EMPOWER EMPOWERING a reduction in use of conventionally fuelled vehicles using positive policy measures Grant agreement n°: 636249 Start date: 1 May 2015 Duration: 36 months Area: Mobility for Growth: Societal Challenges Project Officer: Mr. Walter Mauritsch Systematic review of positive interventions for sustainable urban mobility behaviour change Deliverable no 1.1 Version: 1.0 Due date of deliverable: 31 December 2015 Actual submission date: 21 December 2015 Dissemination level: Public Responsible partner: TNO A Summary This deliverable presents the state-of-the-art regarding positive incentive-based interventions for attaining short- and long term travel behaviour change, focussing on sustainable modes of transport, such as walking, cycling, public transport use, and car-pooling. We focused on positive interventions that were designed to reduce travellers' conventionally fuelled vehicle use and that encouraged travellers to choose alternatives over (conventionally fuelled) cars. This deliverable starts by summarizing the findings of 12 previous review studies that had already reviewed the available evidence on whether or not interventions to reduce car use were effective. From this synthesis, we have concluded that the studied results do not converge to a single conclusion, but to a myriad of different conclusions. Moreover, the methodology used in the majority of studies was not strong, indicating that the validity of results is questionable. However, the reviews provided a good overview of possible positive incentivebased interventions as well as directions to follow (and pitfalls to avoid) in research methodology. Next, we performed our systematic review, which consisted of searching three databases: Scopus, Transport Research International Documentation (TRID) and PsycInfo. We included studies in our review if the study involved an evaluation of an intervention designed (or hypothesized) to change individual travel behaviour and if it contained a behaviour-change measurement. We used the behaviour change techniques taxonomy of Abraham and Michie (2008) to deduce the active components of the positive incentive-based interventions from the studies under review. The studies included interventions designed to encourage travellers to shift from car to public transport and active transport (i.e. cycling and walking), car drivers to avoid driving during rush-hours, groups to travel at specific times, or students to choose a residential location with easy access to a sustainable travel mode. To be able to make the underlying behavioural mechanisms of successful positive incentivebased interventions clear, we connected the interventions in the studies to specific behaviour change techniques. Many studies made use of multiple behaviour change techniques. The behaviour change technique employed most often in the studies was providing ‘general encouragement by adding objects to the environment’ (i.e. maps, guides, free travel tickets, message signs, software systems, timetables, leaflets, and applications on smartphones). Other popular clusters of behaviour change techniques were ‘rewards’ (i.e. affirmation letters, point, credits, subsidies, discounts, and lottery draws) and ‘shaping knowledge’ (i.e. classes, trainings, instruction software). Also techniques from the clusters ‘goals and planning’ (i.e. ‘set goal’, ‘make plan to achieve goal’, ‘agree to contract’), ‘feedback and monitoring’ (i.e. track behaviour, receive feedback), ‘natural consequences’ (i.e. leaflets describing benefits and costs of several behavioural options) and ‘comparison of behaviour’ (i.e. websites allowing comparisons between own and others’ behaviour, training classes demonstrating the behaviour) were used. We found based on our systematic review that the effects of positive incentive-based interventions were mixed. Studies that reported significant changes in travel behaviour were mainly based on self-reported behaviour change (measured through surveys), and in only a few cases on actual trip data before and after the intervention. We also observed that the effectiveness of interventions depended strongly on the match with certain target groups. The studies on interventions providing free transport cards showed strong effects on changing travel behaviour, and thereby suggested that providing free transport card to employees is a successful intervention that can be implemented by other employers (e.g., universities). We also found a lot of evidence about the effects of gifts, rewards, points, discounts and lotteries on changing travel behaviour. Probably not surprisingly, these interventions can have strong positive effects on behaviour. One of the issues, though, is how maintainable it is to keep going on with providing rewards. In many cases people returned to old habits when rewards were no longer provided. Within the transport research field, it appears that free trials or gifts were particularly effective in attracting first-time users, but for strongly habitual car users other additional interventions are needed. Varying the magnitude or duration of gifts, rewards, points, and discounts, or assigning those randomly may be more effective in sustaining and reinforcing modal shifts over longer terms. One of the techniques that is still underused, is providing information about others’ approval. Especially in situations where people know each other (such as, at work or school) it may be effective to provide information about what others think of certain travel behaviours and whether they approve or disapprove of certain travel behaviour changes. Interventions that implemented opportunities for social comparison or that provided social support were also scarce. Their potential, however, seems quite promising. With limited scientific studies in the field of transport, living lab experiments within EMPOWER may allow us to explore these types of social interventions beyond the state of the art. Finally, the EMPOWER living lab experiments should apply sound methodology in order to be able to draw founded conclusions and, where possible, to generalize findings. © 2015-2018 EMPOWER Consortium Funding for the EMPOWER project has been provided by Horizon2020 Programme from the European Commission B Document Information Main author Name Partner Address Phone Email Tineke Hof TNO Kampweg 5, Soesterberg, The Netherlands +31 88 86 65950 [email protected] Deliverable Work Package WP Name Deliverable Name 1 Interventions and behavioural responses D1.1 Systematic review of positive incentive-based interventions for sustainable urban mobility behaviour change History Version V0.1 V1.0 Date Changes 2015-08-25 Table of content created and plan for D1.1 designed 2015-0910 2015-1130 2015-1204 2015-1210 Chapter 1 and 2 created 2015-1218 Chapter 3 created; Chapter 1 and 2 revised and completed Chapter 3 revised and completed; Chapter 4 created Chapter 4 revised and completed; Summary completed and draft report distributed for internal review Final version Distribution Date 2015-12-10 2015-12-14 2015-12-21 Recipients Action EMPOWER internal reviewers Draft for comment EMPOWER partners Draft for comment EC Submission of finalized report Document Change Record Date Version Author Change Details C Overview of Deliverable Deliverable no: C Deliverable Name: Systematic review of positive interventions for sustainable urban mobility behaviour change Deliverable Type: Report Deliverable Format: 1 C Authors Name Partner Email Main Author Contributing Author Contributing Author Contributing Author Contributing Author Contributing Author Tineke Hof Tiago Fioreze Remco Wijn Tom Thomas Amelia Huang Anita Cremers TNO University of Twente TNO University of Twente University of Twente TNO [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] Reviewer1 Benjamin Groenewolt University of Twente [email protected] Reviewer 2 Hanna Hüging Wuppertal Institute [email protected] rg 2 Abstract This document presents the state-of-the-art regarding positive incentive-based interventions for travel behaviour change, focussing on sustainable modes of transport, such as walking, cycling, public transport use, and car-pooling. This is a deliverable within Work Package 1 (WP1) of the EMPOWER project. This systematic review addresses the effectiveness of positive incentive-based interventions and relates the findings to underlying behavioural mechanisms and employed behaviour change techniques. Based on this review, we highlight several valuable findings and good practices that can potentially be employed in the four EMPOWER living labs experiments. 3 WP 3 Relation to other WPs This deliverable helps to pinpoint potential user groups and accompanying attractive value propositions. This deliverable supports the development of attractive and effective services, products and offers. This deliverable provides the Living Lab managers an overview of the effectiveness of several different types of positive incentive-based interventions. WP 4 WP 5 4 Challenges and Risks 5 Deviations from the proposal (positive and negative) The findings from this systematic review were to diverse to synthesize these into one model. 6 Dissemination Activities - proposed or actual Activity e.g. conference presentation, Target Audience workshop, publication Chapters 1, 2, 3 and 4 will be submitted as scientific article Scientific community to a peer-reviewed journal 1 Feedback from testing (if applicable) N.a.
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