Only
Movement". It is taught by the United Apostolic and
United Pentecostal churches, and is an incorrect
teaching. Nor is God only one person as the
Jehovah's Witnesses, the Way International, and the
Christadelphians teach (These groups are classified
Transfiguration - This refers to the mysterious change
that occurred to Jesus on the mount: "Six days later,
Jesus took with him Peter and James and his brother
John and led them up a high mountain, by
themselves. And he was transfigured before them,
and his face shone like the sun, and his clothes
became dazzling white." (Matthew 17:1-2). The
transfiguration preceded Jesus' time on the cross
and may have been the Father's preparatory
provision to strengthen Jesus as He prepared to bear
the sins of the world.
Translation Greek — Greek that has been translated
quite literally from Hebrew or Aramaic.
Transubstantiation - The theory accepted by
Catholicism, that in the Lord's Supper, the elements
are transformed into the actual body and blood of
Jesus. However, there is no perceptible or
measurable change in the elements. The
transformation occurs during the Mass at the
elevation of the elements by the priest.
Treyf/Treif - Means 'torn' and refers to non-kosher meat,
meats not sanctioned by God according to Judaism.
See kosher or kashrut.
Tribulation, the - According to premillennialism, this is a
7 year period that immediately precedes the return of
Christ and the millennial kingdom of His rule which
lasts for 1000 years. The tribulation will be when the
Antichrist rules over many nations. The first three and
a half years will be a time of great peace for
everyone but true believers. At the midpoint of the
tribulation (at the end of the first 3 ½ years) the
Antichrist will proclaim himself worthy of worship.
Many will bow down and worship the Antichrist and
many will refuse. Those who refuse to worship the
Antichrist will be killed. The second half (generally
Baruch’ Shem kivod malch’uto leolam va’ed Blessed be His glorious name whose kingdom is
forever and ever
Baruch’ Shemah - Blessed be the Name
ְ ‫ָר‬
ָ — meat and milk.
Basar b’chalav - ‫ָב‬
Bat - (Heb. daughter or daughter of). Used frequently in
“matronymics” (naming by identity of mother). (See
also Ben or Bar). Luke 2:36
Bat kol – literally “daughter of a voice” but intending
“voice from heaven” that reveals the will of God.
Deuteronomy 4:36; Daniel 4:31; Matthew 3:17; Mark
1:11; Luke 3:22; John 12:28; Acts 11:9; 2 Peter 1:18;
Revelation 10:4
Bat mitzvah - ‫ָה‬
ִ ‫ַת‬
‫ — ּב‬Literally, “daughter of the
commandment.” A girl who has completed a
childhood course of study on the Torah and Jewish
practice, culminating in the girl leading a
shach’arit service and reading her parasha. This
ceremony happens most often at the age of 12. The
term actually refers to the person, not to the event,
e.g. “Rebecca has become a bat mitzvah.” The
ceremony of Bar Mitzvah or Bat Mitzvah which is
performed by observant Judaizers is not found in the
Bat Tziyon - Daughter of Zion
Batei Din – Plural of Beit Din.
Batu’ach’? - Are you sure?
B.C.E. — abbreviation of "Before Common Era,"
corresponding to B.C. in general use. I sometimes
use B.C.E. and C.E. when responding to Jewish
questions since many Jews feel unable to use B.C.
(before Christ) and A.D. (anno Domini, in the year of
our Lord) without compromising their beliefs.
Ironically they still must give a nod to Christianity,
even in their usage!
B’chor - (Heb.) Firstborn status.
B’deken - The ritual unveiling of the bride by the
bridegroom. This custom developed from the biblical
story of Jacob, who married Leah by mistake, instead
of Rachel, the woman he loved.
Bech’ayai! - Really! Sure!
Bech’ayech’a! (masc.); Bech’ayech’! (fem.) - On your
life!; Really? Oh sure!
Bech’ol’zot – Nevertheless
Bedikat hammetz – The search for hammetz that is
held the night before the first seder and liturgically
during the first seder. Afterwards, the bittul hammetz
is said which is a formula renouncing any hammetz
we may have inadvertently missed during our
cleaning. The be’ur hammetz is the ritual destruction
or disposal of the hammetz usually done on the
morning of the first Seder by 11:00 AM.
Be’einei Hashem - In the eyes of Hashem
Behatzlach’a - Good luck!; All the best!
‫ — ּב‬house or room. Sometimes also spelled
Beit – ‫ֵית‬
bet or beth. I choose to generally use beit.
Beit Din – (BAYT-DEEN); A group of elders gathered
together in order to render a ruling or judgment on a
matter. A Beit Din should be composed of at least
three adult believers, at least one of whom needs to
be widely knowledgeable in Halakha, and must be
sufficiently knowledgeable to instruct the other two
members in any matters of Halakha relevant to the
case being heard. A Beit Din may be called to rule on
such religious matters as the granting of a gett or to
determine a persons’ fitness to lead in ministry. The
first known Messianic Beit Din was led by James in
city of Jerusalem. Its purpose was to resolve the
issue of relations between Jewish Talmidim and
Torah Misinai - (“Torah from Mount Sinai”) Refers to the
doctrine that the entire Torah, including the Oral Law,
was given to Moses at Sinai.
Tosefta — (the addition) a collection of Oral Torah
supplementing the Mishnah. Compiled about 220230 A.D., a generation after the Mishnah.
Total Depravity - The doctrine that fallen man is
completely touched by sin and that he is completely a
sinner. He is not as bad as he could be, but in all
areas of his being, body, soul, spirit, mind, emotions,
etc., he is touched by sin. In that sense he is totally
depraved. Because man is depraved, nothing good
can come out of him (Romans 3:10-12) and God
must account the righteousness of Christ to him. This
righteousness is obtainable only through faith in
Christ and what He did on the cross.Total depravity is
generally believed by the Calvinist groups and
rejected by the Arminian groups.
Tov me’od, todah - Very well, thanks
Tov todah - Ok, thank you
Toveah – claimant / plaintiff
Trei Asar - (Heb., “twelve”). The twelve minor prophets
in the Tanakh.
Treif/Trayf - Not kosher.
Tractate - A section or book from Mishneh and Talmud.
Transcendence - A theological term referring to the
relation of God to creation. God is "other," "different"
from His creation. He is independent and different
from His creatures (Isaiah 55:8-9). He transcends His
creation. He is beyond it and not limited by it or to it.
Will God indeed live on earth? Even heaven, the
highest heaven, cannot contain Him, much less any
temples we may build (1 Kings 8:27). “For in Him we
live and move and exist” (Acts 17:28a). See also
name uselessly. We are not to identify ourselves as
His people and then live in a licentious, self-gratifying
manner. To do so would make us guilty of Ch’illul
Tithe - A portion of one’s earnings, usually one tenth,
that are given to those who perform the work of the
Lord since it belongs to the Lord (Leviticus 27:30-33).
Those who received tithes the Old Covenant
consisted of priests (Numbers 18:21-32). Further Old
Covenant references are Genesis 14:20; 28:22; 2
Chronicles 31:5f; Malachi 3:7-12). In the New
Covenant there is no direct command to tithe a tenth
(since we are not under law but grace). But the tithe
is mentioned in Luke 18:9-14; 1 Corinthians 16:1; 2
Corinthians 8).
Titkasher’ elai! - Call me!
T’naim – The terms of dowry and marriage.
Toch’nit Av - Plan of the Father; master plan
Todah – (toe-DAH); Appreciation; thankfulness (Strong’s
#3034); thanks; thank you
Todah la E-l! - Thank God!
Todah lailah tov - Thanks, goodnight
Todah rabbah – (Heb.) Thank you very much
Todah ve shalom - Thank you and goodbye
To’elet – (toe-eh-LEHT); A positive, constructive and
beneficial purpose.
Toen or Toen Rabbani – Similar to a lawyer in secular
court, a toen acts a representative of one of the
parties. Our court system does not require the parties
to have such representation.
Torah – (toe-RAH); (Strong’s #8451); The books of Law,
the first five books of the Old Testament. The
Goyish Talmidim especially viz a vis the requirement
of circumcision for salvation.
Beit ha ch’aim – A cemetery.
ַ ‫ֵית‬
‫ — ּב‬Literally, “the Holy
Beit ha Mikdash – ‫ְּדׁש‬
House.” The First or Second Temple in Jerusalem.
Beit ha knesset – (BAYT-kuh-NESS-et); Lit., “house of
assembly.” This phrase can be used to refer to a
gathering of believers, a synagogue or a church.
Beit hesped – A funeral home.
Beit Hillel — (house of Hillel) Hillel's disciples and
the disciples of his disciples, referred to
collectively as "the house [i.e., school] of Hillel."
Beit midrash – ‫ִדָרׁש‬
ְ‫ֵית מ‬
‫( — ּב‬BAYT mid-RASH); Lit.,
“house of study.” A room devoted (even temporarily
or occasionally) to that purpose. In the first century,
the beit midrash was usually connected to a
synagogue, and learning took place in the
synagogue's assembly hall or in a room adjoining it.
Sometimes refers to the actual study done in such a
place. In that sense it is used to emphasize the role
of study (biblical or secular) in the life of the church
and the tzaddikim. See also Beit sefer, Yeshivah.
Beit Midrash l'Shalom - (Heb. The House of Study for
Beit sefer – (BAYT SAY-fair); Lit., “house of (the) book.”
A religious or parochial school. See also Beit
midrash, Yeshivah.
Beit tefilah – House of prayer.
Bekarov - Soon
Bemeshech’ hayom - During the day
Ben - (Heb. son, son of; Aramaic. bar) Used frequently
in “patronymics” (naming by identity of father),
particularly during the Second Temple period. Thus
“ben Joshua” would be “son of Joshua”. The feminine
version would be bat. By extension bar or bat may
also imply “having the properties of.” (See also bar,
bat and bint).
Ben ha M’vorach’ – Son of the Blessed, i.e. the Son of
God. Mark 14:61
Ben Torah - (Heb. Son of the Torah) One who is
religiously observant and well-versed in the classical
religious texts.
Bentsch – (BENCH); (Yid. To bless); To recite a
blessing or say grace at a meal. The word can also
refer to the reciting of any blessing.
Berach’ot - Blessings
Beratzon - With pleasure
ֵ‫ — ּב‬Lit., “In the beginning”; the first
Beresheet – ‫ִית‬
book of the Torah called in English Genesis. (also
spelled Bereshit)
Beriah – Flight or escape. Also spelled Berihah or
Berishonah - In the first place
Beseder, B’H - Fine, baruch’ Hashem (blessed be the
Besorah - ‫ְׂשֹורה‬
ָ ‫( — ב‬Plural ‫ְׂשֹור‬
‫ֹותב‬, “Besorot”) Literally,
“good news” or “tidings.” This is the Hebrew
equivalent of “Gospel,” and is used to refer to the four
books in the Torat ha Shlich’im that tell Yeshua’s
Be’tach’! - Sure!
Be’ulah - married
Bet – the second letter of the Hebrew alphabet.
Sometimes spelled beth.
Betodah me-rosh - Thank you in advance
Betulah - Unmarried woman
Bevakasha - Please [or your welcome]
Bevakasha et zeh - This, please
B’ezrat Hashem ‫ֵם‬
ַ ‫ְרת‬
ְ — (the acronym
appearing as BE’H) - With Hashem’s help
Tikkun olam – (tee-KOON o-LAHM); A Hebrew phrase
which can be translated "repairing or healing the
world." It is an important term often used to explain
the Jewish concept of social justice. I do not practice
tikkun olam because I consider it religious law or
because I feel that by this means I will attain
salvation. No – I practice tikkun olam because it
helps avoid negative social consequences. I do it
because I believe that God’s family should take part
in restoring and redeeming a broken and fallen world.
I believe this is part of the restitution process in my
reconciliation with God after repenting of my sin and
accepting His sovereignty in my life. Having said this,
I understand that no true, lasting solution will come
about until Yeshua sits on the throne and rules with a
rod of iron, forcing humans to behave.
Timsor lo dash - Transfer regards to him
Tinokos shenishbu – “An infant taken into captivity
among the heathen”; someone (particularly children)
who are victims of something (war, famine, poverty,
lack of education, physical abuse etc).
Tish - The groom's table where the Chatan, his
groomsmen, and male family members gather for
song and dance before the b'deken.
Tisha B'Av - Means the 'ninth of Av' -- a fast day
remembering the temple destructions. Adonaists do
not habitually observe this day.
Tishlach’ lo dash mimeni - Send him my regards
Tishri - Seventh month of the Jewish calendar,
corresponding to September-October. Sometimes
also spelled “Tishrei”.
Tismoch’ alai - You can rely on me
Tissa – (Tee-SAH); The first word in the third of the Ten
Commandments (Exodus 20:7) which means “to
carry”. We are thus commanded to not “carry” God’s
God Himself (Genesis 16:7-9; 18:1-2; Exodus 3:2-6;
Josh. 5:14; Judges 2:1-5; 6:11). Such characteristics
as having the name of God, being worshiped, and
recognized as God has led many scholars to
conclude that the angel of the Lord is really Jesus
manifested in the Old Covenant. This does not mean
that Jesus is an angel. The word "angel" means
messenger. Other scriptures that describe more vivid
manifestations of God are Genesis 17:1; 18:1;
Exodus 6:2-3; 24:9-11; Numbers 12:6-8.
Therapeutae — (healers) a semi-monastic Jewish sect
in Alexandria, Egypt (first century A.D.). The
Therapeutae were ascetics, but not celibates — they
had wives and children. According to Shmuel Safrai,
they appear to have been older men who, although
not wealthy, had the means to devote their time to
Scripture study, pray and contemplation. In ancient
sources they are mentioned only in Philo's De vita
T’hiyat hametim – Resurrection of the dead.
Tiferet – (Strong’s #8597) Lit., “beauty” but indicating
the balance between the natural inclinations of
ch’esed and gevurah. Tiferet is found in the tension
between kindness and strength, acceptance and
confrontation, exuberance and self-restraint. It is the
epitome of the Ecclesiastical Teacher’s admonition to
do the right thing at the right time for the right reason
always (Ecclesiastes 3:1-8)
Tikkun ch’atzos – Lit., “midnight service”; an optional
devotional exercise lamenting the destruction of the
Beit ha Mikdash.
Tikkun ha nephesh – (tee-KOON hah-neh-FESH); A
Hebrew phrase that means “a healing of the soul.”
Tikkun lel Shavuot – an all night study session to recall
the giving of the Ten Commandments.
B’H – An abbreviation of the Hebrew “Baruch’ Hashem”
meaning “blessed is God.” It is used to express
gratitude to the Lord and to recognize the fact that all
our success and health comes from Him.
Bikkurim – First fruits. The tithes and offerings due to
our Master.
Bikur ch’olim – (bee-COOR khoe-LEEM); Lit., “visiting
the sick.” It refers to doing mitzvot, or good deeds, for
someone who is ill. These can include taking them a
meal, visiting them in the hospital, or sending them a
“get well” card.
Bilui naim - Have a good time
Bimah – (BEE-mah); The raised platform or stage at the
front of the sanctuary from which the people are
taught the Scriptures.
Bimheirah b’yameinu - Speedily in our days
Bin or Binah – (bee-NAH); Lit., “reasoned
understanding.” A Hebrew word for discernment that
appears 247 times in the OT. It is etymologically
related to the word “discrimination” as in the ability to
tell the difference between truth and falsehood and
so may be defined as the ability to distinguish truth
from falsehood or the ability to decipher the hidden
meaning of profound statements. In this second
meaning, binah entails the process of drawing out,
expanding, analyzing or synthesizing the initial
insights gained from ch’ach’mah. It is either
inextricably linked to “tevunah” (discernment) or
almost interchangeable with it. It also can be used to
infer intuition or conceptualization or analysis. For
further treatment see “tevunah”.
Bin gezerah shavah lemachtzah – Partial comparisons
cannot be drawn. You cannot pick and choose. If a law
applicable to X is applied to Y through the use of gezerah
shavah, then all the laws applicable to X must be applied
to Y.
Binat halev - An understanding of the heart
Binyan Av – Analogy by common theme or concept. A
foundational passage is used to interpret other passages.
There are two forms of binyan av; mikasuv ech’ad, a
conclusion drawn from a single verse, and mishnei
kesuvim, a conclusion drawn from two verses.
Birkat Hamazon - ‫ָזֹון‬
ַ ‫ַת‬
ְ‫( — ּב‬Heb. Grace after
meals sometimes called the “Birchon”) Prayer
traditionally recited after meals. This is done in
fulfillment of the command in Devarim 8:10, “You will
eat and you will be satisfied and bless Hashem, your
G-d, for the good land that He gave you.”
Bitach’on - Trust [in God]
Blasphemy - Speaking evil of God or denying Him some
good which we should attribute to Him. Blasphemy of
the Holy Spirit is the rejection of the message of the
Holy Spirit concerning the work of the Messiah. For
instance, stating that Yeshua did his miracles by the
power of the devil (Matthew 12:22-32). In our days it
would include ignoring the Spirit’s call to accept the
forgiveness God is extending through the atoning
work of the Messiah on the cross. Blasphemy is thus
an unforgivable sin (Mark 3:28-30). Blasphemy arises
out of pride (Psalm 73:9, 11), hatred (Psalm 74:18),
injustice (Isaiah 52:5), etc. Christ was mistakenly
accused of blasphemy (John 10:30-33).
Bli safek - Without a doubt
Blintz – a crepe-like dessert filled with cheese and/or
B’liya’al (Belial) – A name for Satan which means
“without profit, worthless”. 2 Corinthians 6:15
B’nai Noach’ – Goyim who are not believers in the
Mashiach’ but choose to obey the Noahide Laws.
These are generally considered by Judaizers to be
the forest and the trees while further understanding
the ecology that relates them. Being able to see the
big picture while distinguishing the isolated facts is
why tevunah is so closely linked to binah which is
more commonly translated as “discernment.” Further,
tevunah involves knowing how new information
relates to old.
Theism - The teaching that there is a God and that He is
actively involved in the affairs of the world. This does
not necessitate the Christian concept of God, but
includes it. (Compare to Deism)
Theodicy - The study of the problem of evil in the world.
The issue is raised in light of the sovereignty of God.
How could a holy and loving God who is in control of
all things allow evil to exist? The answer has been
debated for as long as the church has existed. We
still do not have a definitive answer and the Bible
does not seek to justify God's actions. It is clear that
God is sovereign, and that He has willed the
existence of both good and evil, and that all of this is
for His own glory. Proverbs 16:4 says, "The LORD
works out everything for his own ends -- even the
wicked for a day of disaster"; Isaiah 45:7 says, "I
form the light and create darkness, I bring prosperity
and create disaster; I, the LORD, do all these things."
Theology - The study of God, His nature, attributes,
character, abilities, revelation, etc. True theology is
found in the Bible which is the self-revelation of God.
Theophany - A theophany is a visible manifestation of
God usually restricted to the Old Covenant. God has
appeared in dreams (Genesis 20:3-7; 28:12-17),
visions (Genesis 15:1-21; Isaiah 6:1-13), as an angel
(Genesis 16:7-13; 18:1-33), etc. There is a
manifestation known as the Angel of the Lord
(Judges 6:20 f.) and seems to have characteristics of
also means covenant. The word has come to be
used in describing the two main divisions of the Bible:
The Old Testament and The New Testament. In
Adonaism we generally (but not universally) refer to
the two either as the Old and New Covenants or as
the Tanakh and the B’rit Hadashah. It should be
understood then, that the Bible is generally to be
looked at as a covenant between God and man.
Tetragrammaton - This is a term applied to the four
Hebrew letters that make up the name of God. In
English the letters are basically equivalent to YHWH.
It is from these four letters that the name of God is
derived and has been rendered as Yahweh and
Jehovah. The true pronunciation of God's name has
been lost through lack of use, because the Jews,
who were first given the name of God, would not
pronounce it out of their awe and respect for God.
Teveth - Jewish month, corresponding to DecemberJanuary.
Tevilah – (teh-vee-LAH); Lit., “immersion.” The ritual of
submerging a person in water as a public symbol of
their dedication to following Jesus Christ as their Lord
and Savior. This can take place in any body of water
or in a specially constructed ritual bath known as a
Tevunah – (teh-voo-NAH); A Hebrew word that is often
translated “discernment” but is more closely related
to “understanding.” It is either inextricably linked to
“binah” (discernment) or nearly interchangeable with
it. Both binah and tevunah appear in Proverbs 2:3
demonstrating that there is a subtle difference that
must be maintained. But understanding emphasizes
the ability to see how things relate, to see the big
picture and still keep in mind the individual parts. A
person who possesses tevunah is able to see both
“righteous Gentiles”. The Seven Noahide Laws are
generally listed as:
1. Believe and trust in God – don’t worship idols.
2. Respect and praise God – do not blaspheme.
3. Respect the sanctity of human life – do not
4. Respect family values – Do not be sexually
5. Respect the rights and property of others – do not
6. Respect all creatures – do not eat flesh from a
live animal.
7. Responsibility for society – establish systems of
justice and education.
See Noahide Laws.
B'nai Yisrael - (Heb. The children of Israel) Term used
to describe the nation of Israel.
Bobbeh – Grandmother (also spelled bubbee)
Boch’er - Bachelor; unmarried man; young man
Boker tov - Good morning
Boot - (Heb. Mud) Slang term for strong Turkish coffee.
Born Again - The new birth enjoyed by a Christian upon
his conversion and regeneration. It is a work of the
Holy Spirit within a believer. It is related to faith in
Christ and Him crucified (John 3:3-5). It means that
the person is no longer dead in sins (Ephesians 2:1),
no longer spiritually blind (1 Corinthians 2:14), and is
now a new creation in Christ Yeshua (2 Corinthians
ָ‫( — ּב‬brah-KHAH); The plural is brach’ot
Brach’a – ‫ָה‬
(brah-KHOTE). A Hebrew word that can be literally
translated “blessing” or “benediction” but connotes
heaviness, meaning or impact. It comes from the
Hebrew berekh (knee) again implying a weight
causing one to kneel. This indicates the connection
with recognizing the weight of Hashem’s many
blessings driving us to our knees in worship (Matthew
9:8). See also “k’lala.” Used in sense of a prayer, it
refers to the many different prayers Adonaists may
raise to thank God for various things. Many brach’ot
begin with the phrase “Baruch atah Adonai…”
(Blessed are You, Adonai). Sometimes it is
transliterated “broch’o”.
Brach’a vehazlaha - Blessing and Much Success
Brachia - (Heb. blessing). An offering of gratitude that
praises God for a benefit conferred or a great event
experienced. (See also shemonah esreh).
Brei’sheet – Lit., “in the beginning”. The first book of the
Bible called in English Genesis.
Bri’at haolam - Creation of the world
Bris – Hebrew for circumcision.
B’hatzlach’a – The Hebrew phrase for wishing good
luck or fortune in Hebrew in the same sense as one
says “good luck” in English. It literally means “with
success.” See also mazel tov.
ִ‫( — ּב‬BREET); A covenant, specifically
B’rit – ‫ְרית‬
between man and God. For example, after Noah
demonstrated his faith by obediently building the ark,
God made a covenant with him that He would never
again destroy humanity by flooding (Genesis 9). God
also made a covenant with Abraham, promising that
through him all nations would be blessed (Genesis
17). He also made covenants with Moses (Exodus
19-24), David (2 Samuel 7), and even Yeshua
(Jeremiah 31:31-34 cp Matthew 26:28)
B’rit Hadashah – (BREET hah-dah-SHAH); The New
Covenant. What many Christians refer to as the New
Testament. Jeremiah 31:30-34; Matthew 26:28; Mark
14:24; Luke 22:20; 1 Corinthians 11:25; Galatians
Tefillin Shel Rosh - (“Tefillin of the head”). Of the two
tefillin, the one worn on the head.
Tefillin Shel Yad - (“Tefillin of the hand”). Of the two
tefillin, the one worn on the arm.
Tehe nishmatah tzerurah bitzror ha ch’ayim - May her
soul be bound in the bond of eternal Life.
Tehillim – Lit., “praises”: the book of Psalms.
Tei-yerinkeh - Sweetheart; Dearest
Teleological argument - An attempted proof of God's
existence based upon the premise that the universe
is designed and therefore needs a designer: God.
Teleology - The study of final causes, results. Having a
definite purpose, goal, or design.
tell — a mound created by the debris of successive
levels of human occupation.
Temptation - That which moves us to sin. God cannot
be tempted (James 1:13). But we can be tempted by
our lusts (James 1:13-15), money (1 Timothy 6:9),
lack of self examination (Galatians 6:1), and the
boastful pride of life (1 John 2:16), to name a few.
We are commanded to pray to be delivered from
temptation (Matthew 6:13) for the Lord is capable of
delivering us from it (2 Peter 2:9).
Tesha - Nine
Teshuvah – (teh-shoo-VAH); (Strong’s #8666) To return
(1 Samuel 7:17; 2 Samuel 11:1; 1 Kings 20:22, 26);
to answer or reply (Job 21:34; 34:36) A Hebrew word
literally translated as “repentance” but that carries
within it the connotation “return”. Teshuvah would
best be understood as leaving sin and returning to
the Source of Goodness.
Testament - The word testament is a derivation of the
Latin word testamentum, which was used in Jerome's
Vulgate to translate the Hebrew word b'rith,
covenant. The Greek equivalent is diatheke, which
compared to the Hebrew original). Plural: targumim
or targums.
Tashlisch - Means 'casting away' and refers to a
tradition on Rosh Hashana of casting bread into a
body of moving water to symbolize sins being
removed. Adonaists consider this Masoret a nonbinding but interesting and possibly useful practice.
Tateleh - Little Darling
Tech’elet/T'chelet/Tekhelet - The blue cord on each
corner of the tzitzit, "tell them that throughout their
generations they are to make tassels for the corners
of their garments, and put a blue cord on the tassel at
each corner" (Numbers 15:38) Traditional Judaism
doesn't add the blue cord to their tzitzit, arguing they
aren't sure about identifying the chilazon, a snail of
Tyre from which the Phoenicians traditionally
extracted the blue dye. Second century sages felt
this was too expensive a dye to use, so they waived
the biblical requirement, lest people use a cheaper
dye instead and break the oral law. Written Torah
never commanded the blue dye come from this
particular snail, in fact, any blue dye would fulfill this
Tefach’ – (plural tefach’im) A unit of length
corresponding to the width of a fist.
Tefilah – (teh-fee-LAH); Prayer. The plural is “tefilot”
Tefillin – The Hebrew word for the Greek phylactery. A
small box containing a portion of Scripture (e.g.,
Exodus 13.1-10, 11-16; Deuteronomy 6.4-9; 11.1321) that is ceremonially tied to the observant
Judaizers head. For a discussion on why Adonaists
do not, as a habit, wear these, see the shayla “Why
do you not wear phylacteries?”
B’rit milah – the covenant of circumcision, first found in
Genesis 17. The term can imply either the act itself
(performed on males on the eighth day of their lives)
or the ceremonial activity that surrounds the act.
Milah or circumcision is now maleh so it is not
considered a religious requirement amongst Adonaic
Bruch’im haba’im - Blessed are those who come [to
you and your family]; Welcome
ִ ‫ָע‬
BSD ‫( — בס&ד‬Aramaic acronym for ‫ָא‬
“b’siya’tah dishmayah.”) - With the help of
heaven/God. An Aramaic abbreviation often placed
at the beginning of letters, books, web sites, etc.
B’seder – also spelled Beseder. All right; Fine
B’shaah Tova - (Heb. at a good hour) Congratulations
to an expectant mother Also the correct response to
the announcement of a marriage engagement. In
both cases, it is in anticipation of a “mazel tov” for
something hoped for, that has not yet occurred.
B’Shalom - (Heb. In peace) Farewell greeting.
B’Shira - (Heb. In song)
B’tselem Elohim – In the image of God.
Bubbe meises – Yiddish for “old wive’s tales”. 1
Timothy 4:7
Bubbee – Grandmother (also spelled bobbeh)
Bubeleh - (Yid. dear or sweetheart) Affectionate term.
Burial chamber — a central room of a burial cave into
the sides of which may be cut loculi, or burial
Calvinism - A system of Christian interpretation initiated
by John Calvin. It emphasizes predestination and
salvation. The five points of Calvinism were
developed in response to the Arminian position (See
Arminianism). Calvinism teaches: 1) Total depravity:
that man is touched by sin in all parts of his being:
body, soul, mind, and emotions, 2) Unconditional
Election: that God’s favor to Man is completely by
God’s free choice and has nothing to do with Man. It
is completely undeserved by Man and is not based
on anything God sees in man (Ephesians 1:1-11), 3)
Limited atonement: that Christ did not bear the sins
of every individual who ever lived, but instead only
bore the sins of those who were elected into
salvation (John 10:11, 15), 4) Irresistible grace: that
God's call to someone for salvation cannot be
resisted, 5) Perseverance of the saints: that it is not
possible to lose one's salvation (John 10:27-28).
These five points are often referred to by the
acronym TULIP, Total depravity, Unconditional
election, Limited atonement, Irresistible grace,
Perseverance of the saints. Those who hold to all five
points are referred to as “hyper-Calvinists”. I do not
agree with brother Calvin’s view of limited atonement
and irresistible grace.
Canon - This is another word for scripture. The Canon
consists of the 39 books of the Old Testament and
the 27 books of the New. The Canon is closed which
means there is no more revelation to become
Cantor – In Judaic congregations the cantor is the
shaliach’ tzibor, the one sending up prayers on behalf
of the congregation. In Adonaic circles the cantor or
worship leader has as gaol the leading of the
congregation into the presence of God through
worship. In Judaic synagogues the cantor’s voice and
technique is what’s often emphasized. Some people
attend just to hear the cantor sing. While we agree
that the Cantor must have kol tahm (a pleasing voice)
Tammuz - Jewish month, corresponding to June-July.
Tanach’ – (tah-NAHKH – rhymes with Bach); Referred
to by Christians as the "Old Testament" though the
book ordering differs from the Christian Bible. A
relatively modern acronym for the three categories of
books of the Old Covenant: Torah (the five books of
Moses; sometimes also referred to as “Chumash” for
five books), Nevi’im (the 21 books of the prophets),
and Ketuvim (the writings). Torah, Nevi’im, Ketuvim;
TNK – thus Tanakh or Tanach’. Sometimes even I
spell it in the common manner, Tanakh.
Tannaim – (tah-nah-EEM); An Aramaic word for the
Hebrew word “shana”. Teachers. Sages from Hillel's
time (died about 10 B.C.) until the generation (about
230 A.D.) after Rabbi Yehudah ha-Nasi, the compiler
of the Mishnah. The singular is “tanna”. See also
Melammed, Rabbi
tannaic — pertaining to the tannaim.
Targum — an Aramaic translation of a portion of the
Hebrew Scriptures. The targumim not only provided
a translation for those who did not understand the
original language, but also provided an interpretation
of the biblical text. Since the inspired text could not
be changed or altered in even the smallest way, the
targum made possible the insertion of various
explanations and clarifications that amplified the text.
The targum dramatizes and adds additional
information. According to the targum of Ruth 1:1-2,
for instance, there was a mighty famine in the land,
and a certain great man of Bethlehem in Judah went
to live in the country of Moab; his two sons were
chief Ephrathites who, when they came to Moab,
were governors there" (italics highlights the
differences in the Aramaic text of the targum
Tahara – Purity
Taharat ha mishpach’ah - Family purity laws which
govern the separation of a man from his wife during
her menstrual cycle. (See also Niddah)
Tahrihim – Bural shrouds
Takanah (pl. Takanoth) – A measure taken, an
enactment. A correction; a rabbinic edict that
supersedes the existing halakha.
Talith (pl. Talithoth) – A prayer shawl. See Numbers
15:37-41. All talithoth have fringes called “tzit tzit” at
the corners based on the command in Numbers
15:38 and Deuteronomy 22:12 that men wear Tzitzit
on their garments. The prayer shawl is a rabbinic
compromise to this law since a tallit isn't quite a
garment, but it does contain tzitzit.It is traditional for
the male to be buried in his tallit, but without its
Tallit Katan - Closer to a garment than the regular
prayer shawl, this is worn under clothing and
contains the commanded tzitzit.
Talmid – Students. Followers or disciples of a particular
Talmud — a collection of Jewish oral halach’ah and
aggadah comprising the Mishnah and the Gemara.
The Gemara, a commentary on the Mishnah, is
printed section by section following each verse of the
Mishnah. "Gemara" can be used in its narrow sense,
the commentary on the Mishnah found in the
Talmud, or in its wider sense as a synonym for
"Talmud." There are two Talmuds: the Jerusalem (or
Palestinian) Talmud was completed about the end of
the fourth century A.D.; the Babylonian Talmud,
which became authoritative, was completed about a
century later.
Talmud Torah – The mitzvah of study
we believe that the cantor should attempt to lead the
congregation into a depth of worship rather than
simply someone who is listened to.
Casuistic – Case law presented in conditional form.
Catholic – The term is often applied to the Roman
Catholic Church. Actually, the word simply means
universal, in the sense of the entire Christian Church
worldwide. Sometimes the term “invisible church” is
used but I do not encourage this practice.
Causality - The relationship between cause and effect.
The principle that all events have sufficient causes.
CE – an abbreviation for Common Era. It is often used
by Judaizers because they are offended by AD which
stands for “the year of our Lord”. The replacement for
BC would be BCE or “Before the Common Era”.
Charakter – (KARE-uhk-ter); A Greek word that we
have transliterated into “character.” A charakter was
the engraving on a stylus or stamp.
Charaktocracy – (kare-uhk-TAW-kruh-see); A term I
made up to discuss rule by those with the best
character. Ideally this is the goal of church
Charismatic Gifts - The special spiritual gifts given to
the church. They are for edifying and building up the
church. They are mentioned in Romans 12, 1
Corinthians 12 and 14. They are sometimes listed:
Word of wisdom, word of knowledge, faith, healing,
miracles, prophecy, distinguishing of spirits, tongues,
interpretation of tongues.
Chiliasm - Also known as millennialism. The belief that
there is a future 1000 year reign of Christ where
perfect peace will reign.
Chosen People – Adonaists believe that the Jewish
people have been uniquely singled out by God to be
the source of the Scriptures and the Messiah. God
told Abraham that all who blessed Abraham’s
descendants would be blessed and those who
cursed them would be cursed. God further promised
that through Abraham all the nations would be
blessed. This came literally true when the Messiah
was born among the people of Israel. The Chosen
People rejected their Messiah and for a while, they
have been set aside. However, when the Messiah
returns the people of Israel will recognize Him and
convert en masse. He will then reign from Jerusalem,
placing them once again in a place of leadership in
the world. For these and many other reasons,
Adonaists have ahavat Yisra’el (love of the Jewish
people). We pray daily for them and support them in
any way we can.
Christ - Christ is a title. It is the New Covenant’s
equivalent of the Old Covenant term "messiah" and
means "anointed one." It is applied to Yeshua as the
anointed one who delivers from sin. Yeshua alone is
the Christ. As the Christ He has three offices:
Prophet, Priest, and King. As Prophet He is the
mouthpiece of God (Matthew 5:27-28) and
represents God to man. As Priest He represents man
to God and restores fellowship between them by
offering Himself as the sacrifice that removed the sin
of those saved. As King He rules over His kingdom.
By virtue of Christ creating all things (John 1:3;
Colossians 1:16-17), He has the right to rule. Christ
has come to do the will of the Father (John 6:38), to
save sinners (Luke 19:10), to fulfill the Law (Matthew
5:17), to destroy the works of Satan (Hebrews 2:14; 1
John 3:8), and to give life (John 10:10, 28). Christ is
holy (Luke 1:35), righteous (Isaiah 53:11), sinless (2
Corinthians 5:21), humble (Philippians 2:8), and
forgiving (Luke 5:20: 7:40; 23:34).
Ta’amin li! - Believe me; [Just] Believe me!
Ta’anith Esther – The fast on the day before Purim.
Tabernacle - The tabernacle was the structure ordered
built by God so that He might dwell among His
people (Exodus 25:8). It was to be mobile and
constructed to exacting specifications. It is referred to
in Exodus 25-27, 30-31, 35-40; Numbers 3:25ff.; 4:4
ff.; 7:1ff. In all of scripture more space is devoted to
the tabernacle than any other topic. Many books
have been written on the spiritual significance of the
tabernacle, how it represented Christ, and how it
foretold the gospel. The tabernacle consisted of the
outer court and the tabernacle. The outer court was
entered from the East. The outer court contained the
altar of burnt offering (Exodus 27:1-8) and the bronze
laver (Exodus 30:17-21). The tabernacle stood within
the court (Exodus 26:1 ff.). It was divided into two
main divisions: the holy place and the holy of holies
which were separated by a veil (Exodus 26:31 ff.),
the same veil that was torn from top to bottom at the
crucifixion of Jesus (Matthew 27:51). Where the veil
had represented the barrier separating sinful man
from a holy God (Hebrews 9:8), its destruction
represented the free access sinners have to God
through the blood of Christ (Hebrews 10:19 ff.). The
tabernacle was a place of sacrifice. The holy place
contained three things: first, a table on which was
placed the shewbread, the bread of the presence
(Exodus 25:23-30), second, a golden lampstand
(Exodus 25:31-40) and third, an altar of incense
(Exodus 30:1-7). In the Holy of Holies was the ark of
the covenant which contained the Ten
Commandments (Exodus 25:16). The holy of holies
was entered only once a year by the high priest who
offered sacrifice for the nation of Israel.
binding and enforceable in the secular court system.
The arbitration agreement also serves a role under
biblical law, by clarifying precisely which dispute the
Beit Din is deciding.
Shtar seruv - A document noting that a person refuses
to participate in the proceedings of the Beit Din, and
permitting, according to Adonaic law, the claimant to
seek relief in secular court.
Shta’yim – Two
Shtiebel - Yiddish term for a small synagogue. Think
“chapel” rather than “church”.
Shul – Yiddish word for synagogue or house of worship
Shulch’en - Small prayer-house.
Shuk - A market
Shu’t – (shoot); It is the short version of she’eilot u
teshuvot which means “questions and answers.”
Shuv – (shoov); (Strong’s #7725) To return, to turn
back, Ezekiel 14:6. See also Tshuva. The English
word “repentance” is used to reflect two words.
Nach’am means to be penitent. This implies the
emotional and intellectual imperative that drives
godly repentance. Shuv (or shub) means to turn
back. This connotes the actual, practical results of
true intent to change. So in Hebrew it’s quite clear
that there are two aspects to godly repentance – we
must feel penitent about our sin, engage our minds
(carefully considering the best path back toward
goodness) and then take practical steps toward
change in our behavior.
Ta’am – (TAH-ahm); Cultural, emotional or spiritual
flavor. A sense of the atmosphere or proclivities of a
particular culture; as in “Each congregation has its
own peculiar ta’am.”
Christian - The word "Christian" comes from the Greek
word christianos which is derived from the word
christos, or Christ, which means "anointed one." A
Christian, then, is someone who is a follower of
Christ. The first use of the word "Christian" in the
Bible is found in Acts 11:26, "And the disciples were
called Christians first in Antioch." It is found only
twice more in Acts 26:28 and 1 Peter 4:16. However,
it is important to note that it is the true Christ that
makes someone a Christian, not the Mormon one
(brother of the devil), or the JW one (Michael the
Archangel), the New Age Jesus (a man in tune with
the divine Christ Consciousness), etc. The true Christ
is God in flesh: Yeshua.
Christology - The study of Christ (Yeshua) as revealed
in the Bible. Some of the issues studied are: 1) His
deity, 2) His incarnation, 3) His offices (See Christ),
4) His sacrifice, 5) His resurrection, 6) His teaching,
7) His relation to God and man, and 8) His return to
Church - The word is used in two senses: the local
(visible) and the universal (invisible) church. The
local church consists of all the people that claim to be
Christians and go to church. The universal church is
the actual body of Christians; those who are truly
saved. The true church of God is not an organization
on earth consisting of people and buildings, but is
really a supernatural entity comprised of those who
are saved by Yeshua. It spans the entire time of
man's existence on earth as well as all people who
are called into it. It would thus include dead saints as
well as the living. We become members of the church
(body of Christ) by faith (Acts 2:41). We are edified
by the Word (Ephesians 4:15-16), disciplined by God
(Matthew 18:15-17), unified in Christ (Galatians
3:28), and sanctified by the Spirit (Ephesians 5:2627).
Circumcision - An operation (note the shedding of
blood) that entered one into the covenant in Old
Covenant times. It was instituted by God (Genesis
17:10-14) and performed on the eighth day after birth
(Luke 1:59). It was a sign of the covenant God made
with Abraham (Genesis 17:12; Romans 4:11). In the
New Covenant it became “maleh” and so the physical
operation is not considered a religious institution.
Instead, a circumcision of the heart of the Christian is
taught (Romans 2:29; Colossians 2:11-12). This is
the true circumcision (Romans 2:29). Many still
believe that circumcision holds value and have it
done, not for religious purposes, but for their health.
Codex - An early book form made from papyri leaves
cut, folded, and sewn together in the middle to make
a book. First used in the 2nd century.
Codex Bezae — late fifth-early sixth-century GreekLatin manuscript of the gospels and Acts.
Cohen – see Kohen
Common Grace - The grace of God given to the
creation as a whole. God still allows the sun to shine
upon the unsaved. He feeds them, allows them to
work, and have joy. It is common grace that
"restrains" the wrath of God until a later time. It is in
special grace that salvation is given to the Christians.
Communion – Also known as the Lord's Supper
(Matthew 26:26-30; Mark 14:22-26; Luke 22:14-20; 1
Corinthians 1:23-26). It is the breaking of bread (Acts
2:42, 46) and a time to give thanks (Luke 22:17, 19).
It was originally instituted by Yeshua (Matthew 26:2629) on the night of the Passover meal which was an
annual occurrence celebrating the "passing over" of
the angel of death that claimed the firstborn of every
Shoah - (Heb., “catastrophe” or “destruction”)
Commonly known as the “Holocaust”, the systematic
attempt to destroy the people of Israel during World
War II, spear-headed by the Nazis but in which many
people participated. Yom ha-Shoah, is a day which
commemmorates the Shoah or Holocaust.
Shochet - Person who butchers kosher animals. See
kosher or kashrut.
Shofar - Ram's horn, blown during celebratory festivals
like Rosh-Hashanah. Sometimes translated “trumpet”
in certain Bibles, though there is a difference
between the silver Temple trumpets and those made
of animal horns.
Shomer - (pl. shomrim). Watchman, guardian.
Shomer ch’inam – an unpaid watchman
Shomer Mitzvot - One who observes the
Shomer sach’ar – a paid watchman
Shomerim - Lit., guards, keepers. Also, people who sit
with a body between the time of death and burial.
Shoshvinim - The escorts for the bride and groom.
Shpiel - Yiddish. Literally 'play'. While the meaning and
associations of the word have changed significantly,
it can still be commonly heard with its original
meaning in the context of Purim. A Purim Shpiel
would thus be a morality play reenacting in broad
strokes the story of Esther and the humiliation of the
enemies of God’s people. The modern use of the
word shpiel, however, has strayed far from its roots.
It now refers to any presentation, performance, or
seemingly rehearsed verbal expression. It has
dismissive or humorous overtones, implying cliché,
repetition, predictability and salesmanship.
Shtar berurin – a binding arbitration agreement. This
ensures that the rulings of the Beit Din are legally
Shikul ha da’at – (shee-KOOL hah-dah-AHT); Matters
not settled and left to the understanding of the
individual. Compare to devar mishnah.
Shir ha Shirim - Song of Songs.
Shiur – A lecture.
Shiva - Hebrew word for "seven". Also used to refer to
the seven day period of mourning which is observed
after the death of a parent, sibling or child. (Also
spelled Shivah) See also Sh’loshim.
Shkoyach’ - Way to go!
Shlimazel - Luckless Person; Incompetent Person; One
who has perpetual bad luck
Shlita – Abbreviation placed after a person’s name,
expressing the wish “that he be preserved in life for
many good days”
Shlomi’ tov - I’m fine
Sh’loshim – A thirty day mourning period following the
death of a family member.
Shmi - My name is
Sh’mirah – Watching the body of a dead loved one.
Shmirat ha lashon – (shmee-raht hah la-SHONE);
Right speech. Good, healthy, gracious and beneficial
speech. Its opposite is lashon hara (lit. “evil tongue”)
which is generally translated as “evil speech”.
Shmoneh - Eight
Sh’mot – Lit., “names”. The second book of the Torah
called in English Exodus.
Shnorrer – A person who, though poor, is yet proud and
assertive rather than ashamed and submissive. A
person who acts as though they are entitled to their
donor’s money. A person who acts as though
receiving charity is doing a big favor to the person
giving it. A person with an overblown sense of
personal entitlement.
house in Egypt (Exodus 12). Because of this, many
Adonaists hold that it should not be held at whatever
arbitrary time and date of the local church’s choosing.
Instead they believe that it should continue to be held
once a year at the time of the Passover but with the
"body and blood" (Mark 14:22-24) of Yeshua
replacing the ritual slaying of the lamb. It is to be
taken only by believers (1 Corinthians 11:23-28). (For
further study see John 6:26-58 and 1 Corinthians
Condemnation - Declaring an evildoer to be guilty; the
punishment inflicted. Without Yeshua we stand
condemned before God not only because of the sin
of Adam (Romans 5:16-18) but also because of our
own sin (Matthew 12:37). However, "There is
therefore now no condemnation for those who are in
Christ Yeshua. For the law of the Spirit of life in
Christ Yeshua has set you free from the law of sin
and of death" (Romans 8:1-2). Christians have
passed out of condemnation because they are
forgiven in Christ.
Conditional immortality - The view that immortality is
given only to those who believe in Christ. The rest
are destroyed and do not exist. Some adherents to
conditional immortality believe that the wicked will be
punished in hell for a period proportional to their sins
and then they are annihilated. Adonaists regard this
as heresy.
Consubstantiation - It means an inclusion of one
substance in another where the body and blood of
Christ co-exist in the elements of the Passover meal.
It suggests that a third substance is formed.
According to this view the body and blood of Christ
are "in, with, and under" the elements. There is no
permanent relationship with the elements. Instead,
the association is limited to the sacramental action.
The transformation is effected by the Word of God
and not by a priest.
Conversion - Turning from evil to God. God converts
(Acts 21:19) the unsaved into the saved, from the
unregenerate to the regenerate. It is produced
through the preaching of the gospel (Romans 10:14;
1 Corinthians 15:1-4) and results in repentance (Acts
26:20) and a new creation (2 Corinthians 5:17). The
fruits of conversion are listed in Galatians 5:22-23.
Conviction - The work of the Holy Spirit where a person
is able to see himself as God sees him: guilty,
defiled, and totally unable to save himself (John
16:8). Conviction of the Holy Spirit of an unbeliever
reveals sinfulness and guilt and brings fear.
Conviction of the Holy Spirit of the believer brings an
awareness of sin and results in confession and
cleansing. This conviction is produced by the Holy
Spirit (John 16:8), the Gospel (Acts 2:37), the
conscience (Romans 2:15), and the Law (James
2:9). Conviction of our sins brings us to the cross. It
shows us our need for forgiveness.
Coptic - Coptic is the Afro-Asiatic language of the
Copts, which survives only as a liturgical language of
the Coptic Church.
Cosmological argument - An attempt to demonstrate
the reasonableness of the existence of God by
appealing to the principle that all things have causes.
There cannot be an infinite regress of causes,
therefore, there must be an uncaused cause: God.
Cosmology - The study of the origin and structure of the
Counting the Omer – Counting the days between
Pesach’ and Shavuot.
malediction (a curse) was added to the Shemoneh
Esrei intended as a jab against Jews who believed in
Yeshua as messiah who were considered 'heretics'
according to traditional Judaism.
Shemos/Shemot – The second book of the Torah called
in English “Exodus”.
Sh'enei Ketuvim – an argument style where two laws
that seem to contradict are settled by another verse
which resolves the conflict.
Sheol – (sheh-OHL); A word describing the place of the
dead in the olam haba. It was at one time divided into
two compartments. The place of the unrighteous
dead was called Geihinnom and the place of the
righteous dead was called Gan Eden, Paradise or
Abraham’s bosom. These two compartments were
divided by a great and impassable gulf.
Shesh - Six
Shetar hithkashruth - A pledge of loyalty.
Sheva Brochos(t) - Seven blessings recited at a
Shiddach - An arranged marriage.
Shidduch - (shi-duck; the plural is shiduchim;
pronounced shi-duck-im). This is a late 19th century
term that comes from Yiddish via the Hebrew term
šiddūḵ which means "negotiation". It can mean a
prospective Jewish marriage or the marriage itself,
particularly within the context of marriages arranged
by a shadchan, which is a professional matchmaker.
It can also mean the negotiations preliminary to
marriage; a marriage agreement; a match; an
engagement; an arranged meeting between
prospective marriage partners.
Shikker - To be drunk.
us in life, sustained us, and brought us to this
Shehitah - Means 'slaughter' and refers to kosher
slaughtering of animals.
Sheitels - Yiddish for 'wigs'
Sheket! – (SHEH-ket); An interjection that literally
means “be quiet”. Often used with the Hebrew word
for “please” bevakashah as in “Sheket bevakashah!”
“Quiet please!”
Shekinah - Hebrew term for the divine presence; the
Holy Spirit. Though popularly used by evangelicals,
the term appears nowhere in the Scriptures and
actually originates in the Kabbalah.
Sheliach’ tzibbur – Lit., “emissary of the congregation”;
worshiper leading a prayer service.
Shema – Lit. “Hear” from 'Hear oh Israel', the first three
words of the Adonaist’s most basic profession of faith
that can be found in Deuteronomy 6:4-9 and was
confirmed by the Mashiach’ in Mark 12:30 and
Matthew 22:37 and Luke 10:27.
In Judaism since at least the second century A.D.
the Shema has consisted of three passages:
Deuteronomy 6:4-9; 11:13-21; Numbers 15:37-41
plus the accompanying benedictions that were
recited before and after the three passages.
Shemitah – (SHMEE-tah); Lit., “release.” The seventh,
or sabbatical year. According to Leviticus, all the land
was to lie fallow every seventh year; plowing,
planting, watering and harvesting were forbidden. In
addition, all debts were forgiven. Every 50th year was
a Jubilee year; at this time all slaves were to be freed
and all land was to be restored to its ancestral
Shemoneh Esrei - "Standing" prayer that originally
consisted of 18 benedictions, but interestingly, a 19th
Covenant – An agreement between two parties. The
agreement, according to Ancient Near East custom,
consists of five parts: 1) Identification of parties, 2)
Historical prologue where the deeds establishing the
worthiness of the dominant party is established, 3)
Conditions of the agreement, 4) Rewards and
punishments in regard to keeping the conditions, and
5) Disposition of the documents where each party
receives a copy of the agreement (e.g. the two
tablets of stone of the 10 Commandments).
Ultimately, the covenants God has made with man
result in our benefit. We receive eternal blessings
from the covenant of grace. (For further study see
Genesis 2:16, 17; 9:1-17; 15:18; 26:3-5; Galatians
3:16-18; Luke 1:68-79; Hebrews 13:20).
Covenant Theology - A system of theology that views
God's dealings with man in respect of covenants
rather than dispensations (periods of time). It
represents the whole of scripture as covenantal in
structure and theme. Some believe there is one
Covenant and others believe two and still others
believe in more. The two main covenants are
covenant of works in the Old Covenant made
between God and Adam, and the Covenant of Grace
between the Father and the Son where the Father
promised to give the Son the elect and the Son must
redeem them. Some consider these to be one and
the same. The covenants have been made since
before the world was made (Hebrews 13:20).
Creation - Everything that exists except God himself.
This includes material as well as immaterial things
and time. God is the creator, (Hebrews 11:3) we are
the creatures. The creator/creature distinction must
be maintained to properly remain in humble
relationship with God. We are not God, cannot
create, nor can we help ourselves do good in order to
be saved. Only God is God. Only He can create.
And, only He has the ability to save man.
Cult - A religious group that follows a particular
theological system. In the context of Christianity it is
a group that uses the Bible but distorts the doctrines
that affect salvation sufficiently to cause salvation to
be unattainable. A few examples of cults are
Mormonism, Jehovah's Witnesses, Christian
Science, Christadelphians, Unity, Religious Science,
The Way International, and the Moonies. (See also
individual cults)
Ch’ (sometimes also transliterated KH)
Ch’abdeihu vech’oshdeihu - Take him with a grain of
Ch’acham - (Heb/Yid.. Smart) A wise person; Jewish
title given to pre-70 AD proto-rabbinic sages/scholars
and post-70 AD rabbinic scholars. See Ch’akham.
Ch’ach’mah – (Khakh-MAH) Intuitive wisdom. An flash
of insight. Sometimes referred to as the “Aha!”
moment. Ch’ach’mah is a valuable tool but must be
tempered by sound biblical scholarship and/or binah.
‫ — ח‬Festival, usually refers to one of the three
Ch’ag - ‫ַג‬
pilgrimage festivals, Pesach’, Shavuot, and Sukkot.
Ch’ag kasher vesame’ach’ Pesach’! - Happy & kosher
Passover festival!
Ch’ag same’ach’! – (Heb.) Happy Holiday! Happy
festival!; Joyous festival! A traditional holiday
greeting. Can be personalized for the specific
moedim: Ch’ag Pesach’, Ch’ag Sukkot, etc.
Ch’ai – (KHIGH); Ch’aim (KHIGHM); Lit., “life”. For
example “L’ch’aim!” means “to life!” L’ch’aim can be
used as a greeting.
Ch’akham - ‫ָם‬
ָ — A wise person.
4. Shu’t aid the congregation by teaching it HOW to
think rather than merely WHAT to think.
5. Shu’t serve as a collective memory of past
lessons learned. They are a tremendous
reference tool.
There are also advantages for the elders:
1. Shu’t protect the elders from making decisions
that are not biblically sound.
2. Shu’t held educate new elders.
3. Shu’t aid the elders in making future rulings by
establishing precedent.
4. Shu’t help new elders by saving them from having
to “reinvent the wheel.”
Some advantages to the leading elder, usually known
as the pastor, also exist:
1. Shu’t protect the pastor from having to make what
are sometimes incredibly difficult, emotionally
laden decisions alone.
Shu’t help a new pastor by presenting him with
insights into the church’s past struggles which
largely form its unique nature and character. It
minimizes the “unwritten rules” that can so often
form stumbling blocks in the development of a
healthy relationship between the congregation
and the new undershepherd.
Shehecheyanu – Lit., “Who has given us life”; This is
prayer of thanksgiving that Jews have recited at
celebrations for some 2,000 years. It goes in Hebrew
“Baruch’ atah Adonai, Eloheinu Melech’ ha o’lam
sheh’heh’cheh’ya’nu veh’ki’yeh’ma’nu veh’he’g’a’nu
laz’man ha’zeh.” In English it means “Blessed are
You, Lord our God, King of the world, Who has kept
They are not quickly decided upon. They are
based upon prayer, meditation and a thorough
research of the Scriptures. Because they have been
thoughtfully formulated by mature Christians who
have been determined by the church to have the
necessary personal character to be considered
elders, shu’t can play a particularly important role in
Christian life.
They often deal with issues for which the church
has not yet made a ruling and thus, before any shu’t
is declared to be a part of the Body’s life, it is agreed
upon by the congregation. Following the
congregation’s agreement, the shu’t function almost
as legal precedents upon which the elders can
formulate future rulings in church affairs.
The questions (she’eilot) that drive the answers
(teshuvot) are usually practical, covering issues as
varied as abortion, euthanasia, genetic engineering,
reproductive technologies, sexual promiscuity, crime
and punishment, capital punishment, drug abuse,
breakdown of the family, divorce, pornography,
gambling, homosexuality, technology, ecology and
the environment, media, and government and civil
disobedience as well as interpretations of the Bible.
The following would be advantages for a local
congregation to follow the shu’t system:
1. Shu’t allow for consistency in church conduct. The
decision is written down and should not change
depending whether friend or a foe asks the
2. Shu’t encourage the people to turn to the church
elders for moral, ethical and spiritual guidance.
3. Shu’t help church newcomers quickly adapt to the
church’s culture and expectations.
ָ — the traditional braided sweet egg loaf
Ch’allah – ‫ָה‬
of bread eaten on Shabbat. The ch’allah for the
weekly Shabbat is traditionally in the usual loaf
shape. The one for Rosh Hashana is usually served
in a round shape.
Ch’alomot tovim - Sweet dreams
Ch’amesh – Five
Ch’ametz – ‫ֵץ‬
ָ — (also spelled chometz, hametz)
Yeast; in preparations for Pesach’ it also means
leavened bread, which is forbidden on Passover.
Also used generally of any food, thought pattern or
practice that is muktzeh for as Yeshua said, “Watch
out! Guard yourselves from the ch’ametz of the
P’rushim and the ch’ametz of Herod” (Mark 8:15).
Ch’am li - It is hot to me; I feel hot
Ch’ane – (KHAIN) (Strong’s #2580) Grace; As in Noah
found grace in the eyes of the Lord. (Genesis 6:8)
Ch’anukah - ‫ָה‬
ֲ — A minor holiday instituted by the
rabbis to celebrate the deliverance and re-dedication
of the Second Temple by the Maccabees.
Ch’anukkah literally means “dedication” so it is
sometimes called the “Festival of Dedication.”
Because of the tradition of lighting huge lamps in
Jerusalmen and menorahs in homes it is also
sometimes called the “Festival of Lights.” See also
Ch’anukiah – The nine-branched menorah used at
Ch’anukah, as opposed to the biblical seven
branched menorah. The nine branches are to
facilitate the celebration of the legendary miracle that
happened at the rededication of the Temple.
Ch’aron af Hashem - Wrath [anger] of Hashem
Ch’aroset - A mixture of fruit, wine and nuts eaten at the
Passover Seder to symbolize mortar used by the
Jewish slaves in Egypt. Traditionally this is a mixture
of apples, raisins, nuts and wine.
ָ — (Plural ‫דים‬
ָ, “chassidim”) a.k.a
Ch’assid - ‫ִיד‬
“hasid,” “hasidim.” Literally, “pious one.” Modern
Hasidim are Orthodox Jews who strictly observe the
Torah and Halakha. There are many different sects
of Hasidism, but they all trace their roots back to the
Baal Shem Tov, who founded modern Hasidism on
joyous religious experience and the common man.
However, the truth is that all believers should be
Ch’assidim, pious believers who assuidly follow the
tenets of the Holy Scriptures. So sometimes I will
refer to believers as ch’assidim, just as I sometimes
call them the Ransomed, Highlanders, Adonaic
believers or Am Hasefer (People of the Book).
Ch’as vech’alilah! - God beware/God forbid!
Ch’as veshalom! - God forbid!
Ch’atan - (Heb.) Groom.
Ch’aval al hazman - Don’t waste your time; It is a waste
of time
Ch’aver – Friend. The plural would be ch’averim.
Ch’aver shelach’ (masc.); Ch’avera shelach’ (fem.) Your friend
Ch’avruta – A study partner
Ch’avurah – A fellowship
Ch’ayal – a soldier. A ch’ayal boded is a soldier whose
parents live outside Israel for at least 9 months of the
year. As a result, he or she will receive certain added
benefits from the IDF, since they don’t have a home
or financial support.
Chayav - One who is obligated (chiyuv=obligation).
Ch’ayei olam - Eternal life
Ch’azak – (KHAH-zak); Assertiveness; strength;
resoluteness; firmness (Strong’s #2388)
Shavuot/Shavuoth - (Heb., “weeks”). The annual
festival called the Feast of Weeks celebrated at the
conclusion of the seven weeks of counting the omer
(Leviticus 23:15-21; Deuteronomy 16:9-12). It also
commemorates the gift of the Law. Observed 50
days from the day the first sheaf of grain was offered
to the priests; also known as the Festival of First
Fruits. Also known as Pentecost from the Greek
pentekoste (fiftieth day).
Shayla – (SHAY-lah); A religious question. A question
that deals with the practical application of the Word to
our lives.
Shech’inah – (sheh-khee-NAH); Lit., “dwelling.” A
manifestation of God’s presence which is often
described as a light. In Adonaism the Shech’inah is
generally associated with a particularly strong
manifestation of the Ruach’ ha Kodesh.
She’eilot u Teshuvot - (Shay-ay-lote oo TEH-shoovote) literally means “questions and answers”.
“She'eilot" (the singular being “shayla”) are
questions, "teshuvot" (the singular being “teshuva”)
are answers. The "u-" prefix means "and". In day to
day conversation its pronunciation can be reduced to
"shu’t" (pronounced like the word "shoot"), using only
the acronym.
Shu’t form the collection of written decisions and
rulings given by the elders of a local church in
response to questions addressed to them. They're a
type of halakhic literature written in answer to
religious questions mailed the decisor (also called
“posek”). Sometimes the question is self-posed.
One useful fact about shu’t is that the typical
format provides the reasoning that led to the
conclusion as opposed to codes, which simply state
the conclusion.
leads the congregation in prayer, whether the prayer
be spontaneous or ritualized.
Shalom – (shah-LOME); Lit., “peace.” Shalom can be
used as either “hello” or “good-bye” as well as its
usual sense of peace. It is a complex word, coming
from the Hebrew root word for “complete.” Thus it
represents an ideal state of completeness with no
further action necessary and therefore peace.
Shalom aleich’em – (shah-LOME ah-LAY-khem); Lit.,
“peace unto you.” A greeting.
Shalom bayit – (shah-LOME BYE-eet); Lit., “peace in
the home.” Means maintaining contentment and
harmony among the family members.
Shalom uv’rach’a - Peace and blessing
Shalom uv’rach’a le Yisrael - Peace and blessing to
Shalosh – Three
Shalosh Regalim – The Three Pilgrimage Festivals:
Pesach’ Shavuot, Sukkot as found in Exodus 23:1417; 34:18-23; Deuteronomy 16:16.
Shamash – Caretaker, usher, general assistant to the
Rebbe. (alternatively spelled shammas)
Shammes - (Lit. servant). 1) The candle that is used to
light other Channukah candles; 2) the janitor or
caretaker of a synagogue. Sometimes also spelled
Shana – To learn; what one has learned. Shana is the
root-word of “Mishnah”. The verb shanah (‫)שנה‬
literally means 'to repeat [what one was taught]' and
is used to mean 'to learn'.
Shanah (Shanim) - Year; years
Shanah tovah! - Happy new year! Have a good year!
Shavuah Tov - (Yiddish - Gut vach’) Have a good
week. A popular greeting as Shabbat ends.
Ch’azak u baruch’ – (KHAH-zak oo bah-RUKH); Lit.,
“be strong and be blessed.” A term of congratulations
and good wishes.
Ch’azzan - A ch’azzan (literally “cantor”) is the person
who leads the congregation in prayer and singing.
Any person with good moral character and thorough
knowledge of the scriptures, songs, hymns and
spiritual melodies can lead the service, and in many
synagogues or Adonaic congregations, members of
the community lead some or all parts of the service.
In smaller congregations, the rabbi often serves as
both rabbi and ch’azzan. However, because music
plays such a large role in Adonaic religious services,
larger congregations usually hire a professional
ch’azzan, a person with both musical skills and
training as a religious leader and educator.
Professional ch’azzans are ordained clergy. One
of their most important duties is teaching other
people to lead all or part of a worship service so that
every generation will be able to continue praising and
worshipping the Lord. But they can also perform
many of the pastoral duties once confined to rabbis,
such as conducting weddings and funerals, visiting
sick congregants, and teaching adult education
classes. The rabbi and ch’azzan work as partners to
educate and inspire the congregation.
Ch’eder (pl. Chadarim) – (Yid.) Lit., “rooms” as in a
“learning room” but generally indicating a
Ch’ele kodesh - Sacred objects
Ch’elm - A fictitious town of foolish people told of in
Yiddish folklore.
Ch’erem - (Heb.) Excommunication.
Ch’esed – (Heb.) (KHEH-said); Lit., “loving kindness.”
Used to indicate loving feelings based on gratitude
and compassion. It is the emotional imperative which
drives gemilut hasadim. (sometimes spelled
Ch’esed shel emet – “A true act of loving kindness. ”
For instance helping with the interment of the dead.
Ch’eshbon ha nefesh – (KHESH-bone hah-NEH-fesh);
Lit., “inventory of the soul.” Soul searching, spiritual
introspection, self-examination. Making a personal,
moral self-assessment that is usually accompanied
by either confession, repentance and restitution or,
when positive growth is found, encouragement and
Ch’eshvon – Eighth month of the Hebrew calendar.
Ch’evra - (Heb.) Friends; comrades.
Ch’illul Hashem – (KHIH-lool hah-SHEM); (Heb.
Desecration of the divine name); Desecrating the
name of the Lord. Identifying yourself as a righteous
person but living an unethical, immoral, unworthy life
and thus bringing shame to Hashem’s name and His
Ch’och’em - Wise Man; A Wise Guy (slang)
Ch’och’ma - Wisdom
Ch’odesh - Month
Ch’odesh tov - A good month
Ch’odesh tov u mevorach’ - A good and blessed
Ch’ofesh – Freedom
Ch’ofesh hadibur – Free speech; freedom of speech
Ch’ofshi – (KHOEF-shee); (Strong’s #2670); Free;
freedom; free will. The feminine is “ch’ofshit”.
Ch’ok - (Heb. Law). Law from the Torah deemed to be
without a humanly-discernable rationale (e.g. the red
heifer). See also mishpat.
‫ — חֹול ה‬The intermediate days
Ch’ol Hamo’ed - ‫ֵד‬
of the festivals of Pesach’ and Sukkot.. These days
Shabbat – (Heb. “rest) Also rendered “sabbath”. God
blessed and sanctified the seventh day of the week
as a day of rest.
Shabbat Goi [Shabbas Goy] - A non-Jew doing work
for Jews on the Sabbath
Shabbat shalom - Means 'peaceful sabbath' -- a
common greeting when Shabbat is approaching.
Shabbat Shalom - A greeting given on Shabbat
meaning, [may you have] the peace of the Sabbath
Shabbat shalom u mevorach’ - A peaceful and blessed
Shabbat shalom ve shavua tov! - A peaceful Shabbat
and a good week!
Shabbath kodesh (also spelled Shabbot/Shabbos;
pl. Shabbathoth) - Holy Sabbath.
Shabbaton - A program of education (and usually
celebration, too) that is held on a Shabbat (usually
during the day on Saturday).
Shach’arit – (SHAW-kha-reet); Lit., “little morning” but
used to identify morning prayers.
Shachrit - Morning; the morning prayer service.
Shadchan - Matchmaker.
Shalach Manos - (Lit. sending out portions). The
custom of sending gifts of food or candy to friends
during Purim.
Shaliach’ - Emissary, appointed agent (male pl.
sh'lichim, sh'lichei; fem. sing. sh'lichah; fem. pl.
Shaliach’ tsibbur – Leader of a prayer group. See
Sheliach’ tsibbur.
Shaliah tzibbur – The congregation’s representative in
prayer. In Judaism, where prayers are highly
ritualized and often sung, this is a cantor. In Adonaic
congregations this would simply be the one who
would save some people and then second that he
would allow sin into the world. By contrast, the
infralapsarian ("after the fall") position is the reverse
in that it holds that God first decided he would allow
sin into the world and second that he would then
save people from it. Adonaists believe that the
injunction against arguing about myths, genealogies,
empty speculations and fruitless discussions should
apply (1 Timothy 1:3-7).
Surrah - Booth, tabernacle.
Synagogue - From the Greek synagogia, this is a
meeting place for assembly. A Jewish house of
worship. Traditionally the first synagogues were
established during the Babylonian exile. The early
synagogues had a place in the center of the room
where the sacred scrolls were kept and from where
they were read. It is from the worship order
established in synagogues that our modern church
patterns of reading and expounding upon scripture
from the pulpit are derived.
Synergism - The teaching that we cooperate with God
in our efforts of salvation. This is opposed to
monergism which is the teaching that God is the sole
agent involved in salvation. Cults are synergistic in
that they teach that God's grace combined with our
efforts are what makes forgiveness of sins possible.
Synoptic Gospels - The first three gospels: Matthew,
Mark, and Luke. They are referred to as the synoptic
because of their great similarity.
are not official Shabbats, but heavy labor is
Ch’oshen Mishpat - The Torah’s rules of property laws.
Ch’olent – A traditional stew that is kept warm to avoid
cooking on Shabbat.
Ch’osson - Hebrew word for bridegroom. He is known
as a ch’osson from the time of the engagement until
eleven months after the wedding.
Ch’ozer bitshuvah - A Jew who has become religious
Ch’ukkim – Commands whose reasons aren’t fully
explained in the Scriptures. We simply obey them
without understanding their purpose as an act of faith
because God told us to.
‫— חּומ‬The word "chumash" is from the
Ch’umash – ‫ָׂש‬
Hebrew word ch’amesh meaning "five". The Five
Books of Moses; the Pentateuch. They are bound in
one volume (not a scroll) containing the five books of
the Torah, usually divided up by the parashiyot.
Many ch’umashim also include the Targum,
Onkelos, Rashi’s commentaries, and the
Haftarah readings.
Ch’uppah – the wedding canopy under which the bride
and groom stand. See also Huppah.
Ch’utz la'aretz - Outside the land of Israel.
Ch’utzpah – When used positively it means audacity.
When used negatively it means utter nerve or
Sha’alu shalom Yerushalayim - Prayer for the peace of
Sha’arei Tziyon - Gates of Zion
Dalet – Fourth letter of the Hebrew alphabet.
Dan lekaf zech’ut - To judge on the scale of merit
ָ — A book in the Writings of the Tanakh.
Dani’el - ‫ֵאל‬
Darkei shalom – “The ways of peace”. The principle or
doctrine based on Proverbs 3:17 that takes into
account that the point of all laws is the promotion of
peace and equity. This principle is used by elders
who are seeking a more peaceful if somewhat less
literal interpretation of black letter law. The more
gracious ruling will be rendered with the notation
“mipnei darkei shalom” which can be literally
interpreted “because of the ways of peace.”
Darshan - The Hebrew word for “preacher”, one who
explains, interprets or inquires. One who is
particularly skilled in aggadah and gives sermons
and expositions of the biblical text in accordance with
midrashic exegesis.
Dati - (Heb. Religious) Term used to refer to a religious
person. (See also Chiloni)
Daven, Davenen – (Yid.) To ritualistically recite prayers
prayers; the avodah of praying at length, being
guided by one’s siddur and interspersing the prayers
with pauses for disciplined meditation from memory
on related texts. See also Oved. Matthew 23:14
Davka – Hebrew (DAV-kah); An ironic phrase similar to
“Can you believe it?” indicating a circumstance with
an unlucky twist as in “The day I was to meet her
parents – davka – I had to change a flat tire in the
Dayan – (dah-YAHN); Judge or arbitrator. An elder who
is acting as a judge in matters of interpersonal
conflict or theological debate is called a dayan
(dayanim being the plural form). A group of such
dayanim are referred to as a Beit Din. See also
Moreh Tzedek, Zaquen. Dayan is related to the word
“din” which is “judgment, law”.
Days of Awe - Ten days between Rosh Hashanah and
Yom Kippur. The Days of Awe are a good time for
introspection, considering the sins of the previous
year and for generally making things right and
obviously supernatural in the usage: speaking in
tongues, discerning of spirits, healing, etc. There are
others that are not so supernatural: administrations,
help, admonition, etc. There is debate over the
continuance of the gifts. Some say that the gifts have
ceased because we now have the Bible. They argue
that the gifts were used for the building of the body of
Christ during the beginning of the Christian church
when the Bible was not complete. Since the Bible is
complete there is no further need for the revelatory
gifts like speaking in tongues and the interpretation of
tongues. Others maintain that the gifts are all for
today though to a lesser degree. There are good
arguments on both sides.
Subjectivism - The teaching that the individual is the
source and judge of all religious knowledge based
upon his own knowledge and experience.
Sufganiot – Jelly doughnuts which are usually eaten
during Hannukah. See also Latkes and Driedel.
Sukkah – A booth erected for Sukkoth. The roofing
material is referred to as Sekhach’. The apostle
Shaul (who was a tent maker) may have been a
sukkah maker.
Sukkot – (Also spelled Sukkoth) Festival of
Tabernacles, commemorating the wandering in the
desert and the fruit harvest. The four plant species
(lulav – pam; hadas – myrtle; arava – willow; etrog –
citron) used during Sukkot services are referred to as
“arbah minim”.
Supralapsarianism - An issue within Reformed
theology dealing with what may have happened in
God's mind regarding the logical order of His
considering whom to elect into salvation before the
foundation of the world. The word means "before the
fall." This position holds that God first decided that he
learning to qualify them to act as teachers. (Ezra 7:6;
8:16; Nehemiah 8:7)
Sotah — (a straying or errant woman) a woman
suspected of adultery by her husband and who
underwent the trial of "bitter water" (Numbers 5:1131). In our beit din it is used of a woman who has
been found to have been unfaithful.
In Judaism, if the term is capitalized, "Sotah"
refers to one of the tractates of the Mishnah.
Soteriology - The study of the doctrine of salvation. It is
derived from the Greek word soterious which means
salvation. Some of the subjects of soteriology are the
atonement, imputation, and regeneration.
Soul Sleep - The teaching that when a person dies his
soul ceases to exist. On the final judgment day he is
brought back to life and judged. This is not a heresy,
only an error of interpretation. The Bible is not
specific on the condition of the person between death
and resurrection. However, there are scriptures that
strongly suggest man's continued self-awareness
and continued existence after death (Luke 16:19-31;
2 Corinthians 5:1-10; Philippians 1:21-23).
Sovereignty - The right of God to do as He wishes
(Psalm 50:1; Isaiah 40:15; 1 Timothy 6:15) with His
creation. This implies that there is no external
influence upon Him and that He also has the ability to
exercise His power and control according to His will.
Special Blessing - Rebbes are often asked to give
blessings, and the wording of these blessings may be
unusually lengthy, poetic or different in some other
way from the usual or familiar wording.
Spiritual Gifts - Spiritual gifts are gifts given by Jesus to
His church. Spiritual gifts are discussed in 1
Corinthians 12-14 and Romans 12. They vary in
degree and nature. There are some that are
keeping short accounts with God in view of Yom
Death - The word "death" is used in two main ways in
the Bible. First, it is used to describe the cessation of
life. Second, death is used in reference to the lost.
This refers to their eternal separation from God as a
result of sin (Isaiah 59:2), in a conscious state of
damnation without hope (1 Thessalonians 4:13;
Revelation 20:10,14,15). Death to humans is
unnatural. When God created Adam and Eve, death
was not part of the created order. It was not until they
sinned that death entered the scene (Romans 5:12;
6:23). Death will be destroyed when Christ returns
and the believers receive their resurrected bodies.
Decalogue – The Ten Commandments found in Exodus
20. Deca means ten in Latin. Logue comes from
"logos" which means "word."In Hebrew this is
Asseret ha Diberot.
Decisor – The English form of the Hebrew “Posek”. An
elder to whom shayla (religious questions) are posed.
Decrees, of God - The Decrees of God is His eternal
purpose, according to His will, whereby He has
foreordained whatever comes to pass. His Decrees
do not negate the responsibility of people for their
sins nor does it mean that God is responsible for sin.
But, it necessarily is true that God knows all things
actual as well as potential, and that that which exists,
exists due to His creative effort. It also follows that
God has eternally known all events that have
occurred, are occurring, and will occur in this creation
including the fall, redemption, glorification, etc. Yet,
God is not the one responsible for the sin in the world
but has decreed, by His ermission, that it be allowed
to exist. Isaiah 46:9-10 says, "Remember the former
things long past, for I am God, and there is no other; I
am God, and there is no one like Me, declaring the
end from the beginning and from ancient times things
which have not been done, saying, ‘My purpose will
be established, and I will accomplish all My good
pleasure." God's efficacious decrees are those
decrees which God has purposed and determined to
occur, i.e., Acts 2:23 "this Man, delivered up by the
predetermined plan and foreknowledge of God, you
nailed to a cross by the hands of godless men and
put Him to death." God's permissive decrees are
those decrees where He permits things to occur such
as evil.
Deduction - A system of logic, inference and conclusion
drawn from examination of facts. Conclusions drawn
from the general down to the specific.
Defamation of character – Telling lies in order to cause
harm to another. Motzi shem ra in Hebrew. Say a
disgruntled customer of a restaurant tells numerous
people that the head chef has AIDS. Sales for that
restaurant could fall and the chef could lose his job or
find it difficult to find work. Because the customer’s
slanderous statements concern a specific person, an
unproven accusation and a clear intent to commit
harm, the chef can accuse the customer of
defamation of character. However, if a local paper
referred to a local criminal as a thug, because the
criminal has no character to assassinate, defamation
of character cannot be ascribed to the newspaper.
They are simply telling the truth and warning others
away from potential harm.
Deism - The belief that God exists but is not involved in
the world. It maintains that God created all things and
set the universe in motion and is no longer involved
in its operation. (Compare to Atheism, Agnosticism,
and Theism.)
leadership of the Hebrews to Joshua just prior to
entering the Holy Land, s'micha now refers to
ordaining rabbis (where the laying on of hands is still
Sod – (sode); The spiritual, symbolic or metaphorical
meaning of a Scripture passage. For example the
sod of the story of Isaac, Abraham’s beloved son of
the promise, bearing the wood of his own sacrifice up
Mount Moriah is a prophetic type of God’s only
begotten, well-loved son bearing the wooden cross to
his own sacrifice on Mount Calvary. See PARDES
Sola Fide - The teaching that faith alone saves a person
when he places his faith and trust in the sacrificial
work of Christ.
Sola Gratia - The teaching that God pardons believers
without any merit of their own based solely on the
sacrificial work of Christ.
Sola Scriptura - The teaching that the Scriptures
contain all that is necessary for salvation and proper
living before God.
Son of God - This is a title of Jesus. It implies His deity
(John 5:18) because the title is one of equality with
God. In the OT it was figuratively applied to Israel
(Exodus 4:22). In the New Covenant it is applied to
Christ (Luke 1:35). It has many facets. For example:
It shows that He is to be honored equally with the
Father (John 5:22-23). That He is to be worshiped
(Matthew 2:2,11;14:33;28;9; John 9:35-38; Hebrews
1:6); called God (John 20:28; Hebrews 1:8); prayed
to (Acts 7:55-60; 1 Corinthians 1:1-2).
Song of Songs Rabbah — a midrash on the book of
Song of Songs.
Sopherim – Scribes; yet not in the sense of writers but
rather “men of letters.” People equipped with the
Because God has said not to lie (Exodus 20:16). If
you do what God has forbidden, then you have
sinned. In addition, if you do not do what God has
commanded, you sin (James 4:17). Either way, the
result is eternal separation from God (Isaiah 59:2).
Sin is lawlessness (1 John 1:3) and unrighteousness
(1 John 5:17). Sin leads to blindness (John 9:41) and
death (Romans 6:23). Paul, in the book of Romans,
discusses sin. He shows that everyone, both Jew
and Greek, is under sin (Romans 3:9). He shows that
sin is not simply something that is done, but a
condition of the heart (Romans 3:3:10-12). In
Ephesians Paul says that we are "by nature children
of wrath" (Ephesians 2:3). Yet, "while we were still
helpless, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly"
(Romans 5:6).
Sinat ch’inam - Gratuitous hatred.
Sinit – Chinese
Sitra ach’ra - (lit., "the other side"; Aram.); The forces of
evil in the universe.
Sivan - Jewish month, corresponding to May-June.
Siyyum – A feast or party celebrating the end of a
section of learning. Think graduation party. However,
Adonaists hold education (particularly in the
Scriptures) in such high esteem that they enjoy
celebrating the end of a study of a book of the Bible
or a study on the eldership. Basically we just look for
excuses to party!
Slander - The relating of deprecating facts about one's
friend, even if one said the truth. Hotza’at dibah in
Slicha - Excuse me.
S'michah - Lit., a "laying on of hands," s'michah is a
way of conferring the authority of leadership from one
person to another. First seen in Moses' transferring
Demon - A fallen angel that assists Satan in the
opposition of God. Demons are evil (Luke 10:17-18),
powerful (Luke 8:29), and under the power of Satan
(Matthew 12:24-30). They recognized Christ (Mark
1:23-24) and can possess non-Christians (Matthew
Denarius – a Roman coin that would represent a day’s
wages for the common laborer. Matthew 20:2
De’ot – (day-OUGHT) Knowledge. After the initial insight
(ch’ach’mah) is gained, reasoned understanding
(binah) is applied and knowledge (de’ot) is hopefully
Deontology - The study of moral obligation.
Depravity - Moral corruption, a state of corruption or
sinfulness. Total depravity is the teaching that sin has
touched all aspects of the human: body, soul, spirit,
emotions, mind, etc.
Derash – (duh-RASH); From the root that means “to
interpret.” the application of a verse. For example, in
John 1:14 we read, “The Word became flesh and
took up residence among us. We observed His glory,
the glory as the only Son from the Father, full of
grace and truth.” A missionary might consider the
“derash” of this verse to be that, like the Master, he
too needs to attempt to attempt to “walk in the shoes”
of the natives he is trying to reach, and condescend
to be one of them though he has the right to live a
more comfortable life. Or a person who is struggling
with their tongue might consider the “derash” of John
1:14 to be that he needs to work at balancing grace
and truth in his conversations with others. There are
probably an unlimited number of scriptural derash
and we need to be sensitive to the leading of the
Holy Spirit and the plain teaching of the Scriptures in
order to get the best derash possible. Derash is
contrasted with peshat, which is the literal meaning of
the words. See PARDES. See also under spelling
Derasha – a discourse, sermon or oration, usually
delivered by a rabbi or darshan.
Derech - Heb 'way' refers to a path in serving Hashem.
Derech’ eretz - (DER-ek EH-rets); (also spelled
derech’); Lit., “way of the land” but it implies good
conduct or what is considered to be normal, polite
behavior within a social setting. In its broadest sense,
it means to demonstrate love and honor to our fellow
human beings and, in so doing, fulfilling the will of
God. As it says in the Pikei Avot “he who is pleasant
to mankind is pleasant in the eyes of God”. This
adage is ably proven in the lives of the prophet
• 1 Samuel 2:26 HCSB By contrast, the boy
Samuel grew in stature and in favor with the
LORD and with men.
…and as it says of our Master,
• Luke 2:52 HCSB And Yeshua increased in
wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and
with people.
Derech’ Hashem - Way of Hashem (also spelled
Determinism - The teaching that every event in the
universe is caused and controlled by natural law.
Devar Elohim - Word of God (Sometimes spelled d’var)
Devar kathab – (deh-VAR kaw-THAWB); Lit., “clarifying
Scripture”. A short speech or sermon that explains or
comments on the Scriptures. (Sometimes spelled
Devar Mishnah - Clear settled law. Black letter law.
Compare to shikul ha da’at. Sometimes also spelled
d’var mishnah. (Sometimes spelled d’var)
Siddur – A prayer-book that provides teaching or
suggestions on prayer. It can be a journal where one
keeps a record of one’s prayers and the answers
from God.
A mahzor is a type of siddur, or prayer book. You
may be familiar with the Book of Common Prayer?
It’s rather like that; a guide containing specific
prayers, liturgies, and piyyutim (liturgical poems) for
special occasions like the various high holy days, to
give help to those who are in need of such aids.
The difference between a siddur and a mahzor is
that the siddur includes the daily prayers and
blessings that one may recite on week days and
Many of the prayers and/or scriptural readings are
put to music which goes along with the admonition to
“sing psalms, hymns and spiritual songs to each
other; sing to the Lord and make music in your heart
to him; always give thanks for everything to God the
Father in the name of our Lord Yeshua the Messiah
(Ephesians 5:19-20 CJB).
Simch’a – (sim-KHAH); Joy, happiness or festivities. It
can also be used of a joyous occasion or a party, as
in “Mazel tov! Let’s have a simch’a!” Or simply as a
greeting as in “Happy occasion!”
Simch’a shel mitzvah — (sim-KHAH shell MITZ-vah)
The joy of performing one of God’s commandments.
Simch’at Torah – (sim-KHAHT toe-RAH); (Torah is
Strong’s #8451); (lit., "the Rejoicing of the Torah"); A
day when we celebrate the writing of the first five
books of the Bible on the day following Sukkoth. In
Eretz Yisrael it coincides with Shemini Atzeres, and
in the Diaspora it falls on the following day.
Sin - Sin is anything that is contrary to the law or will of
God. For example: if you lie, you have sinned. Why?
Semikah - Rabbinic ordination.
Sephardic Jews - Jews from Spain, Portugal, Africa and
middle eastern countries.
Septuagint, The - The Septuagint is the Greek
translation of the Old Covenant. The Old Covenant
was originally written in Hebrew. It was during the
reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-246 B.C.) that the
Pentateuch, the first five books of the Bible, were
translated into Greek. Shortly afterwards the rest of
the Old Covenant was also translated. This
translation was done by approximately 70 translators
in Egypt. Hence, the Septuagint is known by the
letters LXX, the Roman numerals for seventy.
Seudat hevrah – (seh-oo-DAHT hev-RAH); A meal of
condolence; the first meal mourners eat after the
funeral. Usually the meal is prepared by neighbors
and friends so that the mourners don’t have to deal
with daily chores like cooking. Some will also take
meals to the mourners at their home for a few days.
Seudat Mashiach’ – The festive meal held in honor of
the Mashiach’ on the last day of Pesach’.
Seudat mitzvah – Festive meal held in celebration of a
religious obligation, a mitzvah or a ceremony like a
wedding or baptism.
Sever panim yafot – Greeting someone with a positive
Sfaradit – Spanish
Sich’a (pl. Sichoth) – An informal Torah talk delivered
by a rebbe. Cf. ma’amar
Sich’at haverim – The conversation of friends. This
usually is used to identify spiritually or morally
uplifting conversation where as “iron sharpens iron”
friends elevate and improve each other through
spiritual conversation.
Devar Torah – (Heb. Word of Torah). Short speech
generally delivered on the day of woship concerning
the weekly Torah portion. (parsha) (Sometimes
spelled d’var)
Devarim - (Heb. words or things). Deuteronomy; the fifth
book of the Torah.
Devil - Greek is "diabolos," which means accuser. The
greatest of all the fallen angels. He opposes God and
is completely evil. He is often called Lucifer which is
a Latin translation of "light bearer" found in Isaiah
14:12, and also the accuser of the brethren in
(Revelation 12:10), dragon (Revelation 12:9), the
devil (Matthew 4:1), the tempter (Matthew 4:3), the
accuser (Revelation 12:10), the prince of demons
(Luke 11:15), the ruler of this world (John 12:31), See
Isaiah 14:12-15 for a description of the fall of the
devil. Upon Yeshua' return, the Devil will be
vanquished -- depending on the eschatological
position. His future is the eternal lake of fire.
Devir - Holy of Holies
Dialectic - The practice of examining ideas and beliefs
using reason and logic. It is often accomplished by
question and answer.
Diaspora - (Grk. Scattering or Dispersion) Often used to
refer to the Jewish communities living among the
gentiles outside of Israel (see galut). There has been
more than one Diaspora. There was the Assyrian
conquest (732 BC), the Babylonian conquest (586
BC) then the destruction of the Beit ha Mikdash (AD
70) which led to the Great Diaspora. However, within
the Great Diaspora there have been other pogroms
and exiles, too numerous to list. Belial’s hatred for
God’s Chosen People knows no bounds.
Dichotomy - The teaching that a human consists of two
parts: body and soul. Sometimes the soul is also
referred to as spirit. (See Trichotomy)
Didactics - The branch of education dealing with
Din - (Heb.) Law, judgment. Biblical law, sometimes
“Din” is used to imply the application of the exact law
as opposed to a Pshara (compromise)
Din Torah – An arbitration hearing; arbitration in a
religious court. A more formal presentation before a
Dayan or before a panel of Dayanim. A din torah is
the Adonaic substitute for going to court. Biblical law
does not allow one to be a plaintiff in a secular court
without first obtaining permission from his or her
church’s Beit Din. In a din torah, people who have a
dispute present their cases before a panel of three
judges, at least one of which is a rabbi. At the end,
the judges issue a decision which is binding on the
parties, both as a matter of secular and biblical law.
Unless Scriptural law has been clearly violated, there
is no appeal to the ruling of a Din Torah.
The elders who are serving as dayanim in the din
torah make decisions based on what each party is
obligated, as a matter of law, to do. Sometimes a
person may have done something that hurts a
claimant, but they are not necessarily liable to pay
damages to that claimant, because as a matter of law
they were not obligated to perform that act. For
example, an employer may fire an employee who has
been working for that employer for twenty years
because the employee’s performance is no longer
satisfactory. Even though the employee may very
well be hurt, the employer may not be liable to pay
damages to that employee, because an employer is
not obligated to continue to employ someone who is
of the Torah) or “Sefer Yetzirah” (the book of
Sefer Chayim - The Book of Life.
Sefer Yetzirah – The book of creation. We believe there
are two books that are equally infallible, inerrant and
useful to achieving knowledge of God. The first and
most general is Sefer Yetzirah, the book of creation.
According to the Psalms, nature’s voice goes to the
ends of the earth and though it does not possess
literal words, all men know of it. According to
Romans 1 this is why Yahweh is justifiably angry
because men should be able to read this book, know
of His existence and even some of His invisible
attributes and worship Him as He presents Himself to
them. The other, better, more specific revelation is
the Holy Scriptures. Neither of these two books
contradicts the other. If they appear to, it is simply
because we are too ignorant yet to reconcile them
correctly. We must humbly continue studying until we
are able to do so without injuring or ignoring either.
Sefer Kritut - Means 'cutting off the book/writing' -- a
divorce decree given to the wife, aka a 'gett.'
Sefirot - In the false doctrines of the mystical Kabbalah
there are ten Sefirot or Divine Emanations of God.
Segan Av Beit Din - Assistant to the Av Beit Din. In the
absence of the Av Beit Din or at his direction, the
Segan (Assistant) Av Beit Din shall function as the Av
Beit Din.
Seh ha Elohim – The Lamb of God; i.e. the Mashiach’,
the Lord Jesus.
Selach’ li - Excuse me
Selich’a – Pardon!
Selich’ot – (suh-lee-KHOTE); Lit., “forgiveness.”
Prayers asking for divine forgiveness usually prayed
during fasting days.
plate that displays special foods symbolic of the
holiday. The liturgy of the seder is contained in a
small book called a haggadah, which details the
order of the prayers, stories and songs, and the
specific components of the meal. Sedarim sometime
last several hours. Some are traditional, with prayers
and readings and age-old stories and meolodies that
have remained the same for thousands of years.
Other sedarim incorporate explanations, newer
songs and modern touches such as puppets to act
out the story. It is a mitzvah for Adonaists to invite
guests who have no seder of their own to join them.
There is a sentence in the haggadah that reads, “Let
all who are hungry come and eat.” The seder meal is
open to congregants and their friends, whether they
are believers or not. See also bedikat hammetz.
Seder plate – A special plate, placed on the dinner table
at the Pesach’ seder, that contains foods that are
symbolic of the holiday. Maror, the bitter herb, usually
horseradish, reminds us of the bitterness of slavery.
Zeroa, a roasted shank bone, is symbolic of the
offerings at the Temple in ancient times. Beitzah, a
roasted egg, signifies rebirth, a new life in freedom
for Adonaists. Haroset, often a mixture of apples,
nuts and wine, represents the mortar the Jewish
slaves used to make bricks in Egypt. Karpas, celery
or parsley, is a symbol of hope and the coming of
spring. Most seder plates have a sixth place for an
additional bitter vegetable (hazaret). In the course of
the seder, each food is passed around the table and
tasted as its meaning is explained.
Sefer – Lit. “book”. It can be used generically for any
book of religious instruction. For instance a sidur
would be considered a sefer. However, it can also be
used more specifically as in “sefer Torah” (the books
not doing their job. On the other hand, if it can be
demonstrated that the employer fired the employee,
not due to incompetence on the employee’s part, but
due to a policy that would save the employer money
by keeping low-salaried employees or refusing to pay
retirement, then a case may be made.
Dinei Torah – Plural of Din Torah
Dina d’malch’uta dina – (dee-NAH duh-mahl-koo-TAH
dee-NAH); Lit., “the law of the land is law.” This
phrase is a guide to elders as they try to apply
Scripture to day to day ethical, spiritual, and legal
conundrums. For instance, OT law states that
witches should be killed. However, we are told to
“render to Caesar what is due Caesar” and to “honor
the magistrate.” In this society in which we
temporarily reside, it is against the law to stone
witches. Therefore dina d’malch’uta dina applies. The
law of the land in which we live rules us as long as it
does not ask us to deny God. (Genesis 21:23;
Matthew 21:21; Mark 12:17; Luke 20:25; Acts 25:8)
Disciple - A pupil or follower of a religion, a person, or a
movement. As Christians we are to be disciples of
Yeshua (Luke 14:26-27). We follow in the teaching
and example of what He said and did. As disciples
we are to bear our cross daily (Matthew 16:24). This
means to live and die for Him if necessary (Matthew
Dispensation, dispensationalism - In the Scofield
Reference Bible a dispensation is "a period of time
during which man is tested in respect of obedience to
some specific revelation of the will of God"
Dispensationalism says that God uses different
means of administering His will and grace to His
people. According to Dispensationalism these
different means coincide with different periods of
time. Scofield says there are seven dispensations: of
innocence, of conscience, of civil government, of
promise, of law, of grace, and of the kingdom.
Dispensationalists interpret the scriptures in light of
these (or other perceived) dispensations.
Adonaists do not agree with this fairly new idea
which elevates so-called grace over obedience to
God’s mitzvoth. We feel it promotes sin in that it
encourages people to discount the Old Covenant and
excuse their sinful lifestyles as being “under grace.”
Compare to Covenant.
Divinity - The nature or quality of being God. It belongs
to God alone. Yeshua was divine in nature
(Colossians 2:9) as well as being a man. (See Jesus'
Two Natures.)
Divrei ch’ibushim - Words of admonition
Divrei ha nevu’ah - Words of prophecy
ַ ‫ְרי‬
ִ — First
Divrei Hayamim Aleph - ‫ִים א‬
Chronicles, a history of Yisrael in the Tanakh; a
continuation of Melach’im Bet.
Divrei Hayamim Bet - ‫ה‬
ַ ‫ְרי‬
ִ‫ִים ב‬
‫ — ּי‬Second
Chronicles, a history of Yisrael in the Tanakh; a
continuation of Divrei Hayamim Aleph.
D’mei – Blood. In Genesis 4:10-11 the Scriptures the
word blood is plural. It literally says “your brother’s
bloods cry out to me from the earth.” This refers to
the fact that not only the life of Abel was taken but
also all the potential descendents he could have had.
One who takes the life of another is not merely
responsible for that one life but for that human line
that was cut off.
Docetism - Docetism was an error with several
variations concerning the nature of Christ. Generally,
it taught that Jesus only appeared to have a body,
that he was not really incarnate, (Greek, "dokeo" =
27 in the New Covenant. Each one is inspired,
without error, and is completely accurate in all things
it addresses. The entire Bible, though written by
many people over thousands of years is harmonious
in all its teachings. This is because each book of the
Bible is inspired.
Sech’ach’ – (Lit., “covering”) The covering of a Sukkah.
This covering must consist of natural growth that
does not provide a complete cover — such as
bamboo or tree branches. Sometimes also spelled
“sekhakh” or
Sech’el – (SAY-khel); Common sense; good judgment;
using one’s noodle as in “Don’t run with scissors in
your hand! Have a little sech’el!”
Second Coming, The - The Second Coming is a term
applied to the return of Christ. If there is a second
coming, it follows that there must have been a first.
The first coming of Christ was His incarnation when
He was born. At the second coming of Christ every
eye will see Him (Revelation 1:7) as He descends
from heavens in t he clouds (Matthew 24:30; Mark
Second Temple period — literally, the period from the
rebuilding of the Temple (536-516 B.C.) to its
destruction by the Romans in 70 A.D. However, the
term usually refers to the latter part of this period,
beginning with the Hasmonean Uprising in 168 B.C.,
and often extending to the end of the Bar-Kochva
Revolt in 135 A.D.
Seder – (SAY-der); (Strong’s #5468); The plural is
sedarim (say-dah-REEM). Lit., “order.” This is the
traditional ceremonial dinner on Pesach’. The seder
includes prayers, songs and the ancient retelling of
the Exodus of the Israelite slaves from bondage in
Egypt. The centerpiece of the seder table is a seder
purpose of sanctification not impurity (1
Thessalonians 4:7) and being such we are called to
do good works (Ephesians 2:10). Christians are to
sanctify Christ as Lord in their hearts (1 Peter 3:15).
God sanctified Israel as His own special nation
(Ezekiel 37:28). People can be sanctified (Exodus
19:10, 14) and so can a mountain (Exodus 19:23),
the Sabbath day (Genesis 2:3), the tabernacle
(Exodus 20:39), and every created thing is sanctified
through the word of God and prayer (1 Timothy 4:4).
Sanctification follows justification. In justification our
sins are completely forgiven in Christ. Sanctification
is the process by which the Holy Spirit makes us
more like Christ in all that we do, think, and desire.
True sanctification is impossible apart from the
atoning work of Christ on the cross because only
after our sins are forgiven can we begin to lead a
holy life.
Sandek - The person who holds the baby during his
circumcision -- often the child's grandfather.
Sanhedrin - The Sanhedrin was a council of 71
individuals, around the time of Christ, that was
comprised of Pharisees and Sadducees who
governed the Jewish nation while under the rule of
Rome. It often served as a court to settle legal and
religious matters.
Sarah emanu - Sarah Our Mother
Savlanut - Patience!
Schlemiel - A foolish, clumsy person; a misfit.
Schnor – (Yid.) to beg
Scholasticism - The method of study in the Middle
Ages which was used to support the doctrines of the
church through reason and logic.
Scriptures - The scriptures are, quite simply, the Bible
which consists of 39 books in the Old Covenant and
"to seem"). This error developed out of the dualistic
philosophy which viewed matter as inherently evil,
that God could not be associated with matter, and
that God, being perfect and infinite, could not suffer.
See Heresies for more information.
Dodah – Aunt
Dogma - A generally held set of formulated beliefs.
Donatism - Donatism was the error taught by Donatus,
bishop of Casae Nigrae that the effectiveness of the
sacraments depends on the moral character of the
minister. In other words, if a minister who was
involved in a serious enough sin were to baptize a
person, that baptism would be considered invalid.
Please see Heresies for more information.
ְ) Interpretation (often creative) of a
Drash - (Heb. ‫ּדָרׁש‬
Scriptural passage. From the same root as “midrash”.
See also under spelling Derash.
Dreidel A four-sided top used in children’s games during
Hannukah. The top has the Hebrew letters: Nun,
Gimmel, Hey, and Shin. They stand for nes godal
hayah sham ("a great miracle happened there"); but
in Israel, the 'Shin' is changed to 'Peh' so it will stand
for "a great miracle happened here."
Drishat shalom (acronym appears as D’SH or DASH) Regards; kind regards; greetings (response upon
Drishat shalom la mishpach’a - Regards to the family
(response upon departing)
Drishat shalom le - Give my regards to….
Dualism - In theology, the concept that the world is
controlled by two opposing forces, i.e., good and bad, God and Satan. In Philosophy the idea that the
world consists of two main components: thought and
Duchen - (Yid.) Priestly benediction performed on high
holidays and everyday in Israel.
D’var – (duh-VAHR); A prophetic message that comes
in the form of a “divine word.” An equivalent Greek
word with which many are familiar is “logos”. John
modified the first verse of Genesis by saying “in the
beginning was the logos”. This use of logos is similar
to the Hebrew dvar adonai – the “word of the Lord.”
D’var halameid mi’inyano – an argument where the
context of the passage is used to understand and
interpret a single, unclear or difficult verse.
D’vekut – (duh-vay-KOOT); Lit., “cleaving” to God.
Intensity of devotion. A Hebrew word identifying the
deep, passionate, mystical relationship or
communion that can exist between the Spirit of God
and the spirit of a human.
Ecclesiology - The study of the Christian church, its
structure, order, practices, and hierarchy.
Ecotheology – A systematic, biblical doctrine of nature
and its care. A study of the humanity’s stewardship of
God’s natural resources.
Edify - To build up. In the Christian context it means to
strengthen someone, or be strengthened, in
relationship to God, the Christian walk, and holiness.
As Christians, we are to "let all things be done for
edification" (1 Corinthians 14:26). We are edified by
the Word of God (Acts 20:32) and by love (1
Corinthians 8:1). (See also Romans 14:19;
Ephesians 4:29 and 1 Corinthians 3:1-4; James 4:16).
Edim - Witnesses
Efes - Zero
Old Covenant’s law and a denying the life after
death, reward and punishment after death, the
resurrection, and the existence of angels and
demons. They controlled the temple and its services
and were unpopular with the majority of the Jewish
Safta – (sahf-TAH); Grandmother. This is the term used
by Israeli children but in America the Yiddish word
bubbe (or bobbeh) is more common.
Sage - Refers to the great Jewish scholars whose work
is preserved still this day in oral tradition. See
Salvation - Salvation is the deliverance from sin. When
someone appeals to God and seeks forgiveness in
Jesus, his sins are removed. He is cleansed. His
relationship with God is restored, and he is made a
new creature (2 Corinthians 5:17). All of this is the
work of God, not man. Salvation is a free gift
(Romans 6:23). We are saved from damnation.
When anyone sins, and we all have (Romans 3:23;
6:23), he deserves eternal separation from God
(Isaiah 59:2). Yet, because of His love and mercy,
God became a man (John 1:1, 14) and bore the sins
of the world in His body on the cross (1 Peter 2:24; 1
John 2:2). We are forgiven when we realize that
there is nothing we can do to earn the favor of God
and we put our trust in what Jesus did for us on the
cross (Ephesians 2:8-9; 1 Corinthians 15:1-4). Only
God saves. The only thing we bring to the cross is
our sin. Both God the Father (Isaiah 14:21) and
Jesus (John 4:42) are called Savior; that is, deliverer
from sin. Remember, it was the Father who sent the
Son (1 John 4:10) to be the Savior.
Sanctify, Sanctification - To sanctify means to be set
apart for a holy use. God has set us apart for the
Sabellianism is often called modalism. According to
them the Son is the Father is the Spirit - but one at a
time; in modes of being, not distinct Persons. So for
example, Sabellians insisted that God the Father was
active in creation, God the Son was involved in
redemption and God the Holy Spirit is presently
involved in sanctification. See also Modalism,
Tritheism, and Unitarianism.
Sacerdotalism - The teaching that ordination imparts
special abilities/powers necessary for the operation
of the ministry. Also, the teaching that grace is
administered through the one so ordained.
Sacrament - A visible manifestation of the word. The
bread and wine in the Lord's Supper are considered
sacraments in that they are visible manifestations of
the covenant promise of our Lord: "In the same way,
after the supper he took the cup, saying, 'This cup is
the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out
for you.'" (Luke 22:20). God, in the OT, used visible
signs along with His spoken word. These visible
signs, then, were considered to have significance.
"Among the OT sacraments the rites of circumcision
and the Passover were stressed as being the OT
counterparts of baptism (Colossians 2:22-12) and the
Lord's Supper (1 Corinthians 5:7)."
Sadducee - A group of religious leaders in the Jewish
religion from the second century B.C. to the first
century A.D. In Hebrew their names mean "the
righteous ones." They were smaller in size and the
group of the Pharisees. The Sadducees were
generally on the upper class, often in a priestly line,
and the Pharisees in the middle class, usually
merchants and tradesmen. The Sadducees accepted
only the Torah, the first five books of the old
Testament, as authoritative. They held rigidly to the
Efficacy - Producing a result. Christ's atonement was
efficacious; it produced the result of forgiveness of
sins for the elect. The atonement is efficacious grace
in action.
Efshar’ - Possible
Ei, gut – (Yid.) Great, just great!
‫ — א‬Lamentations, a book of the Bible
Eichah - ‫ָה‬
written by Yirmiyahu lamenting the destruction of
Solomon’s Temple. Read every year at Tisha b’Av.
Eich’ omrim et zeh be’ [Anglit] - How do you say this
in [English]?
Eifo atah gar? - Where do you live?
Eifo ha sherutim? - Where is the bathroom?
Eilu v'eilu divrei elohim hayim - An adage that literally
means "Both of these interpretations are the words of
the living God." It is an elemental principle of Adonaic
principle that acknowledges the many inherent
paradoxes that arise when one deals with an infinite
God. For instance:
• God is one. God is three. Eilu v’eilu divrei elohim
• God is holy and jealous. God is merciful and
compassionate. Eilu v’eilu divrei elohim hayim.
• God is sovereign. God has granted Mankind free
will. Eilu v’eilu divrei elohim hayim.
• The one who wants to be the greatest must be
the servant of all. Eilu v’eilu divrei elohim hayim.
• The one who wants to keep his life must be willing
to cast it aside for the sake of the Mashiach’. Eilu
v’eilu divrei elohim hayim.
Ein - (Heb.) Spring, water source.
Ein adam dan gezerah shavah l'atzmo - no one can draw a
gezerah shavah comparison on his own.
Ein ba’aya! - It’s nothing!
Ein be’ad ma - You’re welcome
Ein be’ayot - No problems
Ein brerah - No choice
Ein li klum (Ein li shum davar) - I don’t have anything; I
have nothing
Ein sof – (AYN SOFE); Lit., “without end” and is used to
communicate God’s infinite, transcendent
mysteriousness. Other than His willingness to directly
communicate to us, certain of His aspects would be
completely unknowable. In fact, even with His
Scriptures, because of our limited minds we will
never fully understand Him.
Ein somch’in al haness - Don’t rely on miracles
Eizel - Fool; dope
El Adon - God is Master
El Emunah - God of Faithfulness
ַ‫ֵל ׁש‬
‫“ — א‬Almighty G-d”, the name by
El Shaddai - ‫ַּדי‬
which Hashem revealed himself to Avraham,
Yitzchak and Ya’akov.
Ela Mai - What then?; So what?; But what happens?
Elect, Election - The elect are those called by God to
salvation. This election occurs before the foundation
of the world (Ephesians 1:4) and is according to
God's will not man's (Romans 8:29-30; 9:6-23)
because God is sovereign (Romans 9:11-16). The
view of election is especially held by Calvinists who
also hold to the doctrine of predestination.
Eliyahu Hanavi - Elijah the Prophet.
Elohim - the generic term for god or gods, but is often
used of Adonai. Generally speaking, though He
presents Himself by a specific name or the humans
with whom He interacts address Him by a specific
name rather than this more bland, generic term.
Elokei - My God
Elokeich’a (Elokeich’em) - Your God
Elokeinu - Our God
Sa’arah b’kos mayim - Making a big deal out of nothing
Saba – (sah-BAH); Grandfather. This is the term used
by Israeli children but in America the Yiddish word
zayde is more common.
Sabbath - From “Shabbat”. Elohim blessed and
sanctified the seventh day of the week as a day of
Sabellianism - According to Sabellius God wears his
Father hat, his Son hat, and his Spirit hat,
successively; one at a time; not simultaneously.
Adonaists primarily refer to it as Yom Teruah,
following the biblical example, but in common use we
sometimes slip into the modern habit of calling it
Rosh Hashanah.
Traditional Judaism refers to Rosh Hashana as
the 'new year' but this is actually inaccurate from a
Scriptural point of view. In Scripture, Yom Teruah
(Feast of Trumpets) occurs in the seventh month, not
the first month. It is not the new year at all according
to biblical year reckoning.
Rosh Hodesh - New Moon.
Rosh Yeshivah - Head of a beit midrash or a yeshivah.
Rozen (pl. rozenim) - Communal leader. See also Rosh
ha kahal.
Ruach’ – (ROO-akh); (Strong’s #7307) Ruach’ is the
spirit that God breathed into the first human. It is also
used to convey spiritedness, morale or the joy of
participation. For instance, at a dance, a concert or
during a spirited worship service one could
encourage “Have some ruach’!” to get people moving
or clapping.
Ruach’ ha Kodesh – The Holy Spirit; the third member
of the Trinity. See also Shech’inah.
because He came to reveal the Father to us
(Matthew 11:27; Luke 10:22; Hebrews 1:1-3) and to
communicate to us the gospel (1 Corinthians 15:1-4)
by which comes salvation.
Ribbono Shel Olam – “Master of the Universe”;
reference to God Almighty
Righteousness - Righteousness is an attribute of moral
purity belonging to God alone (John 17:25). It is He
alone who is truly righteous. No one in the world is
righteous in the eyes of the Lord, that is, except the
Christian. We are counted righteous in the eyes of
God when we receive Jesus by faith (Philippians
3:9). Our righteousness is based on what Jesus did
on the cross. The righteousness that was Christ's is
counted to us. We, then, are seen as righteous in the
eyes of God. Though we are actually worthy of
damnation, we are made righteous (Isaiah 61:10) by
Jesus' sacrifice on the cross. As a result, we will
spend eternity in the presence of the holy, pure,
loving, kind, gentle, and righteous God who is our
Rofeh ha ch’olim - Healer of the sick
Rosh ch’odesh (pl. Rashei ch’adashim) – Lit., “head
of the month”; first of the month; New Moon, i.e. one
or two semi-festive days at the beginning of each
month. The new month begins when the first sliver of
the new moon is seen.
Rosh ha kahal (pl. Rashim) - Head of the community.
See also Rozen.
Rosh Hashanah – Lit., “head of the year”; the traditional
New Year Festival which falls on 1 and 2 Tishrei.
Also sometimes referred to as Yom Hadin (Day of
Judgment) or Yom Hazikarom (Day of Remembering)
or Yom Teruah (Day of the Shofar).
Elokim yerach’em - God will have mercy
Elul - The month preceding the New Year and Day of
Atonement. It is devoted to self-examination and
soul-searching in preparation for the divine judgment.
Corresponds to September-October.
Ema – (EE-mah); Lit., “mother” but less formal. It is
similar to “mommy.”
Emanu - Our Mother
Emet – (eh-MET); Lit., “truth.” Truth or honesty. The
discipline of speaking the truth, dealing honestly with
others and acting properly. It is also used as an
adjective as in “Emet Melek” referring to God as our
“True King.” It can also be used colloquially as in
“Emet?” meaning “Are you telling me the truth?” “Are
you putting me on?” or “Really?”
Emet ve yatziv - True and certain
Empiricism - The proposition that the only source of
true knowledge is experience. It is the search for
knowledge through experiment and observation.
Denial that knowledge can be obtained a priori.
Emunah – (eh-MOO-nah); The Hebrew word for faith or
deep abiding belief. Its first occurrence however, can
be found in the story of the Israelites' battle with the
Amalekites (Ex. 17:8-13). We read that when Moses'
hands were "steady", Israel’s army won. Interestingly,
the Hebrew word translated "steady" in this text (Ex.
17:12) is emunah! The implication is that faith, rather
than being understood as a one-time mental
decision, should be understood as a steady pursuit of
God, or faithfulness!
Epistemology - The branch of philosophy that deals
with the area of knowledge, its source, criteria, kinds,
and the relationship between what is known and the
one who is knowing it.
ָ ‫ֶרץ י‬
ֶ‫( — א‬EH-rets yis-rah-ALE);
Eretz Yisra’el – ‫ֵל‬
Lit., the “Land of Israel.”
Erev – (EH-rev); Lit., “evening.” The Jewish day runs
from sunset to sunset so all the holidays begin just
before sundown the night before. This stems from the
creation account in Genesis 1 where God apparently
used this system to denote a day saying, “Evening
came, and then morning: the first day.” (Genesis 1:5).
Erev Shabbat - ‫ָת‬
ַ ‫ֶרב‬
ֶ‫ — ע‬Shabbat evening (Friday
Erev tov - Good evening
Erusin - (Heb.) Betrothal; engagement.
Eruv hatserot — mixing or blending of courtyards. This
is a prime example of the rampant casuistry among
the orthodox Judaizers. It is the symbolic union of a
neighborhood or settlement's private property
(private dwellings) and public domain (e.g., common
courtyards, alleys and streets). The new entity is
considered private property, jointly owned by the
residents. This transformation makes it supposedly
legal for residents to transport things from one point
in the fused neighborhood or settlement to another
on the Sabbath.
Ancient sources indicate that the practice of eruv
hatserot was already well established in the Second
Temple period.
Eser – Ten
Eschatology - The study of the teachings in the Bible
concerning the end times, or of the period of time
dealing with the return of Christ and the events that
follow. Eschatological subjects include the
Resurrection, the Rapture, the Tribulation, the
Millennium, the Binding of Satan, the Three
witnesses, the Final Judgment, Armageddon, and
The New Heavens and the New Earth. In the New
Resurrection, resurrection bodies - Resurrection
means to be raised from the dead (John 5:28-29).
The word is used in different contexts in the Bible.
Lazarus was raised from the dead (John 11:43). This
is a resurrection, but it is not part of the resurrection
that occurs when we receive our new bodies when
Christ returns (1 Thessalonians 4:13-18), on the last
day (John 6:39-44) when the last trumpet is blown (1
Corinthians 15:51-55). Lazarus died again. The
resurrection of Jesus is promissory in that as we
know He was raised, so we will be raised also. In that
context, Jesus is the only one who has received a
resurrected body. That is why He is called the firstfruit from the dead (1 Corinthians 15:20-23). We will
receive our bodies either at the rapture or when
Jesus returns to earth. The resurrected body is not
subject to death or sin. We know very little about it
except what was manifested by Jesus after His
resurrection; namely, that He was able to move about
as He desired -- in and out of rooms without the use
of doors. Other than that, the rest is conjecture. (See
1 Corinthians 15).
Revelation - This means the disclosure of something
that was unknown. There are two types of revelation:
natural and special. Natural revelation is that which is
revealed about God through what we can see in
creation (Romans 1:20). Through creation we may
learn that there is a God, that He is in control, that He
has an order, and that He is concerned for our
welfare. However, through natural revelation, we are
not able to discover the plan of salvation. That comes
from special revelation. Special revelation is that
which is given to us through Prophets, the Bible, and
even visions and dreams (Numbers 12:6-8). The
ultimate in revelation is the incarnation of Jesus
leads us to conclude that Biblical education is a
universal duty. See PARDES.
Repentance - To repent means to turn. In the NT
repentance means to turn from sin. We were called
by God to turn from sin. In fact, all men everywhere
are commanded by God to repent of their sins (Acts
17:30). God's longsuffering leads us to repentance (2
Peter 3:9) as does His kindness (Romans 2:4). There
is true and false repentance, "For the sorrow that is
according to the will of God produces a repentance
without regret, leading to salvation; but the sorrow of
the world produces death" (2 Corinthians 7:10).
Replacement Theology – A false cultural christian
doctrine which teaches the church replaces Israel in
Hashem's plan. Basically all the blessings promised
to Israel are usurped by the church (though the
replacement theologists generally allow Israel to
keep all the curses she was promised – how’s THAT
for justice!).
Responsa – (reh-SPON-sah) This is the Latin plural of
responsum, which means answer, reply, or opinion.
Responsa, are answers to ethical questions. It is the
usual English designation for the rabbinic expression
she'eilot u-teshuvot (questions and answers).
In Judaism the term responsa refers to the
halachic correspondence of rabbinic authorities,
especially the written rulings of Geonim in response
to halachic queries written by Jews living outside
Restoration of Zion — the return to Jerusalem of the
Jewish exiles in Babylonia during the days of
Zerubbabel, Ezra and Nehemiah (5th-6th centuries
B.C.), accompanied by the rebuilding of the Temple.
The term shivat tsiyon (the return, or restoration, of
Zion) is taken from Psalm 126:1.
Testament, eschatological chapters include Matthew
24, Mark 13, Luke 17, and 2 Thessalonians 2. In one
form or another most of the books of the Bible deal
with end times subjects. But some that are more
prominently eschatological are Daniel, Ezekiel,
Isaiah, Joel, Zechariah, Matthew, Mark, Luke, 2
Thessalonians, and of course Revelation. (See
Amillennialism and Premillennialism for more
information on views on the millennium.)
Eshet Ch’ayil – literally “woman of valor”. This is the
ideal woman presented in Proverbs 31:10-31. A good
example of such a woman would be the prophetess
Deborah, or King David’s wife Abigail.
Essenes – The Essenes were a Jewish sect that existed
during the 400 years of intertestamental silence.
They are most famous for the Dead Sea Scrolls that
were found at Qumran.
ֶ — One of the five Megillot. The book of
Esther - ‫ֵר‬
Esther tells the story of the deliverance of the Jewish
people in Persia, and the holiday Purim is celebrated
each year in rememberance of this act.
Eshet ch’ayil – A valorous woman
Eternal life - Life everlasting in the presence of God.
"This is eternal life, that they may know Thee the only
true God, and Jesus Christ, whom Thou has sent"
(John 17:3). There are two senses in which this is
used. First, as Christians we possess eternal life (1
John 5:13), yet we are not in heaven or in the
immediate presence of God. Though we are still in
mortal bodies and we still sin, by faith we are saved
(Romans 4:5; Ephesians 2:8-9) and possess eternal
life as a free gift from God (Romans 6:23). Second,
eternal life will reach its final state at the resurrection
of the believers when Christ returns to earth to claim
His church. It is then that eternal life will begin in its
complete manifestation. We will no longer sin.
Eternal Security - The doctrine that salvation cannot be
lost. Since it is not gained by anything we do, it
cannot be lost by anything we do. This does not
mean that we can sin all we want (Romans 6:1-2)
because we have been freed from sin and are set
apart for holy use (1 Thessalonians 4:7). (See
Ethics - The study of right and wrong and wrong, good
and bad, moral judgment, etc.
Ethics of the Fathers – A part of the Mishnah, in
Hebrew this 3rd century AD book is known as the
“Pirke Avot”, literally “Chapters of our Fathers.” It is
often studied in the period of time between Pesach’
and Shavuot. It is a compendium of five centuries of
advice from various Jewish scholars.
Etrog - A citron traditionally used for ritual purposes
along with a lulav, haddassim, and aravot, during the
harvest festival of Sukkot (Feast of Tabernacles).The
commandment to do so is based on a verse in
Leviticus 23.40 which states “On the first day (of
Sukkot) you shall take the fruit of the hadar
(beautiful) tree." The sages later explain that the
hadar (beautiful) tree refers to a citron tree.
Eutychianism - This is similar to Monophycitism. It
states that Christ's natures were so thoroughly
combined -- in a sense scrambled together -- that the
result was that Christ was not really truly able to
relate to us as humans. The problem is this implies
that Jesus was not truly God nor man. Therefore, He
would be unable to act as mediator and unable to
truly atone for our sins. (See Hypostatic Union, which
is the correct view of Christ's two natures, and also
We were bought with a price (1 Corinthians 6:20;
7:23). (see also Ransomed)
Reform - Founded by Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise, this is a
more progressive sect in Judaism, more liberal in its
treatment of women and more liberal in its
conversion requirements.
Refuah shlemah! - [May you have] a complete
Regah - One moment
Regeneration - The act of God whereby He renews the
spiritual condition of a sinner. It is a spiritual change
brought about by the work of the Holy Spirit so that
the person then possess new life, eternal life.
Regeneration is a change in our moral and spiritual
nature where justification is a change in our
relationship with God. Also, sanctification is the work
of God in us to make us more like Jesus.
Regeneration is the beginning of that change. It
means to be born again.
Reincarnation - Reincarnation is taught in the Talmud
as din gilgol neshomes, meaning '"the judgment of
the revolutions of the souls." This is another reason
why Talmud is not considered on par with Scripture
by Adonaists.
Relativism - The view that truth is relative and not
absolute. Truth varies from people to people, time to
time and there are no absolutes.
Remez – (pronounced reh-MEZ); Remez means “hint”.
A method of Biblical interpretation based on finding
hints in the Torah for various concepts. We ask
ourselves, “what principle does the peshat imply?”
For instance, because Yahweh is the God of all
nations, Moses’ instruction to the people of Israel to
teach their children the ways of the Lord is not merely
for Israelis but may be applied to all humans. Remez
retire may be called “Rebbe” to distinguish him from
the current, younger rabbi. It can also be used before
he retires as a term of endearment or respect.
Rebbitzen – (also spelled rebbetzin) The Rabbi's wife.
Rechabites – A family in ancient Israel whose
obedience to their ancestor’s exhortation to pursue
certain ascetic practices and a simple lifestyle
brought them the blessing of the Lord. (see Jeremiah
Reconcile, Reconciliation - Reconciliation is changing
for the better a relationship between two or more
persons. Theologically it refers to the change of
relationship between God and man. We are naturally
children of wrath (Ephesians 2:3), and are at enmity
with God (Ephesians 2:11-15); but, "...we were
reconciled to God through the death of His Son..."
(Romans 5:10). Because of the death of Jesus, the
Christian's relationship with God is changed for the
better. We are now able to have fellowship with Him
(1 John 1:3) whereas before we could not. So, we
are reconciled to Him (Romans 5:10-11). The
problem of sin that separates us from God (Isaiah
59:2) has been addressed and removed in the cross.
It was accomplished by God in Christ (2 Corinthians
Reconstructionism - Founded by Mordecai M. Kaplan
(1881-1983). Reconstructionism defines itself as “an
evolving and more dynamic Judaism.”
Red Heifer – See Parah adumah
Redemption - Redemption means to free someone from
bondage. It often involves the paying of a ransom, a
price that makes redemption possible. The Israelites
were redeemed from Egypt. We were redeemed from
the power of sin and the curse of the Law (Galatians
3:13) through Jesus (Romans 3:24; Colossians 1:14).
Nestorianism and Monophycitism which are the
incorrect views of Christ's two natures.)
Evil - Moral rebellion against God. It is contrary to the
will of God. There is natural evil (floods, storms,
famines, etc.) and moral evil (adultery, murder,
idolatry, etc.). Natural evil is a result of moral evil in
the sense that Adam's sin resulted in sin entering the
world allowing floods, storms, famines, etc. However,
not every natural evil is a direct consequence of
moral evil (John 9:2-3). Evil originated with Satan
(Isaiah 14:12-14) and is carried on by man (Matthew
15:18-19). (See Theodicy)
Evolution - The theory that over an incredible duration
of time, life developed from random combinations of
non-organic materials. This life was improved upon
through mutations and the process of natural
selection. The Scriptures do not speak about
evolution but instead states that God is at the heart of
all creation (Genesis 1) and that He fabricated
humanity out of the dust of the earth.
Ex nihilo – A Latin phrase that literally means “out of
nothing.” It is usually used in conjunction with the
idea of God creating the universe out of nothing, or
creatio ex nihilo. Its opposite is creatio ex materia or
creation out of matter.
Ex materia – A Latin phrase that literally means “out of
matter.” It is usually used in conjunction with the idea
of God creating the universe out of some pre-existing
material. Its opposite is creatio ex nihilo.
Excommunication - The act of discipline where the
Church breaks fellowship with a member who has
refused to repent of sins. Matthew 18 is generally
used as the model of procedures leading up to
excommunication. Those excommunicated are not to
partake in the Lord’s Supper (See Pesach’ or
Passover). In the Bible, serious offenders of God’s
law, who claimed to be Christian, were "delivered
over to Satan for the destruction of the flesh" (1
Corinthians 5:5; 1 Timothy 1:20). However, upon
repentance, the person is welcomed back into
fellowship within the body of Christ. See also herem.
Expiation - The cancellation of sin. Expiation and
propitiation are similar but expiation does not carry
the implication of dealing with wrath, of appeasing it
through a sacrifice. Generally speaking, propitiation
cancels sin and deals with God's wrath. Expiation is
simply the cancellation of sin. Jesus was our
propitiation (1 John 2:2; 4:10).
Eytsa - (Heb/Yid.) Advice.
ֶ — A scribe who oversaw the rebuilding of
Ezra - ‫ְרה‬
the Temple and the teaching of Torahin Israel during
the return from the Babylonian Captivity.
Ezrach’ – (ehz-RAKH) The term ezrach’ is Hebrew for
citizen. Adonaists believe that because of Hashem’s
grace and mercy we can become His people; His
family; citizens of a higher country. We believe that
someone who takes the Messiah not only as Savior
but as Sovereign King a Jew. This the way it always
was. Those who chose to worship God were to be
treated as native Jews. (Leviticus 19:34 cp Romans
2:27-29 and Galatians 3:6-9, 28-29; Ephesians 2:1119) Those who refused to follow God were cut off
from the People (Numbers 15:30).
Faith - "Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for,
the conviction of things not seen" (Hebrews 11:1). It
is synonymous with trust. It is a divine gift (Romans
12:3) and comes by hearing the Word of God
(Romans 10:17). It is the means by which the grace
Holy of Holies and declares himself to be God. (See
Rashah – A mean, evil person. The opposite of a
Tzaddik. Rasha is he who sins against man or
against God. He who deserts his community is a
Rasha. He who harms his friends is a Rasha. To
betray one's comrades, to flout one's people, those
are acts of a Rasha. The plural would be rashaim.
Rashi — acronym for Rabbi Shlomo ben Yitzhak (10401105 CE). It can also mean Rashi's eleventh-century
commentary on the Bible.
Rationalism - A branch of philosophy where truth is
determined by reason.
Ratsah – (rah-TSAH); (Strong’s #7521); Acceptance.
Rav (pl. Rabbanim) – An official rabbi who renders legal
decisions; a rabbi; a teacher of Scripture. See also
Rav todot! - Many thanks!
R’ch’ilut – (er-KHeel-OOT); Letting someone know
negative things that other people are saying about
them. Gossip.
Reb – A title added to persons’ name as a sign of
respect. The term "rebbe" should not be confused
with the term "reb," which is simply a Yiddish title of
respect more or less equivalent to "Mister" in English.
Rebbe or Rebiniu - Term of endearment for a rabbi. It is
sometimes translated by prideful people as “Grand
Rabbi” but it literally and simply means “my rabbi.”
Thus, the term "rebbe" is sometimes used simply to
refer to ones own personal rabbi or any rabbi that a
person has a close relationship with. A tzaddik is
sometimes designated as 'Rebbe' as distinct from the
rabbi proper or the Rav. who discharges the
rabbinical functions as spiritual leader of the whole
community. Thus, an elderly rabbi who has had to
See also Dayan, Melammed, Tannaim, Zaquen.
For further instruction see the meforshim answer the
shayla “Can believers be called rabbis?”
Rach’amim – (rak-ah-MEEM); Lit., “compassion.” It can
be used to describe a compassionate and merciful
God. However, rach’amim, treating others with
compassion, understanding and empathy, is an
important value in Adonaism.
Rachmanim b’nei rachmanim – compassionate
children of compassionate ancestors. One of the
missions of Adonaists is to become compassionate
Rach’mana litzlon! - Heaven forbid!
Rach’mones – (rak-MUN-is); Sympathetic pity or
empathy as in “Look at that poor woman. Have a little
rach’mones and help her out.”
Rah me’od - Very bad
Rambam – See Maimonides
Rapture - The rapture is an eschatological (end times)
event whereupon the return of Christ the true
believers who are "alive and remain shall be caught
up together with them [those who already died as
Christians] in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air..."
(1 Thessalonians 4:17). This is the time of the
resurrection where the Christian receives his
resurrected body. First to receive their new bodies
are those who have died as Christians, and then
"those who are alive and remain." There is much
debate over the time of the rapture. Does it occur at
the beginning (pre-tribulational), in the middle (midtribulational), or at the end (post-tribulational) of the
tribulation period? Personally I hold to none of these.
My view is referred to as “pre-wrath”. The pre-wrath
view holds that the rapture will occur shortly after the
mid-tribulational event where the Antichrist enters the
of God is accounted to the believer who trusts in the
work of Jesus on the cross (Ephesians 2:8). Without
faith it is impossible to please God (Hebrews 11:6). It
is by faith that we live our lives, "The righteous shall
live by faith" (Habakkuk 2:4; Romans 1:17).
Fall, The - The fall is that event in the Garden of Eden
where Adam and Eve disobeyed the command of
God and ate of The Tree of the Knowledge of Good
and Evil (Genesis 2 and 3). Since Adam represented
all of mankind, when He sinned all of mankind fell
with Him (Romans 5:12).
False Prophet, The - The second beast of Revelation
(Revelation 13:11-18). He is a person who will
manifest himself near the culmination of this epoch
shortly before the physical return of Christ. He will be
a miracle worker and during the Tribulation period will
bring fire down from heaven and command that
people worship the image of the Beast (Revelation
11:15). See also (13:16-17). Jesus warned about
false prophets in Matthew 24:24 stating that in the
last days many false prophets would arise and
deceive, if possible, even the elect. False prophets
teach false doctrine and lead people away from the
true gospel message and teaching of God found in
the Bible. Examples of modern day false prophets
are Joseph Smith (Mormonism), Charles Taze
Russell (Jehovah's Witnesses), Mary Baker Eddy
(Christian Science), etc. Each of them distorts the
truth sufficient to cause damnation.
Farbrengen – (Yid.) An assemblage addressed by a
rabbi; an informal gathering of Believers for mutual
edification and brotherly criticism.
Fast, Fasting - Depriving oneself of food for a period of
time for a specific purpose, often spiritual. It is the
"weakening" of the body in order to "strengthen" the
spirit. It is interesting to note that sin entered the
world through the disobedience of eating (Genesis
3:6). We are called to fast in the New Covenant
(Matthew 6:16). (See also 1 Kings 21:27; Psalm
35:13; Acts 13:3; 2 Corinthians 6:5).
Fellowship - There is no specific definition given in the
N.T. But we are called into fellowship with one
another (1 John 1:3), with Jesus (1 Corinthians 1:9),
with the Father (1 John 1:3), and with the Holy Spirit
(2 Corinthians 13:14). Fellowship implies sharing
common interests, desires, and motivations.
Fellowship requires that time be spent with another
communicating, caring, etc. It carries with it a hint of
intimacy. As Christians we fellowship with one
another because of our position in Christ, because
we are all redeemed and share an intimate personal
knowledge of Jesus. We share a common belief
(Acts 2:42), hope (Hebrews 11:39-40), and need (2
Corinthians 8:1-15). The Greek word for fellowship is
koinonia. This word is also translated communion in
1 Corinthians 10:16 in the KJV. This is where we get
the term the communion supper.
Filioque -The doctrine that the Holy Spirit proceeds
equally from both the Father and the Son.
Firstborn - The first of the mother's offspring. It stands
figuratively for that which is most excellent. The
firstborn male of the family carried certain familial
rites and privileges (Genesis 27:1-29; 48:13-14) and
was given a double portion of the inheritance
(Deuteronomy 21:17). The term is also applied to
Christ as the pre-eminent one and the first one raised
from the dead (Colossians 1:15,18). It does not mean
first created as Jehovah's Witnesses believe. In fact,
the firstborn rites were transferable. Compare
Jeremiah 31:9 with Genesis 41:50-52.
to perform certain sacred rituals. Biblically speaking a
kohen is a descendent of Aaron with special authority
to serve in the Beit ha Mikdash. Since the Temple
has been destroyed, there is obviously no call for
kohenim, at least until Mashiach’ returns and reestablishes the Temple in the New Jerusalem.
An Adonaic rabbi has no more authority to
perform rituals than any of his brothers and sisters.
Any authority he or she may possess stems first from
his or her calling from God and secondarily from the
authority granted or delegated from a local
A rabbi is simply a teacher, a person sufficiently
educated in Halakhah and apostolic traditions to
instruct the community and to answer questions and
resolve disputes regarding Halakha. When a person
has completed the necessary course of study, he is
given a written document known as a semich’a,
which confirms his authority to make such decisions.
So, a rabbi is someone who has been vested with the
appropriate degree of trust by his or her local
congregation to minister to the community, lead
community religious services and deal with many of
the administrative matters related to the
Adonaists believe in the priesthood of all
believers, so it is important to note that the rabbi's
status as rabbi does not give him any special
authority to conduct religious services. Any Believer
sufficiently educated to know what he is doing can
lead a religious service, and a service led by such a
Believer is every bit as valid as a service led by a
rabbi. It is not unusual (though not considered
healthy) for a community to be without a rabbi, or for
Adonaic services to be conducted without a rabbi.
Q — a conjectured Greek work believed by some
scholars to be the source of Matthew and Luke's
non-Markan sayings. The designation "Q" is usually
thought to be an abbreviation of the German Quelle,
meaning "source"; however, the designation may
have been chosen because Markan material was
once thought to be from Peter, or P, and thus some
second source would be Q.
Qal v’ ch’omer - Literally "easy and hard". This is the
same as “a fortiori” which is from the Latin, meaning
“even more so; by a stronger reason.” See Numbers
12:14; Deuteronomy 31:27; Jonah 4:10-11
Quashab – (kah-SHAB); (Strong’s #7183);
R. — an abbreviation used in rabbinic literature for the
honorific titles, "Rabbi," "Rabban," "Rav" and
Rabbi (pl. Rabbanim) – Also sometimes addressed or
referred to as “Rav”. Rabbi is a general term used for
a scriptural scholar and/or teacher. A rabbi is a
teacher of “hanhagoth yesharoth” (Rules of right
conduct) and sometimes acts as a religious judge. A
rabbi is usually (though not always) considered the
spiritual head of the community. We say “not always”
because we believe that the rabbi should be chosen
from among the zaquenim of the congregation and
that the rabbi is one of a plurality of zaquenim. The
rabbi is thus answerable to both the zaquenim on a
daily basis and to the congregation more generally.
He is thus the servant of the congregation and not its
A rabbi is not a kohen (priest). Generally
speaking, a kohen is a person with special authority
Forgiveness - There are seven words in Scripture that
denote the idea of forgiveness: three in Hebrew and
four in Greek. No book of religion except Christianity
teaches that God completely forgives sins. God
remembers our sins no more (Hebrews 10:17). God
is the initiator of forgiveness (Colossians 2:13). There
is only one sin for which the Father does not promise
forgiveness: blasphemy against the Holy Spirit (Mark
3:28; Matthew 12:32). The contexts suggest this to
be the sin of attributing to unclean spirits the work of
the Holy Spirit. For man to receive forgiveness,
repentance is necessary (Luke 17:3-4). For the holy
God to extend forgiveness, the shedding of blood is
necessary (Hebrews 9:22; Leviticus 17:11).
Forgiveness is based upon the sacrifice of Christ on
the cross.
Fool - Hater of God. One who is morally weak, who
misuses what God has given him for selfish
purposes. He is lustful (Proverbs 7:22), lazy
(Ecclesiastes 10:15), does not fear God (Proverbs
14:1), hates knowledge (Proverbs 1:22), and is selfrighteous (Proverbs 12:15). As Christians, we are to
avoid foolishness (Ephesians 5:4). (See Ecclesiastes
7:25; Proverbs 3:35, 10:8.)
Foreknow, Foreknowledge - It is God's knowledge
about things that will happen. Past, present, and
future are all "present" in the mind of God. He
inhabits eternity (Isaiah 57:15). God has infinite
knowledge (Isaiah 41:22-23) and knows all things in
advance. In the New Covenant it does not always
mean "to know beforehand" but also to cause to be.
See 1 Peter 1:2,20.
Four Questions – The four questions asked during the
Pesach’ Seder. The answers to these explain the
meaning and the symbols of the holiday. During the
seder, it is traditional for the youngest child to read
the Four Questions. The leader of the Seder answers
each question by guiding the guests through the
haggadah, which tells the story of the Israelites’
Exodus from Egypt. The questions are introduced
with the query “Why is this night different from all
other nights?” and are as follows: (1) On all other
nights we eat bread or matzah. Why on this night do
we eat only matzah? (2) On all other nights we eat
many vegetables. Why tonight do we eat bitter
herbs? (3) On all other nights we do not dip our food.
Why tonight do we dip food twice? (4) On all other
nights we can sit any way. Why tonight do we
recline? Also called Mah Nishtanah,” which are the
first two words in Hebrew of the Four Questions.
Four Species - Fruit and branches used to fulfill the
commandment to “rejoice before the L-rd” during
Free Knowledge - The free act of God’s will where, after
His free act of creation, He knows all things that are
going to happen and that this knowledge is
contingent upon His free creative will. Therefore, the
free knowledge of God would be different if He had
chosen a different creative fiat. In other words,
because God created one possible existence instead
of another, the range of His knowledge regarding
actual existence would have been different had He
created something different in the first place. (See
also Natural knowledge and Middle Knowledge.)
Free will - Freedom of self determination and action
independent of external causes.
Freethinker - A person who forms his opinions about
religion and God without regard to revelation,
scripture, tradition, or experience.
committed, the person is then set free and enters
heaven. "Gifts or services rendered to the church,
prayers by the priests, and masses provided by
relatives or friends in behalf of the deceased can
shorten, alleviate or eliminate the sojourn of the soul
in purgatory." This is an unbiblical doctrine rejected
by the Protestant church. It reflects the
misunderstanding of the atonement of Christ as well
as adding insult to the finished work of the cross. The
error of purgatory is the teaching that we might
perfect ourselves and remove sin through our
sufferings. If that were possible, then why did Christ
need to die? Galatians 2:21 says, "I do not set aside
the grace of God, for if righteousness could be
gained through the law, Christ died for nothing!"
(NIV) Additionally, on the cross Jesus said, "It is
finished" (John 19:30). In the Greek, this was an
accounting term which meant a debt was paid in full.
If the payment for our sins was paid in full on the
cross, then how could purgatory be a reality -especially when the scriptures don't mention it and
even contradict it: "Just as man is destined to die
once, and after that to face judgment" (Hebrews
Purim - Festival commemorating the deliverance of the
Jews recorded in Book of Esther. Some of the
observances include the reading of the Megillat
Ester; mishloah manot which are gifts of food sent to
friends; matanot l’evyonim which are gifts of
tzedakah given to the poor and seudat Purim which
is a special celebratory meal given at Purim’s end.
Pushke – (PUSH-keh) An offering plate or box
The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 2 vols.
(Doubleday, 1983-1985), includes fifty-two
documents. Some of the most important of these for
gospel studies are Enoch, Jubilees and The
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, portions of all
of which have been found in Hebrew or Aramaic at
Pshara – Compromise or Settlement. This does not
mean the court may enforce any compromise it
wishes on the parties. In pshara, the judges hold a
hearing, consider the evidence according to biblical
legal principles and then order a settlement based on
the equities of the case. As such, sometimes the
judges rule entirely in favor of one side, even though
they are judging according to the rules of pshara. The
primary distinction between din and pshara is that the
judges in din are more limited by the technicalities of
biblical law.
Pshara krova l’din – Compromise or settlement
considering the technicalities and the potential
outcome based on strict interpretation of biblical law,
as opposed to the merits/equities of the case. This
form of pshara may not deviate freely from what the
outcome would have been if the case were to be
judged according to the rules of din.
P’sukei d’zimra – An early morning prayer service. See
also Minha.
Ptur – (Ptoor) A certificate given by a Beit Din declaring
that a gett has been granted. A copy is usually kept
on file by the Beit Din.
Purgatory - An incorrect doctrine of the Roman Catholic
Church. Purgatory is the belief that there exists a
place after death where some of the sins of people
are purged through suffering. After a period of time
corresponding to the suffering necessary for the sins
Gabbai - An honorary officer of the congregation who
assists the elders by acting as treasurer.
‫ — ג‬great.
Gadol - ‫ָדֹול‬
Gallil - ‫ִיל‬
ָ — Galilee, a lake in Northern Israel that
helps feed the Jordan River. Also, a governmental
area managed by various Roman leaders during the
time of Yeshua.
Galui le ayin - Perceptible to the eye; visible; obvious;
noticeable; detectable; evident
Galut – (gah-LOOT); Lit., “exile”. The Hebrew equivalent
to the English word “Diaspora.” It is used of any place
outside of Eretz Yisrael where Jews live. Galut can
also indicate the compulsory exile of the Jews from
Israel after the destruction of the Second Temple by
Titus in AD 70.
Gam zeh le tovah - This is for the good [best]
Gam zeh ya’avor – (gahm zay ya-ah-VOR); A Hebrew
phrase meaning “this too shall pass.”
Gan Eden – ‫ֶן‬
ֵ ‫ַן‬
‫ — ג‬The Garden of Eden; also used
of Paradise.
Gaon, pl. Gaonim - (Heb. Genius) Honorific title of
address for any outstanding scriptural scholar.
Gavra rabbah - A great man
Gefilte fish – This is the more popular, Yiddish term for
the Hebrew “dagim memula’im”. Both literally mean
“stuffed” or “filled” fish. Gefilte fish is a very broad
term representing many recipes. Gefilte fish are often
eaten on Shabbat or on holidays.
Gehenna – Originally, a location southwest of Jerusalem
where children were burned as sacrifices to the god
Molech. It later became a garbage dump with a
Frum: Yiddish; refers to someone who is observant of
Jewish law.
continuous burning of trash. Therefore, it was used
biblically, to illustrate the abode of the damned in
Christian and Jewish theology. Gehenna is that part
of death (Sheol; literally the grave) to which the
godless dead are confined. In Greek it is called
Hades. It used to be opposite of Abraham’s Bosom
(aka Paradise) where the righteous dead waited.
Twixt the two lay a great gulf that no one could cross.
Since Jesus’ resurrection Paradise and all those
within it were taken to heaven. Now to die a believer
is to be with the Lord and is considered a great gain.
Gehenna is mentioned in Mark 9:43ff and Matthew
10:28 as the place of punishment of unquenchable
fire where both the body and soul of the wicked go
after death. It is apparently the future abode of Satan
and his angels (Matthew 25:41).
Gemach’ – (geh- MAUK) A Hebrew abbreviation
composed of the three Hebrew letters gimmel, mem
and ches, it stands for gemillut ch’asadim which
literally translates as "acts of kindness". Thus a
gemach’ may be a “free loan society” which extends
interest-free loans to the poor, and to those trying to
avoid going on welfare. Sometimes a gemach’ has a
store of something else than money which it lends
out for free. For instance many gemachs offer free
loan of tables, benches, wheelchairs, brides' dresses,
Among those with specific, focused objectives
were: hachnasat kallah societies (providing dowries
for poor brides), hachnasat orchim societies
(providing shelter for the poor or homeless travelers),
bikur cholim (visiting the sick) and funds and
associations that provided free meals to the indigent.
ְ — A portion of the Talmud, a
Gemarah – ‫ָרה‬
commentary on the Mishnah by the Amoraim. See
the mouthpiece he was inspired and without error.
The prophet, though, is not a puppet or a mindless
repeater of what he hears. Instead, he retains his
own will, mind, and thoughts as he speaks for God.
God would put His words in their mouths
(Deuteronomy 18:18; Jeremiah 1:9). A prophet was
God's servant (Zechariah 1:6) and messenger (2
Chronicles 36:15). The prophecies fell into three
categories: concerning the destiny of Israel, the
messianic prophecies, and eschatological
prophecies. The term Law and Prophets refers to the
writings of the Old Covenant divided into two
categories. The Law is the Pentateuch, or Genesis,
Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. The
Prophets are all the rest of the Old Covenant books.
Propitiation - This means the turning away of wrath by
an offering. It is similar to expiation but expiation
does not carry the nuances involving wrath. For the
Christian the propitiation was the shed blood of Jesus
on the cross. It turned away the wrath of God so that
He could pass "over the sins previously committed"
(Romans 3:25). It was the Father who sent the Son
to be the propitiation (1 John 4:10) for all (1 John
Proster oilem - Common people
Pru u'rvu - Sex for procreation purposes as opposed to
onah (recreational, sexual pleasure)
P'sak - Decision, verdict.Halakhic judicial ruling on a
contested matter. Also spelled psak.
Pseudepigrapha — (literally, falsely written) a title for
various pseudonymous or anonymous Jewish
writings of the third century B.C. to the second
century A.D. not found in the Hebrew Bible or
Apocrypha. James H. Charlesworth's recently
published English translation of the Pseudepigrapha,
millennium (1000 years) where Christ will rule and
reign over the earth. At the beginning of the
millennium Satan and his angels will be bound and
peace will exist on the entire earth. At the end of the
1000 years Satan will be released in order to raise an
army against Jesus. Jesus will destroy them and then
the final judgment will take place with the new
heavens and the new earth being made.
Preterition - The act of passing over something, or
neglecting it. In theology, it is the Reformed doctrine
that God passed over people by not electing them
into salvation. Instead, only those elected to salvation
will be saved and passed over all others. This
doctrine contradicts the clear teaching of the
Scriptures that the Lord does not want any to perish
but all to come to repentance (Ezekiel 18:23, 32;
33:11; Romans 11:32; 1 Timothy 2:4; 2 Peter 3:9).
Prevenient – (pri-veen-yuh nt) to come before; to
antecede; to anticipate. In doctrine this refers to
God’s prevenient grace. Adonaist hold that before a
man can seek God, God must first have sought the
man. God reached out to us while we were still
rebellious sinners (Romans 5:8). No one can come to
the Son unless the Father first draws them (John
Priest - A person having the ability to perform certain
religious rites, sacraments. Generally, a priest stands
between God and Man and administers the
ceremonial rites on behalf of the individuals as an
offering to God. In many churches (Catholic), the
priest is below the Bishop in ecclesiastical order and
Prophet - Someone who is the mouthpiece of God. He
stands between God and man to communicate to
man the word of God. When the prophet spoke as
also Mishnah. The Talmud is the combination of the
Gemarah and the Mishnah.
Gematria – a foolish, idolatrous system of Kabbalistic
numerology which claims to find hidden meanings in
words based on the numeric value of their letters.
Generally speaking anything they support, they can
find by some mathematical combination they make
up. It’s senseless snake oil of the same quality as the
so-called “Bible code.”
Gemilut ch’asadim – (geh-mee-LOOT hah-sah-DEEM);
(Heb. Acts of loving kindness) Talmudic term used to
implore the need to treat all creatures with love and
kindness. The performance of ch’esed. Literally “acts
of loving kindness.” These can include clothing the
naked, providing for a bride, visiting the sick,
comforting mourners, feeding the hungry or
extending hospitality to strangers. Gemilut hasadim is
considered greater than tzedakah (charity) for three
reasons. First, while tzedakah is primarily extended
to the poor, gemilut hasadim can be granted to all,
regardless of socio-economic status. Second,
tzedakah can only be extended to the living, but
gemilut hasadim (in the form of kavod hamet) can be
granted (by paying for a burial or attending a funeral)
even to the dead. Finally, tzedakah usually takes the
form of money, while gemilut hasadim can be a
nearly infinite form of kindnesses. To truly qualify as
gemilut hasadim these mitzvot should be done with
no thought of motivation, reward or thanks. For this
reason Adonaists consider the highest form of
gemilut hasadim to be kavod hamet (honoring the
dead) because there is no way that the dead will ever
be able to repay the kindness in this world.
Gemilut ch’esed – (geh-mee-LOOT Khe-SED) Loving
kindness. Any good deed that one does for another
without getting something in return.
Gemilut Haredim – (geh-mee-LOOT ha-RAY-deem);
Acts of loving kindness directed toward fellow
believers. Adonaists are instructed to perform acts of
ch’esed to all people, but particularly to those
who are believers. “Therefore, as we have
opportunity, we must work for the good of all,
especially for those who belong to the household of
faith.” (Galatians 6:10) As 1 Peter 2:17 says, we
honor everyone but we love the brotherhood. Thus
“gemilut haredim” may be used to refer to this
principle of priority.
ְ — (storing) A storage room for
Genizah — ‫ָה‬
holding holy objects, especially siddurim and other
sefarim, that have fallen into disrepair or are
disqualified from use. A genizah is a place for storing
damaged or worn-out books or ritual objects that
contain the four-letter YHWH, the divine name of
According to Judaic tradition, such objects could
not be destroyed, but were hidden so that they would
not be defiled. When the genizah could hold no
more, its contents were buried in a cemetery. The
genizah was usually a room attached to the
The most famous of these is the Cairo Genizah,
discovered in 1896 in the attic of the Ezra
Synagogue in Fostat (Old Cairo), where most of the
lost Hebrew book of Ben Sira was discovered.
Gentile(s) - (Lat. People or Nation). Term used to refer
to a non-Jew (goy). Gentiles were used by God to
punish apostate Judea (Deuteronomy 28:49; 1 Kings
8:33) and often included in blessings by God upon
that the fall of Satan caused a widespread
destruction of the world. The result of this destruction
was so vast that the world needed to be re-made with
Adam and Eve being the first of the new order. There
is no biblical substantiation for this view.
Pre-existence - The teaching that before our existence
here on earth, we had a prior existence. Biblically, we
do not pre-exist. Our beginning is at our conception.
Many aberrant groups teach preexistence such as
the Mormons and the Shepherd’s Chapel. Also, all
groups that teach reincarnation affirm the idea of preexistence.
Predestine, Predestination - The doctrine that God has
foreordained all things which will come to pass yet
He is not the author of sin. He does, however, use
sinful things for His glory and purpose. For example,
the crucifixion was brought about by sinful men who
unrighteously put Jesus to death (Acts 4:27); yet, in
that death, we are reconciled to God (Romans 5:10).
Predestination maintains that God is the one who
decides who will be saved (Romans 9:16) and that it
is not up to the desire of the person (John 1:13). God
is the one who ordains the Christian into forgiveness,
"...and as many as had been appointed to eternal life
believed" (Acts 13:48). Also, "For whom He
foreknew, He also predestined to become conformed
to the image of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren; and whom He
predestined, these He also called; and who He
called, these He also justified; and whom He justified,
these He also glorified" (Romans 8:29-30). Further
verses to examine are Ephesians 1:4, 11; Romans 9.
(See also Election, Ordo Salutis and Sovereignty.)
Premillennialism - This is a teaching concerning the
end times (eschatology). It says that there is a future
that there is only one true God (Isaiah 43:10; 44:6, 8;
45:5, 18, 21-22; 46:9). (See Monotheism.)
Po nikbar; Po nitman - Here lies (abbrev. at top of most
Jewish tombstones)
Posek (pl. Posekim) – (poe-SEHK); An elder acting in
the role of a decisor. An elder to whom shayla
(religious questions) are posed. A Posek may also
act as a “dayan” a judge in matters of interpersonal
conflict or theological debate. Authors of halach’ic
Posken - To render a halakhic ruling, usually one that
clarifies the law in a specific case.
Postmillennialism - The belief that through the
preaching of the word of God, the entire world will be
converted to Christianity and this will usher in the
kingdom of Christ. This is when Christ will return.
Pragmatism - A method in philosophy where value is
determined by practical results.
Prayer - A privilege and an obligation of the Christian
where we communicate with God. It is how we
convey our confession (1 John 1:9), requests (1
Timothy 2:1-3), intercessions (James 5:15),
thanksgiving (Philippians 4:6), etc., to our holy God.
We are commanded to pray (1 Thessalonians 5:17).
Some personal requirements of prayer are a pure
heart (Psalm 66:18), belief in Christ (John 14:13),
and that the prayer be according to God's will (1 John
5:14). We can pray standing (Nehemiah 9:5),
kneeling (Ezra 9:5), sitting (1 Chronicles 17:16-27),
bowing (Exodus 34:8), and with lifted hands (1
Timothy 2:8).
Praying through Scripture – Using a particular
Scriptural text as a model or a framework for prayer.
Pre-Adamites - The teaching that there was a race of
people before Adam and Eve lived in the Garden and
the Jewish people. "Gentiles" is often used biblically
in reference to nations; thus the term “goy” or “goyim”
which is the Hebrew word for “nations”. Anyone who
converts to Yahweh and is willing to obey His
commands is no longer a goy and is to be treated as
a native-born Israeli (Leviticus 19:34 cp Romans
2:27-29 and Galatians 3:6-9, 28-29; Ephesians 2:1119). See also Ezrach’.
Geonic — pertaining to the Geonim.
Geonim — (singular: Gaon), heads of the talmudic
academies in Babylonia from the seventh to eleventh
centuries A.D.
‫( — ּג‬Plural ‫ֵרים‬
ִ‫ּג‬, “gerim”) Lit., a
Ger – (GAIR); ‫ֵר‬
“stranger.” This is the old-fashioned, historical word
used by the Jews to refer to someone who has
converted to Judaism. We often use it in the sense of
a righteous non-Hebrew who has been grafted into
the people of Israel (Romans 11:13-21).
Ger Toshav - (Heb. Alien Inhabitant) Biblical term for a
non-Jewish resident living in the Land of Israel.
Sukkot reminds us that we are sojourners too;
nomads merely passing through. Like our Father
Abraham, we are living in a foreign land as ger
v’toshav – “strangers and sojourners,” looking
forward to the City of God (Hebrews 11:9-10).
Germanit - German
Geshem – A prayer for rain.
Gesundheit (Yid.) – Lit., Health. A response when
someone sneezes
Gett – (GEHT); (Heb. Divorce) A decree granted by a
beit din that a person was rightfully divorced and is
now free to remarry. A gett can only be granted if a
person’s previous spouse was sexually unfaithful,
abandoned them or (in some cases) was abusive.
The first two are devar mishnah. The last exception is
shikul hadaat. It is customary to keep all Gett
documents on file and to issue a certificate, called a
"Ptur", to the parties who participated in the Gett
Experience has shown that civil judges will
enforce agreements concerning the writing of
a Gett. Thus, though the Gett cannot replace a
“legal” divorce, it can carry legal weight, acting
as a type of witness. It is therefore desirable to
include language about a Gett agreement in
divorce settlement documents.
Also known as a sefer kritut.
Geulah (sometimes spelled golah) Redemption
Gevurah – (guh-voo-RAH); Lit., “strength” or “might”.
Can also be interpreted as restraint. The selfdiscipline of Gevurah requires the use of restriction,
control and focus of the passions. It is not the pursuit
of apathy (the lack of passion) but like a laser
focuses light and makes it more precise and thus
more powerful, gevurah seeks to allow our passions
to do the most good.
Gezera shava – analogy by common term or similarity in
phrase. Taking different Scriptural passages that
share common language and deriving derashot by
comparing and contrasting them.
ְ — fence.
Gezeira - ‫ֵרה‬
Gifts, Spiritual Gifts - Spiritual abilities given by God for
the purpose of building up the church. Every
Christian has at least one (1 Corinthians 7:7). They
are listed and discussed in different places in the
N.T. (Romans 12:6-8; 1 Corinthians 12:4-11, 28-30;
Ephesians 4:7-12). Following is a list of the gifts
arranged in two groups. The first are gifts that require
supernatural intervention and are possessed only by
would normally not lie, he or she may in order to save
a life. Though a believer would not normally steal, he
or she may in order to save someone’s life. Due to
the increasing critical state of the environment and
the threat the looming conditions pose to the
ecosphere, in Adonaism Pikuach’ nefesh has also
come to carry overtones of ecotheology,
socio/political, economic and environmental justice.
Pillaging Egypt – Taking techniques, methods, ideas,
approaches, technology, music or other cultural
elements of the world and using them for God’s glory.
While living IN the world and using elements OF the
world however, we must be careful to not become
tainted BY the world.
Pirkei Avos – (also spelled Avot) Lit., “chapters of the
fathers” and commonly known in English as “Ethics
of the Fathers. A tractate of the Mishnah with some
uncommonly good advice. In Judaism it is
traditionally studied between Pesach’ and Shavuot.
Piyyut – a religious poem.
Ploni ben Ploni - Hebrew for 'So and so the son of so
and so'
Pneuma – lit. “wind, breath or blow” – the Greek word
for “spirit.”
Pneumatology - The study of the Holy Spirit’s person,
works, relation to the Father and Son, relation to
man, ministry in salvation and sanctification,
conviction, and indwelling.
Polytheism - The teaching that there are many gods. In
the Ancient Near East the nation of Israel was faced
with the problem of the gods of other nations
creeping into the theology of Judaism and corrupting
the true revelation of God. The Bible does recognize
the existence of other gods, but only as false gods (1
Corinthians 8:5; Galatians 4:8) and clearly teaches
accepted the first five books. The Pharisees believed
in life after death, the resurrection, the existence of
angels and demons, and that the way to God was
through keeping the law. "According to Josephus, the
Pharisees were the group most influential with the
people, were noted for their accurate and therefore
authoritative interpretations of Jewish law, and had
their own traditions and way of life to which they were
faithful. They had a simple standard of living and
cultivated harmonious relations with others.
Philosophy - The study of seeking knowledge and
wisdom in understanding the nature of the universe,
man, ethics, art, love, purpose, etc.
Phylacteries - Phylacteries were never specifically
described and commanded. They were developed in
an attempt to fulfill Yahweh’s demand that His
mitzvoth be bound to the people’s hands and be a
symbol on their foreheads. However this mitzvah was
given within the context of remembering the delivery
of our people from Egypt and the bringing of the
nation to the Promised Land (Deuteronomy 11:1821). These were known as tefillin (or aka later as
phylacteries from the Greek term). These box-like
containers, like those on the forearms, held the same
scraps of the Torah. It was the hypocritical practice of
wearing these without heartfelt sincerity that caused
Jesus to speak scathingly about them (Matthew 23:27).
Piety - A general term for religious devotion.
Pikuach’ nefesh – (pee-COO-akh NEH-fesh); Lit., the
“preservation of life.” This the obligation of Adonaists
to protect and save life at all costs. This code
demands, among other things, the suspension of all
other laws to save a life, with the exception of
murder, idolatry and incest. Thus, though a believer
true Christians. The second are gifts that do not
require supernatural intervention. Even nonChristians can have the second group of gifts. A
further issue is whether or not the gifts are still in use
today. Some believe they ceased with the apostles
and the closing of the Canon (the completion of the
writings of the Bible) and they are no longer needed
for the building up of the body of Christ (Ephesians
4:12). Others believe the gifts are still in use but not
in the pure apostolic sense. In other words, they are
still in use but not in the same way possessed by the
apostles. Instead, they are available to the believer if
and when God decides it is beneficial to use them.
Gifts, spiritual, listed
1 Salvation Romans 6:23
2 Word of Wisdom 1 Corinthians 12:8
3 Word of Knowledge 1 Corinthians 12:8
4 Faith 1 Corinthians 12:9
5 Healing 1 Corinthians 12:9
6 Miracles 1 Corinthians 12:10
7 Prophecy Romans 12:6; 1 Corinthians 12:10
8 Distinguishing of Spirits 1 Corinthians 12:10
9 Tongues 1 Corinthians 12:10
10 Interpretation of Tongues 1 Corinthians 12:10
11 Serving Romans 12:7
12 Teaching Romans 12:7
13 Exhortation Romans 12:8
14 Giving Romans 12:8
15 Leading Romans 12:8
16 Showing mercy Romans 12:8
G'mar Chatimah Tovah - (Heb. May you be sealed (in
the Book of Life) for (a) good (year)) Traditional
greeting exchanged during the Aseret Yimmei
Tshuva (Ten days of Penitence observed between
Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur).
Gnosticism - A theological error prevalent around the
time of Christ. Generally speaking, Gnosticism taught
that salvation is achieved through special knowledge
(gnosis). This knowledge usually dealt with the
individual's relationship to the transcendent Being. It
denies the incarnation of God as the Son. In so
doing, it denies the true efficacy of the atonement
since, if Jesus is not God, He could not atone for all
of mankind and we would still be lost in our sins.
God - The supreme being of the universe. He is the
creator of all things (Isaiah 44:24). He alone is God
(Isaiah 45:21-22; 46:9; 47:8). There have never been
any Gods before Him nor will there be any after Him
(Isaiah 43:10). God is God from all eternity (Psalm
90:2). In Exodus 3:14, God revealed His name to His
people. The name commonly known in English is
Jehovah but that Adonaists refer to as Yahweh. This
comes from the four Hebrew consonants that spell
the name of God. (See Tetragrammaton) God is a
Trinity, knows all things (1 John 3:20), can do all
things (Jerermiah 32:17,27 – except those things
against His nature like lie, break His word, cheat,
steal, etc.), and is everywhere all the time (Psalm
Gods, False - Gods that are not real, but invented by
men or inspired by demons the purpose of which is to
deceive people so they do not believe in the true and
living God. Some of the false gods listed in the Bible
are Adrammelech (2 Kings 17:31), Asherah (1 Kings
15:13; 18:19), Ashtoreth (1 Kings 11:5,33), Baal (1
Kings 14:23; 2 Kings 23:7), Baalzebub (2 Kings 1:216); Luke 11:19-23), Dagon (Judges 16:23-30),
Molech/Moloch (Leviticus 18:21; 20:1-5), Rimmon (2
Kings 5:18), and Tammuz (Ezekiel 8:14).
wind and spoke in tongues as tongues of fire that
settled upon them. The significance of the fire can be
found in recognizing it as a symbol of the dwelling of
the Spirit of God (Exodus 19:18; 1 Peter 4:14).
Perek – Chapter (plural is “perakim” i.e. “chapters)
Pericope — an episode or story unit in the synoptic
gospels; a division of a synopsis. Also used in the
sense of a portion of Scripture read in public worship
Plural: pericopae.
Perseverance - To endure to the end. Theologically, the
term “perseverance of the saints” is the teaching that
salvation cannot be lost, that the saints will preserved
to the end.
Pesach’ - Passover, the spring Festival commemorating
the Exodus from Egypt. Pesach’ always occurs in the
springtime, a time which is associated with
redemption. Observance of Pesach’ involves the
Pesach’ Seder at which four cups of wine are drunk
and matzo (unleavened bread) is eaten.
Peshat – (peh-SHAT); The simplest meaning of a
passage of Scripture. It’s most literal, historical and
grammatical meaning. For example, “An angel
appeared to Zacharias” means simply that. The angel
doesn’t represent a concept or force. Zacharias does
not represent the nation of Israel. An angel appeared
to a man named Zacharias. That is the “peshat” of
that verse. See PARDES
Peyot - The side locks (hair) worn by Orthodox men; a
relatively new practice begun a couple hundred years
ago by the Chasidic Jews. Adonaists do not follow
this practice.
Pharisee - The Pharisees were a Jewish sect from the
second century B.C. to the first century A.D. They
considered the entire Old Covenant to be
authoritative, unlike the Sadducees who only
given out at parties, thrown at the ch’osson at his
wedding and so on.
Pedobaptism - The practice of infant baptism.
Pelagianism - The teaching of a monk named Pelagius
in the fifth Century. He taught that man's will was and
still is free to choose good or evil and there is no
inherited sin (through Adam). Every infant born into
the world is in the same condition as Adam before
the fall and becomes a sinner because he sins. This
is opposed to the Biblical teaching that we are by
nature children of wrath (Ephesians 2:3) and that we
sin because we are sinners. Pelagius said we are
able to keep the commandments of God because
God has given us the ability. Therefore, there is no
need of redemption and the crucifixion of Jesus is
merely a supreme example of love, humility,
obedience, and sacrifice. This heresy has its relatives
in the form of the cults that deny the total
dependence upon God and maintain that salvation is
obtainable through our own efforts. (Compare to
Arminianism and Calvinism.)
Pentateuch – This word is from the Greek penta, "five"
and teuchos, "a tool". It refers to the first five books of
the Bible known as Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus,
Numbers, and Deuteronomy. All five were authored
by Moses and are also known as "the Law". (See
Pentecost - The word comes from the Greek that
means fifty. So, Pentecost was a celebration on the
fiftieth day after Passover. It was a culmination of the
feast of weeks (Exodus 34:22-23). Pentecost in the
New Covenant is best known as the time of the
arrival of the Holy Spirit for the church (Acts 2). At
Pentecost the disciples of Jesus were gathered and
upon the filling of the Holy Spirit, they heard a great
God Fearer - A technical term in Judaism referring to a
Gentile who has bound themselves to the God of
Israel and follows all of the Torah that Gentiles can
follow (basically everything except brit
milah (covenant of circumcision) and other
covenental observances).
Gonif - (Heb./Yid. Thief) A dishonest person.
Gospel - The Gospel is the good news that we have
forgiveness of sins though Jesus. Specifically, the
gospel is defined by Paul in 1 Corinthians 15:1-4:
"Now brothers, I want to clarify for you the gospel I
proclaimed to you; you received it and have taken
your stand on it. You are also saved by it, if you hold
to the message I proclaimed to you--unless you
believed to no purpose. For I passed on to you as
most important what I also received: that Christ died
for our sins according to the Scriptures, that He was
buried, that He was raised on the third day according
to the Scriptures”. The gospel comes from God
(Galatians 1:10-12), is the power of God for salvation
(Romans 1:16), is a mystery (Ephesians 6:19), and is
a source of hope (Colossians 1:23), faith (Acts 15:7),
life (1 Corinthians 4:15), and peace (Ephesians 6:15).
Gossip – Idle talk or rumor, especially about the
personal or private affairs of others; light, familiar talk
or writing; tattling. Lashon hara in Hebrew.
Goy – (GOY; the singular form); (Strong’s #1471) ‫— ּגֹוי‬
(Plural ‫ִם‬
‫ּגֹוי‬, “goyim”; GOY-eem); It is the biblical
term meaning “nation” or “people” used to indicate
Gentiles. Unlike the word “gentile”, goy is often used
disparagingly by Jews. See Gentile and Ezrach’.
Goyish (masc.); Goyisha (fem.) – “Not Jewish”; used as
an adjective as in “that’s goyish!”
Grace - Grace is unmerited favor. It is God's free action
for the benefit of His people. It is different than
Justice and Mercy. Justice is getting what we
deserve. Mercy is not getting what we deserve.
Grace is getting what we do not deserve. In grace we
get eternal life, something that, quite obviously, we
do not deserve. But because of God's love and
kindness manifested in Jesus on the Cross, we
receive the great blessing of redemption. Grace is
God's Riches At Christ's Expense. Grace rules out all
human merit. It is the product of God, that is given by
God, because of who He is not because of who we
are. It is the means of our salvation (Ephesians 2:89). We are no longer under the Law, but under grace
(Romans 6:14). (See Acts 15:11; Romans 5:2,15-20;
2 Corinthians 12:9; and 2 Corinthians 9:8).
Gragger - (Yid. Noisemaker) An instrument traditionally
used to blot out the name of Haman during the
reading of the Megillah on Purim. (Heb. Ra'ashan) It
is sometimes spelled grogger.
Guilt - Being responsible for and accountable for an
offense. Biblically, it is the state of being under a
present or pending consequence due to a sin against
God’s Law. It is also an emotional state as well as
legal condition. Guilt feelings are used by the Holy
Spirit to inform the sinner of broken fellowship with
God (Isaiah 59:2; John 16:8). Because of our guilt
before God, we need reconciliation (Romans 5:6-9).
Gut Shabbes! (Yid.) - Good Sabbath! The Hebrew
equivalent would be “Shabbat Shalom” which means
“peaceful Sabbath.”
Gut Yontev! (Yid.) - Good Holiday! (yontev is also
spelled yontiff)
(hidden or spiritual). The word itself is Hebrew for
“orchard” implying that this method of study will yield
great fruit. See each individual step for further
Parnasah – Livelihood.
Parousia - (par-ooo-see’-a) A Greek term that means
“arrival” or “coming.” The term is often referred to as
the time of Christ’s return; hence, the Parousia, i.e., 2
Thessalonians 2:1.
Parapsychology - The study of things not generally
explainable by the scientific method. Examples of
subjects studied by parapsychologists would be
telepathy, clairvoyance, ghosts, etc.
Parsha – The weekly Torah readings many read at shul
and study at home.
Parshat shelach’ – The sending of the spies; Numbers
13:2. Also the 37th weekly Torah portion to be read in
the Judaic yearly cycle that runs from Numbers 13:115:41.
Pasakta l’chiyusi - Lit. “you cut off my livelihood”. If a
person competes in business in an unfair manner,
such as by selling below cost, or threatens to cut off
the livelihood or income of the original tradesman
entirely and jeopardize his business - he has the right
to restrain the competitor. Also, if an injury caused
during the commission of the crime will inhibit the
person’s ability to work in the future, that must be
taken into consideration when rendering judgment.
Patriarchs - Refers to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob – the
forefathers of all Jewish people.
Patur - Something or someone who is exempt (from an
obligation or a law).
Peckle - Yiddish for a small package or parcel. Often
used to refer to a bag of sweets or other goodies
Paradise is associated with Abraham’s bosom. It
was, until Christ’s resurrection the place of rest for
the righteous dead. We believe Christ took these
souls out when He resurrected (Ephesians 4:8-10)
and that Paradise/Abraham’s bosom no longer
exists. Now to be absent from the body is to be
present with the Lord (2 Corinthians 5:8), and as
Stephen attested (Acts 7:55-56), the Lord is in
Heaven – not Paradise.
Parah adumah – The red heifer mentioned in Numbers
19 -- the ashes of this heifer were for purifying
PARDES – (from the acronym PRDS) An ancient
method of Scriptural interpretation. Pardes is an
acronym that stands for Peshat (simple facts),
Remez (hints), Derash (search or teaching) and Sod
Ha kash she shavar et gav ha gamal - The straw that
broke the camel’s back
Ha Kodesh baruch’ Hu - Holy One, blessed be He
Ha ma’eiven yavin - Those who know understand
Ha yakar (masc.); Ha y’karah (fem.) – Dear; Beloved
Ha yanayim me’od - Goodbye, I had a delightful time
Ha’Av - The Father
Hach’am – (huck-HUM); (Strong’s #2449); Lit., “wise.” A
title used for a biblical scholar who is not necessarily
ordained. It can also be used as the title of the local
assembly’s minister or a respectful title given to a
wise person or sage. However, in Yiddish, if said in
an ironic manner, it actually means “smart-aleck” or
Hach’amenu zich’ronam liverach’a - Our sages, may
their memory be a blessing
Hach’nasat kalla – (hakh-nah-SAHT ka-LAH); Helping a
couple marry. This may entail providing monetary
support, decorating, or participating in the ceremony
without renumeration.
Hach’nasat orch’im – (hakh-nah-SAHT or-KHEEM);
Lit., “welcoming guests.” The discipline and virtue of
hospitality. Adonaists should make people feel
welcome. They should introduce themselves to
visitors and invite them to dinner. They should
welcome other visiting believers, particularly those in
ministry and help them on their way. Taking in guests
is not merely another version of charity in the sense
that it is not intended simply as a means to provide
food or lodging for someone who otherwise would be
sleeping on a park bench. It is meant as an
expression of sharing one’s self with another – a way
to transform someone as (Martin Buber put it) from
“it” to “thou”.
Hakhel — The Hakhel was the assembly during the
Feast of Tabernacles of "men, women, children and
aliens" for the public reading of the Pentateuch
(Deuteronomy 31:10-13). This assembly was held in
the Women's Court every seven years according to
Mishnah, Sotah 7:8; Babylonian Talmud, Sotah 41b.
Hades - Greek term for the Hebrew “Gehenna,” that is
the abode of the wicked dead. It is apparently a literal
place (Acts 2:31). Gehenna/Hades is not to be
confused with the Lake of Fire. Gehenna/Hades is
where the wicked dead go to wait for their final
punishment. Gehenna was named after the Valley of
Hinnom, aka Topheth, a deep ravine south of
Jerusalem where children had been sacrificed to the
false Ammonite god Molech (2 Kings 23:10;
Jeremiah 7:31-32; 19:6, 11-14; 32:35). Because it
was considered such a desecrated place, it was
reserved as a garbage dump. Here the dead
carcasses of animals, along with the dung collected
from the entire countryside, as well as the trash taken
from the city were left to be devoured by either
worms or fire, which ever came first (Isaiah 30:33).
Gehenna is also a place of fire and torment,
according to the Master (Luke 16:23-24). However, if
you can imagine, the Lake of Fire is far worse.
Consider the hyperbole that Yeshua used in
describing the Lake of Fire (Matthew 5:29-30). He
said that death by drowning would be a kinder fate
(Matthew 18:6). That Gehenna/Hades/Topheth is
separate from the Lake of Fire can be seen in
Revelation 20:14). Adonaists do not fear Hades for in
Revelation 1:18, it is said that Christ holds the keys
to death and Hades. (see also Paradise or
Abraham’s Bosom)
process of the universe and states that the universe
is God and God is the universe. This is not true
because God is the creator of the universe (Isaiah
44:24) and therefore separate from it.
Papyrus - A plant growing along the Nile in Egypt during
biblical times. It was used as writing material.
Papyrus scrolls were made by cutting and pressing
sections of the papyri plant together at right angles.
They typical maximum length of a scroll was about
35 feet. The scribe, when using papyrus, would often
use the natural horizontal fibers of the papyrus plant
as guidelines. He would take a blunt instrument and
score horizontal lines and then score two or more
vertical lines as margins for the edge of the sheet or
to define columns on it. We get the word "paper" from
this word. Many of the biblical manuscripts were on
Parable - An illustrative discourse or story that uses
common events and culture and is meant to convey a
meaning or lesson. Jesus used parables extensively.
Some of the Old Covenant parables are Trees
Making a King (2 Samuel 12:1-4); The Thistle and
the Cedar (2 Kings 14:9); Israel, a Vine Planted by
Water (Ezekiel 24:10-14), etc. Some New Covenant
parables are The Sower (Luke 8:5-8); the Ten Virgins
(Matthew 25:1-13); The Good Samaritan (Luke
10:25-37); The Prodigal Son (Luke 15:11-32), etc.
Paradise - Biblically, paradise is the place of
uninterrupted bliss. The Garden of Eden was
considered a form of paradise. Jesus mentioned
paradise while on the cross (Luke 23:43) and Paul
also mentioned Paradise (2 Corinthians 12:1-4).
Some consider paradise to be the abode of people in
the intermediate state while others believe it is the
permanent location of the saved. In Adonaic theology
interment and reinterred in a small container usually
carved from stone. Ossuaries were generally
decorated with geometric or other designs, and often
inscribed with the name(s) of the deceased.
Sometimes the bones of several members of the
same family were collected and placed in the same
ossuary. The average size of these boxes was 50
cm. long, 30 cm. wide and 30 cm. high. About nine
hundred ossuaries have been found in the vicinity of
Jerusalem alone.
Oved – one deeply involved in avodah. Compare with
Oz V'Shalom/Netivot Shalom - (Heb., Strength and
Peace/Paths of Peace)
Ozer Yisrael bi gvurah - Who girds Yisrael with
Ozer Yisrael b’tif’arah - Who crowns Yisrael with
Paamayim ki tov – An interjective blessing that means
“doubly blessed” but that is strongly associated with
and generally only used in conjunction with (strangely
enough) Tuesdays.
Panah – (pah-NAH); (Strong’s #6437) To turn the back,
to turn oneself in order to go somewhere or to look at
something. Joshua 22:4
Panentheism - The belief that God is IN the universe. It
differs with pantheism which states that God IS the
universe and all that it comprises.
Pantheism - This is an identification of the universe with
God. With this view there is a blurring of the
distinction between the Creator and the creation as
well as an attack upon the personality and nature of
God. Pantheism tends to equate God with the
Hafokh’ ba, v’hafokh’ ba k’kula ba – A Hebrew phrase
that could be translated “turn it, and turn it because
everything is in it.” I apply it to the need to study the
Holy Word deeply and to use Scripture to comment
on Scripture.
Haftarah - Weekly reading from the Prophets, read in
addition to Torah Parsha.
Hag – (Heb.) Means “festival” or “feast”
Haggadah – (hah-GAH-dah); The plural is haggadot
(hah-gah-DOTE); Literally “telling.” The haggadah is
a small book of liturgy, prayers, songs and rituals
used at a Pesach’ seder. The haggadah recounts the
story of the Exodus from Egypt, explains the meaning
of the seder plate, answers the Four Questions, and
illustrates the other traditional rituals included in the
seder. This fulfills the injunction to tell the Passover
story from generation to generation. See also
Haimish - (Yid.) Comfortable, informal, cozy.
Hainu hach’ - It is the same thing
Hakarat hatov - The Hebrew term for gratitude. It can
be defined as “recognition of the good [another has
done for you]. To paraphrase Moses, every one of
life’s curses stems from ingratitude and everyone of
life’s blessings comes from hakarat hatov – grateful
joy. I have repeatedly taught that pride is the root of
every sin and humility is the basis of every good. Let
me formally make the connection here for you. Pride
leads to ingratitude, and humility leads to its
opposite. Consider Deuteronomy 28:45-47.
Hakol - All
Hakol beseder? - Is everything O.K.?
Hakol beseder B’eli haseder - Everything is in order
within the chaos
Halakha (also spelled Halachah) - law, regulation; the
legal ruling on a particular issue; the body of Jewish
law, especially the legal part of rabbinic literature,
thus often the opposite of aggadah. Halakha is the
collective corpus of biblical law that governs the
behavior of tzaddikim. It is sometimes referred to as
Adonaic law and intends to mean all the scriptural
tenets as to behavior and conduct whether directly
and explicitly stated or implied by various
combinations of biblical principles. Halakha comes
from the Hebrew word halach’ which means “to walk”
or “to go”. It is therefore probably better understood
as “the right way to go.” Criminal cases are referred
to as issurim. Civil cases are referred to as
mamonoth. Each impose different regulations, with
criminal cases generally having much more stringent
limitations. Halakha is not considered a means to
achieving redemption but is instead understood to be
God’s teaching on responsible behavior. Because
Halakha is regularly used by elders (zaquenim) and
judges (dayanim) to render decisions on matters of
interpersonal conflict, it is largely restricted to the
devar mishnah (clear settled law) as opposed to
shikul hadaat (matters not settled and left to the
understanding of the individual elder) or minhag
(useful customs or practices not directly commanded
by God). Where Halakha commands “behave justly
toward your neighbor,” Mussar discusses what that
entails and what personal traits are necessary to
obey Yahweh’s command. Halakha is also used in
the sense of a discussion of legal matters. So a
Believer may ask his or her rabbi “What is the
Halakha in this case?” (plural: halachot) Halachic
(also Halakhic) — pertaining to halachah
inspired as Scripture itself, called the Talmud, which
consists of Mishneh and its commentaries (Gemara).
Adonaists do not consider the oral tradition equal
to the Bible.
Ordination - In Christianity it is the ceremony of
consecration to ministry. It is usually administered by
a commissioning and a laying on of hands.
Ordo salutis - Latin for “order of salvation.”
Theologically it is the order of decrees by God in
bringing about the salvation of individuals. In the
Reformed camp, the ordo solutis is 1) election, 2)
predestination, 3) calling, 4) regeneration, 5) faith, 6)
repentance, 7) justification, 8) sanctification, and 9)
glorification. In the Arminian camp, the ordo soluits is
1) calling, 2) faith, 3) repentance, 4) regeneration, 5)
justification, 6) perseverance, 7) glorification.
Romans 8:29-30 is critical to understanding this
Original Sin - This is a term used to describe the effect
of Adam's sin on his descendants (Romans 5:12-23).
Specifically, it is our inheritance of a sinful nature
from Adam. The sinful nature originated with Adam
and is passed down from parent to child. We are by
nature children of wrath (Ephesians 3:2).
Orthodox - Having a correct understanding of the
doctrines presented by the prophets and apostles.
Orthodox Judaism – the strictest sect of Judaism which
devotes tremendous amount of study not only to
Torah and Talmud, but also to Jewish mysticism
Oseh shamayim ve Eretz - Maker of heaven and Earth
Ossuary — a "bone box," a depository for the bones of
the dead. According to Jewish burial practices in the
land of Israel at the time of Jesus, the bones of the
deceased were collected one year after an initial
Ontological Argument - An attempt to prove God’s
existence first postulated by Anselm. In brief, it states
that God is a being of which no greater thing exists or
can be thought of. Therefore, since we can conceive
of God as the greatest of all things that exist, then
God must exist.
Ontology - The study of the nature of being, reality, and
Oom-Shmoom - Deprecatory phrase for the United
Oracles - Oracles are the divine revelations given to
God's people. God's method of communicating these
oracles varied from dreams and visions (Numbers
12:6-8), to wisdom (Proverbs 30:1), and even the
Urim and Thummim (Numbers 27:21; 1 Samuel 14:337). The Urim and Thummim were placed in the
breastplate of the high priest (Exodus 28:30) and
were used as a means of communication with God.
They mean "light" and "perfection". Unfortunately,
they are not described anywhere in the Bible. Some
theories maintain that they were twelve stones that
made up part of the High Priest's garments. The
process of the communication with God is not given
Oral Torah — (torah she-be-al peh) in contrast to the
Written Torah (torah she-bichtav), which is the
instruction God gave to Israel at Sinai contained in
the five books of Moses. The Oral Torah consists of
forty-two verbal commandments given to Moses at
Sinai, and the precepts and interpretations implied in
the Written Torah.
In Judaism it also came to include the legal
decisions of rabbinical courts and the oral traditions
received from earlier generations of Torah scholars.
Considered by traditional/rabbinic Judaism to be as
Halacha l'maaseh - (Heb. Practical Halachah) Practical
(rather than theoretical) matters of Jewish law.
Halevai - (Heb.) If only, I wish.
Halevei! (Halevai) - Would that it came true!
Hallel – Psalms of praise found in Psalm 113-118 sung
during worship. These are traditional during Pesach’.
Hallelu et Adonai - O Praise the Lord
Haluch’ah - Contributions raised from among believers
in one country and distributed as charity to poor
Believers of another country, particularly those in the
Holy Land.
HaIvri - The Hebrew
Haman Evil high ranking official in King Ahasuerus' court
who tried to get the king to exterminate all the Jews
in the land. Through God's provision, the Jews were
able to survive this attempt. During the Purim reading
of Esther, whenever his names occurs, we make a lot
of noise to drown out the name of evil in our midst.
Hamartiology - The study of the doctrine of sin.
Hamentaschen - (Yid. Haman's Pockets); Triangular,
fruit-filled cookies traditionally served or given as gifts
during Purim.
Hametz – (hah-MAYTS); (Strong’s #2557); Lit., “leaven”.
It implies not only the leaven that is used in baking,
but also generally anything fermented including wine.
Any leavened or fermented food.
Hanhagoth yesharoth - Rules of right conduct.
Hanukkah (see also under the spelling Ch’anukah) The Feast of Lights. Hanukkah literally means
“dedication”. This was the feast that Jesus attended
in John 10:22-23. Hanukkah is an eight-day festival
beginning 25 Kislev, which commemorates the
victory of the Maccabees' over the Assyrian/Greeks
and the rededication of the Beit ha Mikdash in the
second century B.C.E. It is marked by the kindling of
Hanukkiah – A nine branch candelabrum used during
the celebration of Hannukah.
Ha’omnam? - Really?
Haphak – (hah-FAHK); (Strong’s #2015) To turn (Hosea
7:8), to overturn or overthrow (Genesis 19:21, 25;
Deuteronomy 29:22), to convert or change (Psalm
66:6; 105:25, 29), to turn oneself about (Joshua
8:20), to be overthrown (Jonah 3:4), to turn oneself
(Genesis 3:24)
Har’beh - A lot, many, much
Haredim – (ha-RAY-deem); Lit., “Those who tremble in
fear of God.” The term is typically used by Jews to
indicate an ultra-orthodox branch of Judaism like the
Hasidim. In Adonaism however, it is used of believers
who try hard to please God and humbly try to imitate
His holiness.
Harosh mistovev - My head is spinning
Hashalush ha Kodesh – The Holy Trinity
Hashem – Lit., "The Name". A Hebrew word used to
refer to generally refer to God without using one of
His specific names. Adonaists use around 104
names (and many more combinations) of God as
revealed in the Scriptures. However, there is a
Biblical injuction against using any of Hashem's
names unecessarily and so the name Hashem is
used by some Adonaists in general conversation
Hashem ish milch’ama; Hashem shemo – (hah-SHEM
[Strong’s #8034] eesh meel-kha-MAH hah-SHEM
sheh-MO); A Hebrew phrase found in Exodus 15:3
that is translated as “God is a man of war; God is His
Hashem ya’azor - [I hope that] God shall help
Omer — (sheaf of grain) the sheaf of barley offered in
the Temple (Leviticus 23:9-14) as a wave offering on
the second day of Passover, the day that marks the
beginning of seven weeks of counting; the fifty days
counted from that day until Shavuot. See also Lag
Omnipotence - An attribute of God alone. It is the
quality of having all power (Psalm 115:3). He can do
all things that do not conflict with His holy nature.
God has the power to do anything He wants to.
Omnipresence - An attribute of God alone. It is the
quality of being present in all places at all times
(Jeremiah 23:23-24). He is not bound by time and
space. This does not mean that nature is a part of
God and is, therefore, to be worshiped. Creation is
separate from God, but not independent of Him.
Omniscience - An attribute of God alone. It is the quality
of having all knowledge (Isaiah 40:14). Omnipotence,
Omnipresence, and Omniscience represent the
nature of God concerning His relation to the creation.
Onah - Sex for recreational pleasure instead of pru u'rvu
Oneg Shabbat – Lit. 'Sabbath Delight' or ‘Joy of
Sabbath’ - This is a celebration occurring after
services at many synagogues on Shabbat. It is an
informal gathering, either at the synagogue or in a
private home designed to express the happiness we
feel because of God’s gift of the Shabbat. It is more
social than religious and may include music, drama,
community discussions, lectures, or the singing of
spiritual songs. We do this in accordance to “and call
the Sabbath a delight” (Isaiah 58:13). Usually
refreshments (if not a full meal) are served.
Onesh olam - Eternal punishment
Notionist – A term I borrow from Quakers and that
means someone whose head is full of notions and
ideas but that do not possess the reality. Used of
someone who thinks religion is Christianity or vice
Nu? - So?; Well?
Nu, tzadakti? - Well, was I right?
Occult - Occult means "hidden". It covers practices that
are not approved of by God e.g., astrology (Isaiah
47:13), casting spells (Deuteronomy 18:11),
consulting with spirits (Deuteronomy 18:11), magic
(Genesis 41:8), sorcery (Exodus 22:8), witchcraft
(Deuteronomy 18:10), and spiritism (Deuteronomy
18:11). Occult practices such as Ouija boards, tarot
cards, astrology charts, contacting the dead,
séances, etc. are to be avoided by the Christian and
Jews alike.
Ohel - Structure over a grave.
Oi [Oy] - Denotes disgust, pain, astonishment or rapture
Oi Va’avoi li! - Oh my God!
Oi Vai Iz Mir! - Woe is me!
Olam ha-ba – (oh-LAHM hah-BAH); Lit., the “world to
come”. The afterlife. We need to seek God in olam
ha-zeh (this world) because it will be too late in olam
Olam habah – The afterlife as opposed to olam hazeh
(this present life).
Olam ha-zeh – (oh-LAHM hah-ZEH); Lit., “this world”.
Life; the life we lead. The term is in contrast to olam
ha-ba, which is the world to come or the afterlife.
Old Covenant – The first 37 books in the Bible, also
commonly referred to as the “Old Testament.” The
Hashem yimloch’ le olam va’ed - The Lord will reign
forever and ever
Hashem yirach’em – May God be merciful.
Hashem yitbarach’ - The Lord, may He be blessed
Hasid — (pious one; plural: Hasidim) member of a sect
of charismatic sages who shared the Pharisees'
ethical and religious values, but also were
characterized by an extreme spiritual life and a
greater emphasis on good deeds than study of
Hasidic — pertaining to the Hasidim (pious ones) and
their beliefs.
Haskama – literally “consent.” An approbation or
"haskama"from respected rabbis is commonly
sought by rabbis who write on Halakha and its
inclusion at the start of a book means only that
the halakhic reasoning in it is coherent.
Hasmoneans — a family of Jewish priests who led a
successful revolt that began in 168 B.C. against the
Hellenized Selucid rulers of Syria. The Hasmoneans,
nicknamed the Maccabees, ruled the land of Israel
from 142 to 63 B.C.
Hatsoth - Midnight lamentation in memory of the
destruction of the Temple.
Hatzlach’a rabbah! - Much success! (as a greeting Good luck!)
Havarah Ashkenazit - Ashkenazi pronunciation of
Hebrew - Current in some Diaspora circles
Havarah Sefaradit - Sephardi pronunciation of Hebrew Current pronunciation in Yisrael
Havdalah – Lit. 'separation.' A traditional observance
marking the end of the weekly Shabbat/Sabbath with
wine and spices at the Sabbath sundown.
Haver – (hah-VAIR); The plural is haverim (hah-vayREEM); Lit., “member”. A friend or comrade.
Someone who regularly worships with you or
believes as you do.
Historically speaking, the haverim were an order
that was meticulous in observing the commandments
concerning heave offerings, tithing and purity (e.g.,
washing ones hands before eating and before
touching ritually clean food). These regulations had
already been laid down in the time of Hillel and
Shammai (last quarter of first century B.C.). Women
and slaves also could become haverim.
In rabbinic sources the term haver often stands in
contrast to the term am ha'arets (person of the land),
someone who was not a member of the haverim
Haya naim me’od - It’s been a pleasure [greeting at
Hayalim kedoshim - Holy soldiers
Hazmanah – A summons or invitation to appear before
a Beit Din. If someone wishes to bring a case to a
Beit Din, he or she may request that the Beit Din
send a summons to inform the person being
summoned. A Beit Din will send up to three
hazmanos. The hazmanah makes clear that the
person being summoned, should they refuse to
come, is actually refusing to seek arbitration or
reconciliation and is not merely being negligent.
Someone receiving a hazmanah is required to
respond within a set amount of time and should not
wait for additional hazmanos. If a proper response is
not received then the Beit Din will issue a contempt
decree and it will likely go against the nitvah in the
court’s mind.
A person who receives a summons is generally
not obligated to agree to go to the specific Beit Din
that summoned them, although he or she is required
Niggun (pl. Niggunim) - (pronounced "nih-GOON");
Melody; tune; usually wordless, or perhaps more
accurately, a melody sung using "yai-dai-dai," "bimbom," or some other equally universal sounds, rather
than words. It especially figures in divine service as
in “Ha-Niggun ha-Kadosh”, “The holy tune.” See also
Nihum avelim – The mitvah of comforting mourners.
Nisan — the first month of the ecclesiastical year in the
Jewish calendar (Esther 3:7), roughly parallel to the
month of April. The festival of Passover falls on the
15th to the 21st of Nisan.
Nishtu gedach’t! - May we be saved from it [sad event];
It shouldn’t happen!; God forbid!
Nissuin - Wedding ceremony
Nitvah – respondent / defendant
Nizkarim – remember
Noahide Laws – The ancient laws that are considered
relevant to all people that were initially given to Noah.
In Judaism these include a prohibition of idolatry,
blasphemy, murder, adultery, robbery, the eating of
flesh that was cut from a living animal, and the
establishment of justice. While Jews are expected to
keep all of God’s mitzvot, even Gentiles are
supposed to obey at least these seven laws. It is
interesting that when Paul went back to the church at
Jerusalem with a question as to whether or not
Gentile believers were to follow all the law, the
church’s answering requirement was basically a
restatement of the Noahide Laws.
Noch’am – (no-KHAHM); (Strong’s #5162) To lament, to
grieve Exodus 13:17
Nod nafuach’ - A complete nothing; A bag of wind
Nohal takin - Correct procedure
Nolad (masc.); Noldah (fem.) - Born
Neshama ch’ay – (neh-shah-MAH KHAY); Lit., the
breath, wind or spirit of life.
Neshomeleh - Sweet soul; sweetheart; darling
Nesia tovah - Have a good trip
Nestorianism - States that the two natures of Christ
were so separated from each other that they were
"not in contact"; the problem here is that worship of
the human Jesus would then not be allowed. (See
also Hypostatic Union, Eutychianism, and
Netivot Shalom - “Paths of Peace.” Taken from the
verse in Proverbs, “Her ways are pleasant, and all
her paths, peaceful.” (Proverbs 3:17)
Netzach’ – (Strong’s #5331) Lit., victory or preeminence.
(1 Chronicles 29:11; Isaiah 25:8). In one’s personal
life it can be expressed by fully living in accordance
to the Way, loving the Lord and serving our fellow
man. A person who can do this has achieved
“netzach’’” regardless of their social or monetary
status. Acting according to de’ot and ch’esed.
Nevi’im – (neh-vee-EEM); The 21 books of the
prophets. The “early prophets” include Joshua,
Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings.
Nezikin – “Damages” as used in halach’ic rulings.
Nich’um aveilim – (nee-KHOOM ah-vay-LEEM); Lit.,
“comforting mourners.” A mitzvah entailing offering
sympathy, friendship fond memories of the departed
and service to mourners. It can also include providing
for the burial of the needy (which is seen as a
ch’esed toward the deceased).
Niddah - The laws governing the separation of a man
and wife during her menstrual cycle in accordance to
Leviticus 15:19-24. (see also Taharat ha
Niftar (masc.); Nifterah (fem.) – Died
to respond in some way to that Beit Din. If they have
a legitimate reason to not want to appear before the
summoning Beit Din, they must propose an
alternative Beit Din or immediately take action to
resolve the complaint without further delay.
If the parties cannot find a mutually acceptable
Beit Din, a “joint beit din” is formed by a procedure
called “zebla” or “zabla”, in which each side picks one
judge. The two judges then select a third judge
together, and the three judges together then form the
Beit Din that will decide the case.
Hazmanos – Plural of Hazmanah
Hazon – (hah-ZONE); A prophetic vision, whether
waking or dreaming.
Heaven - Heaven is the dwelling place of God and for
those who go there a place of everlasting bliss.
Scripture implies three heavens, since "the third
heaven" is revealed to exist (2 Corinthians 12:2). It is
logical that a third heaven cannot exist without a first
and second. Scripture does not describe specifically
the first and second heaven. The first, however,
apparently refers to the atmospheric heavens of the
fowl (Hosea 2:18) and clouds (Daniel 7:13). The
second heaven may be the area of the stars and
planets (Genesis 1:14-18). It is the abode of all
supernatural angelic beings. The third heaven is the
abode of the triune God. Its location is unrevealed.
(See Matthew 23:34,37; Luke 10:20; and Revelation
21:2, 20-27). Unfortunately most popular descriptions
confuse the third heaven with the New Jerusalem.
Hech’al - Holy Place
Hedonism - The teaching that pleasure is the principle
good and proper goal of all action. Self indulgence.
Hekesh – juxtaposition of cases
Hell - Hell is the future place of eternal punishment of
the damned including the devil and his fallen angels.
There are several words rendered as Hell: Hades - A
Greek word. It is the place of the wicked dead, the
location of the person between death and
resurrection. (See Matthew 11:23; 16:18; Acts 11:27;
1 Corinthians 15:55; Revelation 1:18, 6:8). Gehenna
- A Hebrew word. It was the place where dead bodies
were dumped and burned (2 Kings 23:13-14). Jesus
used the word to describe the place of eternal
torment (5:22, 29-30; Mark 9:43; Luke 12:5). Sheol A Hebrew word. It is the place of the dead, not
necessarily the grave, but the place the dead go to. It
is used of both the righteous (Psalm 16:10; 30:3;
Isaiah 38:10) and the wicked (Numbers 16:33; Job
24:19; Psalm 9:17). Hell is a place of eternal fire
(Matthew 25:41; Revelation 19:20). It was prepared
for the devil and his angels (Matthew 25:41) and will
be the abode of the wicked (Revelation 21:8) and the
fallen angels (2 Peter 2:4).
Hem (masc.); Hen (fem.) - They
Herem - Religious excommunication; social boycott;
Heresy - A doctrinal view that deviates from the truth, a
false teaching. We are warned against it in Acts
20:29-32 and Philippians 3:2. Heresies include
teachings that Jesus is not God and that the Holy
Spirit is not a person (Jehovah's Witnesses,
Christadelphians, The Way International), that men
may become gods (Mormonism), that there is more
than one God (Mormonism), that Jesus lost His
divinity in hell and finished the atonement there, and
that good works are necessary for salvation (all cults
say this), to name a few.
Natural knowledge - A term used in describing a type of
knowledge possessed by God. Often it is raised in
discussions dealing with individuals’ free will and
God’s infinite knowledge. God’s natural knowledge
would be His knowledge of all things of potential
existence influenced by individuals though not
necessarily in actual existence. God knows this set of
knowledge from all eternity, before the creation of the
universe. It is called natural because it is a natural
attribute of God’s existence. See also Free
Knowledge and Middle Knowledge.
Navi – Commonly called prophet. However, in English
this carries the connotation of someone who foretells
the future. In Hebrew this means “spokesperson for
God” and may or may not entail foretelling the future.
Sometimes spelled “nabi”.
Nazir – Someone who has set themselves apart for
divine service by making some type of vow, usually
associated with an outward ascetic practice to be
performed until the vow has been accomplished.
Nebiim - See navi.
Nefesh – (NEH-fesh); (Strong’s 35315); This word
comes from the word meaning “breath.” It denotes
the spirit, that part of us that is spiritual and immortal.
It is used interchangeably with neshama.
Nehedar, yo’fi - Wonderful, great
Ner – Lamp; candle
Ner tamid - Eternal light. Symbolizes the menorah that
burned constantly in the temple.
Nes - Miracle; also slang for instant coffee.
Neshama – (neh-shah-MAH); (Strong’s #5397); The
core of the soul which is the spirit. It is the part of us
that is spiritual and immortal. God breathed
neshamah into the first man, Adam. Sometimes
spelled “neshoma”.
So in Hebrew it’s quite clear that there are two
aspects to godly repentance – we must feel penitent
about our sin, engage our minds (carefully
considering the best path back toward goodness)
and then take practical steps toward change in our
Another (perhaps better) English word to describe
“nach’am” is “contrition”. Contrition is defined as
consciousness of guilt or sin giving rise to humility
and sorrow; repentance for things past.
Interestingly, an obsolete definition is “to grind”
(i.e. friction). Allowing the painful emotions of guilt
and nach’am to do their work, grinds at our souls,
smoothing away the rough, sinful edges and making
us less likely to commit the same sin again in the
So nach’am is expressing sorrow for sin (Job
42:6; Jeremiah 31:19). Failure to do so (Jeremiah
8:6) is considered “unending apostasy” (v. 5) worthy
of Yahweh’s judgment (v.7).
Nach’as – (NAH-khis); Fulfillment, proud pleasure, or
special joy in the accomplishments of one’s progeny.
Shep nach’as means “get joy” as in “His piano recital
was beautiful. His parents must shep nach’as from
him.” Sometimes spelled “naches”.
Nahal - (Hebrew for river, riverbed)
Naim me’od - It’s a pleasure; pleased to meet you
[greeting at meeting]
Narr - A fool.
Narrishkeit - Foolishness.
Nasi – (Heb., “prince, leader”). In Biblical times, this was
a tribal leader. In modern times it’s used of a civil or
spiritual head of a large community.
Nasi Elohim – (nah-SEE eh-lo-HEEM); A “prince of
God”. Used of Abraham (Genesis 23:6).
Herem - Religious excommunication; social boycott;
shunning. See also excommunication.
Herum - (Heb.) Emergency
Heshevan - Month of Jewish year, corresponding to
Hesped - Eulogy
Heter - (Heb.) Permission (usually a rabbinic ruling that
permits something).
Hiddur Mitzvah - (Heb/Yid. Beautifying the Mitzvah)
Concept of going beyond the bare requirements of a
mitzvah by using only the finest quality items to carry
it out.
High Holy Days - (Heb. Yamim Nora'im) Rosh
Hashanah and Yom Kippur and frequently used to
refer to the 10-day period between them, as well.
Highlander – Highlanders choose to follow in the
footsteps of their spiritual ancestor Abram who
forsook the valley life of Sodom (Genesis 13:5-17)
and chose to follow God to the high city whose maker
and builder is God (Hebrews 11:10). Highlanders are
free citizens of that high city (Galatians 4:26;
Philippians 3:20; Revelation 21:2ff). Our city is like no
earthly city for she was designed and built by the
Master Carpenter (John 14:2-3; Hebrews 11:10;
12:22-24). Highlanders do not get too excited about
the things of this earth but instead consider
themselves mere foreign nomads, temporary
residents here at best (Hebrews 11:9, 13). Having
said that, our King demands that we pray for the
authorities of our host countries (1 Timothy 2:1); obey
the laws of the land (Romans 13:1-2; Titus 3:1); pay
our taxes (Matthew 22:18-21; Romans 13:7); pay our
debts (Romans 13:7-8); and live quiet lives (1
Timothy 2:2) marked by hard work (Ephesians 4:28),
frugal living and care for the poor (Proverbs 19:17;
Galatians 2:9). Highlanders should thus be
considered model citizens by their host countries,
even while placing their first loyalty and patriotism in
heaven. Where “Adonaism” and “Cultural
Christianity” are used in the context of theological
systems, “Lowlander” and “Highlander” are usually
used in the context of culture. (see Lowlander)
Hillul Hashem – (hee-LOOL [Strong’s 32491] hahSHEM); Lit., “profaning of God’s name.” An action or
statement that disgraces God’s name. This is not
“using God’s name in vain” in the sense of cursing.
This includes a believer who is caught in sin or a
minister who teaches in such a manner that the
people don’t live up to God’s standards of holiness.
Any sinful act is automatically hillul Hashem
whether the person was conscious of it or not. See
also Kiddush Hashem.
Hindblindness – A term I invented to mean a mental
and/or spiritual condition that renders a person
incapable of learning from history.
Hishtadlut – Making as much an effort as it humanly
possible. See also “Lifnim meshurat hadin”
Hishtagata? (masc.); Hishtagat? (fem.) - Have you
gone mad?; Are you nuts?; Have you lost it?; Are you
Histalek! - Go Away!
Hitbodedut – Reflective inner directed meditation and
prayer; mindful meditation. This is different from the
type of meditation suggested in Hindu and Buddhist
practice during which an emptiness of mind is
pursued. During hitbodedut the person is always fully
aware of their environs and their state of mind.
Hitgaagati eleykha! - I miss you so much!
Hiyyuv – A religious obligation.
moral definitions of behavior as found in the devar
mishnah of Halakha. Instead, it is a series of nested
or heirarchial principles. For instance, it is understood
by all moral people that lying is generally wrong.
Rahab’s example, however, demonstrates that if
another person’s life hangs in the balance, a tzaddik
should feel no compunction about using deceit to
save a life. Mussar can, therefore, be broken down to
a three-pronged discussion of:
The values that should govern in any given
The requisite character traits for the
successful prosecution of God’s will and
The disciplines that inculcate such
Mutar - Permitted. See also muktzeh and maleh.
Mysticism, Judaic – Mysticism became considerably
more important in rabbinic Judaism following the
Babylonian captivity during which period astrology,
numerology, and a general interest in the occult
flourished. Today this tendency is most evidenced by
Kabbalistic studies.
Nabatea — ancient kingdom southeast of the land of
Israel whose capital was Petra.
Nabatean — pertaining to Nabatea or the Nabateans;
the language of the Nabateans.
Nach’am – (na-KHAM) The English word “repentance”
is used to reflect two words. Nach’am means to be
penitent, implying the emotional and intellectual
imperative that drives godly repentance. Shuv (or
shub) means to turn back. This connotes the actual,
practical results of true intent to change.
our sins, denies Jesus’ substitutionary death, and
denies the imputed righteousness of Christ to the
believer. It asserts that people are capable of
keeping the whole Law of God, that there is no
depravity of human nature, and that salvation is up to
a person’s free will choice.
Moreh Tzedek - Rabbinical judge. See also Dayan,
Mori – Hebrew for “my teacher”.
Moshiach’ olam - Savior of the world. Sometimes
spelled “Mashiach’”.
Motza’ei Shabbat - Saturday evening; night after
Motzi - The blessing recited before eating bread.
Motzi shem ra – (moe-tzee shem RAH); Spouting lies
and spreading disinformation. This is considered
lashon hara and muktzeh.
Moyshin moyshi – (moi-SHIN moi-SHEE); A phrase I
learned from my Japanese ju-jitsu instructor (sensei)
translated as “born blind and died drunk” implying a
person is a born victim who remains totally unaware
of their environment.
Muktzeh – (MOOK-tseh); Forbidden. An object that is
forbidden as in “Don’t touch Mommy’s plant. It’s
Mussaf – A special, additional prayer service for a
Mussar – (moo-SAHR); Mussar is an ethical discipline;
a system of moral principles or rules governing the
conduct of the tzaddikim. It is also commonly used to
indicate sound spiritual advice, particularly from a
rabbi or other spiritual counselor. Mussar seeks to
identify values relating to human conduct so that
what is right or wrong in any given situation may be
determined. Mussar is not limited to black and white
Hoch’mah – (HOOK-mah); (Strong’s 32451); Lit.,
“wisdom.” It can also be used in the sense of
necessary knowledge or understanding as in the
catch, clue or trick needed to figure something out.
Hod – (HOED); (Strong’s #1935); Lit., “majesty.” In
Adonaism it is often used as one of the virtues of a
tzaddik. It implies stately dignity, seriousness or
excellence of spirit balanced by humble empathy.
The person who achieves hod has realized their
status as an ambassador of the Messiah and acts
accordingly. Hod is loyalty to one’s principles. It is
marked by the ability to repudiate temptation, to
empathize while maintaining self-restraint and selfcontrol. It is a commitment to one’s values daily and
in each moment. It is the motivation behind right
personal, business and ethical decisions or behavior.
In that sense, hod may be understood as similar to
the medieval ideal of honor.
Holy, Holiness - A quality of perfection, sinlessness,
and inability to sin that is possessed by God alone.
As Christians we are called to be holy (1 Peter 1:16).
But this does not refer to our nature. Instead, it is a
command of our practice and thought. We are to be
holy in obedience (1 Peter 1:14). God has made us
holy through His Son Jesus (Ephesians 1:4; 1 Peter
Holy Spirit, The - The third person of the Godhead
• Is called God (Acts 5:3-4),
• has a will (1 Corinthians 12:11),
• speaks (Acts 8:29; 31:2),
• knows all things (John 14:17).
• is not an "active force" as the Jehovah's
Witnesses mistakenly teach.
• knows all things (1 Corinthians 2:10-11),
• is all powerful (Luke 1:35),
• and is everywhere (Psalm 139:7-13).
The Holy Spirit is called:
• the Spirit of God (Genesis 1:2),
• Holy Spirit (Psalm 51:11),
• the Helper (John 14:16, 26),
• Spirit of Wisdom (Exodus 31:3; 35:31;
Deuteronomy 34:9; Isaiah 11:2; 1 Corinthians
12:8; Ephesians 1:17) and thus should be
understood as the Wisdom depicted in the book
of Proverbs. (Proverbs 1:24-32 cp Luke 12:10)
• and Eternal Spirit (Hebrews 9:14).
(See Ruach’ ha Kodesh; Trinity and Holy Spirit.)
Hosanna or Hoshana - (Heb.) Means “Deliver us!” or
“Deliverance”; i.e. Matthew 21:9
Hoshana Rabbah - The 7th day of Sukkoth, on which
the willow branches -- a part of the 'Four Kinds' -- are
stripped of their leaves.
Hotza’at dibah – (Hoe-tza-AHT dee-BAH); Derogatory,
slanderous or defamatory speech. This is considered
lashon hara and muktzeh.
Humanism - A philosophical system of thought that
focuses on human value, thought, and actions.
Humans are considered basically good and rationale
creatures who can improve themselves and others
through natural human abilities of reason and action.
Secular Humanism is a late development
emphasizing objectivity, human reason, and human
standards, that govern art, economics, ethics, and
belief. As such, no deity is acknowledged.
Humility - The attitude of the Christian that teaches us
not to "... think of himself more highly than he should
think. Instead, think sensibly..." (Romans 12:3). It
teaches us to prefer others over ourselves (Romans
12:10). It may be defined as “knowing our true
that God and man work together in salvation. Cults
are synergistic. Adonaic Christianity is monergistic.
Monism - The view that there is only one basic and
fundamental reality, that all existence is this one
reality even though we perceive different aspects of
this reality.
Monophycitism - This is an error regarding the two
natures of Jesus (See Hypostatic Union). It states
that Jesus' two natures are combined into one new
one; the problem here is that neither God nor man
was represented in Christ but a new third thing.
(Other errors regarding the two natures of Christ are
Nestorianism and Eutychianism.)
Monolatry - The belief that there is more than one God,
but only one is served and worshiped. Mormonism is
an excellent example of monolatry. Mormonism
teaches the existence of many Gods of many worlds,
yet worships only the one of this planet. Therefore,
monolatry is a division of polytheism, the belief in
many gods. It is a return to the old, primitive
superstitions of polytheists who, while recognizing
many gods, held to the local city-state’s god. It is a
false teaching contrary to Scripture. See Isaiah
43:10; 44:6, 8; 45:5-6.
Monotheism - The belief that there is only one God in
all places at all times. There were none before God
and there will be none after Him. Monotheism is the
teaching of the Bible (Isaiah 43:10; 44:6, 8; 45:5, 14,
18, 21-22; 46:9; 47:8).
Moral government theology - A theological error that
maintains that God is not immutable but changes His
mind, that He does not exercise sovereign control
over earthly matters, that He does not know all future
events - particularly the free-will choices of
individuals, etc.. It denies that the atonement pays for
Helping is the reward; none other is needed nor
To be a true mitzvah, the action should be done
with the proper attitude. A mitzvah should be done
happily and not grudgingly, with true feeling
(kavanah) and as beautifully or graciously as
Mivta Ashkenazi - Ashkenazi accent
Mivta Sefardi - Sephardic accent
Mivta Yisraeli - Israeli accent
Mo’adim le simch’a! (Sefardic) - Happy holiday/festival;
times for joy; seasons of joy
Moadim l’simch’a l’geula shleima - Happy holiday in
the anticipation of a complete redemption
Modalism – An overemphasis of the unity of God that
says that the one divine person appears at different
times in different manners. Since they refer to these
different “masks” of God as “modes of appearance”,
this heresy is called “modalism”. See also
Sabellianism, Tritheism and Unitarianism.
Mo’ed – (plural mo’edim) An appointed gathering. God’s
holy days. God’s appointed times.
Mohel - The one who performs the circumcision on an
eight day old male baby.
Monarchianism - Monarchianism (mono - "one"; arche "rule") was an error concerning the nature of God
that developed in the second century A.D. It arose as
an attempt to maintain Monotheism and refute
tritheism. Unfortunately, it also contradicts the
orthodox doctrine of the Trinity. Monarchianism
teaches that there is one God as one person: the
Father. Please see Heresies for more information.
Monergism - The teaching that God alone is the one
who saves. It is opposed to synergism which teaches
position before God.” It is not self-abasement or
demeaning one's self. "God is opposed to the proud,
but gives grace to the humble" (James 4:6). Humility
is necessary to be a disciple of Jesus (Matthew 18:34). The humility of Jesus is described in Philippians
2:5-8, "Make your own attitude that of Christ Jesus,
who, existing in the form of God, did not consider
equality with God as something to be used for His
own advantage. Instead He emptied Himself by
assuming the form of a slave, taking on the likeness
of men. And when He had come as a man in His
external form, He humbled Himself by becoming
obedient to the point of death--even to death on a
Huppah – A marriage canopy.
HY’D - Acronym for the Hebrew phrase “Hashem
yimkom domov” i.e. “Hashem should avenge their
Hypostatic Union - This is the union of the two natures
(Divine and human) in the person of Jesus. Jesus is God
in human flesh Jesus is the Word who was God and was
with God and was made flesh. (John 1:1, 14; Colossians
2:9; John 8:58; 10:30-34; Hebrews 1:8). Or, as
theologians say, He is consubstantial with God as to His
deity and with mankind as to His humanity.
One of the most common errors that non-Christian
cults make is either confusing or overemphasizing one of
the two natures of Christ. For example, the Jehovah’s
Witnesses focus on Jesus' humanity and ignore His
divinity. They repeatedly quote verses dealing with
Jesus as a man and try and set them against scripture
showing that Jesus is also divine. On the other hand,
the Christian Scientists do the reverse. They focus on
the scriptures showing Jesus' divinity to the extent of
denying His true humanity.
For a proper understanding of Jesus and, therefore,
all other doctrines that relate to Him, His two natures
must be properly understood and defined. He is not half
God and half man. He is fully God and fully man
(Colossians 2:9); thus, He has two distinct yet perfectly
balanced natures: God and man. He is not half God and
half man. He is 100% God and 100% man.
He never lost his divinity. The divine nature was not
changed. It was not altered. He is neither merely a man
who "had God within Him" nor is he a man who
"manifested the God principle." He is God, second
person of the Trinity. "He is the radiance of His glory, the
exact expression of His nature, and He sustains all
things by His powerful word," (Hebrews 1:3). Jesus' two
natures are not "mixed together," nor are they combined
into a new God-man nature. They are separate yet act
as a unit in the one person of Jesus. (1) He continued to
exist as God when He became a man and added human
nature to Himself (Philippians 2:5-11). Therefore, there is
a "union in one person of a full human nature and a full
divine nature." (2) Right now in heaven there is a man,
Jesus, who is our Mediator between us and God the
Father (1 Timothy 2:5).
The theological term "hypostatic union" has its origins
in the Council of Chalcedon. Soon after the
establishment of the church, doctrinal errors arose
concerning the person of Jesus Christ. In October of
A.D. 451, a large church council convened in the city of
Chalcedon near Constantinople. After much discussion,
the Council issued a statement to correct the errors and
to establish an accurate theological statement
concerning the person and nature of Christ.
The fruit of their labor is perhaps the most significant
Christological statement in the history of the church. If
you would like to read it, I’ve attached it as an appendix.
containing food or treats given to friends, family or to
the needy, especially on Purim. Purim baskets.
Mishnah – (mish-NAH) (literally, "repetition," from the
root sh-n-h, to repeat) The Mishnah (with a capital)
refers to the first section of the Talmud. It is a legal
text which was compiled around 200 by Judah the
Prince. It records the sayings of sages who lived and
taught during the previous several hundred years.
The Mishnah and the Gemarah (which was written
later) together form the Talmud.
With small letters it can mean a particular
paragraph from this section of the Talmud. Generally,
when we Adonaists use it we usually mean “the
teaching of a particularly respected rabbi, tanna,
posek or dayan. Sometimes also spelled “mishna”.
The plural is “mishnayoth”.
Mishnaic Hebrew — the Hebrew spoken in the land of
Israel during the first centuries B.C./A.D., used
loosely to refer to post-biblical Hebrew. Since this
dialect is the language of the rabbinic works
composed during the following centuries, it also is
referred to as "rabbinic Hebrew." Some scholars
prefer the term "Middle Hebrew."
Mishpat - (pl. mishpatim). Law from the Torah that can
be rationalized. See also ch’ok.
Mitzta’er - I’m sorry
Mitzvah – (MITZ-vah); (Strong’s #4687) A
command/blessing of God. The plural is mitzvoth
(mitz-VOTE). A good deed and/or its accompanying
blessing. The blessing does not come as a result of
performance. Obedience is its own reward. With
every mitzvah obeyed we bless ourselves. We reap a
reward merely in the act of helping others. We never
know how, or if, that reward will come back to us.
(something found nowhere in Scripture) then it has
become a sin and we can feel free to stop attending.
Minhag ha-makom - Local custom.
Minuscule - The Greek characters of lower case:
abgde, etc. Different copies of Greek manuscripts
appear in minuscule form. By contrast, uncials are
the Greek characters in upper case.
Minyan - Means 'number' and refers to the necessary
quorum for religious services in Judaism (which is ten
adult men).
Mipnei - Because
Miracle - A miracle is an out-of-the-ordinary direct and
divine intervention in the world. Examples would be
the parting of the Red Sea, Jesus walking on water,
the resurrection of Lazarus, etc. Some hold that it is a
violation of the natural order of physical laws. Others
maintain that there is no such violation upon God's
part but only a natural manifestation of His work.
They are also known as powers and signs (Mark
9:39; Acts 2:22, 19:11) and mighty works (John
10:25-38). They are a manifestation of the power of
God over nature (Josh. 10:12-14), animals (Numbers
22:28), people (Genesis 19:26), and illness (2 Kings
5:10-14). They are produced by God's power (Acts
15:12), Christ's power (Matthew 10:1), and the Holy
Spirit's power (Matthew 12:28).
Misheberach’ – Special prayers for special requests
Mishkan – Biblical Hebrew term for “sanctuary”; the
Tabernacle, i.e. the temporary Sanctuary in the
wilderness. Modern Hebrew term for “official
Mishlei – One of the books of the Tanach’ called in
English “Proverbs”.
Mishloach’ manot – (mish-LOW-ahkh mah-NOTE); A
plural Hebrew noun denoting goodie bags or baskets
So what errors did the Council of Chalcedon correct?
In order to correct the view of Apollinarius, who believed
Christ did not have a human mind or soul, the Council
wrote that Jesus was "truly man, of a reasonable
[rational] soul and body ... consubstantial [coessential, of
the same substance] with us according to the Manhood;
in all things like unto us."
To correct the teachings of Nestorianism, that Christ
was two different persons united in one body, the
Council wrote that He was "indivisibly, inseparably ...
concurring in one Person and one Subsistence, not
parted or divided into two persons."
And finally, in rejecting the errors of Monophysitism,
which taught Christ had but one nature and that His
union with the Divine nature obliterated His human
nature, the council wrote that Christ was "to be
acknowledged in two natures, inconfusedly,
unchangeably ... the distinction of natures being by no
means taken away by the union, but rather the property
of each nature being preserved."
The Council of Chalcedon, as all humans since,
failing to penetrate the mystery of the divine and human
natures of Christ, offered four precautions that would
protect the Christian from error when contemplating this
1. Attribute true and proper divinity to Christ.
2. Attribute true and proper humanity to Christ
3. Do not so mingle the human and divine that
you end up with a being neither human nor
4. Do not dissect Christ so that there are two
persons in one being.
The following chart may assist the talmid in
understanding this admittedly deep concept.
Jesus as God
He is worshiped. (Matthew 2:2, 11; 14:33)
He was called God (John 20:28; Hebrews 1:8)
Jesus as Man
He worshiped the Father. (John 17)
He was called man (Mark 15:39; John 19:5)
He was called Son of God. (Mark 1:1)
He is prayed to (Acts 7:59).
He is sinless (1 Peter 2:22; Hebrews 4:15)
He knows all things (John 21:17)
He gives eternal life (John 10:28)
He was fully divine (Colossians 2:9)
He was called Son of Man. (John 9:35-37)
He prayed to the Father. (John 17:1)
He was tempted. (Matthew 4:1)
He grew in wisdom. (Luke 2:52)
He died. (Romans 5:8)
He was fully man. (Luke 24:39)
Ich’ulim - Greetings
Idol, Idolatry - An idol is a representation of something
in the heavens or on the earth. It is used in worship
and is often worshiped. It is an abomination to God
(Exodus 20:4). Idolatry is bowing down before such
an idol in adoration, prayer, or worship. In a loose
sense, idolatry does not necessitate a material image
nor a religious system. It can be anything that takes
the place of God: a car, a job, money, a person, a
desire, etc. Idolatry is denounced by God at the
beginning of the Ten Commandments and is
considered a form of spiritual fornication.
Ihulim levaviim - Best wishes
Ikvesa di Meshich’a - (Hebrew) The age or generation
that hears the approaching footsteps of the
Ilui neshamah – May the soul be elevated.
Im (Ima) - Mother
Im shach’ar - At dawn
Im tirzu, ein zoh agadah – “But if you will it, it is no
fantasy.” A line by Theodor Herzl, the 19th century
founder of Zionism found at the end of his novel
Altneuland. It became the slogan for early Zionist
Im yirtzeh Elokim - If it pleases God
Imi - My Mother
what the Lord commanded without adding to His
Milhemet ain brayra - A war without choice.
Milhemet Hahatasha - War of attrition.
Millennium - Literally, this word means 1000 years. In
the study of end times doctrines (eschatology) the
millennium is the duration of Christ's rule over the
earth before the new heaven and earth are ushered
in. The debate has been over when the millennium
will take place and what it actually is. The terms that
have arisen out of this debate are premillennialism,
amillennialism, and postmillennialism. Amillennialism
teaches that the millennium is a figurative period and
that Christ's rule began when He first became man.
Premillennialism teaches that the millennium is yet
future and that upon Christ's return He will set up His
earthly kingdom. Postmillennialism teaches that
through the preaching of the Word of God, the world
will be converted and will then usher in Christ and the
kingdom of God. Adonaists are premillennial.
Min - (pl. minim). A heretic, sectarian, or schismatic
Minch’a – (MIN-hah); An afternoon prayer time or
service. See also P’sukei d’zimra.
Minhag – (MIN-hag); Lit., “custom.” The word’s root
means primarily “to drive” (2 Kings 9:20) but implies
by extension “to conduct oneself.” Minhagim are
customs or community practices that are not directly
commanded by God but that have been found to be
useful to Adonaists. As long as minhagim are useful
and do not contradict Scriptures we are allowed to
practice them. For instance, Sunday School is not
directly taught in Scripture. It is a human tradition. As
long as it is useful we may go to Sunday School. But
if someone begins teaching that if you don’t attend
Sunday School you are probably not a true believer
For related information on Jesus and His two
natures, see Incarnation, and the errors concerning His
natures known as Eutychianism, Monophycitism, and
imaginative exposition, legend, allegory, animal
fables—that is, whatever is not halakha.
Midrash aggada - Deriving sermonic implications from
a biblical text.
Midrash Halakha – Deriving laws, codes or conduct or
rules of behavior from a biblical text either by means
of a correct interpretation of the obvious meaning of
scriptural words themselves or by the application of
certain hermeneutic rules.
Mikrah - Literally “assembly” but it carries the
connotation of a “rehearsal” or a “recital.” Sometimes
spelled “miqrah”.
Mikra - Bible
Mikva'ot — plural of mikveh.
Mikveh – (MICK-veh); Lit. “gathering”. A body of water,
whether natural or manufactured, designated for the
use of baptism. In the Old Covenant, the mikveh was
used to purify vessels (Numbers 31:22-23). During
Yeshua’s lifetime, immersion in a mikveh was used to
identify one's religious affiliations and to renew one's
faith. Adonaists consider being immersed in a mikveh
the first step of obedience following conversion. This
act is an outward sign of an inner faith.
Milchig - Means 'dairy' in Yiddish. According to rabbinic
Judaism dairy products cannot be used with meat
products, kitchen utensils are kept separate to
designate if they are for dairy (milchig) or meat
(fleishig). The actual command in Scripture in Exodus
34:26b reads: "You must not boil a young goat in its
mother's milk." It is from this passage the rabbis
interpreted that no meat should be consumed with
dairy. Pareve (parve) means 'neutral' and refers to
foods that contain neither meat nor dairy products.
Adonaists do not agree that the rule should be
extended so far, choosing instead to simply obey
Imitatio dei – (ee-mee-TAH-sio day-EE); The imitation
of God’s character or His actions. As Moses said,
“You shall follow the Lord your God…” (Deuteronomy
13:4). Peter urged, “but, as the One who called you is
holy, you also are to be holy in all your conduct; for it
is written, Be holy, because I am holy.” (1 Peter 1:1516 cp Leviticus 11:44-45; 19:2; 20:7)
Immanence – the pervading presence of God in His
creation. (see also Transcendence)
Immortality - Life without death anytime in the future.
God is immortal. The souls of people are immortal
though their bodies are not. All people can die in a
physical sense but they continue on after death.
Therefore, it is the soul that is immortal. However,
after the return of Christ and the resurrection, the
Christians' bodies will also become glorified and
immortal (1 Corinthians 15:50-58). The wicked will
likewise be resurrected to immortality but they will be
cast into hell for eternity (Romans 2:6-10; 2
Corinthians 5:10).
Immutability - The divine attribute of
unchangeableness. God said in Exodus 3:14, "I AM
that I AM," signifying His eternal sameness and His
sovereignty. He cannot change His moral character,
His love, His omniscience, omnipresence,
omnipotence, etc. Immutability does not mean that
God does not vary. The incarnation is just such an
example of variation. Also, God's attitude toward a
person is changed when the person becomes a
Christian. For example, the enmity between God and
man is removed (Romans 5:10). Mormonism denies
the immutability of God. It says that God was not
always God, that He was a man on another planet
who became a God (Mormon Doctrine, by Bruce
McConkie, p.321.).
Impute, Imputation - To reckon to someone the
blessing, curse, debt, etc. of another. Adam's sin is
imputed to all people (Romans 5:12-21), therefore,
we are all guilty before God. Our sins were put upon,
imputed, to Jesus on the cross where He became sin
on our behalf (2 Corinthians 5:21) and died with them
(Isaiah 53:4-6). Therefore, our sins are forgiven.
Understanding imputation is very important.
Imputation is the means of our salvation. Our sins
were put upon, imputed, to Jesus on the cross. Our
sins were "given" to Jesus. When He died on the
cross, our sins, in a sense, died with Him. The
righteousness that was His through His perfect
obedience to the Father in His complete obedience to
the Law is imputed, given, to us. In short, our sins
were given to Jesus. His righteousness was given to
us. Technically speaking our sins were imputed to
Jesus. His righteousness was imputed to us.
In facto - Something that exists and is complete.
In fiery - Beginning to be, but not yet complete.
Incarnation - The addition of human nature to the
nature of God the second person of the Trinity. It is
where God became a man (John 1:1, 14; Philippians
2:5-8). It was the voluntary act of Jesus to humble
Himself so that He might die for our sins (1 Peter
3:18). Thus, Jesus has two natures: Divine and
human. This is known as the Hypostatic Union. The
doctrine is of vital importance to the Christian. By it
we understand the true nature of God, the
atonement, forgiveness, grace, etc. It is only God
who could pay for sins. Therefore, God became man
(John 1:1, 14) to die for our sins (1 Peter 2:24) which
is the atonement. Through Jesus we have
forgiveness of sins. Since we are saved by grace
through faith (Ephesians 2:8-10) it is essential that
Middot – “Measure” or “norms”. Used in reference to the
rules by which dayanim interpret and apply halakha.
Middoth ha nefesh – (mee-DOTE hah-neh-FESH); The
particularly distinctive traits of an individual’s soul.
Midrash (pl. Midrashim) – (MID-rahsh; plural is
midrashim, MID-rah-SHEEM); Midrash literally
means to study or an inquiry or investigation.
Technically however, midrashim are answers to
exegetical questions. Midrashim is the plural form
and midrash is the singular form. It comes from the
word darash, "to inquire, deduce or interpret" whence
it comes to mean “exposition” (of scripture). The word
occurs in 2 Chronicles 24:27, where it is translated
“commentary.” When used as a verb “midrash” refers
to a form of Biblical exegesis; explaining a Scripture
passage’s simple meaning (peshat), its application
(derash) and possibly its deeper, symbolic or
metaphorical meaning (sod).
The term is also used in the sense of a healthy
devotion to study or the ability to discern the proper
use and application of Scripture. For example one
could say “He has great midrash” which (depending
on the context) would either mean he’s an avid
student or has developed some pretty serious study
Usually however, it is used of written
interpretations or explanations of Scripture. The term
can also be applied to a collection of such
expositions or, capitalized, to the whole midrashic
literature written during the first millennium A.D.
Literary Midrash may focus either on halakha,
directing believers to specific patterns of religious
practice, or on (h)aggada, dealing with theological
ideas, ethical teachings, popular philosophy,
Mezinke Tanz - Dance by the bride and groom in honor
of the occasion of the parents marrying off the last
child in the family.
Mezuzah (pl. Mezuzoth) – Though this is the Hebrew
word for doorjamb, "mezuzah," has also come to
mean tiny parchment scroll affixed to the gates
and/or the right-hand doorpost and containing the
first two paragraphs of the Shema (Devarim
[Deuteronomy] 6:4-9 and 11:13-21). We do not
believe that it is required to install a mezuzah on our
door posts any more than we feel it is required to
surgically implant a Torah scroll in our heart.
However, many of us choose to practice this masoret
to remind ourselves as we leave our homes that the
Scriptures must govern our activities and to remind
us as we enter that our homes have been sanctified
and set aside for the Lord’s use.
Mi dei pa’am - From time to time
Middah (pl. Middoth) – The emotive attributes of one’s
soul. A character trait, either good or bad.
Middah k'neged middah - The concept of justice as
measure-for-measure retribution in the context of
divinely implemented justice. Middah k’neged middah
is similar to the concept of lex talionis.
Middat Hadin – Yahweh’s attribute of divine justice.
Middat harahamim – Yahweh’s attribute of divine
Middle Knowledge - That knowledge of God dealing
with what individuals will do in a given set of
circumstances. God has an infinite set of potential
circumstances that could exist and knows all actual
choices that would be made by individuals in each
set. (See also Free Knowledge and Natural
our object of faith be accurate. The doctrine of the
incarnation ensures accuracy, the knowledge that
God died on the cross to atone for sin and that the
God-man (Jesus) is now in heaven as a mediator (1
Timothy 2:5) between us and God. Jesus came to
reveal the Father (Matthew 11:27; Luke 10:22), to do
His will (Hebrews 10:5-9), to fulfill prophecy (Luke
4:17-21), to reconcile the world (2 Corinthians 5:1821), and to become our High Priest (Hebrews 7:2428). (Contrast with Kenosis.)
Induction - A system of logic where specific facts are
used to draw a general conclusion.
Inerrancy - Without error, non-errant. In Christianity,
inerrancy states that the Bible, in its original
documents, is without error regarding facts, names,
dates, and any other revealed information. Inerrancy
does not extend to the copies of the biblical
manuscripts. In Adonaism, we also do not consider
the vowels of the Old Covenant to be inerrant. You
need to remember that the Ancient Hebrew did not
include vowel markers. Those were not added until
around the 6th century AD.
Infant baptism - The practice of baptizing infant children
of believing parents. In the Catholic Church infant
baptism washes away original sin and is
regenerative. In Reformed circles, infant baptism is
not regenerative but covenantal and validated
through the believing parent(s). There are no explicit
accounts of infant baptism in the Bible. Some will
argue that it cannot be completely excluded as a
possibility given that entire households were baptized
(Acts 16:15, 33; 18:8) but that is a very weak
argument from silence. In contrast there are
numerous statements or descriptions depicting
baptism as necessarily following personal
understanding and belief, something impossible for
an infant (Acts 2:37-38; 8:12-13, 36-39; 9:17-18;
10:47; 16:14-15, 30-34; 18:18).
Infidel - A person who does not belief in any particular
religious system.
Infinity - The state or quality of being infinite, unlimited
by space or time, without end, without beginning or
end. God is infinite in that He is not limited by space
or time. He is without beginning and without end
(Psalm 90:2).
Infralapsarianism - An issue within Reformed theology
dealing with what may have happened in God's mind
regarding the logical order of His considering whom
to elect into salvation before the foundation of the
world. The word means "after the fall." The position is
that God first decided he would allow sin into the
world and second that he would then save people
from it. By contrast, the supralapsarian ("before the
fall") position holds that God first decided that he
would save some people and then second that he
would allow sin into the world. Adonaists believe that
the injunction against arguing about myths,
genealogies, empty speculations and fruitless
discussions should apply (1 Timothy 1:3-7).
Inspiration - The doctrine that the Bible was written by
the influence of God. It is, therefore, without error. It
is accurate and authoritatively represents God's
teachings (2 Timothy 3:16). As such it is a revelation
from God which implies direct knowledge about God,
creation, man, salvation, the future, etc. It is an
illumination in that it shows us what we could not
know apart from it. One of the ways to prove that the
Bible is inspired is to examine the Old Covenant
prophecies fulfilled in the New Covenant concerning
Yeshua (Luke 24:27-45). Because the Bible is
Mesirus nefesh – (meh-SEE-roos neh-FESH);
(sometimes pronounced mesirat nephesh) Lit.,
“giving over of life”. Self sacrifice. Mesirus nefesh can
mean the willingness to follow the Master into
martyrdom (as in yehareg v’al ya’avor). However, it
can also imply a daily sacrifice or willingness to
absorb great harship for Hashem’s sake. “Therefore,
brothers, by the mercies of God, I urge you to
present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and
pleasing to God; this is your spiritual worship.”
(Romans 12:1)
Mesorati - traditional
Messiah - Messiah is based on the Hebrew word
Mashiach’ which means "anointed one." It is the
equivalent of the New Covenant word "Christ" which
also means "anointed." Jesus, as the messiah, was
anointed by God (Matthew 3:16) to carry out His
three-fold ministry of Prophet, Priest, and King. As
the messiah He has delivered the Christian from the
bonds of sin and given to him eternal life. In that
sense, messiah means deliverer, for He has
delivered us. The Messiah was promised in the O.T.
in the seed of the woman (Genesis 3:15). (See also
Messianic Age - A thousand year period where Yeshua
will rule the earth as its king. During that period it is
prophesied that Israel will reside again in the land,
the temple will be rebuilt, the resurrection will occur
and there will be peace on earth.
Metaphysics - The study of the nature and being of
reality and its origin and structure.
Metzuyan! - Perfect!
Meytav haIch’ulim! - Best wishes!
Melammed (pl. Melammedim) - Teacher of young
children, especially of Hebrew. See also Rabbi,
Menahel Beit Din: In the absence of the Segan Av Beit
Din, the Menahel (Director) of the Beit Din shall
function as the Av Beit Din.
Menorah – A nine-branch candelabrum, especially the
one kindled during the festival of Hanukkah. God
commanded a seven-branched menorah to be used
in the ancient Temple. See also Hannukkiah.
Mensch – (Yid.) A nice gentleman; good person
Menuha – Rest
Meraglim – Spies; as in Numbers 13.
Mercy - The act of not administering justice when that
justice is punitive. Because of our sinfulness we
deserve death and eternal separation from God
(Romans 6:23; Isaiah 59:2), but God provided an
atonement for sin and through it shows us mercy.
That is, He does not deliver to the Christian the
natural consequence of his sin which is damnation.
That is why Jesus became sin on our behalf (2
Corinthians 5:21) and bore the punishment due to us
(Isaiah 53:4-5). It was to deliver us from damnation.
(Compare with justice and grace.) God saved us
according to His mercy (Titus 3:5) and we can
practice mercy as a gift (Romans 12:8). "Let us
therefore draw near with confidence to the throne of
grace, that we may receive mercy and may find
grace to help in time of need" (Hebrews 4:16).
Mesarev lavo ledin – one who declines to appear in
front of the Beit Din according to biblical law
(Deuteronomy 17:9-12); one who has refused the
summons of a hazmanah from the Beit Din.
Meshuga - Crazy
inspired, its words are unbreakable (John 10:34-36),
eternal (Matthew 24:35), trustworthy (Psalm
119:160), and able to pierce the heart of man
(Hebrews 4:12). Additionally, the inspired Word of
God will not go forth without accomplishing what God
wishes it to (Isaiah 55:11).
Intermediate state - The period between death and
resurrection. The condition of the person in the
intermediate state is debated. One theory is that the
person is without a body, yet is conscious, and that
he will receive his body at the resurrection. Another
theory states that the person has a different sort of
spiritual body that will be lost at the resurrection
when body and soul are reunited (2 Corinthians 5:14).
Inyan - (Heb.) Idea or concept.
Ish - Man
Ishah - Woman
Ishti - My wife
Issurim - Criminal cases
Ivkos Meshich’a – (Aramaic) The age which hears the
approaching footsteps of the Mashiach’.
Ivrit – (ee-VREET); Lit., “Hebrew.” The Hebrew word for
the Hebrew language.
Iyyar - Month of the Jewish year, corresponding to AprilMay.
Jehovah - An anglicized pronunciation of the Hebrew
tetragrammaton, YHWH, which are the four
consonant letters used to spell God’s name in the
Old Testament (Exodus 3:14). The Hebrews
considered the name of God too holy to pronounce
and substituted the word “Lord” (Adonai) when the
text was read. The vowels of the word “Adonai” was
combined with YHWH to get the word “Jehovah”
which was first used in the 12th century. A more
accurate pronunciation of YHWH would be “Yahweh.”
However, the exact and proper pronunciation has
been lost.
Jesus – The name “Jesus” is derived from the Greek
word Ieosus, which was derived from the Hebrew
word Yeshua. Many Adonaists simply say Yeshua.
The Bible is about Jesus (Luke 24:27, 44; John 5:39;
Hebrews 10:7). The prophets prophesied about Him
(Acts 10:43). The Father bore witness of Him (John
5:37, 8:18). The Holy Spirit bore witness of Him
(John 15:26). The works Jesus did bore witness of
Him (John 5:36; 10:25). The multitudes bore witness
of Him (John 12:17). And, Jesus bore witness of
Himself (John 14:6, 18:6). Jesus is God in flesh
(John 1:1, 14). He is fully God and fully man
(Colossians 2:9) thus, He has two natures: God and
man. He is not half God and half man. He is 100%
God and 100% man. He never lost his divinity. He
existed in the form of God and when He became a
man, He added human nature1 to Himself
(Philippians 2:5-11). Therefore, there is a "union in
one person of a full human nature and a full divine
nature." Right now in heaven there is a man, Jesus,
who is Mediator between us and God the Father (1
Timothy 2:5). Jesus is our advocate with the Father
(1 John 2:1). He is our Savior (Titus 2:13). He is our
Lord (Romans 10:9-10). He is not, as some cults
teach, an angel who became a man (Jehovah's
Witnesses) or the brother of the devil (Mormonism).
He is wholly God and wholly man, the Creator, the
Jesus Only Movement - This is a movement in some
Pentecostal circles. It is an error in the understanding
Meforshim – (meh-fore-SHEEM); Meforshim are
answers to biblical questions which are topical in
nature. Thus meforshim are commentaries on the
Scriptures as a body. The term is often used to
describe answers to she’eilot regarding theological
(as opposed to ethical) questions. For instance, the
answer to “must I reveal all I know about a product in
a sales transaction” would fall under Responsa. The
answer to “can the devil read our thoughts” would fall
under meforshim. The answer to “what did God mean
when He said we are created in His image” would
also fall under meforshim. Obviously, it is impossible
to adequately answer the ethical issues raised in
Responsa without addressing the Scriptures, and
many meforshim contain ethical injunctions.
Therefore, there will be some overlap.
Megillah – Lit. “scroll”. The scroll containing any of five
books: Ruth, Song of Songs, Esther, Lamentations or
Ecclesiastes. However it commonly means the
biblical narrative of the Book of Esther, traditionally
read to celebrate the festival of Purim.
Megillat Ta'anit — (scroll of fasting) a composition that
includes a list in Aramaic of thirty-five Second
Temple-period holidays during which public fasting
was prohibited (on fourteen of these days public
mourning also was forbidden), and a commentary in
Hebrew. The list, which includes reasons for the
prohibitions, was compiled sometime before the
destruction of the Temple in 70 A.D. The
commentary portion of the work was added not
earlier than the seventh century A.D.
Meh ch’adash? - What’s new?; The response could be:
Ein ch’adash - Nothing’s new
Melach’a – (Heb., “work”) Creative work.
confirmation, communion, penance, extreme unction,
holy orders, and matrimony.
Me’at - A little
Mech’iah - A great feeling; relief
Mech’itzah – (meh-KHEE-tsah); A curtain or short wall
used as a modesty screen.
Mediation - In some cases people with a dispute may
attempt mediation. Under biblical law, people who
cannot resolve their disputes may insist on a din
torah. Mediation occurs when the two sides having a
dispute bring in a third party, called the mediator, to
help them come to a resolution that everyone can
agree to. It is not necessarily important in mediation
who is right in the dispute, just what resolution
everyone can accept. In mediation the mediator
cannot force everyone to accept a resolution.
Mediation is often more friendly than a din torah,
because both parties are working to find a resolution
they can live with, while in a din torah, each side is
defending their own position.
Mediator - Someone who intervenes, someone who
conveys and conciliates. The word "mediator" is not
found in the Old Covenant, but its principle is. God
gave the Law to the people through a mediator,
Moses (Galatians 3:19), who was a type of the true
mediator, Jesus. The word occurs only a few times in
the New Covenant: 1 Timothy 2:5; Hebrews 8:6;
9:15; 12:24. It is in the New Covenant that the true
nature of mediation is understood in the person of
Jesus Christ. He is the mediator of a better covenant
(Hebrews 8:6). He was able to become our mediator
by becoming man (John 1:1, 14) and dying as our
substitute (1 Peter 1:18,19; 2:24). He reconciled us to
God (Ephesians 2:16).
of the nature of the Trinity. The biblical Trinity
consists of three persons simultaneously and
eternally existing in one God. The Jesus Only
Movement maintains that there is only one person in
the Godhead: Jesus. It teaches that the person of the
Father became the person of the Son who then
became the person of the Holy Spirit and that the
persons are consecutive not simultaneous. This
movement is incorrect in its Trinitarian interpretation.
Additionally, they mistakenly believe that baptism is
necessary for salvation and that tongues are
evidence of true conversion. (See also Modalism)
Jews - Originally, a Jew was a member of the state of
Judah during the period of the division of Israel into
two nations: Judah and Israel. “Jew” literally means
“praiser” and comes from the word “Judah”. It
became a common reference from the 8th century
B.C. Today it is commonly used of adherents of the
Jewish religion as opposed to those living in Canaan
which are referred to as Israeli and may represent
any number of religions or even atheism. Adonaists
take to heart the passages that state that all those
who worship God and obey His mitzvoth become His
people and those who disregard His commands are
to be cut off. We take seriously Paul’s statement that
“jewishness” is not a physical but a spiritual condition
and that all those who like Abraham act on their faith
are sons of Abraham. Therefore Adonaists consider
themselves Jews. (See Ezrach’)
In practice we say “Hebrew” for the people who
are genetically related to the tribes. We say “Jew” for
anyone who commits to obeying God’s laws and
accepts His Messiah. We say “Israeli” for those who
are citizens of the modern nation of Israel. We refer
to those who observe the medieval religion by the
form they observe (Hassidic, Orthodox,
Reconstructionists, Reform etc). The group of people
who opposed the Apostle Paul were “Judaizers”.
Jonah’s Box – A term I use to indicate a limiting selfperception based on pride and self-love rather than a
balanced biblical view.
Judgment - Condemnation. There are several
judgments: the judgment of the believer's sins (John
5:24), the judgment of the believer's self (1
Corinthians 11:31-32), the judgment of the believer's
works (2 Corinthians 5:10), the judgment of the
nations (Matthew 25:31-46), and the judgment of the
wicked (Revelation 20:11-15). There is no judgment
for the Christian in respect to salvation (Romans 8:1).
We were judged in Christ on the cross 2000 years
ago. However, as Christians we will be judged
according to our works (2 Corinthians 5:10) with,
most probably, varying degrees of rewards. But,
remember, the judgment of our works does not affect
our salvation.
Just, Justice - The due reward or punishment for an
act. Justice is getting what is deserved. God is
merciful but He is also just (Deuteronomy 32:4 righteous) and must punish sin. In the grace of God,
justice fell upon His Son so that mercy would fall
upon us. (See also Proverbs 8:15; Genesis 18:19;
Hebrews 10:38).
Justify, Justification - To be justified is to be made
righteous. It is a divine act where God declares the
sinner to be innocent of his sins. It is not that the
sinner is now sinless, but that he is "declared"
sinless. This justification is based on the shed blood
of Jesus, "...having now been justified by His blood..."
(Romans 5:9). When God sees the Christian, He
sees him through the sacrifice of Jesus and "sees"
Matzah (pl. Matzoth) – (MAH-tsah; mah-TSOTE);
(Strong’s #4682); A type of bread that does not
contain any yeast, and is thus not allowed to ferment
or rise. It is usually eaten during the Passover. Many
Christians eat it during the Christian version of the
Passover called the Lord’s Supper or Communion.
Yeshua used it to designate His body at the last
Pesach’ seder prior to His crucifixion.
Matzah Ball Soup - This is a soup that uses matzah
balls (matzah meal, egg, oil, seasonings) in a chicken
broth; can be made with or without added
Matzah Meal - Crumbs from crushed matzah bread;
used as a flour or for breading.
Mazel tov! – It literally means “good star” or “good
constellation” implying “good fortune. It is commonly
used to say “Congratulations and good luck!” See
also b’hatzlach’a.
Mazel u brach’a! (Yiddish: Mazel und Bruch’a) Blessings and congratulations!
Me’ah ach’uz - For sure; 100% certain
Means of Grace - This is associated with sacramental
theology. A means of grace is a manner in which the
Lord imparts grace to a believer as he partakes in the
sacrament. A sacrament is a visible manifestation of
the word. The bread and wine in the Lord's Supper
are considered sacraments in that they are visible
manifestations of the covenant promise of our Lord:
"In the same way, after the supper he took the cup,
saying, 'This cup is the new covenant in my blood,
which is poured out for you.'" (Luke 22:20).
Generally, the means of grace are considered to be
the Gospel, baptism, and the Lord’s Supper. The
Catholic church has seven total: baptism,
things of God (1 Corinthians 2:14). Since this is the
condition of man in his natural state, salvation is then
impossible for us to achieve (Matthew 19:26). That is
why we need the free gift of salvation (Romans 6:23)
given by God to Christians through faith in Jesus'
sacrifice on the cross.
Manuscript - A document or a copy of an original
writing. There are thousands of existing manuscripts
of the biblical documents ranging from vellum (animal
skins) to papyri (plant material) upon which the
original and copies of the original writings were
Marat - Married woman; Mrs.
Mashiach’ – (mah-SHEE-akh); Lit., “anointed one.” The
Hebrew word for “Messiah.” Sometimes spelled
Moshiach’. In Aramaic it is Meshich’a. In Greek it is
Masoret – (mah-sow-RET); Tradition as we pass it on to
others and retains a little of our flavor. Each person
who receives Kabalah, absorbs it, discovers how to
apply it and then passes it on, hands off a slightly
changed thing. Hopefully the change is an
improvement. See also “Kabalah.”
Masoretes — the Jewish scholars of the sixth to ninth
centuries A.D. who compiled the Masorah, a body of
notes on the textual traditions surrounding Scripture.
In particular, the Masoretes devised vowel signs with
which to vocalize the Bible's consonantal text.
Masoretic Text — the text of the Bible produced by the
Massa – (mah-SAH); A prophetic message that comes
through verbal communication.
Matanot l’evyonim – The mitzvah of giving gifts to the
poor on Purim.
him without sin. This declaration of innocence is not
without cost for it required the satisfaction of God's
Law, "...without shedding of blood there is no
forgiveness" (Hebrews 9:22). By the sacrifice of
Jesus, in the "one act of righteousness there resulted
justification of life to all men" (Romans 5:18, NASB).
In justification, the justice of God fell upon Himself-Jesus. We receive mercy--we are not judged
according to our sins. And grace is shed upon us--we
receive eternal life. This justification is a gift of grace
(Romans 3:24), by faith (Romans 3:28) because
Jesus bore our guilt (Isaiah 53:12).
Kabalah – (kah-bah-LAH) A Hebrew word that means
tradition as received from our teachers. This is not
Kabbalah which is the Jewish mystical belief
embraced by Madonna among others. See also
Kabbalas ol – Lit., “acceptance of the yoke”; selfsubordination to the will of God.
Kabbalat Panim - A reception for the groom before the
wedding ceremony
Kabbalat yisurim – (kah-bah-LAHT yee-soo-REEM); to
not only accept suffering but even find same’ach’
b’yisurim (joy in suffering). Consider James 1:2-3.
Kach’a ha ch’ayim - That’s life; That’s the way it goes
Kach’a kach’a - So so
Kaddesh – the first cup of blessing in a Passover Seder
or the blessing of the wine at the Sabbath meal. It is
also often referred to as Kiddush since it is a
sanctification of the wine for holy purposes.
Kaddish – A prayer of mourning, usually recited at a
service. When the phrase “saying kaddish” is used, it
means that the person is praying mourners’ prayers.
However, kaddish also is used to indicate a prayer of
praise in which Hashem is magnified and glorified.
The intersection between the two concepts is that
even in times of mourning Yahweh’s slaves should
praise Him and that even in times of celebration,
Yahweh’s slaves should remember they are one
breath away from death and judgment.
Usually, the mourner will attend prayer services
for 11 months and recite the prayer. The purpose is
(along with sitting shiva) to allow the mourner to
process their grief and heal from the loss of their
loved one. At the last Kaddish a gentle ritual is
followed to aid in closure.
The following words, though often confused, are
• Kaddesh is the first cup of blessing in a
Passover Seder or the blessing of the wine at
the Sabbath meal. It is also often referred to
as Kiddush. See Kaddesh.
• Kaddish is a prayer of mourning.
• Kiddish is either a party-like meal introducing
a Sabbath or a holiday or the prayer of
thanksgiving that accompanies it.
• Kiddush is equivalent to sanctification or
Kadosh – holy
Kahal (Qahal) - (Heb., “congregation, gathering”)
Kal vach’omer – (light and heavy) A term of logic
applied to the inference from minor to major (a minori
ad maius, or a fortiori) reasoning. Drawing a more
general Scriptural interpretation from a mnor premise
or going from a lenient premise to a more strict one.
In other words, inductive logic or reasoning.
Kal vahomer —.
Kallah - Bride
such aids. Many of the prayers and/or scriptural
readings are put to music which goes along with the
admonition to “sing psalms, hymns and spiritual
songs to each other; sing to the Lord and make
music in your heart to him; always give thanks for
everything to God the Father in the name of our Lord
Yeshua the Messiah (Ephesians 5:19-20 CJB).
Maimonides - The famous Hebrew scholar/author Rabbi
Moshe ben Maimon (1135-1204) better known as
'Rambam’. Author of Thirteen Articles of the Jewish
Faith, Eight Levels of Charity, and Guide for the
Makolet – A corner grocery store.
Malkut ha shamayim - The Kingdom of Heaven; The
Kingdom of God
Mamonoth - Civil cases
Mamzer - A person born from a prohibited union (i.e.,
from an incestuous or adulterous union).
Man - Man is the creation of God. It is man alone who
reflects God. The first man, Adam, was made in
God's image (Genesis 1:26-27), and placed in the
Garden of Eden for the purpose of enjoying the
fellowship of the Lord and fulfilling the purpose of
God's creation. He was told to "be fruitful and
multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it; and rule
over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky,
and over every living thing that moves on the earth"
(Genesis 2:28). When Adam and Eve sinned, all of
humanity fell with them (Romans 5:12-21). Adam
represented all humanity: "In Adam all die..." (1
Corinthians 15:22). As a result of Adam's
disobedience, condemnation resulted to all men
(Romans 5:18). Therefore we are by nature children
of wrath (Ephesians 2:3). We do not seek God
(Romans 3:11) nor can we understand the spiritual
attempting to make of the two one people (Ephesians
(5) Those parts that deal with the separation of
the Jews from the Gentiles (Colossians 3:11;
Galatians 3:28). Besides even if that separation were
to still apply, it would not affect we Goyim.
(6) Those parts that would cause us to contradict
the laws of the land in which we live. An important
Hebrew concept that applies in this particular
instance is “Dina d’malchuta dina” – which literally
means “the law of the land is law.” This phrase is a
guide to elders as they try to apply Scripture to day to
day ethical, spiritual and legal conundrums. For
instance, OT law states that witches should be killed.
However, we are told to “render to Caesar what is
due Caesar” (Matthew 22:21; Mark 12:17; Luke
20:25), to respectfully pray for and obey the head of
government (Romans 13:1-7 cp 1 Peter 2:13, 17). In
this society in which we temporarily reside, it is
against the law to stone witches. Therefore dina
d’malchuta dina applies. The law of the land in which
we live rules us as long as it does not ask us to deny
God. We may act within the law as citizens, trying to
bring about justice and national health, but it is not
allowed to believers to break the law in order to
enforce what we feel is right – again, as long as the
law is not causing us to deny God or to commit
injustices (as in 1930s Germany’s demands to
persecute Jews).
Mahzor - A mahzor is a type of siddur, or prayer book.
You may be familiar with the Book of Common
Prayer? It’s rather like that; a guide containing
specific prayers, liturgies, and piyyutim (liturgical
poems) for special occasions like the various high
holy days, to give help to those who are in need of
Kamah zeh o’leh? - How much does this cost?
Kapparah – (kah-pah-RAH); (Strong’s #3722); Lit.,
“atonement.” Any act that makes up for past
transgressions and cleanses the soul. This can refer
to the sacrifice the Messiah made on the cross on
our behalf or it can refer to any individual’s attempt to
offer restitution for a sin against another. To atone, to
cover over, to pardon; as in Psalm 65:3.
Kar li - It is cold to me; I feel cold
Karma - In Hinduism, the total compilation of all a
person's past lives and actions that result in the
present condition of that person. Normally, it is
associated with reincarnation.
Karov rach’ok - A distant relative
Kasher, Kashrut - See kosher
Kavanah – (Kah-vah-NAH); Lit. “intention”. Intense
mental concentration or emotional devotion in the
utterance of a prayer or during the performance of a
mitzvah. A state of mind requisite for prayer,
meditation or worship. Consider Colossians 3:15-17
which says peace and gratitude should control our
hearts and that our single-minded focus should be on
the supremacy of the Lord Jesus.
Kavod – (kah-VODE); (Strong’s #3519); Honor, dignity,
respect for others. Showing respect for the dignity of
another. Adonaists are to kavod their parents. It can
also be used in the sense of “paying respects” or
honoring one’s leaders or elders.
Kavod ha-met – (kah-VODE hah-MET); Lit., “honor for
the dead.” Adonaists demonstrate their respect for
the dead by gathering to honor their memory,
burying them quickly; not desecrating their bodies or
their graves; and by trying as much as possible to
speak well of them.
Kavod Hatzibur - (Hebrew) For the honor of the
Kazeh (masc.); Kazot (fem.) - Like this
Ke yotzei bo mimakom acher - "Like it says
elsewhere"; An argument style where the explanation
of a word in one text is clarified by use of same word
in an unrelated text.
Kedushah – (keh-doo-SHAH); (Strong’s #6918);
Holiness or sanctity.
Kehilla(h) - (Heb., “community”) A sense of unity or
belongingness to a group or a congregation.
Ken - Yes
Kenosis - The doctrine that Christ relinquished
His divine attributes so as to experience
human suffering. It first appeared in this form
and usage between 1835 and 1845. It comes
from the late Greek kenōsis, which means, an
emptying, from kenoun, to empty, from kenos,
Kenosis is a teaching concerning Jesus'
incarnation. The Kenosis attempts to solve
some paradoxes between the nature of God
and of man as united in Jesus. For example,
how could an all-knowing God become a
baby, or how could God be tempted?
For some, the Kenosis maintains that God,
when becoming a man, divested Himself of
some qualities of being a god and they think
that the Kenosis is God minus something; God
subtracting some qualities of deity to become
a man. In contrast the Hypostatic Union is God
plus something; God adding human nature to
If it is taken that way, the Kenosis then
jeopardizes the true incarnation because it
literal fullness in a quantitative sense, it can also be
used metaphorically with reference to non-tangible
phenomena – for example, wisdom (Ezekiel 28:12);
divine blessing (Deuteronomy 33:23); God’s wrath
(Psalm 75:8; Isaiah 51:20; Jeremiah 6:11); justice
(Isaiah 1:21); and lies (Nahum 3:1). Deuteronomy
34:9 refers to Joshua being “full of the Spirit of God.”
In Adonaism we also use it to refer to those laws
and regulations that have been fulfilled (Matthew
5:17-18) and no longer are required though not
necessarily forbidden. Allow me to share six broad,
general principles of interpretation and application
that Adonaic Christians follow.
(1) Anything directly fulfilled in the New Covenant
needn’t concern us. For example the directive to
circumcise all believing males (Genesis 17:9-14;
Leviticus 12:1-3) has been specifically cancelled
(Acts 15:6-21).
(2) Anything directly involving sacrifice for
salvation (Exodus 30:10) has been fulfilled in the
one-time perfect sacrifice of the Messiah made for all
(Hebrews 10:10-12). Therefore the laws on sacrifices
for sins, though still instructive, do not apply to us.
(3) Anything directly involved with the ritualistic
worship that was part and parcel with the Tabernacle
or the Temple are not required – there IS no Temple
at this time. They will become relevant at some point
in the future when the Temple is rebuilt, but not at
this time. This is consistent with the laws that have
always been on the books that a believer who was
traveling out of country was not obliged to routinely
go to the Temple for worship.
(4) Anything designed to identify the differences
between genetic Jews and genetic Goyim is no
longer relevant because the Lord is presently
Mah atah o’mer? - What are you saying?
Mah hainyanim? - What’s the news?
Mah hasha’ah? - What time is it?
Mah hashem shelch’a? - What’s your name?; The
response would be: Hashem sheli - My name is ___
Mah lech’ah? - What’s it to you?
Mah matzinu – literally “what have we found?” Another
way of referring to binyan av.
Mah nishmah? - What is heard?; What’s new?; The
response could be: Lo kelum - Nothing
Mah she ba tuach’, ba tuach’ - What is certain is
certain; what will be will be (cp Yehiyeh asher
Mah shlom’ch’em? (masc. plural) Mah shlom’ch’en?
(fem. plural) - How are you?
Mah shlomech’a? (masc.); Mah shlomech’? (fem.) How are you?
Possible responses:
umah shlomech’a/shlomech’? or v’atah? - And
how are you?;
Tov. Umah slomech’a/shlomech’? - Well. And how
are you?;
Tov me’od, todah - Very well thanks;
Tov Todah - Fine/good, thanks;
Mah tovu ohalech’a - How goodly are your tents
Mah yesh? - What do you have?; What’s the matter?;
What’s the problem?
Mah zeh? - What is this?
Mahashavah – A thought.
Maher’ - Quickly
Mahleh – (mah-LEH) – (Strong’s #4390) To fill, or be
full; to be fulfilled. Mahleh has both an adjectival and
a verbal sense. The verb means “rill” or “fill up,” as
well as “fulfill”. As an adjective it means “full” and
occurs about sixty times. Though its primary sense is
puts in doubt the full indwelling of God among
men in the person of Jesus.
In order to gain a proper, biblical view of
the Kenosis the talmid should consider the
following passages: John 1:1-18; 17:5; 2
Corinthians 8:9; Galatians 4:3-5; Philippians
2:6-11; Colossians 2:8-9; Hebrews 2:10-11,
(Compare with Hypostatic Union.)
Ketivah ve Ch’atimah Tovah le shanah tovah
tikateivu - May you be inscribed in the Book of Life
for a good year
Ketores – Incense.
Ketubah – a formal marriage contract developed before
the wedding, guaranteeing (usually the bride) certain
future rights. A “prenuptial agreement”. See also
Ketuvim – (kay-too-VEEM); The writings; the poetic,
historic and wisdom literature of the Old Testament.
Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Songs, Ruth,
Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra,
Nehemiah, and the Chronicles.
Ketz – Lit., “end”; a particularly auspicious time for
Mashiach’ to come.
Kevah – Fixed times of prayer. Some believers, like the
prophet Daniel, discipline themselves to praying at
fixed times of the day.
Kevurah – Interment. Commital of the body to the
ground. See also Ch’esed shel emet.
Ki – (KEY); A Hebrew word that can mean “in harmony
with” but also “according to” or “as it deserves.” It
was used in a play on words by Solomon in Proverbs
Kibbitz - (Yid.) To talk, comment and advise someone
while they are doing something else.
Kibbud (pl. Kibbudim) – Refreshments provided for
ritual occasions. Honors given to guests at a
Kibbutz — a collective farm or settlement in Israel.
Kiddish – A fine, full meal or the prayer of thanksgiving
that accompanies it. The prayer is recited at the
onset of a Sabbath or a holiday, usually over a cup
of wine. Sometimes kiddish follows kaddish. After a
loved one is buried and we recite kaddish for them,
we often eat together (called yahrzeit) with our loved
ones and spend time honoring our dead’s memories.
At that time, when everyone is wishing l’ch’aim to
each other, it is appropriate to recite kiddish in the
anticipation of sharing a cup with our dead at the last
Kiddoshim tihiyu – (kid-doo-SHEEM tee-hee-YOO);
“You shall be holy”
Kiddush – (KID-ish); (Strong’s #6942); (Heb.,
“sanctification” or “consecration”; derived from
kadosh (qadosh), “holy”) A prayer of sanctification. A
body of water may be made kiddush by praying over
it before using it as a mikveh. A person may be made
kiddush by being publicly recognized by the elders,
who generally lay hands on and pray over the person
to set them aside for special ministry. Also a
benediction pronounced over wine on Sabbaths and
Kiddush Hashem – (kee-DOOSH hah-SHEM); Lit.,
“sanctifying the name“of the Lord. Making His name
honored among the people. Identifying yourself with
Him and then bringing approval to Him or His people
through good works and a changed heart. Any
prayer, conduct or martyrdom that brings honor to
God’s name. Adonaists are called upon to sanctify
God’s name in everything we do. A generous,
mishmarot, of priests. The term now refers to a
series of extra-liturgical prayers and extracts used
daily in the synagogue.
Ma’amar – (Strong’s #3982) From ‘amar; something
(authoritatively) said, i.e. An edict – commandment or
decree. Cf to sich’a.
Ma’ariv – (mah-ah-REEV); Lit., “evening” but indicating
evening prayers or an evening prayer service.
Ma’asim tovim – (mah-ah-SEEM toe-VEEM); Good
deeds that should be driven by ch’esed. See gemilut
Mabul – Hebrew for the Deluge; the Great Flood.
Maccabees — nickname of the Hasmoneans, a family
of Jewish priests who led a successful revolt, which
began in 168 B.C., against the Hellenized Selucid
rulers of Syria. The Maccabees ruled the land of
Israel from 142 to 63 B.C.
Mach’er - A big shot; man with contacts
Machzor - A prayerbook used during the high Holy
Magen David - (also spelled Mogen David; Heb., “shield
of David”). The distinctive six-pointed Jewish star,
used especially since the 17th century. It has a
somewhat dubious history with pagan origins. It was
used by Hebrews in 13th century Prague and was
later adopted by the Zionist movement in the 19th
century. While the Nazis forced the Hebrew people to
wear the star, today the star's popularity is such that
it's become the symbol of Jewishness worldwide.
Maggid - Preacher, often itinerant; interim pastor or
visiting speaker. In Europe this was a person who
would give sermons on moral subjects. Rebbes are
also Maggidim (pl. of Maggid).
Magiyah lo - To him it should be received; He deserves
information, yet the conclusion has not yet been
verified. For example, each night I get tired at 10 PM.
Therefore, I conclude that tonight, I will be tired at 10
Lord's Supper - See Communion and/or Pesach’
Lowlander – In Genesis 13 Lot, while standing on the
high ridge with his uncle Abram, looked down into the
valley of Sodom and chose its delights to his
eventual destruction. A Lowlander is thus someone
who is not heavenly minded; an unbeliever; a pagan;
someone who has chosen to continue his citizenship
in this world. A Lowlander considers collecting the
baubles of this world to be a priority. A Lowlander
stands agape at the shenanigans of movie stars and
singers. Their view is horizontal, earthly, and
sensuous. In contrast, a Highlander, like Abram who
forsook the Sodom valley life and pursued a “high
city” (Hebrews 11:10), chooses God’s King and
Kingdom – the High Land. Where “Adonaism” and
“Cultural Christianity” are used in the context of
theological systems, “Lowlander” and “Highlander”
are usually used in the context of culture. (see
Lox - Smoked salmon
Luch’ot – Lit., "tables" or "tablets". The two stone tablets
on which the Aseret ha Devarim were written.
Lulav – Closed palm branch, waved during the festival
of Sukkoth for the mitzvah of the Four Species.
Ma'amadot — delegations of representatives, including
priests, Levites and ordinary Israelites, sent in turn to
Jerusalem from twenty-four local districts to offer
sacrifices in the Temple. The delegations served
together with twenty-four parallel divisions, or
selfless mitzvah that is thought to bring honor on God
or His children. See also Hillul Hashem.
Kingdom of God - The kingdom of God and the
kingdom of heaven seem to be variations of the
same idea. A kingdom implies a king. Our king is
Jesus. Jesus said His kingdom was not of this world
(John 18:36). Jesus' authority did not come from man
but from God (Luke 22:29). Entrance into the
kingdom of God is by a new birth (John 3:5),
repentance (Matthew 3:2), and the divine call (1
Thessalonians 2:12). We are told to seek the
kingdom of God first (Matthew 6:33) and to pray for
its arrival (Matthew 6:10). "The kingdom of God is not
eating and drinking, but righteousness and peace
and joy in the Holy Spirit" (Romans 14:17). It is also a
future kingdom where full rulership in the actual
presence of the king Jesus will occur when He
returns to earth.
Kinor - (Hebrew) Harp.
Kinyan – An action that makes a transaction take effect,
somewhat like signing a contract makes the contract
take effect. The most common type of Kinyan is a
Kinyan Sudar.
Kinyan Sudar – a Kinyan made by accepting an object
of at least some minimal value, such as a
handkerchief, as a symbolic agreement to be bound
in a transaction. For example, parties usually are
handed a handkerchief or a pen at the beginning of a
din torah, which they then raise to demonstrate
acceptance of the jurisdiction of the beth din.
Kippah – (aka yarmulke) A headcovering worn for
worship, religious study, meals, or at any other time;
also called yarmulke. Male Adonaists do not wear
kippot, considering them as running contrary to 1
Corinthians 11:4 HCSB Every man who prays or
prophesies with something on his head dishonors his
Some Adonaic women choose to wear one in
accordance to: 1 Corinthians 11:5, 10 HCSB But
every woman who prays or prophesies with her head
uncovered dishonors her head, since that is one and
the same as having her head shaved… (10) This is
why a woman should have a symbol of authority on
her head: because of the angels.
Kislev - Month of Jewish year, corresponding to
Kittel - The white robes in which the dead are buried,
worn by some during Yom Kippur services.
Klal - A general principle.
Klal Ufrat - An argument where a general summary
statement is followed by an explanatory, more
specific statement.
Klal Yisrael - Hebrew for "the congregation of Israel,”
refers to the Jewish people as a whole.
K’lala – (kuh-LAH-lah); (Strong’s #7045) A Hebrew word
that can be literally translated “curse” but that
connotes lightness, emptiness or meaninglessness. It
comes from the Hebrew root word “kal” which means
“lightweight.” See also “b’rach’a.”
Kli Gever - Refers to the prohibition against the dress
and habits of the other sex in accordance to
Deuteronomy 22:5.
Klita - Absorption; social and economic integration of
immigrants. Used in Adonaism to express the
unfortunate absorption of Lowlander culture among
Knaidelach - Matzo balls
Knesset Haggedolah – the Great Assembly, a synod of
teachers who receive the corpus of doctrine and
determine new applications for the congregation.
standard; fulfilling the spirit or intent of the law rather
merely its letter. See also hishtadlut”.
Limudei Kodesh – Lit., “Study of the sacred” or “Study
of that which is holy” but used in the sense of Judaic
Lo – No; not
Lo ba li - I don’t feel like it
Lo bediyuk - Not exactly
Lo beshi mush - Not in use; Not working
Lo b’shamayim hi - The Torah is not in heaven. This
saying means The Torah (God’s commands and
wishes) is close and accessible to every person. Our
God did not give us some doctrine that is hidden
away in the upper recesses of heaven, available only
to prophets and scholars. On the contrary, our Torah
is readily available and not hidden. We cannot hide
behind our ignorance. We all have equal access to
the texts of the Scriptures. (Deuteronomy 30:11-14)
Lo dati (pl. lo datiim) - Those who are not religious.
Also, hiloni.
Lo kol kach’ - Not so good; not so much
Lo yitach’en - It is not possible
Loculus — a recess or small chamber cut into a wall of
a room in a burial cave for the reception of an
ossuary or coffin. Plural: loculi.
Logic - From the Greek “logos” meaning “word.” Logic is
study of the principles of reasoning. A set of
premises that are examined and arranged so as to
bring a conclusion. If A = B and B = C, then A = C.
Deductive logic is the method of validating a claim by
means of supportive information where both the
claim and the information are necessarily true. For
example, People exist. All people breath. Therefore,
all people breath. Inductive logic is the method of
drawing a conclusion from a set of supportive
Le shanah tovah - For a good year
Le shanah tovah tikateivu - May you be written down
for a good year
Le shanah tovah tikatev vetihatem (masc.) - May you
be inscribed and sealed for a good year (response:
Gam atah - Same to you)
Le shanah tovah tiktavi tetich’tami (fem.) - May you
be inscribed and sealed for a good year
Le tov u le ch’ayim u le shalom - For good, and for life,
and for peace
Le’an atah nose’a? - Where are you going?
Leap Year - Due to differences in year length between
the modern solar calendar year and the Biblical lunar
calendar year, a leap year is added to realign the
Lech’u neranenah - Come. Let us sing.
Leharim et ha kol - To raise or lift one’s voice; to shout
Lehitra’ot - See you later; see you again; see you soon;
so long. See L’hitraot as an alternative spelling.
Lehitra’ot ba erev - I’ll see you in the evening (response
upon departing)
Lelakek et ha etzba’ot! - Finger licking good!
Levayah – The funeral service
Lex talionis - Latin for “law of retaliation;” the biblical
provision of “an eye for an eye,” “a tooth for a tooth.”
L'havdil - (Lit. “the difference”). Used to contrast, as a
form of modesty, something great to something far
less significant.
L'hitraot - Good-bye, see you later. See “lehitra’ot” as
an alternative spelling.
Libel – Slander involves verbal derogatory statements
whereas libel involves written ones.
Lich’ora - As it appears; apparently; on the face of it
Lifnim meshurat hadin – Going above and beyond
what we are commanded to do; following a higher
Knish - Stuffed potato and flour dumpling.
Koach’ – (KO-akh); Strength or fortitude. This Hebrew
word can be literally translated as “strength” but the
words “the strength you have” are all wrapped up in
this one Hebrew word clearly implying potentiality.
Kohelet – One of the books of the Tenach’ called in
English Ecclesiastes. Also spelled Quoheleth.
Kohen – (KO-hen); (Strong’s #3547); Also spelled
“cohen”. The plural would be “kohenim”. A priest. The
original high priest (kohen gadol) was Aaron. The
books of Exodus and Leviticus describe the
responsibilities of the Kohanim, which include the
Temple service, blessing of the people and spiritual
healing. The New Testament tells us that being a
genetic descendant of Aaron, or a member of the
tribe of Levi is not presently necessary but that all
tzaddikim form a nation of royal priests (1 Peter 2:9).
When the Mashiach’ returns to rule from the throne in
Jerusalem, the tribe of Levi will once again become
an important part of our daily worship. However, we
feel that Isaiah 66:19-21 indicates that Yahweh
Shaphat will select some Believers who have
demonstrated their faithfulness to fill the ranks of the
Levites, making of them “priests and Levites.”
Kohen gadol – High priest. Kohen ha gadol would mean
“the high priest”. Matthew 2:4
Kol ha-kavod – (coal hah-kah-VODE); Lit., “all the
honor.” All right! Great! Good job! An expression of
congratulations or acknowledgement. Like yasher
koach’, it is generally said OF the person, rather
directly TO the person as in “He did a really good job
on that speech, kol havod to him.”
Kol Nidre - The prayer that begins the Yom Kippur
Kol tuv – (coal TOEV); Lit., “everything good.” All the
best! A blessing that is often extended either verbally
or in writing. For instance, if I end a letter by saying
“kol tuv et shalom” I am praying that the recipient will
receive all of God’s goodness and peace.
Kol v'chomer - Inference from a thing that this
lesser/lighter to a thing which is greater/more
stringent. A hermeneutic principle in which one takes
a specific application and from that infers a general
Kol Yisrael arevim zeh lazeh - All Jews are responsible
for each other
Kolboynik - Know it all
Kosher – Adonaists are not concerned with ritually
prepared food but the term has its use to identify a
practice or thought pattern as being right, valid or
useful as in “the elders think her midrash on that
passage is kosher.” Used loosely to mean anything
permissible for God's people.
Kotel Ma’aravi - Western Wall
Ktzat – Little; a little
Kugel – A type of food usually eaten on Shabbat
because it can be prepared the day before and kept
in the fridge. It is made of either noodles or potatoes
baked into the consistency of a thick pudding. A
baked, pudding-like casserole.
Kulot - Leniencies.
Kushia – A question posed while attempting to clarify a
seeming inconsistency in either an idea or even the
text of Scriptures. Used like “thinking out loud”. In
other words you’re asking a question but not
questioning the Scriptures.
Kvetch (Yid.) - Complain
down and his bowels spilled out. In order to make the
set of statements contradictory, we would have
something like: 1) Judas hung himself. 2) Judas did
not hang himself. Since either statement excludes
the possibility of the other, we would then have a
Laying on of hands - Physical contact by touching of
the hands. In the Old Covenant and New Covenant it
was sometimes used in reference to doing physical
harm (Genesis 22:12; Luke 20;19). In the New
Covenant it is also used to signify an attempt at
healing (Acts 9:12) and commissioning of Holy Work
(1 Timothy 4:14). Usually, during the ordination of an
elder, hands are laid on him as symbolic of a transfer
of authority and power.
L’ch’aim – (luh-KHYE-eem); An interjection that literally
means “to life.” An ancient toast, greeting or blessing
exchanged over strong drink.
L'hitraot - Means 'see you' used instead of goodbye or
shalom in a more casual 'see you soon' sort of way.
L'Shanah Tovah - L'Shanah Tovah is an abbreviation
of L'shanah tovah tikatev v'taihatem (May you be
inscribed and sealed for a good year). It is the
customary greeting on Yom Teruah (Rosh
L'shanah Tovah Tikateivu - “May you be written (in the
Book of Life) for a good year.”
Le shaim shamayim - For the sake of heaven
Le shalom ve de’ot - For peace and knowledge
Le shanah ha ba’ah be Yerushalem – (leh-shah-NAH
hah-bah-AH beh-yeh-ROO-shah-LYE-eem); Lit.,
“next year in Jerusalem.” Adonaists believe that
when the Messiah returns He will reign in Jerusalem.
Thus this phrase expresses the hope that this will be
the year of His return.
Therefore, since God is pure, the Law is pure. Since
God is holy, the Law is holy. The Law consists of the
10 Commandments (Exodus 20), rules for social life
(Exodus 21:1-23:33), and rules for the worship of
God (Exodus 25:1-31:18). It was a covenant of works
between God and man and was (and is) unable to
deliver us into eternal fellowship with the Lord
because of Man's inability to keep it. The Law is a
difficult taskmaster because it requires that we
maintain a perfect standard of moral behavior. And
then when we fail, the Law condemns us to death.
We deserve death even if we fail to keep just one
point of the law: "For whoever keeps the whole law
and yet stumbles in one point, he has become guilty
of all" (James 2:10). The law made nothing perfect
(Hebrews 7:19). That is why the Law has shown us
our need for Jesus and the free gift we receive
through Him (Galatians 3:24). (see also Halakhah)
Law of non-contradiction - The Law of noncontradiction is the law that something cannot be
both true and not true at the same time when dealing
with the same context. For example, the chair in my
living room, right now, cannot be made of wood and
not made of wood at the same time. In the law of
non-contradiction, where we have a set of statements
about a subject, we cannot have any of the
statements in that set negate the truth of any other
statement in that same set. For example, we have a
set of two statements about Judas. 1) Judas hung
himself. 2) Judas fell down and his bowels spilled
out. Neither statement about Judas contradicts the
other. That is, neither statement makes the other
impossible because neither excludes the possibility
of the other. The statements can be harmonized by
stating: Judas hung himself and then his body fell
L’a met - To bring out the truth; to verify; to confirm
Lag b’omer – The 33rd day of the counting of the omer
(from the second day of Passover) falling on the 18th
of Iyyar; a day of rejoicing for those who practice
Judaism. Adonaists do not observe Lag b’omer first
because it is not found in Scripture. Second, “Lag” is
used for the 33rd day of the Omer since in mystic
Judaism the sum letter totals of "lamud" and
"gimmel" in 'Lag' equal 33. Third, we do not want to
celebrate a group of people who came under God’s
judgment for proclaiming and supporting a false
Lahag – (lah-HAHG); An obsessive, greedy compulsion
to study. Study that does not result in a changed
heart. Study that precludes action.
Lailah tov - Goodnight
Lashon hara – (lah-SHONE hah-RAH); Lit., “bad
tongue.” Hurtful words like slander, gossip or even
truth spoken maliciously. For example, one should
generally not repeat negative comments or rumors
about another person, even if they are true. Though
usually associated with gossip, lashon hara deals
with any true statements that relate negative
information. Lies, whether blatantly false or
exaggerations, fall into a worse category called
hotzaat diba, which is derogatory, slanderous or
defamatory speech. It is irrelevant whether the
lashon hara is true, written or spoken. All lashone
hara is prohibited, but untrue gossip is even more
strictly prohibited. The claim “what I said was true”
may be a valid defense against the accusation of
slander or libel, but it is inadequate against the
accusation of lashon hara. It is lashon hara even
when you incriminate yourself in the telling. So
lashon hara is hurtful speech, the making of
damaging or derogatory remarks that might cause a
person physical, psychological or financial harm.
Rules to remember:
1. It is lashon hara (evil speech) to convey a
derogatory image of someone even if that image
is true and deserved but unnecessary. (Proverbs
2. It is motzi shem ra (slanderous) to do so when the
image is false. (Exodus 23:1; Leviticus 19:16;
Psalm 15:1-3; Proverbs 10:18; 25:18)
3. It is lashon hara to convey information about
people that can cause them physical,
psychological or financial harm. (Proverbs 30:10)
4. It is lashon hara to embarrass people, even in jest,
or to tell embarrassing things
about them when they are not present. (Proverbs
26:18; Ephesians 5:4)
5. Lashon hara is not limited to verbal
communication; the written word, body language,
innuendo, and the like can also be hurtful.
(Proverbs 6:12-15)
6. It is lashon hara to speak against a community,
race, ethnic group, gender, or age group as a
whole. (Exodus 12:48-49; 20:10; 23:9; Leviticus
19:33-34; Numbers 9:14; Galatians 3:28;
Colossians 3:11)
7. Do not relate lashon hara even to your spouse,
close friends or relatives. (Numbers 12:1-2)
8. Do not repeat lashon hara even when it is common
knowledge. (Exodus 23:2; Proverbs 11:13; 2
Thessalonians 3:11-12)
9. Avoid r'ch’ilut: Do not relate to people negative
things others may say about them, for this may
cause needless conflict. (Proverbs 16:27-28)
10. Do not listen to lashon hara or r'ch’ilut. Give
everyone the benefit of the doubt. (Proverbs 1:10;
1 Corinthians 13:7)
The Exception to the Rules of Shmirat ha lashon Pikuach’ nefesh
Adonaists hold to a principle referred to as
“pikuach’ nefesh). This literally means the
“preservation of life.” This is the obligation of
Adonaists to protect and save life at all costs. This
code demands, among other things, the suspension
of all other laws to save a life, with the exception of
murder, idolatry and incest. The exception to these
rules of shmirat ha lashon or lashon hara is thus
saving a life or warning someone of impending
trouble. For instance, it is not lashon hara to warn a
person about potential dangers resulting from not-asyet finalized business or personal relationships.
However, when you must share negative information
heed the following principles:
a. Be careful to tell only what you know to be
factually true.
b. Do not exaggerate.
c. Do not pass on hearsay.
d. Be clear that your intent is to help the other and
not to further your own ends.
Latkes – Potato pancakes which are traditionally eaten
with applesauce or sour cream during Hannukah
along with sufganiot which are jelly doughnuts. See
also Dreidel.
Law - The Law is God's instructions concerning the
moral, social, and spiritual behavior of His people
found in the first five books of the Bible. The Law is
the very reflection of the nature of God because God
speaks out of the abundance of what is in Him.