Conference Draft Paper - Inter

Slavery and the Dutch
Slavery and the Dutch
Maria & Bert Reinders-Karg
Abstract
Equality is all about awareness.
That's why Foundation Silent History (Stichting Stil Verleden) informs Dutch pupils and
students about the Dutch Slavery in the past and the modern slavery of today. In the
context of our multicultural society its important to be well informed about the history.
We hope that information can help people to relate to each other with respect.
The Netherlands and slavery
The enslavement of the West Indies Company or WIC or the so-called transatlantic
slavery is most familiar to the Dutch, partly because many descendants of slaves live in
the Netherlands. In the period from 1600 to 1863, up to 850,000 slaves traded by the
WIC to the Americas. On Curaçao and Sint Eustatius slave depots were built. In
Surinam and Curaçao slaves were employed on the plantations and in the household.
This slavery ended on the first of July 1863.
Dutch slavery of the East Indian Company or VOC in the South-East Asian archipel is
relatively unknown. Yet up to 1,135,000 slaves traded by the Dutch East India Company
in the period between 1600 and 1860. Slaves were brought from southern Africa,
Madagascar, India, Ceylon and other islands and transported to all the Dutch colonies in
the East. This slavery ended on the first of January 1860. But it lasted until 1910 before
slavery was ended in all parts of the colonies.
The last part is about Christian Slaves. Around the Mediterranean, Dutch ships were
boarded by North Africans in the 17th and 18th centuries. More than one million
Europeans were enslaved. Between 10,000 and 20,000 of them were Dutch. Were in
churches collections were held for the Christian slaves. In Zierikzee one had a "slavenkas" to their own people to ransom.
Key Words:
Netherlands, Dutch, VOC slavery, WIC Slavery, modern slavery, education, equality,
awareness, respect & heritage.
*****
Slavery and the Dutch
1. Independence war
The Eighty Years' War or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) was a revolt
of the Seventeen Provinces (Republic) against the political and religious hegemony
of Philip II of Spain. Under the leadership of the exiled William the Silent, the
northern provinces continued their resistance. An end was reached in 1648 with the
Peace of Münster, when the Dutch Republic was recognised as an independent
country.
In the decades preceding the war, the Dutch had become increasingly
discontented with Habsburg rule. A major cause of this discontent was the heavy
level of taxation imposed on the population. Spain also attempted a policy of strict
religious uniformity for the Catholic Church within its domains, and enforced it with
the Inquisition.
For almost a century the Republic was one of the wealthiest countries in the
world. This was mainly due to the Baltic trade and later the trade with Asia. In 1600
Amsterdam was the most important city in Europe. Amsterdam had become so
important to the function as a staple market. Amsterdam was stored grain and timber
triangle tour. It was very important that the products were stored because the supply
of goods was often not sure. Many countries were jealous therefore the prosperity of
the Republic.
Slavery and the Dutch
2. VOC slavery
During the war Filips II became ruler of Portugal in 1580 and five years later he
captured all the foreign vessels in Spain and Portugal. In 1595 the first expedition
to the East started with four ships. Only three of the four vessels returned in August
1597 and only 87 of the 249 man crew. The revenues were modest. But still, this
first Dutch sailing expedition to Asia was a success because it opened a trade route
to the East.
Other expeditions followed. With their strong and heavily armed trading vessels
the merchant traders from Zeeland and Holland out-performed the Portuguese who
had used the route for some time, and the English became jealous. The ships
returned heavily laden with colonial goods like pepper and nutmeg. To limit internal
competition, Johan van Oldenbarneveldt took the initiative of setting up the Dutch
East India Company (VOC). On 20 March 1602 the company acquired the Dutch
monopoly on all trade in Asian waters from the Cape of Good Hope onwards. The
company was empowered to sign treaties in the name of the Republic, to wage war
and administer conquered territories.
The VOC developed into a power to be feared. ‘This can lead to something big,’
wrote Jan Pieterszoon Coen to the Heren XVII, the board of the VOC in the distant
fatherland. In 1619, he conquered the town of Jakarta and founded Batavia there.
Coen wrote that ‘Jakarta’ would become ‘the most important place in all the Indies’
and that the reputation of the Dutch had increased through their conquests.
‘Everyone will now seek to become our friend’. Parts of Java were occupied,
Ambon and Ternate in the Mulluccas were subjugated and the population was
forced to cultivate spices. Elsewhere in Asia too the VOC gained ground with either
persuasion or violence. Forts were built in South Africa, India, Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
and Makassar in Indonesia. China was visited and when in 1641 the Shogun of
Japan closed his country’s borders to foreigners, the VOC alone received his
permission to continue to trade from the island of Decima near Nagasaki.
In this way, the VOC not only stocked Dutch warehouses with colonial goods
and filled the houses of the bourgeois with curiosa from foreign lands, but they also
played an important trading role within Asia. Textiles, spices, coffee, tea, tobacco,
opium, tropical wood, iron, copper, silver, gold, porcelain, dyes, shells – an endless
array of goods was transported by the Dutch East India fleet.
In 1799, in the time of the French, the VOC was dissolved. Today, the archives
of the VOC are regarded as world heritage, a memory of the world. The daily
reports of the merchants who organised trade from the forts, the reports of the
travels of VOC officials to royal courts of rulers with whom they traded, ships’ bills
of lading … together the documents are an important source of information about
Slavery and the Dutch
two centuries of Asian-European history. (The Dutch East India Company (VOC)
1602-1799 - http://entoen.nu/voc/en)
From the arrival of the first Dutch ships in the late 16th century, to the
declaration of independence in 1945, Dutch control over the Indonesian archipelago
was always tenuous.[13] Although Java was dominated by the Dutch,[14] many
areas remained independent throughout much of this time, including Aceh, Bali,
Lombok and Borneo.[13] There were numerous wars and disturbances across the
archipelago as various indigenous groups resisted efforts to establish a Dutch
hegemony, which weakened Dutch control and tied up its military forces.[15] Piracy
remained a problem until the mid-19th century.[13] Finally in the early 20th
century, imperial dominance was extended across what was to become the territory
of modern-day Indonesia.
Slavery and the Dutch
3. WIC slavery
After the success of the East Indian Company the first West Indian Company
was founded on June 3, 1621. WIC had a monopoly on all trade and shipping to
West Africa and North and South America. The second WIC operated from 1675 to
1792
The slavery of WIC is best known in Dutch, partly because many descendants of
slaves from Suriname and the Caribbean Netherlands have come to live in the
Netherlands. In the period from 1606 to 1863 more than 600,000 slaves were traded
by the WIC in the Americas.
Europe, Africa and the Americas are the key players here. In Europe
(Netherlands) shows the main building, the West Indian House of the WIC. Here
gathered the central and key decisions were made on the purchase and sale of
merchandise and was commissioned to build ships.
The coast of Africa is also called the Gold Coast which is now Ghana. African
nations were eg the Ashanti. They were the main population on the Gold Coast.
They argued often wars with other tribes in which they took Africans as slaves and
sold to Europeans. The Dahomey Kingdom on the Slave Coast (now Benin), which
became powerful by the growth of the slave trade. Forts on the Gold and Slave
Coast: Fort Oranje, Fort Vreedenburgh, Fort El Mina, Fort Nassau, Fort Amsterdam.
The slave trade was part of the "triangular trade" between Europe, Africa and
America. Textiles, rifles, gunpowder, tools and jewelry were transported from
Europe to Africa. From Africa sailed overcrowded slave ships to the America’s. The
same ships transported from America sugar, cotton, cocoa, coffee, tobacco and skins
to Europe. Many people earned in this trade. Europeans the most.
No separate slave ships were built. Ordinary merchant ships were converted and
made suitable for the transport of slaves. Where African slaves landed? In the
Caribbean Islands 40%. In Brazil 40%. In North America, USA, 10%, Latin
America and other regions 10%
WIC ships were initially out as privateers and warfare against the SpanishPortuguese navy. As Piet Hein captured the Spanish silver fleet in 1628, and lost to
the Portuguese in 1638, Saint George d'el Mina in contemporary Ghana to the WIC.
In addition, parts of Brazil were occupied (1624-1654) and the Republic acquired
after 1665 recognition of colonial claims to the so-called Wild Coast (Suriname,
Berbice, Essequibo-Demarary) and the Antillean islands of Aruba, Bonaire,
Curacao, St. Maarten, St. Eustatius and Saba.
Until 1730, the WIC was the only Dutch party that could act slaves. Around
Slavery and the Dutch
1770 the Dutch slave trade was greatest. Then the Middelburg Commercial
Company grew (founded in 1720) to become the largest slave trader with various
auction houses in Rotterdam and Amsterdam as a competitor. Around 1770 the
Dutch slave trade reached its peak with the transportation of annual average of about
six thousand people. Then put this number back.
The colony of New Netherlands (1624-1664). The VOC expedition by Henry
Hudson to find a northern passage to Asia ended with the landing in North America.
Besides Europeans from many countries, there is also a mixed group of Africans
forced to New Netherlands. These slaves of New Netherlands are mainly captured
by Spanish and Portuguese vessels that come from the current Ghana, Congo,
Angola and San Thomé. The slaves are used in the construction of roads and
construction of fortresses and homes and in agricultural work. There are no
plantations in the colony. By the mid-17th century, roughly 10% of the population
of African origin. At the end of the Dutch period, there were between five and six
hundred, of which about 100 locals. Peter Stuyvesant emerging as a true leader,
determined and steadfast. He fights Sweden and good agreements with the British
over the boundary lines between the English and Dutch territory. The colony is
flourishing and as you know, New Amsterdam was renamed New York, remains
English and the Republic holds in 1667 conquered the colony of Suriname in hands.
The colony Dutch Brazil (1630-1654). After the conquest of the Spanish treasure
fleet by Piet Hein in 1628 the Dutch West India Company had enough money to
continue to attack the colonial power of the dominant kingdoms of the Iberian
peninsula. In 1630 knew an expeditionary force under General Hendrick Lonck and
Waardenburg conquer a large part of Brazil from the Portuguese. By owning many
plantations, the Dutch were seduced the system of slavery and slave trade, one had
rejected in 1623 as unethical, completely taking over in 1635, was made a moral
barrier.
To secure slaves imported to the West African coast in 1638, Elmina Castle or St
George d'el Mina in modern Ghana and a few years later Loanga captured from the
Portuguese. In 1637 Johan Maurits of Nassau-Siegen was sent to the colony to set
things right. He founded Mauritsstad on an island across from the Portuguese
settlement Recife, claimed religious freedom and established a kind of parliament,
stimulated sugarcane production and secure the country against invaders. He was
important for culture and science. After his return to the Netherlands was built and
decorated the current Mauritshuis in The Hague. Slavery and the slave trade are a
notable absentee in the exposition of this museum.
In 1654 the Dutch were, who could not be assisted by the mother because of the
First Anglo-Dutch War, still driven by the Portuguese. On 6 August 1661 the Peace
of The Hague was signed between the Netherlands and Portugal. Portugal
recognized the losses in Asia and had to pay in gold for the WIC areas in Brazil.
Slavery and the Dutch
Slavery in Brazil was a large part of the transatlantic slavery, an estimated 37%. It is
also abolished later than in other countries, namely in 1888. About 3 million
Africans brought to Brazil. Source: The Slavenhaler (Rob Ruggenberg)
Colony Netherlands Antilles (1634-2010). Curaçao and Sint Eustatius built his
slave depots. The slave trade in Curacao was a transit trade. Relatively few slaves
remained on the island. Dutch ships which had brought the African slaves coast,
they gave off in Curacao, where they were brought to the continent by Spanish
ships. If there were no Hispanic buyers, the slaves remained on the island until there
were other customers. In 1986, Aruba was as a separate country within the Kingdom
further.
In 1662, Spain signed a trade asiento with Domingo Grillo and Ambrosio
Lomelino slaves from Africa. Grillo and Lomelino WIC hired to lead the slaves
from the African coast to South America. The contract was established with the
WIC that the Dutch would argue 24,000 slaves during 7 years, approximately 3,500
slaves per year, Curaçao would be between the port. However, these numbers were
not nearly achieved: the average number of slaves was previously put forward in the
vicinity of 700 per year. In total traded Curaçao 112,000 slaves.
St Eustatius and Saba. Columbus named St. Maarten, St. Eustatius and Saba
useless Islands (in Spanish Islas inutiles). Because of the ban on the salt trade in the
Caribbean by the Spanish King Philip II Netherlands started looking for alternatives.
Herring fishing was in fact very important to the Dutch economy and the Dutch
needed salt. They ended up on the Windward Islands. St. Maarten was occupied in
1631, St. Eustatius and Saba in 1636 in 1640. The islands changed in the 18th
century frequently owner. St. Eustatius exchanged as many as 22 times of owner.
Only in 1816 was the first King William islands finally held.
Colony Berbice, Essequibo and Demerare (1600-1814). At the end of the 16th
century the first Dutch sailed to South America for salt, tobacco and precious
metals. Dutch Guiana was a collective name for the Dutch colonies on the coast of
Guyana (the coast of the Orinoco to the Amazon River, nicknamed the Wild Coast).
Of the area was pushed around a map in 1599 by Jodocus Hondius. From 1600 this
area was colonized by the Dutch, especially Zealanders, for the production of sugar
cane.
After the founding of the WIC layers colonies Pomeroon, Essequibo, Berbice
and other small businesses in the patent area of the WIC. At the Congress of Vienna
in 1814 were Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice assigned to England.
On February 23, 1763 come into Berbice slaves in revolt (the first great slave
revolt). There were at that time (3833 346 slaves and Europeans) many slaves and
Europeans in the colony. The revolt fails and some 40 settlers are slain. The rest of
Slavery and the Dutch
the Europeans flight. All plantations are destroyed. After months, the colony
recaptured by 600 soldiers. More than 1,800 slaves were killed, but was the launch
of the awareness for both settlers as slaves. The later Haitian revolution in 1791 was
the first and only successful slave revolt in the Western Hemisphere and led to Haiti
as a free black Republic in 1804.
Colony Suriname (1667-1975) Here is a map of the colony Suriname with
plantations. The map is based on measurements of engineer Alexander de Lavaux
and was printed in Amsterdam. Suriname was conquered by the British in 1667 by
the Zealanders. Willoughby fort was renamed Fort Zeelandia.
Most slaves were put to work on plantations. Ten years before the abolition of
slavery, there are nearly 40,000 slaves in the colony. There are some 13,000 free
blacks and mulattoes. (Maroons, free blacks and mulattoes). The work of field
slaves on sugar plantations was long and heavy. On coffee plantations were worked
8 hours a day, but could run out at harvest time to about 15 hours. On cotton
plantations worked rarely more than eight hours per day and was a favorite among
the field slaves.
Recognition of Maroons. As in1760 the government in Suriname was reluctantly
called on to a truce with the Ndyuka, a Maroon tribe behind the plantation Auka and
therefore also Ndyuka. This truce grew into a peace treaty with the Ndyuka were
recognized as free men and provided the impetus to peace agreements with the
major groups of Maroons in subsequent years.
Source:
D. Rose, Zeeland and West India Company, 1992
J. Fontaine, Zeelandia, the history of a fortress, 1972 (still for sale in the
museum shop).
In the period from 1683 to 1794 the Society of Suriname has imported
approximately 185,000 slaves. Together with the illegally imported slaves estimated
200,000, about 2% of the total Atlantic Slave Trade.
Late 16th century did cane arrives in Amsterdam. The raw cane sugar from
Brazil first came later from Suriname. Amsterdam were many sugar refineries and
sugar bakeries. Sugar was produced in a characteristic cone shape. That is still to be
seen on some bricks in Amsterdam. Here you can see the plaque of former
confectioner's Three Suykerbroden.
Slavery and the Dutch
4. Christian slavery
The North African coast is defined as the coast of Barbary, that part which is
now Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt. Residents of this coastal
headlands between 1300 and 1830 European freighters. The captured cargo and
crew are sold in their home ports. Between 500,000 and one million Europeans have
become so enslaved.
Around the Mediterranean, Dutch ships were attacked by North Africans. In the
17th and 18th centuries between 10,000 and 20,000 Dutch enslaved. In churches
collections were held for the Christian slaves. Zierikzee they had set a slavenkas in
1735 to redeem its own people. Part of the Dutch became a Muslim and joined a
sultan. Some of them became captain. In 1625 there were 65 captains of Dutch
descent on Algerian ships.
From the 17th century closes Netherlands peace treaties with local rulers in an
attempt to minimize the hijacking of Dutch ships. The European slave are used in
quarries, construction and as a galley slave.
Pietersz Piet Heyn, the experienced VOC captain, has redeemed many Dutch or
exchanged, including in 1661 in Algiers. If the Christian slaves were returned to the
Netherlands their story was sometimes published in book form. As the life of Claes
Compaen from Oostzaan which was published in 1659.
Slavery and the Dutch
5. Awareness and education
With my suitcase, education and migration I go to the schools. The age of 12- 15
years. Advance is a preparatory lesson created what is taught by the teacher. That
lesson consists of During the program, the central question: means the abolition of
slavery automatically freedom for everyone?
Themes such as discrimination, exclusion, inequality, disadvantage and racism
here are briefly discussed, but also the various forms of modern slavery. The
program aims to: ... Their students are aware that slavery of all time and still exists
today. She (Re) know the different forms of trafficking and slavery (forced labor,
sex trade, bonded labor, child trafficking, child soldiers, slavery in the home
situation). ... Deepen the knowledge of the Dutch slavery and students. They learn
that slavery not only something of the past, but still exists. How do we deal with the
tension between past and present? What is your view on this social issue?
... The students to think about and aware of the theme of freedom. What does
freedom mean? When affect your freedom to someone else? What is the meaning of
emancipation? All people
right?
... The students creatively show reflect on slavery, bondage and freedom.
Preparatory lesson (duration 1 hour): Word web: write the word "slavery" on the
board and ask students to name all the words they associate with slavery. Write
these around the word "slavery." Examples include racism, oppression or degrading.
To this you can already read and understand the level of the class. Then shows you
the movie "Slaves Transport '(2 minutes) of NTR and explain that this is only a
fraction of the story concerns.
The follow-up class can be customized for each school to individual preferences.
Depending on the profession and the shape you choose can this be made clear in
advance. Students are given the task to come up with a product to modern slavery
and trafficking under to the attention of peers. The form they may choose: poster,
clip, rap, speech, article, etc. In this verwerkingsles students have the opportunity to
do everything they prepared in the singles and the guest lecture have been given,
this turn into what appeals to them. It could also be that you are coming from
various fields such as history, man and society, etc. gives the profession. The
teacher's guide provides suggestions for this. In the appendix you will find
suggestions to learn more.
Slavery and the Dutch
Notes
1
2
3
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Slavery and the Dutch
Bibliography
Privitera, Helen. Why Should One Be Born Before Time: Equal Birth Rights for All.
Beautiful-land and Aplaceforme: Galactica University Press, 2010.
Name and Surname of Author is Scholar in Residence at the Cosmic University.
While interested in the most obscure things of life and the universe, currently
her/his research and writi ng is devoted to unveili ng the most well kept secrets of all
times.