Lesson 4 What part of speech? • She was walking to school when the rain began. • She got detention for cutting up her classmate’s homework. • She cowered under the table because of the terrifying dog. • The whole class got detention because of complaining about RMC. The forest was full of voices. “You’re very small,” said Chloris, the redeyed treefrog, from a branch high above Silus’s head. “Your skin isn’t as pretty as mine,” said Phyllurus, the leaf-tailed gecko, from the trunk of a booyong tree. “Your eyes stick out,” said Dendre, the tree snake, dangling from a twisted vine. Examples: I am Miss Hofmaier, an English teacher. Andy, my brother, is a computer engineer. I grew up playing patintero, a Filipino game. TB 66-67 Appositive: a noun or noun phrase that refers to another noun right beside it. It provides more details about the noun. An appositive follows a noun and explains or identifies the noun. •Nehemiah, the king’s cupbearer, rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem. It may be compound. •The home-run hitters Babe Ruth and Roger Maris played for the Yankees. Nonessential appositives and appositive phrases are set off by commas. Appositives that follow proper nouns are usually nonessential. •Andrew, our next-door neighbor, is a kind man. •Our next-door neighbor Andrew is a kind man. Nonessential appositives and appositive phrases are set off by commas. Appositives that follow proper nouns are usually nonessential. •Charles Dickens, perhaps the most popular English writer of the nineteenth century, made several American tours. •His novel A Tale of Two Cities is about the French Revolution. Appositives are NOUN phrases! They do not have relative pronouns. They are not participial phrases. •Working quickly, the man untied the prisoner’s hands. – NOT AN APPOSITIVE •The Philippines, which is located in the tropics, gets very hot during the summer. – NOT AN APPOSITIVE •The man holding the mug tripped on the rug. – NOT AN APPOSITIVE •William Shakespeare, a famous writer, wrote the play “Hamlet”. Introductions Use an appositive to introduce the person beside you. You can be creative, but do not be mean. A gerund phrase used as an appositive Gerund phrases can also be appositives. A new habit, studying quietly without any distractions, improved his grades. His favorite activity, playing basketball with his friends, is what keeps him busy after school. Remove the redundant words and replace with a comma. Turn each pair of sentences into one. Jack is my brother. Jack is seven years old Jack, my brother, is seven years old. My brother Jack is seven years old. Kathy is my best friend. Kathy lives in Taguig. Kathy, my best friend, lives in Taguig. My best friend Kathy lives in Taguig. Ben is our dog. Ben is a golden Labrador retriever. Ben, our dog, is a golden Labrador retriever. Our dog Ben is a golden Labrador retriever. Manila is the capital of the Philippines. Manila is very crowded. Manila, the capital of the Philippines, is very crowded. The capital of the Philippines, Manila, is very crowded. Seatwork A Gerund Is… NOT a verb NOT an adjective A gerund is a VERB + ING used as a NOUN. They can function as subjects, direct objects, predicate nominatives, objects of prepositions and APPOSITIVES. A Gerund Is… Hunting is Tyler’s favorite pastime. (subject) Tommy really enjoys skiing. (direct object) Juan’s preoccupation is sailing. (predicate nominatives) Grace earned prizes with her baking. (object of the preposition) Nicole’s hobby, reading, keeps her occupied. (appositive) A gerund phrase… Consists of a gerund plus any complements and modifiers. The entire gerund phrase is used as a noun and can be replaced with ‘it’. Writing your assignments in a notebook is a good practice. It is a good practice. A gerund phrase used as an appositive Gerund phrases can also be appositives. A new habit, studying quietly without any distractions, improved his grades. His favorite activity, playing basketball with his friends, is what keeps him busy after school. Identify the gerund and gerund phrase My doctor recommends walking three miles every day. We can protect our eyes by giving them proper rest. The problem is applying the mind to the task. Identify the Gerund or Gerund Phrase Cutting an accurate pattern is the first step for a seamstress. Her talent, singing, has won her several awards. Mining iron ore is a chief source of income for the people of Newfoundland. Her hobby, collecting rare coins, is very expensive. Identify the Gerund or Gerund Phrase My favorite pastime is swimming in the lake. Counseling at a Bible camp is very rewarding work. My little brother enjoys playing in the sand. Acting unwisely, the scientist shortened the procedure by combing some steps. Identify the Gerund or Gerund Phrase The hardest part of the test was answering the essay question. Mr. Arroyo began the class by praying. Peter’s sin, denying Christ, had been predicted. Sam arrived early by taking a shortcut. Appositives Ben is a Golden Retriever. Ben is very hyper. This is Grace. Grace is my childhood friend. Tanya is a little girl. Tanya is standing by the big tree. I am Jabba the Hut. I am a big, fat guy.
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