Slavery and the Dutch Slavery and the Dutch Maria & Bert Reinders-Karg Abstract Equality is all about awareness. That's why Foundation Silent History (Stichting Stil Verleden) informs Dutch pupils and students about the Dutch Slavery in the past and the modern slavery of today. In the context of our multicultural society its important to be well informed about the history. We hope that information can help people to relate to each other with respect. The Netherlands and slavery The enslavement of the West Indies Company or WIC or the so-called transatlantic slavery is most familiar to the Dutch, partly because many descendants of slaves live in the Netherlands. In the period from 1600 to 1863, up to 850,000 slaves traded by the WIC to the Americas. On Curaçao and Sint Eustatius slave depots were built. In Surinam and Curaçao slaves were employed on the plantations and in the household. This slavery ended on the first of July 1863. Dutch slavery of the East Indian Company or VOC in the South-East Asian archipel is relatively unknown. Yet up to 1,135,000 slaves traded by the Dutch East India Company in the period between 1600 and 1860. Slaves were brought from southern Africa, Madagascar, India, Ceylon and other islands and transported to all the Dutch colonies in the East. This slavery ended on the first of January 1860. But it lasted until 1910 before slavery was ended in all parts of the colonies. The last part is about Christian Slaves. Around the Mediterranean, Dutch ships were boarded by North Africans in the 17th and 18th centuries. More than one million Europeans were enslaved. Between 10,000 and 20,000 of them were Dutch. Were in churches collections were held for the Christian slaves. In Zierikzee one had a "slavenkas" to their own people to ransom. Key Words: Netherlands, Dutch, VOC slavery, WIC Slavery, modern slavery, education, equality, awareness, respect & heritage. ***** Slavery and the Dutch 1. Independence war The Eighty Years' War or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces (Republic) against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain. Under the leadership of the exiled William the Silent, the northern provinces continued their resistance. An end was reached in 1648 with the Peace of Münster, when the Dutch Republic was recognised as an independent country. In the decades preceding the war, the Dutch had become increasingly discontented with Habsburg rule. A major cause of this discontent was the heavy level of taxation imposed on the population. Spain also attempted a policy of strict religious uniformity for the Catholic Church within its domains, and enforced it with the Inquisition. For almost a century the Republic was one of the wealthiest countries in the world. This was mainly due to the Baltic trade and later the trade with Asia. In 1600 Amsterdam was the most important city in Europe. Amsterdam had become so important to the function as a staple market. Amsterdam was stored grain and timber triangle tour. It was very important that the products were stored because the supply of goods was often not sure. Many countries were jealous therefore the prosperity of the Republic. Slavery and the Dutch 2. VOC slavery During the war Filips II became ruler of Portugal in 1580 and five years later he captured all the foreign vessels in Spain and Portugal. In 1595 the first expedition to the East started with four ships. Only three of the four vessels returned in August 1597 and only 87 of the 249 man crew. The revenues were modest. But still, this first Dutch sailing expedition to Asia was a success because it opened a trade route to the East. Other expeditions followed. With their strong and heavily armed trading vessels the merchant traders from Zeeland and Holland out-performed the Portuguese who had used the route for some time, and the English became jealous. The ships returned heavily laden with colonial goods like pepper and nutmeg. To limit internal competition, Johan van Oldenbarneveldt took the initiative of setting up the Dutch East India Company (VOC). On 20 March 1602 the company acquired the Dutch monopoly on all trade in Asian waters from the Cape of Good Hope onwards. The company was empowered to sign treaties in the name of the Republic, to wage war and administer conquered territories. The VOC developed into a power to be feared. ‘This can lead to something big,’ wrote Jan Pieterszoon Coen to the Heren XVII, the board of the VOC in the distant fatherland. In 1619, he conquered the town of Jakarta and founded Batavia there. Coen wrote that ‘Jakarta’ would become ‘the most important place in all the Indies’ and that the reputation of the Dutch had increased through their conquests. ‘Everyone will now seek to become our friend’. Parts of Java were occupied, Ambon and Ternate in the Mulluccas were subjugated and the population was forced to cultivate spices. Elsewhere in Asia too the VOC gained ground with either persuasion or violence. Forts were built in South Africa, India, Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Makassar in Indonesia. China was visited and when in 1641 the Shogun of Japan closed his country’s borders to foreigners, the VOC alone received his permission to continue to trade from the island of Decima near Nagasaki. In this way, the VOC not only stocked Dutch warehouses with colonial goods and filled the houses of the bourgeois with curiosa from foreign lands, but they also played an important trading role within Asia. Textiles, spices, coffee, tea, tobacco, opium, tropical wood, iron, copper, silver, gold, porcelain, dyes, shells – an endless array of goods was transported by the Dutch East India fleet. In 1799, in the time of the French, the VOC was dissolved. Today, the archives of the VOC are regarded as world heritage, a memory of the world. The daily reports of the merchants who organised trade from the forts, the reports of the travels of VOC officials to royal courts of rulers with whom they traded, ships’ bills of lading … together the documents are an important source of information about Slavery and the Dutch two centuries of Asian-European history. (The Dutch East India Company (VOC) 1602-1799 - http://entoen.nu/voc/en) From the arrival of the first Dutch ships in the late 16th century, to the declaration of independence in 1945, Dutch control over the Indonesian archipelago was always tenuous. Although Java was dominated by the Dutch, many areas remained independent throughout much of this time, including Aceh, Bali, Lombok and Borneo. There were numerous wars and disturbances across the archipelago as various indigenous groups resisted efforts to establish a Dutch hegemony, which weakened Dutch control and tied up its military forces. Piracy remained a problem until the mid-19th century. Finally in the early 20th century, imperial dominance was extended across what was to become the territory of modern-day Indonesia. Slavery and the Dutch 3. WIC slavery After the success of the East Indian Company the first West Indian Company was founded on June 3, 1621. WIC had a monopoly on all trade and shipping to West Africa and North and South America. The second WIC operated from 1675 to 1792 The slavery of WIC is best known in Dutch, partly because many descendants of slaves from Suriname and the Caribbean Netherlands have come to live in the Netherlands. In the period from 1606 to 1863 more than 600,000 slaves were traded by the WIC in the Americas. Europe, Africa and the Americas are the key players here. In Europe (Netherlands) shows the main building, the West Indian House of the WIC. Here gathered the central and key decisions were made on the purchase and sale of merchandise and was commissioned to build ships. The coast of Africa is also called the Gold Coast which is now Ghana. African nations were eg the Ashanti. They were the main population on the Gold Coast. They argued often wars with other tribes in which they took Africans as slaves and sold to Europeans. The Dahomey Kingdom on the Slave Coast (now Benin), which became powerful by the growth of the slave trade. Forts on the Gold and Slave Coast: Fort Oranje, Fort Vreedenburgh, Fort El Mina, Fort Nassau, Fort Amsterdam. The slave trade was part of the "triangular trade" between Europe, Africa and America. Textiles, rifles, gunpowder, tools and jewelry were transported from Europe to Africa. From Africa sailed overcrowded slave ships to the America’s. The same ships transported from America sugar, cotton, cocoa, coffee, tobacco and skins to Europe. Many people earned in this trade. Europeans the most. No separate slave ships were built. Ordinary merchant ships were converted and made suitable for the transport of slaves. Where African slaves landed? In the Caribbean Islands 40%. In Brazil 40%. In North America, USA, 10%, Latin America and other regions 10% WIC ships were initially out as privateers and warfare against the SpanishPortuguese navy. As Piet Hein captured the Spanish silver fleet in 1628, and lost to the Portuguese in 1638, Saint George d'el Mina in contemporary Ghana to the WIC. In addition, parts of Brazil were occupied (1624-1654) and the Republic acquired after 1665 recognition of colonial claims to the so-called Wild Coast (Suriname, Berbice, Essequibo-Demarary) and the Antillean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, St. Maarten, St. Eustatius and Saba. Until 1730, the WIC was the only Dutch party that could act slaves. Around Slavery and the Dutch 1770 the Dutch slave trade was greatest. Then the Middelburg Commercial Company grew (founded in 1720) to become the largest slave trader with various auction houses in Rotterdam and Amsterdam as a competitor. Around 1770 the Dutch slave trade reached its peak with the transportation of annual average of about six thousand people. Then put this number back. The colony of New Netherlands (1624-1664). The VOC expedition by Henry Hudson to find a northern passage to Asia ended with the landing in North America. Besides Europeans from many countries, there is also a mixed group of Africans forced to New Netherlands. These slaves of New Netherlands are mainly captured by Spanish and Portuguese vessels that come from the current Ghana, Congo, Angola and San Thomé. The slaves are used in the construction of roads and construction of fortresses and homes and in agricultural work. There are no plantations in the colony. By the mid-17th century, roughly 10% of the population of African origin. At the end of the Dutch period, there were between five and six hundred, of which about 100 locals. Peter Stuyvesant emerging as a true leader, determined and steadfast. He fights Sweden and good agreements with the British over the boundary lines between the English and Dutch territory. The colony is flourishing and as you know, New Amsterdam was renamed New York, remains English and the Republic holds in 1667 conquered the colony of Suriname in hands. The colony Dutch Brazil (1630-1654). After the conquest of the Spanish treasure fleet by Piet Hein in 1628 the Dutch West India Company had enough money to continue to attack the colonial power of the dominant kingdoms of the Iberian peninsula. In 1630 knew an expeditionary force under General Hendrick Lonck and Waardenburg conquer a large part of Brazil from the Portuguese. By owning many plantations, the Dutch were seduced the system of slavery and slave trade, one had rejected in 1623 as unethical, completely taking over in 1635, was made a moral barrier. To secure slaves imported to the West African coast in 1638, Elmina Castle or St George d'el Mina in modern Ghana and a few years later Loanga captured from the Portuguese. In 1637 Johan Maurits of Nassau-Siegen was sent to the colony to set things right. He founded Mauritsstad on an island across from the Portuguese settlement Recife, claimed religious freedom and established a kind of parliament, stimulated sugarcane production and secure the country against invaders. He was important for culture and science. After his return to the Netherlands was built and decorated the current Mauritshuis in The Hague. Slavery and the slave trade are a notable absentee in the exposition of this museum. In 1654 the Dutch were, who could not be assisted by the mother because of the First Anglo-Dutch War, still driven by the Portuguese. On 6 August 1661 the Peace of The Hague was signed between the Netherlands and Portugal. Portugal recognized the losses in Asia and had to pay in gold for the WIC areas in Brazil. Slavery and the Dutch Slavery in Brazil was a large part of the transatlantic slavery, an estimated 37%. It is also abolished later than in other countries, namely in 1888. About 3 million Africans brought to Brazil. Source: The Slavenhaler (Rob Ruggenberg) Colony Netherlands Antilles (1634-2010). Curaçao and Sint Eustatius built his slave depots. The slave trade in Curacao was a transit trade. Relatively few slaves remained on the island. Dutch ships which had brought the African slaves coast, they gave off in Curacao, where they were brought to the continent by Spanish ships. If there were no Hispanic buyers, the slaves remained on the island until there were other customers. In 1986, Aruba was as a separate country within the Kingdom further. In 1662, Spain signed a trade asiento with Domingo Grillo and Ambrosio Lomelino slaves from Africa. Grillo and Lomelino WIC hired to lead the slaves from the African coast to South America. The contract was established with the WIC that the Dutch would argue 24,000 slaves during 7 years, approximately 3,500 slaves per year, Curaçao would be between the port. However, these numbers were not nearly achieved: the average number of slaves was previously put forward in the vicinity of 700 per year. In total traded Curaçao 112,000 slaves. St Eustatius and Saba. Columbus named St. Maarten, St. Eustatius and Saba useless Islands (in Spanish Islas inutiles). Because of the ban on the salt trade in the Caribbean by the Spanish King Philip II Netherlands started looking for alternatives. Herring fishing was in fact very important to the Dutch economy and the Dutch needed salt. They ended up on the Windward Islands. St. Maarten was occupied in 1631, St. Eustatius and Saba in 1636 in 1640. The islands changed in the 18th century frequently owner. St. Eustatius exchanged as many as 22 times of owner. Only in 1816 was the first King William islands finally held. Colony Berbice, Essequibo and Demerare (1600-1814). At the end of the 16th century the first Dutch sailed to South America for salt, tobacco and precious metals. Dutch Guiana was a collective name for the Dutch colonies on the coast of Guyana (the coast of the Orinoco to the Amazon River, nicknamed the Wild Coast). Of the area was pushed around a map in 1599 by Jodocus Hondius. From 1600 this area was colonized by the Dutch, especially Zealanders, for the production of sugar cane. After the founding of the WIC layers colonies Pomeroon, Essequibo, Berbice and other small businesses in the patent area of the WIC. At the Congress of Vienna in 1814 were Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice assigned to England. On February 23, 1763 come into Berbice slaves in revolt (the first great slave revolt). There were at that time (3833 346 slaves and Europeans) many slaves and Europeans in the colony. The revolt fails and some 40 settlers are slain. The rest of Slavery and the Dutch the Europeans flight. All plantations are destroyed. After months, the colony recaptured by 600 soldiers. More than 1,800 slaves were killed, but was the launch of the awareness for both settlers as slaves. The later Haitian revolution in 1791 was the first and only successful slave revolt in the Western Hemisphere and led to Haiti as a free black Republic in 1804. Colony Suriname (1667-1975) Here is a map of the colony Suriname with plantations. The map is based on measurements of engineer Alexander de Lavaux and was printed in Amsterdam. Suriname was conquered by the British in 1667 by the Zealanders. Willoughby fort was renamed Fort Zeelandia. Most slaves were put to work on plantations. Ten years before the abolition of slavery, there are nearly 40,000 slaves in the colony. There are some 13,000 free blacks and mulattoes. (Maroons, free blacks and mulattoes). The work of field slaves on sugar plantations was long and heavy. On coffee plantations were worked 8 hours a day, but could run out at harvest time to about 15 hours. On cotton plantations worked rarely more than eight hours per day and was a favorite among the field slaves. Recognition of Maroons. As in1760 the government in Suriname was reluctantly called on to a truce with the Ndyuka, a Maroon tribe behind the plantation Auka and therefore also Ndyuka. This truce grew into a peace treaty with the Ndyuka were recognized as free men and provided the impetus to peace agreements with the major groups of Maroons in subsequent years. Source: D. Rose, Zeeland and West India Company, 1992 J. Fontaine, Zeelandia, the history of a fortress, 1972 (still for sale in the museum shop). In the period from 1683 to 1794 the Society of Suriname has imported approximately 185,000 slaves. Together with the illegally imported slaves estimated 200,000, about 2% of the total Atlantic Slave Trade. Late 16th century did cane arrives in Amsterdam. The raw cane sugar from Brazil first came later from Suriname. Amsterdam were many sugar refineries and sugar bakeries. Sugar was produced in a characteristic cone shape. That is still to be seen on some bricks in Amsterdam. Here you can see the plaque of former confectioner's Three Suykerbroden. Slavery and the Dutch 4. Christian slavery The North African coast is defined as the coast of Barbary, that part which is now Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt. Residents of this coastal headlands between 1300 and 1830 European freighters. The captured cargo and crew are sold in their home ports. Between 500,000 and one million Europeans have become so enslaved. Around the Mediterranean, Dutch ships were attacked by North Africans. In the 17th and 18th centuries between 10,000 and 20,000 Dutch enslaved. In churches collections were held for the Christian slaves. Zierikzee they had set a slavenkas in 1735 to redeem its own people. Part of the Dutch became a Muslim and joined a sultan. Some of them became captain. In 1625 there were 65 captains of Dutch descent on Algerian ships. From the 17th century closes Netherlands peace treaties with local rulers in an attempt to minimize the hijacking of Dutch ships. The European slave are used in quarries, construction and as a galley slave. Pietersz Piet Heyn, the experienced VOC captain, has redeemed many Dutch or exchanged, including in 1661 in Algiers. If the Christian slaves were returned to the Netherlands their story was sometimes published in book form. As the life of Claes Compaen from Oostzaan which was published in 1659. Slavery and the Dutch 5. Awareness and education With my suitcase, education and migration I go to the schools. The age of 12- 15 years. Advance is a preparatory lesson created what is taught by the teacher. That lesson consists of During the program, the central question: means the abolition of slavery automatically freedom for everyone? Themes such as discrimination, exclusion, inequality, disadvantage and racism here are briefly discussed, but also the various forms of modern slavery. The program aims to: ... Their students are aware that slavery of all time and still exists today. She (Re) know the different forms of trafficking and slavery (forced labor, sex trade, bonded labor, child trafficking, child soldiers, slavery in the home situation). ... Deepen the knowledge of the Dutch slavery and students. They learn that slavery not only something of the past, but still exists. How do we deal with the tension between past and present? What is your view on this social issue? ... The students to think about and aware of the theme of freedom. What does freedom mean? When affect your freedom to someone else? What is the meaning of emancipation? All people right? ... The students creatively show reflect on slavery, bondage and freedom. Preparatory lesson (duration 1 hour): Word web: write the word "slavery" on the board and ask students to name all the words they associate with slavery. Write these around the word "slavery." Examples include racism, oppression or degrading. To this you can already read and understand the level of the class. Then shows you the movie "Slaves Transport '(2 minutes) of NTR and explain that this is only a fraction of the story concerns. The follow-up class can be customized for each school to individual preferences. Depending on the profession and the shape you choose can this be made clear in advance. Students are given the task to come up with a product to modern slavery and trafficking under to the attention of peers. The form they may choose: poster, clip, rap, speech, article, etc. In this verwerkingsles students have the opportunity to do everything they prepared in the singles and the guest lecture have been given, this turn into what appeals to them. It could also be that you are coming from various fields such as history, man and society, etc. gives the profession. The teacher's guide provides suggestions for this. In the appendix you will find suggestions to learn more. Slavery and the Dutch Notes 1 2 3 The Inter-Disciplinary Press uses the Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition) for all referencing conventions, using the notes and bibliography system in particular. Use the Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition). Use the notes and bibliography system. Please see the style sheets provided for examples of reference style for notes and reference style for bibliography. Use the Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition). Use the notes and bibliography system. Please see the style sheets provided for examples of reference style for notes and reference style for bibliography Slavery and the Dutch Bibliography Privitera, Helen. Why Should One Be Born Before Time: Equal Birth Rights for All. Beautiful-land and Aplaceforme: Galactica University Press, 2010. Name and Surname of Author is Scholar in Residence at the Cosmic University. While interested in the most obscure things of life and the universe, currently her/his research and writi ng is devoted to unveili ng the most well kept secrets of all times.
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