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A Publication of Complete Curriculum
Gibraltar, MI
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All rights reserved; No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by
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Published in electronic format in the U.S.A.
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Acknowledgments
Complete Curriculum’s K-12 curriculum has been team-developed by a consortium
of teachers, administrators, educational and subject matter specialists, graphic artists
and editors.
In a collaborative environment, each professional participant contributed to ensuring the quality,
integrity and effectiveness of each Compete Curriculum resource was commensurate with the
required educational benchmarks and contemporary standards Complete Curriculum had set
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Higher
Altitudes
in 11th Grade Language Arts
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6WXGHQWManual
Lessons 1-180
Module 1: Transformation in Language and Life
Unit 1: Lessons 1-20 Beowulf: A Prototypical Hero
Unit 2: Lessons 21-32 Reading and Understanding Middle English Tales by Chaucer
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Module 2 : Reading and Understanding Middle English Tales by Chaucer
Unit 1: Lessons 33-39 The Dynamics of the Literary Point of View
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Module 3: Literature and Thought in Transition
Unit 1: Lessons 40-43 Sonnets of the Renaissance
Unit 2: Lessons 44-48 Shakespeare’s Sonnets
Unit 3: Lessons 49-53 Intermission
Unit 4: Lessons 54-62 Hamlet
Unit 5: Lessons 63-69 Further Exploration of Hamlet
Unit 6: Lessons 70-79 Hamlet
Unit 7: Lessons 80-87 Hamlet
Unit 8: Lessons 88-91 Hamlet
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Module 4: Literature and Technology
Unit 1: Lessons 92-112 Frankenstein Part I
Unit 2: Lessons 113-123 Frankenstein Part 2
Unit 3: Lessons 124-130 Frankenstein Part 3
Unit 4: Lessons 131-138 Frankenstein Part 4
Unit 5: Lessons 139-152 Frankenstein Part 5
Unit 6: Lessons 153-158 Frankenstein Part 6
Unit 7: Lessons 159-164 Frankenstein Part 7
Unit 8: Lessons 165-168 Frankenstein Part 8
Unit 9: Lessons 169-180 I-Search
Published by:
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS TABLE OF CONTENTS — 1
Table of Contents
Higher Altitudes in 11th Grade Language Arts
Module 1: Transformations in Language and Life
Unit 1: Beowulf : A Prototypical Hero
Lesson 1
Objectives: The student will reinforce previous understanding of the high
and publishing. The student will begin to use this process to develop an
essay about heroes in literature.
Writing about Heroes
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Lesson 2
Heroes: Seeing the Present through the Past
Objective: The student will demonstrate ability to use the writing
process to write a rough draft about the value of studying the past. The
essay should be complete with logical reasoning, supporting arguments,
and counterarguments.
Lesson 4
Seeing the Present and Future through the Past
Objective: The student will practice using the peer editing process to edit
[email protected]
ask questions about the rough draft in an effort to clarify, and improve the
style and readability of the essay.
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Lesson 3
Transformation: Looking at Change from a Different Perspective
“Metamorphoses: The Chrysalis”
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Objectives: The student will read, understand, and respond to an article
about the transformation of a Chrysalis. The student will then compare
the transformation described in the article to transformations that occur in
individual’s lives.
Lesson 5
Changing Yourself with Creativity
“Using Creativity to Transform Your Life”
Objectives: The student will practice understanding and interpreting an
informational text and analyzing the process of transformational thinking.
Lesson 6
Creating New Understanding
Objective: The student will gain the ability to apply the CREATE model to
a movie clip and relate it to an informational text.
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS TABLE OF CONTENTS — 2
Lesson 7
The English Language: Where it All Began
“The Anglo-Saxons”
Objectives: The student will read a short article about living in medieval
Great Britain and complete a guided reading chart while building background
information on the subject. The student will then complete a Quick Write
demonstrating understanding of the article.
Lesson 8
Beowulf: Anglo-Saxon Poetry
“Transformation and Qualities of the English Language”
Objectives: The student will reinforce the ability to read and understand an
informative text, build background information on a subject, and extend
understanding of the concept of transformation to the development of the
English language.
Introduction to Beowulf
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Lesson 9
Objectives: The student will practice performing a close contextual reading
of a classic text. The student will also learn to identify subject and predicate
within a sentence.
Lesson 10
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The Epic Hero: Beowulf
“From Beowulf: Excerpt 1” – Part 1
Lesson 11
Lesson 12
Reading Beowulf
“Beowulf: Excerpt 1” – Part 2
Objective:<
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Beowulf.
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Objectives: The student will reinforce the ability to perform a close contextual
reading of a classic text. The student will also complete a creative writing
exercise mimicking the writing style of Beowulf.
Vocabulary Stop! Words to Own Beowulf, Part 1
“How to Own a Word”
Objective: The student will read and understand an article that explains
Objective: The student will write about the theme of a story based on
prior knowledge and perform a close contextual reading of a classic text.
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS TABLE OF CONTENTS — 3
Lesson 14
The Epic Hero: Beowulf
“The Monster’s Mother: Beowulf, Excerpt 2”
Objective: The student will practice or learn to identify the elements of an
epic story and demonstrate understanding of the text Beowulf.
Lesson 15
The Epic Hero: Beowulf, continued
Objective:<
important Vocabulary words found in an excerpt from Beowulf.
Lesson 16
Vocabulary Stop! Words to Own Beowulf, Part 2
Objective: The student will demonstrate understanding of a story by
answering discussion questions.
Lesson 17
The Epic Hero Review
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Objective: The student will learn to apply knowledge about epic heroes
to create an original, modern hero relevant to today’s society.
Lesson 18
Modern Day Hero: Create Your Own Comic Strip, Part 1
Lesson 19
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Objective: The student will learn to apply knowledge about epic heroes to
create an original, modern hero relevant to today’s society.
Modern Day Hero: Create Your Own Comic Strip, Part 2
Lesson 20
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Objective: The student will create a modern hero story relevant to today’s
society and visually represent an original text.
Beowulf : Unit 1 Assessment
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Objective: The student will demonstrate understanding of a classic text
by completing a formal Assessment on the poem, Beowulf.
Unit 2: Reading and Understanding Middle English
Tales by Chaucer
Lesson 21
The Canterbury Tales: The Man Behind the Stories
Objectives: The student will read and understand an expository text. The
student will take organized notes to classify and understand meaning.
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS TABLE OF CONTENTS — 4
Lesson 22
Chaucer’s English: Decoding Middle English
“A Guide to Chaucer’s English: Middle English”
Objectives: The student will read and understand an expository text.
The student will use a Venn Diagram to compare and contrast Old and
Middle English. The student will also begin to decipher the meaning of
Middle English phrases.
Lesson 23
The Canterbury Tales: The Prologue
Objectives: The student will read The Canterbury Tales: The Prologue,
by Geoffrey Chaucer for meaning. The student will use a Character Chart
to identify character’s and author’s opinion.
Lesson 24
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Lesson 25
The Canterbury Tales: The Prologue, continued
Objectives: The student will read The Canterbury Tales: The Prologue,
by Geoffrey Chaucer for meaning. The student will use a Character Chart
to identify character’s and author’s opinion.
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The Canterbury Tales: The Prologue, Day 3
Objectives: The student will read The Canterbury Tales: The Prologue,
by Geoffrey Chaucer for meaning. The student will use a Character Chart
to identify character’s and author’s opinion.
“Grammar Stop! Progressive Verb Forms”
Objectives: The student will learn the meaning and function of progressive
verb forms. The student will demonstrate understanding of the Lesson by
completing a Worksheet based on the information presented.
Lesson 27
The Canterbury Tales: The Pardoner’s Tale
Objectives: The student will read and understand The Pardoner’s Tale
from The Canterbury Tales "
and resolution. The student will become able to verbally summarize this
literary work.
Lesson 28
The Canterbury Tales: The Pardoner’s Tale, continued
Objectives: The student will continue to read and understand The
Pardoner’s Tale from The Canterbury Tales by identifying setting,
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summarize this literary work.
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Lesson 26
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Lesson 29
The Pardoner’s Tale Assessment
Objective: The student will demonstrate understanding of The
Pardoner’s Tale through completion of a comprehensive Assessment.
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS TABLE OF CONTENTS — 5
Lesson 30
Lesson 31
Lesson 32
The Canterbury Tales: The Knight’s Tale
Objectives: The student will continue to read and understand The
Canterbury Tales: The Knight’s Tale and identify setting, characters,
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use the English language effectively in a variety of contexts and settings.
The Canterbury Tales: The Knight’s Tale
Objectives: The student will continue to read and understand The
Canterbury Tales: The Knight’s Tale and identify setting, characters,
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use the English language effectively in a variety of contexts and settings.
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The Canterbury Tales: The Knight’s Tale
Objectives: The student will read and understand The Canterbury
Tales: The Knight’s Tale
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and resolution. The student will analyze literary symbols and use the
English language effectively in a variety of contexts and settings.
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Module 2:
Unit 3: The Dynamics of the Literary Point of View
Critiquing Human Behavior
Objective: <"'
uses The Canterbury Tales to critique human behavior.
Lesson 34
Critiquing Human Behavior: Peer Editing
Objective: The student will use the peer editing process to edit a rough
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Lesson 33
Lesson 35
Creating your Own Pilgrimage: A DigiTale Experience, Part 1
Objective: The student will create a DigiTale storyboard for an original
modern pilgrimage similar to those in The Canterbury Tales.
Lesson 36
Creating your Own Pilgrimage: A DigiTale Experience, Part 2
Objective: The student will continue to create a DigiTale storyboard for an
original modern pilgrimage similar to those in The Canterbury Tales.
Lesson 37
Creating your Own Pilgrimage: A DigiTale Experience, Part 3
Objective: The student will create an original, modern character for a
DigiTale based on The Canterbury Tales.
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS TABLE OF CONTENTS — 6
Lesson 38
Creating your Own Pilgrimage: A DigiTale Experience, Part 4
Objective: The student will continue to create a digital presentation of an
original, modern character based on The Canterbury Tales.
Lesson 39
Creating your Own Pilgrimage: A DigiTale Experience, Part 5
Objective: The student will complete and give a digital presentation of an
original, modern character based on The Canterbury Tales.
Module 3: Literature and Thought in Transition
Unit 1: Sonnets of the Renaissance
Lesson 40
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Lesson 41
The Middle Ages: A New Way of Thinking
From Medieval to Renaissance
Objective: The student will read and understand an article on the transition
from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. The student will demonstrate
understanding of the topic by responding to a writing prompt about the
article.
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Poetry of the Renaissance
Sonnets 30 and 75 by Edmund Spenser
Objective: The student will discover the traits of traditional sonnets by
analyzing the work of Edmund Spenser.
Poetry of the Renaissance
Spenserian Sonnets Assessment
Objective: The student will demonstrate understanding of the form
sonnets by writing an original sonnet in Spenserian form.
Lesson 43
Spenser’s Sonnets: The Assessment
Spenserian Sonnets Assessment
Objective: The student will demonstrate understanding of the form and
elements of sonnets by completing the Spenserian Sonnets Assessment.
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Lesson 42
Unit 2: Shakespeare’s Sonnets
Lesson 44
Wherefore Art Thou, Shakespearian Sonnet?
Shakespeare’s Sonnets 29, 116, and 130
Objective: The student will discover the elements and forms of Shakespearian
sonnets by reading by analyzing his work.
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS TABLE OF CONTENTS — 7
Lesson 45
Wherefore Art Thou, Shakespearian Sonnet? Continued
Objective: The student will demonstrate understanding of Shakespeare’s
writing by composing an original sonnet in Shakespearian style.
Wherefore Art Thou, Shakespearian Sonnet? Day 3
Objective: The student will continue to develop and demonstrate
understanding of Shakespearian sonnets by editing an original sonnet
written in the previous Lesson.
Lesson 47
Grammar Stop! Participle and Participial Phrases
Grammar Stop! Participle and Participial Phrases
Objective: The student will understand the meaning and proper use of
participles and participial phrases.
Lesson 48
Shakespeare’s Sonnets: Unit Assessment
Objective: The student will demonstrate understanding of Shakespearian
Sonnets by completing the Shakespeare’s Sonnets Assessment.
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Lesson 46
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Unit 3: Intermission
Changes and Decisions that Shape Peoples’ Lives
Objectives: The student will examine techniques for decision making and
respond to a writing prompt about those techniques.
Lesson 50
Changes and Decisions that Shape Peoples’ Lives Continued
Objective: The student will use the peer editing process to revise a rough
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Lesson 49
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Lesson 51
Decisions, Decisions, Decisions!
Objective: The student will develop understanding of decision making by
writing about an important decisions being made in the surrounding world.
Lesson 52
Good Grief!
Objective: The student will examine the concept of grief and how it affects
an individual in order to create a personal connection to a major theme of
the play Hamlet.
Lesson 53
The Shape of a Tragedy
Objective: The student will understand the elements of a literary tragedy
in preparation for reading Hamlet.
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS TABLE OF CONTENTS — 8
Unit 4: Hamlet
Lesson 54
Vocabulary Stop! Words to Own: Hamlet Act I
Objective:<
X
Hamlet.
A Ghost Among Us
Hamlet, continued
Objective: The student will read and interpret an excerpt from Hamlet and
then demonstrate understanding of the text by answering Reading
Comprehension Questions.
Lesson 56
Do I Call You Uncle or Dad?
Hamlet, continued
Objective: The student will read and interpret an excerpt from Hamlet, and
answer Comprehension Questions about the text.
Lesson 57
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Lesson 55
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If I want your advice, I’ll ask for it!
Hamlet, continued
Objective: The student will read and interpret a portion of Hamlet, and
develop understanding of the text by imitating Hamlet’s speech.
“Something is Rotten in the State of Denmark”
Hamlet, continued
Objective: The student will critically examine an excerpt from Hamlet for
plot details and elements of tragedy.
Lesson 59
Why is this MY problem?
Hamlet, continued
Objective: The student will read and interpret an excerpt from Hamlet,
answer Comprehension Questions, and complete a Quick-Write about the
reading.
Lesson 60
Who is this Hamlet Guy?
Objective: The student will review and analyze the events in Act I of Hamlet.
Lesson 61
What Do You Know? Thine Own Act I Assessment
Hamlet Act 1 Assessment
Objective: The student will demonstrate knowledge of characters, events,
and relationships in Hamlet by completing the Hamlet Act I Assessment.
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Lesson 58
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HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS TABLE OF CONTENTS — 9
Lesson 62
Do all Heroes Live Happily Ever After?
“Attributes of a Tragic Hero”
Objective: The student will understand the concept of a tragic hero in
literature and in real life.
Unit 5: Further Exploration of Hamlet
Lesson 63
Vocabulary Stop! Words to Own: Hamlet, Act II
Objective:<
Vocabulary words from the second act of Hamlet.
Lesson 65
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Objective: <
as antecedents.
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What Happened to my Boyfriend?
Hamlet, continued
Objective: The student will read and understand Act II, scene I of Hamlet,
and answer Comprehension Questions related to the text.
Hamlet: On the Edge of Reason!
Hamlet, continued
Objective: The student will read and understand a portion of the text
Hamlet, and complete Reading Comprehension Questions about the text.
Lesson 67
Hamlet: On the Edge of Reason! Part Two
Objective: The student will read and understand a portion of the text
Hamlet, and complete Reading Comprehension Questions about the text.
Lesson 68
The Plot Thickens: A Review of Act II
Objective: The student will review the characters, themes, and events in
Act II of Hamlet.
Lesson 69
What Do You Know? Thine Own Act II Assessment
Objective: The student will demonstrate understanding of the characters
and events in Hamlet Act II by completing an Assessment.
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Lesson 66
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HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS TABLE OF CONTENTS — 10
Unit 6: Hamlet Act III
Vocabulary Stop! Words to Own: Hamlet, Act III
Objective: <
X
words from the third act of Hamlet.
Lesson 71
To be or not to be – That Really is the Question!
Hamlet Act III
Objective: The student will read and interpret Hamlet and demonstrate
understanding of the text by completing Comprehension Questions.
Lesson 72
To be or not to be – That Really is the Question! Part Two
Objective: The student will read and interpret an excerpt from Hamlet and
then imitate that portion of text in writing.
Lesson 73
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Lesson 70
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The Play’s the Thing!
Hamlet Act III continued
Objective: The student will read and interpret an excerpt from Hamlet, and
demonstrate understanding of the text by answering Reading Comprehension
Questions.
Hamlet, Those are Some Mean Mood Swings!
Objective: The student will develop understanding of Hamlet by completing
a character analysis of Hamlet.
Lesson 75
Sins, Sadness, and Sanity
Hamlet Act III continued
Objective: The student will read and interpret an excerpt from Hamlet, and
demonstrate understanding of the text by answering Reading Comprehension
Questions.
Lesson 76
Claudius: King or Criminal?
Objective: The student will develop knowledge of Hamlet and write a new
scene based on the play.
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Lesson 74
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS TABLE OF CONTENTS — 11
Lesson 77
It’s all Mom’s fault
Hamlet Act III continued
Objective: The student will read and interpret an excerpt from Hamlet
and demonstrate understanding of the text by answering Reading
Comprehension Questions.
Lesson 78
Seeing your own ‘vision’ – Imagery in Hamlet
Objective: The student will explore and understand the imagery in the
play Hamlet, and create a poem based on images from the play.
Lesson 79
What Do You Know?
Hamlet Acts I-III Assessment
Objective: The student will demonstrate knowledge of characters and
events of Hamlet by completing an Assessment over Act III of the play.
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Unit 7: Hamlet Act IV
Lesson 80
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Vocabulary Stop! Words to Own: Hamlet, Act IV
Objective: <
X
from Act IV of Hamlet.
Death of a Hero
Hamlet Act IV
Objective: The student will read and interpret an excerpt from Hamlet,
and answer Reading Comprehension Questions about the text.
Lesson 82
A Journey into Insanity
Hamlet Act IV continued
Objective: The student will read and interpret an excerpt from Hamlet and
answer Reading Comprehension Questions about the text.
Lesson 83
Vengeance will be mine! But when is it worth it?
Hamlet Act IV continued
Objective: The student will read and interpret a soliloquy from the text of
Hamlet, and relate the themes of that soliloquy to modern society.
Lesson 84
Vengeance will be mine! But when is it worth it? Continued
Objective: The student will apply a theme learned from the text Hamlet to
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Lesson 81
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS TABLE OF CONTENTS — 12
Sing me a song, Ophelia!
Hamlet Act IV continued
Objective: The student will read and interpret an excerpt from Hamlet,
and demonstrate understanding of the text by completing Reading
Comprehension Questions.
Lesson 86
A Surprise Party for Hamlet
Hamlet Act IV continued
Objective: The student will read and interpret an excerpt from Hamlet and
demonstrate understanding of the text by answering Comprehension
Questions.
Lesson 87
What Do You Know? Thine Own Act IV Assessment
Objective: The student will demonstrate understanding of Act IV of Hamlet
by completing the Hamlet Act IV Assessment.
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Lesson 85
Unit 8: Hamlet Act V
Lesson 88
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Vocabulary Stop! Words to Own: Hamlet, Act V
Objective: <
X
Hamlet.
Just like in the movies?
Hamlet Act V
Objective: The student will read and interpret an excerpt from Hamlet,
and demonstrate understanding of the text by answering Reading
Comprehension Questions.
Lesson 90
As the Curtain Closes
Hamlet Act V
Objective: The student will read and interpret an excerpt from Hamlet,
and demonstrate understanding of the text by answering Reading
Comprehension Questions.
Lesson 91
What Do You Know? Thine Own Act V Assessment
Objective: The student will demonstrate understanding of Hamlet Act V
by completing the Act V Assessment.
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Lesson 89
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HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS TABLE OF CONTENTS — 13
Module 4: Literature and Technology
Unit 1: Frankenstein Part I
Don’t Judge a Book by its Cover! – Part 1
Objectives: The student will examine the theme of appearance versus
reality in the play, Hamlet and will create an abridged comic strip version
of the play that points to main ideas and themes from the work.
Lesson 93
Don’t Judge a Book by its Cover! – Part 2
Objectives: The student will examine the theme of appearance versus
reality in the play, Hamlet and will create an abridged comic strip version
of the play that points to main ideas and themes from the work.
Lesson 94
Don’t Judge a Book by its Cover! – Part 3
Objectives: The student will examine the theme of appearance versus
reality in the play, Hamlet and will create an abridged comic strip version
of the play that points to main ideas and themes from the work.
Technology – Monster or Friend?
Objectives: The student will examine a theme, brainstorm about a prompt
related to that theme, and create an essay relating to the topic.
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Lesson 95
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Lesson 92
Technology in our Lives – Part 1
Objectives: The student will examine a theme, brainstorm about a prompt
related to that theme, and write an essay relating to the topic.
Lesson 97
Technology in our Lives – Part 2
Objective: The student will use the peer editing process to edit a rough
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Lesson 96
Lesson 98
Isn’t it Romantic? An exploration of the age of Romanticism
Objective: The student will learn about the characteristics of the Age of
Romanticism in preparation for reading a novel from the Age of Romanticism.
Lesson 99
Isn’t it Romantic? An exploration of the age of Romanticism, Continued
Objective: The student will continue to explore characteristics of the
Romantic Movement in preparation for reading Frankenstein.
Lesson 100 Vocabulary Stop! Words to Own: Frankenstein, Letters I-IV
Objectives: <
important Vocabulary words from Frankenstein, Letters I-IV.
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS TABLE OF CONTENTS — 14
Lesson 101 Into the Unknown: Frankenstein, Letters I-IV
Frankenstein, Letters I-IV
Objectives: The student will read and understand Frankenstein, Letters I-IV
and then demonstrate understanding of the text by answering Reading
Comprehension Questions.
Lesson 102 Letters from Abroad
Objectives: The student will read and understand Frankenstein, Letters I-IV
and then demonstrate understanding of the text by answering Reading
Comprehension Questions.
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Lesson 103 Crime and Confession: The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner by Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Objective: The student will read The Rime of the Ancient Mariner to
understand the connection between the poem and Frankenstein.
Lesson 104 Crime and Confession: The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Continued
Objective: The student will continue reading The Rime of the Ancient
Mariner to further understanding of the connection between the poem and
the novel Frankenstein.
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Lesson 105 Grammar Stop! Essential and Nonessential Adjective Clauses
Objective: The student will understand and use essential and nonessential
adjective clauses.
Lesson 106 You be the Literary Expert! Reader’s Sketchbook – Letters I-IV
Objective: The student will begin a Reader’s Sketchbook based on
information learned in Letters I-IV of Frankenstein.
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Lesson 107 Vocabulary Stop! Words to Own: Frankenstein, Chapters 1-4
Objectives: <
Vocabulary words from Frankenstein, Chapters 1-4.
Lesson 108 Once Upon a Time…The Stranger’s Story
Frankenstein Chapters 1-2
Objectives: The student will read and interpret a portion of the text
Frankenstein.
Lesson 109 You be the Literary Expert! Reader’s Sketchbook – Chapters 1-2
Objective: <
chapters of Frankenstein by completing the Reader’s Sketchbook entry
for those chapters.
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HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS TABLE OF CONTENTS — 16
Lesson 119 It’s a boy!
Objective: The student will use words and phrases from Chapter 5 of
Frankenstein to create a poem about Frankenstein’s monster.
Lesson 120 Secrets, Secrets are no fun!
Frankenstein, Continued
Objectives: The student will read and interpret a portion of Frankenstein,
and demonstrate understanding of the text by completing a Reader’s
Sketchbook entry about the reading.
Lesson 121 Grammar Stop! Simple Past Tense Review
Objective: The student will understand and use the simple past tense.
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Lesson 122 You be the Literary Expert! Reader’s Sketchbook – Chapters 6-7
Objective: <
chapters of Frankenstein by completing the Reader’s Sketchbook for
those chapters.
Unit 3: Frankenstein Part III
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Lesson 123 A Monster of an Assessment: Frankenstein Assessment, Chapters 3-7
Objective: The student will demonstrate understanding of Chapters 3-7 of
Frankenstein by completing the Frankenstein Assessment II.
Lesson 124 Vocabulary Stop! Words to Own: Frankenstein, Chapters 8-11.
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Objective: <X
reading Frankenstein Chapters 8-11.
Lesson 125 Justice for Justine?
Frankenstein Chapter 8
Objectives: The student will carefully read an excerpt from Frankenstein
and demonstrate understanding of the text by completing a Quick-Write.
Lesson 126 Dear Diary, I Don’t Know What To Do…
Frankenstein Chapter 9
Objectives: The student will read the text of Frankenstein and demonstrate
understanding of the text by completing the Chapter 9 Quick-Write.
Lesson 127 You be the Literary Expert! Reader’s Sketchbook – Chapters 8 and 9
Objective: The student will demonstrate understanding of Frankenstein
Chapters 8 and 9 by completing Reader’s Sketchbook entries about both
chapters.
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS TABLE OF CONTENTS — 17
Lesson 128 The Monster’s Turn to Talk
Frankenstein chapters 10 and 11
Objective: The student will demonstrate understanding of Frankenstein
Chapters 8 and 9 by completing Reader’s Sketchbook entries about both
chapters.
Lesson 129 You be the Literary Expert! Reader’s Sketchbook – Chapters 10 and 11
Objective: The student will interpret Frankenstein Chapters 10 and 11 by
completing Reader’s Sketchbook entries about both chapters.
Lesson 130 A Monster of a Quiz: Frankenstein, Chapters 8-11
Frankenstein Assessment Chapters 8-11
Objective: The student will demonstrate understanding of Frankenstein
Chapters 8-11 by completing the Frankenstein Assessment III.
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Unit 4: Frankenstein Part IV
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Lesson 131 Vocabulary Stop! Words to Own: Frankenstein, Chapters 12-15.
Objective: <
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reading today.
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Lesson 132 Victor vs. The Monster: Are they really that different?
Frankenstein Chapter 12
Objectives: The student will read a portion of Frankenstein, and develop
understanding of the text by completing a Quick-Write.
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Lesson 133 Friend or Fiend?
Frankenstein Chapter 13
Objectives: The student will read a portion of Frankenstein, and develop
understanding by completing a Quick-Write.
Lesson 134 You be the Literary Expert! Reader’s Sketchbook – Chapters 12-13
Objective: The student will develop understanding of Chapters 12-13 of
Frankenstein by writing Reader’s Sketchbook entries about each chapter.
Lesson 135 It’s all Relative!
Frankenstein Chapter 14
Objective: The student will read and interpret a portion of Frankenstein
and demonstrate understanding of the text by completing a Quick-Write
about the reading.
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS TABLE OF CONTENTS — 18
Lesson 136 The Lonely Monster
Frankenstein Chapter 15
Objective: The student will read and interpret a portion of Frankenstein
and develop understanding of the text by completing a Quick-Write about
the text.
Lesson 137 You be the Literary Expert! Reader’s Sketchbook – Chapter 15
Objective: The student will develop understanding of Chapters 14-15 of
Frankenstein by completing Reader’s Sketchbook entries about each
chapter.
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Lesson 138 A Monster of an Assessment: Frankenstein, Chapters 12-15
Frankenstein Assessment Chapters 12-15
Objective: In this Lesson, the student will demonstrate understanding
of Chapters 12-15 of Frankenstein by completing the Frankenstein
Chapters 12-15 Assessment.
Unit 5: Frankenstein Part V
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Lesson 139 Vocabulary Stop! Words to Own: Frankenstein, Chapters 16-18.
Objective: <X
Chapters 16-18 of Frankenstein.
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Lesson 140 From Rejection to Revenge
Frankenstein Chapters 16-17
Objectives: The student will read and interpret Chapters 16-17 of
Frankenstein and demonstrate understanding of the text by completing
the Quick-Write.
Lesson 141 You be the Literary Expert! Reader’s Sketchbook – Chapters 16-17
Objective: The student will develop understanding of Chapters 16-17 of
Frankenstein by writing Reader’s Sketchbook entries about each chapter.
Lesson 142 Victor: Trapped by the Monster, or Trapped by Himself?
Frankenstein Chapter 18
Objective: The student will read and interpret Chapter 18 of Frankenstein
and develop understanding of the text by completing a Quick-Write.
Lesson 143 You be the Literary Expert! Reader’s Sketchbook – Chapter 18
Objective: The student will develop understanding of Chapter 18 of
Frankenstein by writing a Reader’s Sketchbook entry about each chapter.
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS TABLE OF CONTENTS — 19
Lesson 144 A Monster of a Quiz
Frankenstein Assessment Chapters 16-18
Objective: In this Lesson, the student will demonstrate understanding of
Chapters 16-18 of Frankenstein by completing the Frankenstein Chapters
16-18 Assessment.
Lesson 145 Vocabulary Stop! Words to Own:
Frankenstein, Chapters 19-22.
Objective:<X
for reading Frankenstein Chapters 19-22.
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Lesson 146 Victor: What a Wicked Web He Has Woven!
Frankenstein Chapter 19
Objectives: The student will read and interpret Chapter 19 of Frankenstein
and develop understanding of the text by completing a Quick-Write.
Lesson 147 You be the Literary Expert! Reader’s Sketchbook – Chapter 19
Objectives: The student will develop understanding of Chapter 19 of
Frankenstein by writing a Reader’s Sketchbook entry about the chapter.
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Lesson 148 A Promise Broken
Frankenstein Chapters 20-21
Objective: The student will read Frankenstein Chapters 20-21 and
develop understanding of the text by completing a Quick-Write about the
reading.
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Lesson 149 You be the Literary Expert! Reader’s Sketchbook – Chapters 20-21
Objective: The student will develop understanding of Chapters 20-21 of
Frankenstein by writing Reader’s Sketchbook entries about each chapter.
Lesson 150 Matters of the Heart, or Matters of the Mind?
Frankenstein Chapter 22
Objectives: The student will read and interpret Chapter 22 of Frankenstein
and develop understanding of the text by completing a Quick-Write.
Lesson 151 You be the Literary Expert! Reader’s Sketchbook – Chapter 22
Objective: The student will develop understanding of Chapter 22 of
Frankenstein by writing a Reader’s Sketchbook entry about each chapter.
Lesson 152 A Monster of a Quiz: Frankenstein, Chapters 19-22
Frankenstein Assessment Chapters 19-22
Objective: The student will demonstrate understanding of Frankenstein
Chapters 19-22 by completing the Frankenstein Chapters 19-22 Assessment.
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS TABLE OF CONTENTS — 20
Unit: 6 Frankenstein Part 6
Lesson 153 Vocabulary Stop! Words to Own: Frankenstein, Chapters 23-24.
Objective: The student will learn Vocabulary in preparation for reading
Frankenstein Chapters 23-24.
Lesson 154 You be the Literary Expert! Reader’s Sketchbook – Chapter 23
Objective: The student will read and interpret Chapter 23 of Frankenstein
and develop understanding of the text by completing a Reader’s
Sketchbook entry about the reading.
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Lesson 155 The Death of Evil?
Frankenstein Chapter 24
Objectives: The student will read Frankenstein Chapter 23 and develop
understanding of the text by completing a Quick-Write.
Lesson 156 You be the Literary Expert! Reader’s Sketchbook – Chapter 24
Objective: The student will develop understanding of Chapter 24 of
Frankenstein by writing a Reader’s Sketchbook entry about the chapter.
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Lesson 157 You be the Literary Expert! Reader’s Sketchbook – The Final Letters
Objective: <
Frankenstein and develop understanding of the text by completing
Reader’s Sketchbook entries about each letter.
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Lesson 158 A Monster of an Assessment: Frankenstein, Chapters 23-24 & Final
Letters
Objective: The student will demonstrate understanding of Chapters 23 to
the end of Frankenstein, by completing Frankenstein Assessment VII.
Unit 7: Frankenstein Part 7
Lesson 159 Is Ignorance Really Bliss? – Part 1
Objective: The student will begin writing an essay about the consequences
of knowledge.
Lesson 160 Is Ignorance Really Bliss? – Part 2
Objective: The student will use the peer editing process to develop the
Ignorance vs. Knowledge Brainstorm.
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS TABLE OF CONTENTS — 21
Lesson 161 Frankenstein on Trial – Opening Statements of a Playwright
Objective: The student will develop understanding of Frankenstein by
beginning a dramatic continuation of the novel.
Lesson 162 Frankenstein on Trial – A Playwright’s Trial
Objectives: The student will develop understanding of the novel
Frankenstein by writing a dramatic continuation of the novel.
Lesson 163 Frankenstein on Trial – A Playwright’s Closing Argument.
Objective: The student will apply creative understanding of the novel
Frankenstein by completing the Victor’s Mock Trial project.
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Lesson 164 A Monster of an Assessment: Frankenstein
Frankenstein Final Assessment
Objective: The student will demonstrate understanding of the novel
Frankenstein by completing the Frankenstein Final Assessment.
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Unit 8: Frankenstein Part 8
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Lesson 165 Writing your Own Monster of a Tale Part 1
Objective: The student will display knowledge of the genre of gothic
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Lesson 166 Writing your Own Monster of a Tale Part 2
Objective: The student will display knowledge of the genre of gothic
Lesson 167 Writing your Own Monster of a Tale Part 3
Objective: <=
continuing to create an original gothic story.
Lesson 168 Writing your Own Monster of a Tale Part 4
Objective: The student will display knowledge of the genre of gothic
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS TABLE OF CONTENTS — 22
Unit 9: I-Search
Lesson 169 I-Search Paper – The It’s All About Me Kind of Research Paper
Objective: The student will research a topic of interest, and develop an
I-Search project about that topic.
Lesson 170 I-Search: Finding the Facts
Objective: The student will develop a topic, research the topic, and write
a report that is both analytical and informative.
Lesson 171 I-Search: Finding the Facts Part 2
Objective: The student will continue to research for the I-Search Project.
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Lesson 172 I-Search: Preparing for the Interview
Objective: The student will prepare for conducting an interview for the
I-Search Project.
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Lesson 173 I-Search: Preparing for the Interview Part 2
Objective: The student will continue to prepare for conducting an interview
for the I-Search Project.
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Lesson 174 I-Search: You’re the Reporter!
Objective: The student will conduct the interview for the I-Search Project.
Lesson 175 I-Search: The Search is Over!
Objective: The student will conduct research to begin developing the
I-Search Project.
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Lesson 176 I-Search: What I Learned
Objective: The student will begin to write the conclusion to the I-Search
Project.
Lesson 177 I-Search: Give Credit Where Credit is Due!
Objective: The student will create a Works Cited Page for the I-Search
Project.
Lesson 178 The Clean-Up Crew: Revising
Objective: The student will revise the I-Search project in preparation for
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS TABLE OF CONTENTS — 23
Lesson 179 A Look in the Writing Mirror: Portfolio Project
Objective: The student will assess individual strengths, weaknesses, and
improvements as a writer by creating a Writer’s Portfolio of work conducted
in these Lessons.
Lesson 180 Show Yourself Off! Portfolio Presentation
Objective: The student will write a letter of introduction to accompany the
Writer’s Portfolio created in Lesson 179 and continue to self-assess
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Higher
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in 11th Grade Language Arts
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Teacher Manual
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Module 4
Unit 9: Lessons 169-180
Key Skills and Concepts:
Published by
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Writing: Quick-Writes; I-Search Project
Module 4: Literature and Technology
Unit 9: I-Search
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 1-1
Lesson 1
Heroes: Seeing the Present through the Past
In this Unit, you will be reading and writing about the importance of understanding and
adapting to change.
This Unit will be focused on the following theme:
In the transformation from oral language to the
written word, universal truths of human nature
were formalized.
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In this Unit, you will be reading, viewing, and hearing about changes and decisions that
shape people’s lives and values.
In the transformation from oral language to written word, universal truths of human nature
were formalized. These truths or values help in making decisions that will support
positive changes in a person’s life.
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It is important to learn these values from heroes in literature, as well as history. One way
to further understand these truths is to write an essay exploring them. In this Lesson,
you will be writing an essay about heroes in literature.
Before you are ready to write an essay, you need to go through the following steps of
the writing process.
Can the past affect the future?
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Brainstorming
Brainstorming is thinking and talking about the topic or theme of the writing and relating
it to your own personal life. Brainstorming involves asking the following questions:
Which incident or situation could I write about?
What did I learn?
What interesting details can I choose to tell about the situation or incident?
How should I organize my writing?
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in his own life that affected his decisions. What values or skills does the hero display in
making good decisions?
Write the hero’s name on the top of the Hero Brainstorming sheet and then write notes
about the hero’s values and skills that demonstrate good decision making.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 1-2
Drafting
Drafting is getting ideas down on paper and trying to organize them. It involves asking
the following questions:
How will I start my writing to get my reader to want to read it?
What details, examples, anecdotes, and/or explanations should I write to prove my point
to my reader?
How shall I end my writing?
Revising
Revising is the real work of writing and begins when the writer makes sure that the
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writing has everything it should have, that it will appeal to the reader, and tell or prove
what it is supposed to. Revising involves asking the following questions:
Will my reader know what my point is?
Is my point or central idea clear and connected to the theme or topic?
Have I given important and relevant details, examples, and/or anecdotes to support
my point?
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Is my writing well organized with a beginning that makes my audience want to
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my audience?
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Have I used interesting words and a variety of sentence lengths and types
to engage my reader?
Proofreading and Editing
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Proofreading and editing include making sure that the audience can read and
understand the words and the point. Proofreading and editing involve asking the
following questions:
Have I checked and corrected my spelling, punctuation, and
capitalization to help my audience understand what I have written?
Have I read my work to a friend or myself to make sure it sounds good?
Have I looked my writing over to make sure that it’s neat and invites
my audience to read it?
It is also very important to have someone else proofread and
edit the material, to catch things that the writer may miss.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 1-3
Publishing
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As you go through each step of the writing process, remember these steps and
questions. They will make writing your essay much easier.
Lesson Wrap-Up: What three tips should you remember about writing?
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 1-4
Hero Brainstorming
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HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 1-5
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 2-1
Lesson 2
Writing about Heroes
In the transformation from oral language to written word, universal truths of human
nature were formalized. These truths or values help in making decisions that will support
positive changes in each of our lives. We can learn these values from heroes in
literature, as well as history.
Many experts believe we need to learn from the mistakes of the past to improve our
future. Others contend that we will continue to make the same mistakes, so we need to
forge ahead.
In your opinion, can studying the past lead to new opportunities for the future?
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In your essay, take a position on this question. You may write about either one of the
two points of view given, or you may present a different point of view on this question.
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Remember to state your position clearly.
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Include and support the counterargument.
Now, begin organizing your essay by completing the Hero’s Essay Rough Draft.
Homework Required: Complete the Heroes Essay Rough Draft for the next session.
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Lesson Wrap-Up: What super-power did you give your hero?
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 2-2
Use the space below to begin writing a rough draft on the following prompt.
Many experts believe people should learn from the mistakes of the past to improve the
future. Others contend that we will continue to make the same mistakes, so we need to
forge ahead. What do you think?
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 2-3
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 2-4
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 3-1
Lesson 3
Heroes: Seeing the Present and Future
through the Past
In this Lesson, you will have the opportunity to peer edit your rough draft with a partner.
Each partner will read aloud his or her draft to the other, who will listen carefully while
thinking about the following questions:
Is the position clearly stated?
Is the position or point supported by important and relevant details, examples, and/or
anecdotes?
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Does the writing begin with an interesting and engaging lead, continue with a middle
that supports and develops the point, and conclude with an ending that summarizes the
point?
Is the writing interesting with engaging words and different sentence lengths and types?
Is the counter position stated, explained, and supported?
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What do I, as the listener, think is good about the writing?
Do I have questions and/or suggestions for the writer?
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Now, you and your partner should switch places and repeat the process. Refer to the
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session.
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Lesson Wrap-Up: Name some of the questions you asked during the editing process.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 3-2
Review of Writing: Publishing Final Copy
Now you will be doing three things: revising your paper (which means to rethink
your ideas); polishing your paper (which means to edit and proofread); and
recopying your paper as neatly as possible.
Use the following checklist as you revise and edit the writing that you have done. When
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copy to make sure that all of your revisions have been made.
Checklist for Revision:
1. Do I have a clear central idea that connects to the topic?
2. Do I stay focused on my central idea?
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5. Is my writing organized and complete, with a clear beginning, middle, and end?
6. Do I use a variety of interesting words, phrases, and/or sentences?
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Checklist for Editing
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7. Have I checked and corrected my spelling to help readers understand my writing?
8. Have I checked and corrected my punctuation and capitalization to help readers
understand my writing?
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Checklist for Proofreading
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Reread your writing. You should cross out or erase any errors you make.
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 4-1
Lesson 4
Transformation: Looking at Change from a
Different Perspective
Today’s Lesson will focus on the idea of transformation. One way of noting transformation is to consider the effect of the past on the future. Take a moment to ponder the
meaning of that statement.
Then provide brief answers to the following questions:
What evidence do I have that I am committed to learning?
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Now, you will be reading an article titled “Metamorphosis: The Chrysalis”. Before
reading, review the three questions listed below to focus your reading of the article.
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Metamorphosis
Quick Write.
Lesson Wrap-Up: Describe an example of transformation
from your own life.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 4-2
Metamorphosis Quick Write
Take a few minutes to respond to the following question: When does the
transformation of the chrysalis begin and why do you think it occurs at this stage?
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 4-3
Metamorphosis: The Chrysalis
The word chrysalis refers to the pupal stage of butterflies, specifically to the gold color contained
in the pupae of the butterflies. It comes from the Greek word for gold, χρυσός (chrysós).
Chrysalids are vibrant and are formed in the open making them the most familiar examples of
pupae. Most chrysalids are joined to a surface by a sticky arrangement of a silken pad spun by the
caterpillar and a set of hooks at the tip of abdomen of the pupae.
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In most types of pupae, the chrysalis stage involves very little
movement. However, some butterfly pupae are capable of moving
their abdominal segments for self defense. This kind of motion
produces a sound that scares away predators. Within the chrysalis,
growth and differentiation occur. The adult butterfly emerges and
pumps haemolymph into the wing veins forcing the wings to expand.
There is a rapid and sudden change from pupae to imago in a process
called metamorphosis.
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A biological miracle occurs inside the caterpillar in which it releases
enzymes that digest caterpillar tissue, converting it into a rich cultural
medium. The caterpillar has several sets of little cells on its inside that are in different parts of
the body. These sets of cells are called “imaginal disks.” Imaginal disks are groups of embryonic
cells, and as soon as the metamorphosis gets going and as that chrysalid forms, the skin is shed
off the larvae, and the larva turns into a chrysalid. These little cells grow at an incredible rate. One
imaginal disk will become a wing (so there are at least 4 imaginal disks because there are 4 wings
in the butterfly). There are also imaginal disks that form the legs, the antennae, and all the organs
of the adult butterfly.
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Thus, during the first few days, the inside of the chrysalis is literally a bag of rich fluid on which
the cells grow. The process of transformation is a miraculous phenomenon unique to insects.
Nothing like this happens in vertebrates.
The imaginal disks start developing very early in the caterpillar’s life but they slow down and
don’t start growing again until the very end of the 5th instar which is the last stage of caterpillar
development. Then, the imaginal disks start growing very quickly developing into different
tissues, so that the entire internal contents of the caterpillar — the muscles, the entire digestive
system, even the heart and nervous system — is totally rebuilt. The process is like taking an old car
into the shop, leaving it for a week, and coming back to find a brand new Cadillac.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 4-4
During the development of the adult, the chrysalid loses nearly half of its weight. This is evidence
that the process of metamorphosis requires an enormous amount of energy. During the whole
time it is a chrysalis, it is unable to excrete any kind of waste. When the adult emerges, it releases
a reddish-colored liquid. This liquid is stored nitrogenous waste accumulated during the
metamorphosis.
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 5-1
Lesson 5
Changing Yourself with Creativity
To begin this Lesson, consider the concept of transformational learning. This process
encourages you to absorb what you have learned or experienced in your life in a
meaningful way to bring about a better change. The process involves questioning
assumptions, beliefs, and values and considering multiple points of view, while always
seeking to verify reasoning.
Now, read the article “Using Creativity to Transform Your Life”. When you
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“Transformational Learning Graphic Organizer”.
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After completing the Graphic Organizer, introduce the student to the CREATE process
which stands for –connect, relate, explore, analyze, transform, and experience. Each
part of the CREATE process is broken down for you below.
Connect two or more seemingly different things or ideas such as the chrysalis to
modern language.
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Relate those seemingly different things or ideas to things that are familiar and start to
observe commonalities. Beowulf to Blogs.
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Explore these commonalities. Draw them, build models, role-play, and describe them.
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language? How did the change from the language in Beowulf to the language in the
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time—oral language to printed language?
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allowing it to meet the needs of change in communication or the situation. Printed
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dynamic in a time of rapid changes.
Transform the drawing, model, or object you have made: discover or invent something
new based on your connections, explorations, and analysis. Modern language is more
FRPPXQLFDWLYHDQGFROODERUDWLYHUHÀHFWLQJWKHGLYHUVLW\RIWRGD\
Experience and apply your drawing, model, or invention in as many new contexts as
possible: rap song, digital story, text messaging, blogs, etc.
Lesson Wrap-Up: Do you remember what the acronym CREATE stands for?
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 5-2
Transformational Learning Graphic Organizer
Topic:
Main Ideas, Key words, Questions, Drawings
What I’ve Learned
1.
2.
3.
SA
1.
M
2.
3.
PL
1.
3.
1.
2.
3.
E
2.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 5-3
Using Creativity to Transform Your Life
“Imagination is the beginning of creation,” wrote novelist George Bernard Shaw. “You imagine
what you desire; you will what you imagine and at last you create what you will.” The only barriers
and limits to achieving our dreams are the barriers and limits that we create. Instead of using our
creativity to limit ourselves, it’s possible to harness our creativity to propel ourselves beyond our
wildest dreams.
SA
This sounds quite good, but before anyone can harness their creativity toward productivity, that
person must establish one very basic concept. What is creativity? There are all kinds of answers
to this question, and the answers will be as unique as the individuals asked. Some people find the
work of a classic artist like Michelangelo to be profoundly creative, while others might find the
more progressive work of Salvador Dali to be the pinnacle of creativity. But what is creativity?
Is it only limited to art? How about Bette Graham, an office worker who chose to correct typing
mistakes with liquid paper, and proceeded to manufacture the product for worldwide office use?
What about the entrepreneurial university student who attempted to recreate the entire social
experience in the online medium?
M
We all have potential for vast creativity, and we limit ourselves with our down-sized definition of
the word. Are you downsizing creativity?
Assess yourself. Write down your immediate thoughts to the next few questions:
PL
What does creativity mean to you?
How can creativity improve the lives of yourself and others?
E
Who are some individuals that you find particularly creative.
How have these people used their creativity in ground-breaking ways?
What are creative people like? How do they think? What
do they do that other, “less creative” people don’t do?
Maybe they listen to the world differently, like the jazz
composer and musician John Coltrane who once said,
“You can play a shoestring if your sincere.” Maybe creative
people look at the world differently –trying to find new
meanings, solutions, and purposes as the founder of
Microsoft, Bill Gates, does. Whatever the difference is,
we must establish how we measure creativity before
we can truly understand the term. We must recognize
and understand the source of creativity in the people
we admire.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 5-4
What symbols, stories, or mediums do you utilize in your creative process?
Our world is full of symbols. It always has been. One look at the drawings in the caves of Lascaux
or Altamira demonstrates our human gravitation towards symbolic expression. Symbolism is
an ingrained part of our lifestyles. It is present in so many expressions of knowledge. Dr Seuss’s
library of wisdom expressed in the rhyming of invented words is a fine example. Film, music,
visual art, and modern modes of poetry embody some of today’s finest mediums for creative
expression. The fact that symbolism is so inescapably present in our lives is not a curse, but a
phenomenal tool for designing the world around us as we envision it. In fact, our greatest creative
faculty may be that we are so rooted in symbolism and thus, able to communicate through
symbols in unlimited contexts.
SA
There is no end in sight for the way our creativity through symbolism can change the world,
as it changes the way we communicate on a day to day basis. Take one glance at the mass of
information networked through the internet. We are able to instantly contact people on the other
side of the world, a capability that would make us the envy of societies a hundred years ago. Yet, it
is none other than our bold and ever-evolving creativity that makes it reality.
M
PL
Take a moment to consider how we demonstrate our creativity in our most advanced venues. In
our most progressive science, children’s museums, and learning organizations worldwide, we are
continuing the evolutionary process of change to create even greater ways of reaching people and
prompting discourse on ground-breaking topics.
E
We live in a society comprised of unending possibilities,
creative vehicles, and infinite contexts that allow people
to utilize their imaginations to express ideas. Creative
transformation is all about using the world, taking
advantage of its mediums, and manipulating its
structures to discover new things, improve existing
ones, and communicate ideas in a better way.
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 6-1
Lesson 6
Creating New Understanding
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of NarniaDQG&KU\VDOLV$VDPSOHDQVZHULVSURYLGHGEHORZ
SA
Model for CREATE:
Connecting two different ideas—Chrysalis/The Chronicles of Narnia.
Relate ideas between Cocoon/Narnia.
undergo in Narnia?
M
Explore - How are the changes in the cocoon similar to the changes the characters
Analyze - Not all changes are physical.
transform into better people.
PL
TUDQVIRUP&DWHUSLOODUWUDQVIRUPVLQWRDEXWWHUÀ\3HWHU6XVDQ(GPXQGDQG/XF\
Experience - Changes that occur from knowledge and experience.
E
Lesson Wrap-Up::KDWLV\RXURSLQLRQRIWKH&5($7(PHWKRG"'R\RX¿QGLWKHOSIXO
IRURUJDQL]LQJ\RXUWKRXJKWV"
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 6-2
Chronicles of Narnia: CREATE Questions
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the movie, answer these questions in the space provided.
How is The Chronicles of NarniaOLNHWKH&KU\VDOLV"
SA
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PL
M
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/XF\XQGHUJR"
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PRINT
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 7-1
Lesson 7
The English Language: Where it All Began
In the previous Lesson, you developed a clear understanding of transformational
thinking. In the next Lesson, you will begin reading the story Beowulf.
Beowulf is an epic poem that illustrates the beginnings of the English language, and the
poem begins the journey of the transformation of language from Old English, to Middle
English, to Modern English of today. Furthermore, the poem represents the transition
from oral to written language.
Today, you will read The Anglo-Saxons which provides background and historical
information about the society in which Beowulf was written.
SA
As you read the text The Anglo-Saxons, complete the Guided Reading Chart of
important facts and information from the reading. You will compile notes on the topics
listed on the chart below.
Environment and
Community
M
Daily LIfe
PL
Notes about the
Should contain
physical
notes about what
environment,
their daily lives were
housing, and layout
like.
of communities.
Religion
Writing:
Beliefs and
traditions that were
important parts of
life.
E
Now, begin reading the text.
Important
developments in
religion.
Important Beliefs
and Traditions
Life in a small Anglo-Saxon community was obviously very different from life in the United
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It is easy to picture this scene, but imagining how the Anglo-Saxon’s lived and what they
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Homework Required: Explore the ideas listed above by completing the Anglo-Saxon
Quick Write.
Lesson Wrap-Up: What did you learn about Anglo-Saxon society? Would you like to
live in that society? Why or why not?
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 7-2
Guided Reading Chart: Anglo-Saxon Life
As you read, complete this chart with important information and notes on each
topic.
Daily LIfe
Environment and
Community
Religion
Important Beliefs
and Traditions
SA
PL
M
E
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 7-3
Anglo-Saxon Quick Write
Picture the Anglo-Saxon setting you read about in the article. Think about what
you have just learned about the Anglo-Saxon way of life and the structure of their
society.
Now imagine yourself as a young man or woman about to come of age. What do
you think your life is like? What choices do you have? What limitations do you
face? Take the role of this Anglo-Saxon youth and write a narrative describing
your life and thoughts.
SA
PL
M
E
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 7-4
The Anglo-Saxons
The lush, green island of Great Britain sits covered
in mist and fog, removed from the continent of
Europe. The country side was dotted with small
cottages, quaint churches, and mysterious stone
ruins; the setting was perfect for myths and
stories of warriors, fairies, and dragons. This land
of mystery has produced many great legends
including Robin Hood, Beowulf, and the writings of
Shakespeare.
SA
Great Britain has a long history of invasions and
settlements by many groups of people. The Iberians,
the Celts, the Romans, the Angles and Saxons, the
Vikings, and the Normans all possessed parts of the island at one time or another. Each group of
people left characteristics that over time have blended to form the English culture.
PL
M
The Anglo-Saxons Come to Great Britain
E
In the middle of the fifth century, the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes attacked Great Britain from the
north, what is today Germany and Denmark. They drove out the Britons and settled the majority
of the island. The language of the Anglo-Saxons began to dominate the land.
The land initially was made up of several
independent territories, each with its own
ruler. However, the Vikings threatened
to cross the sea and plunder and destroy
everything in England which was enough
to unify the Anglo-Saxons.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 7-5
King Alfred of Wessex, along with the reemergence
of Christianity brought the Anglo-Saxon people a
common faith and a common system of morality
and conduct. The Anglo-Saxons fought to protect
their culture, people, and church from the
Vikings under the direction of Alfred the Great.
SA
The Anglo-Saxon Religion
PL
M
Christianity was gaining popularity in Great Britain,
but the warrior gods of the old Anglo-Saxon mythology
remained popular. The Anglo-Saxons brought the dark
and fatalistic religion with them from Germany.
E
Odin was the god of death, poetry, and magic. He was
a very important god to Norse mythology. The AngloSaxons called this god Woden, which is where we get the
word Wednesday (for Woden’s day). It was Woden’s job
to assist humans in communication with spirits. Woden is
often associated with trances and burial rites. Since poetry
was a very important part of Anglo-Saxon culture, Woden
was a very important god.
The god named Thunor was the god of thunder and
lightning. This god’s symbol was the hammer and also
possibly the bent cross that we call the swastika—which is found on many Anglo-Saxon
gravestones. It is from the name Thunor that we get the word Thursday (Thor’s day).
In addition to the gods, dragons also played a key role in Anglo-Saxon mythology. In the myths,
dragons usually protected treasure. The fire-breathing dragon is also a personification of death.
He is the guardian of the grave—where the warrior’s ashes and his treasure lay.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 7-6
Hope for an Afterlife: The Scops
Besides enjoying the warmth and shelter offered by the
communal halls, the Anglo-Saxons attended meetings
and enjoyed the entertainment of storytellers in the
village centers. The storytellers of the village were also
called bards or scops. The scops told stories of gods
and heroes. The stories were often sung to the music of
a harp. They were heroic tales that spoke to the people
who were under the constant threat of war, disease, or the
problems of old age. They told stories of brave kings, the
truths of good and evil, and battles from long ago.
SA
The scops were an important part of Anglo-Saxon culture since the people valued creating poetry and
stories just as much as fighting, hunting, or farming. Poetry was also valued because,
PL
M
for some of the non-Christian Anglo-Saxons, the only form of afterlife was to achieve fame in
poetry. If someone became a character of one of the bard’s popular stories, they lived on through
songs.
E
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 7-7
The Other Hope: Christianity
In addition to the stories of the bards, Christianity also
gained popularity with the Anglo-Saxons. The monasteries
were centers for learning and they had just as much
influence as older Anglo-Saxon religion.
In addition to providing for the religious needs of the people,
the monks in the monasteries maintained many of the
stories of the villages and kingdoms by writing down the
stories of the scops. They spent their days copying
thousands of books by hand, since there was no printing
press.
SA
The monks wrote the stories mostly in Old English, the
language of the people, instead of Latin, the language of
the church.
M
The Anglo-Saxon stories were written in Old English, but Latin remained the language of study
until the time of King Alfred. King
PL
Alfred ordered the writing of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a very long history of England, and he
wanted it written in Old English. As more and more texts were written in English, the language
gained respect and many of the Old English stories and poems were recognized as great works of
literature.
E
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 8-1
Lesson 8
Beowulf : Anglo-Saxon Poetry
In this Unit, you have been thinking, talking, reading, and writing about transformation
from oral language to the written word and how through this transformation, universal
truths of human nature were formalized.
Now, you will look at the transformation of the English language by reading the oldest
surviving epic ever written in English, Beowulf.
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ZDVWKH¿UVWZULWWHQIRUPRIZKDWLVWKHPRGHUQGD\(QJOLVKODQJXDJH2OG(QJOLVKZDV
very different from the language that we speak today.
SA
Now, read “Transformation and Qualities of the English Language”. While you are
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Lesson Wrap-Up: What three phases did the English language go through that were
mentioned in this Lesson?
PL
M
E
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 8-2
My Learning Notes Graphic Organizer
Topic:
Main Ideas, Key words,
Questions, Drawings
What I’ve Learned
1.
2.
3.
SA
1.
M
2.
3.
PL
1.
3.
1.
2.
3.
E
2.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 8-3
Transformation and Qualities of the English Language
The English language has transformed through three
major time periods since its beginning. It started as
Old English from 450-1100. It then progressed into
Middle English from 1100-1500. It finally developed
into Modern English from 1500 to the present. Thus,
though people think of Shakespeare’s writing style as
old, he actually wrote in the Modern English period.
Meanwhile, Chaucer’s The Cantebury Tales are a fine
example of Middle English, while Beowulf is a good
representation of Old English.
SA
PL
M
It is important to note that the changes that occurred
between each time period were progressive. Old
English didn’t suddenly become Middle English in 1100, and Middle English didn’t abruptly turn
into Modern English in 1500. The development of each period into the next took place slowly
over large spansof time. Also, spelling and grammar from one English speaking location to the
next were not entirely consistent. Standard language is a modern idea given the invention of the
printing press, which not only made distributing the written word possible, but it also allowed for
the standardization of language on a grand scale.
Poetics:
E
Though the changes from each time period involved a process spanning hundreds of years,
the dates 1100CE and 1500CE are quite significant. The Norman invasion of England in 1066
introduced French words into the language making the English of 1100 quite different from the
English 100 years prior. Likewise, there was such a significant change in pronunciation of English
around the year 1500, that it remains a useful date for signifying a new period of English.
Writers and translators will try, but no Modern English version of Beowulf will have all of the
elements that encompass authentic Old English. Attempting to capture one element of the
language implacably forfeits other crucial characteristics. For example, a version that tries to
represent the authentic alliterative verse will have to do so at the expense of features like
compounding and formula. Similarly, any version of Beowulf attempting to capture the phrasing
of the story is forced to neglect alliteration.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 8-4
Alliteration: Alliteration is the repetition of one consonant at the beginning of words over the
course of a phrase. It serves a similar purpose to rhyme. Take for example, “Peter Piper picked a
pack of pickled peppers.”
Compounding: Compounding is the combining of two words to make one new word. A common
example is feorhseoc, which literally means “life-sick” (feorh = life, seoc=sick). It is used to mean
“mortally-wounded.” In the first line of Beowulf, the author uses the compounded word GarDena, which literally means “Spear-Danes” (gar = spear, Dena = Danes). Compounding was often
used to create alliteration.
Kennings: Kenning is a form of compounding used to create metaphor. The kenning hronrad
(hron + rad), literally means “whale’s road,” and refers to the sea. Rodores candel, translates, “sky’s
candle,” and refers to the sun.
SA
M
Formulas: Formulas are common phrases used throughout poetry that fulfill the metrical needs
of a line. They are like cliché’s that happen to fit perfectly into a line of verse. They give the writing
a very traditional quality, and often indicate that the poem was of the oral tradition, though
scholars disagree on this point. One formula used in Beowulf is Gomban gyldan which translates,
“give tribute.” It is a half-line formula that appears commonly throughout Old English poetry.
PL
Versification: Verification is the way in which a style of poetry is organized and universalized.
All Old English poems utilize alliteration as a way of organizing a poetic line. Also, Old English
uses accents for organization using four stressed beats in a given line. These stresses are often
alliterative as the third stress alliterates with the first or second stressed syllable. Meanwhile, the
fourth stress is not alliterative. Typically, Old English separates two half-lines by a caesura, which
is an emphatic pause. Here is an example of alliterative verse present in Beowulf.
E
metod for þy mane, mancynne fram.
Notice that the first three stressed syllables are alliterative while the fourth is not.
PRINT
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 9-1
Lesson 9
An Introduction: Beowulf
To begin this Lesson, read the introduction to the story Beowulf:KHQ\RXKDYH¿QLVKHG
reading, complete the Beowulf Introduction Quick Write based on the introduction.
Grammar:
Now, review the following rules of grammar before completing the Grammar Stop!
Complete Subjects and Predicates Worksheet.
The complete subject includes all the words that identify the person, place, thing,
or idea the sentence is about.
SA
The gifted author of Beowulf is unknown to us. (complete subject)
The complete predicate includes all the words that tell or ask something about
the subject.
M
He wrote powerful verses in Old English. (complete predicate)
PL
Each complete subject contains a simple subject, and each complete predicate
contains a simple predicate (the verb).
The gifted author of Beowulf is unknown to us. (simple subject)
He wrote powerful verses in Old English. (simple predicate)
E
Now, take what you have learned to complete the Grammar Stop! Complete Subjects
and Predicates Worksheet.
Lesson Wrap-Up: What are the traits of an epic hero? Do you think Beowulf is an epic
hero?
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 9-2
Beowulf Introduction Quick Write
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television on the lines below.
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these questions:
What sort of evil or oppression does he/she confront?
SA
Why does he/she do it? What’s his/her motivation?
PL
M
For whom does he/she do it?
E
What virtues doe he/she represent?
Now, look at some of the other heroes you wrote down and discuss them with your
instructor. Do they all seem to qualify as hero-types, or do some of them fall short in
one way or another?
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 9-3
Grammar Stop! Complete Subjects and Predicates
in order to draw on this document goto ->Tools in the Menu Bar - > Click Comments & Markup ->Click
Show Comments & Markups Toolbar at the bottom of list
Part 1: Identifying Complete Subjects: Underline the complete subject in each of
the following sentences. Then circle the simple subject.
1. The hero of Beowulf lived in what is now Sweden.
2. His noble instincts to assist the Danes caused him to travel afar.
3. Loyalty to one’s leader was prized by the Anglo-Saxons.
SA
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5. +LVMRXUQH\ZDVDORQJDQGGLI¿FXOWRQH
M
Part II: Identifying Complete Predicates: Underline the complete predicate in each
of the following sentences. Then circle the simple predicate.
PL
1. Epics like Beowulf tell of great deeds and adventures.
2. The poet uses formal language in the epic.
E
3. The fate of a nation may depend on the hero’s success.
4. Beowulf is well received by the Danish king.
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 9-4
Introduction to Beowulf
The epic poem Beowulf is an extremely influential piece in English literature as it is one of the
very first to be written in English instead of Latin. The epic lives on in a single manuscript created
by two scribes at the end of the 10th century. It is the earliest piece of literature found that was
written in Old English.
SA
The poem describes the life of Beowulf, a Swede, who travels to Denmark by sea to save King
Hrothgar from Grendel, a great and terrible monster. As was the tradition, the story of Beowulf
was passed down orally from generation to generation. It was altered and embellished as it was
passed from one scop or minstrel to the next. Oral story-telling was an important aspect of
Anglo-Saxon culture. The people would crowd into community halls at night and listen to the
heroic stories of monsters and great men, much like people today crowd around a television night
after night. The legends were about dreams, war, the great quests of heroes, and of communities
threatened and saved from evil.
PL
M
Like many of the other epics, Beowulf is long by standards of a poem, but relatively short compared
to most stories, as it is about 3,200 lines. It was first recorded around 750, though the culture
and detail of Beowulf reads more like a story of the 500s. Since the story contains elements of
Christianity, it is suspected that it was penned by a monk. There is one surviving manuscript of
Beowulf from about 1000 which now resides in the British Museum in London. The manuscript
miraculously survived King Henry VIIIs destruction of the monasteries. It was discovered
in 1800, 200 years after King Henry VIII, but the manuscript is burned and stained from the
destruction.
E
Beowulf is the quintessential hero of ancient England. He was a rescuer in a time when a happy
community was threatened by great evil in the form of a monster. Beowulf confronts terror, battle,
and death for the sake of the community. Though the story takes place centuries ago, it resonates
with people today making Beowulf a lasting hero. He carries many of the traits of an epic hero. He
has unbelievable strength, unshakable ethics, and he is praised by those he saves.
The glorification of Beowulf by the common people is a quality of the
story that makes it relevant today. In many societies, regardless of time
or place, the people have an impulse towards glorifying their heroes.
The monuments in Washington D.C. are one example of this in America.
Each society has its own way of finding hope in great individuals. The
fact that the epic Beowulf embodies society’s need for a hero gives
Beowulf longevity, and makes it a literary classic.
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 10-1
Lesson 10
The Epic Hero: Beowulf
Today you will begin reading the epic tale, Beowulf. As you read, take time to complete
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remember the characters and places in Beowulf.
A Guide to the Characters and Places of the Epic Beowulf
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Grendel:$PDQHDWLQJPRQVWHUZKROLYHVDWWKHERWWRPRIDODNH
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Herot:7KHJXHVWKDOOEXLOWE\.LQJ+URWKJDU
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 10-2
Boasting like Beowulf
Write a boast about yourself. Your boast must show your understanding of AngloSaxon poetry by following the Anglo-Saxon poetic format.
Four hard beats per line
No end-rhyme
A caesura in each mid-line
Heavy alliteration in each line
Also, include at least two examples of an original kenning.
SA
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 10-3
Beowulf Graphic Organizer
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 10-4
From Beowulf
Introduction: We meet the monster
SA
He sang who knew
tales of the early time of man,
how the Almighty made the earth,
fairest fields enfolded by water,
set, triumphant, sun and moon
for a light to lighten the land-dwellers,
and braided bright the breast of earth
with limbs and leaves, made life for all
of mortal beings that breathe and move.
So lived the clansmen in cheer and revel
a winsome life, till one began
to fashion evils, that field of hell.
Grendel this monster grim was called,
march-riever mighty, in moorland living,
in fen and fastness; fief of the giants
the hapless wight a while had kept
since the Creator his exile doomed.
On kin of Cain was the killing avenged
by sovran God for slaughtered Abel.
Ill fared his feud, and far was he driven,
for the slaughter’s sake, from sight of men.
Of Cain awoke all that woful breed,
Etins and elves and evil-spirits,
as well as the giants that warred with God
weary while: but their wage was paid them!
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 10-5
The Monster Grendel
1
SA
. . .WENT he forth to find at fall of night
that haughty house, and heed wherever
the Ring-Danes, outrevelled, to rest had gone.
Found within it the atheling band
asleep after feasting and fearless of sorrow,
of human hardship. Unhallowed wight,
grim and greedy, he grasped betimes,
wrathful, reckless, from resting-places,
thirty of the thanes, and thence he rushed
fain of his fell spoil, faring homeward,
laden with slaughter, his lair to seek.
Then at the dawning, as day was breaking,
the might of Grendel to men was known;
then after wassail was wail uplifted,
loud moan in the morn. The mighty chief,
atheling excellent, unblithe sat,
labored in woe for the loss of his thanes,
when once had been traced the trail of the fiend,
spirit accurst: too cruel that sorrow,
too long, too loathsome. Not late the respite;
with night returning, anew began
ruthless murder; he recked no whit,
firm in his guilt, of the feud and crime.
They were easy to find who elsewhere sought
in room remote their rest at night,
bed in the bowers, when that bale was shown,
was seen in sooth, with surest token, -the hall-thane’s hate. Such held themselves
far and fast who the fiend outran!
Thus ruled unrighteous and raged his fill
one against all; until empty stood
that lordly building, and long it bode so.
Twelve years’ tide the trouble he bore,
sovran of Scyldings, sorrows in plenty,
boundless cares. There came unhidden
tidings true to the tribes of men,
in sorrowful songs, how ceaselessly Grendel
harassed Hrothgar, what hate he bore him,
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what murder and massacre, many a year,
feud unfading, -- refused consent
to deal with any of Daneland’s earls,
make pact of peace, or compound for gold:
still less did the wise men ween to get
great fee for the feud from his fiendish hands.
But the evil one ambushed old and young
death-shadow dark, and dogged them still,
lured, or lurked in the livelong night
of misty moorlands: men may say not
where the haunts of these Hell-Runes be.
Such heaping of horrors the hater of men,
lonely roamer, wrought unceasing,
harassings heavy. O’er Heorot he lorded,
gold-bright hall, in gloomy nights;
and ne’er could the prince approach his throne,
-‘twas judgment of God, -- or have joy in his hall.
Sore was the sorrow to Scyldings’-friend,
heart-rending misery. Many nobles
sat assembled, and searched out counsel
how it were best for bold-hearted men
against harassing terror to try their hand.
Whiles they vowed in their heathen fanes
altar-offerings, asked with words
that the slayer-of-souls would succor give them
for the pain of their people. Their practice this,
their heathen hope; ‘twas Hell they thought of
in mood of their mind. Almighty they knew not,
Doomsman of Deeds and dreadful Lord,
nor Heaven’s-Helmet heeded they ever,
Wielder-of-Wonder. -- Woe for that man
who in harm and hatred hales his soul
to fiery embraces; -- nor favor nor change
awaits he ever. But well for him
that after death-day may draw to his Lord,
and friendship find in the Father’s arms!
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 10-6
3
SA
THUS seethed unceasing the son of Healfdene
with the woe of these days; not wisest men
assuaged his sorrow; too sore the anguish,
loathly and long, that lay on his folk,
most baneful of burdens and bales of the night.
This heard in his home Hygelac’s thane,
great among Geats, of Grendel’s doings.
He was the mightiest man of valor
in that same day of this our life,
stalwart and stately. A stout wave-walker
he bade make ready. Yon battle-king, said he,
far o’er the swan-road he fain would seek,
the noble monarch who needed men!
The prince’s journey by prudent folk
was little blamed, though they loved him dear;
they whetted the hero, and hailed good omens.
And now the bold one from bands of Geats
comrades chose, the keenest of warriors
e’er he could find; with fourteen men
the sea-wood he sought, and, sailor proved,
led them on to the land’s confines.
PL
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Beowulf arrives in Denmark and is directed to Herot, the mead-hall of King Hrothgar. The king sends
Wulfgar, one of his lords, to greet the visitors.
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 10-7
4
SA
[To the door of the hall
Wulfgar went] and the word declared: -“To you this message my master sends,
East-Danes’ king, that your kin he knows,
hardy heroes, and hails you all
welcome hither o’er waves of the sea!
Ye may wend your way in war-attire,
and under helmets Hrothgar greet;
but let here the battle-shields bide your parley,
and wooden war-shafts wait its end.”
Uprose the mighty one, ringed with his men,
brave band of thanes: some bode without,
battle-gear guarding, as bade the chief.
Then hied that troop where the herald led them,
under Heorot’s roof: [the hero strode,]
hardy ‘neath helm, till the hearth he neared.
Beowulf spake, -- his breastplate gleamed,
war-net woven by wit of the smith: -“Thou Hrothgar, hail! Hygelac’s I,
kinsman and follower. Fame a plenty
have I gained in youth! These Grendel-deeds
I heard in my home-land heralded clear.
Seafarers say how stands this hall,
of buildings best, for your band of thanes
empty and idle, when evening sun
in the harbor of heaven is hidden away.
So my vassals advised me well, -brave and wise, the best of men, -O sovran Hrothgar, to seek thee here,
for my nerve and my might they knew full well.
Themselves had seen me from slaughter come
blood-flecked from foes, where five I bound,
and that wild brood worsted. I’ the waves I slew
nicors {6a} by night, in need and peril
avenging the Weders, whose woe they sought, -crushing the grim ones. Grendel now,
monster cruel, be mine to quell
in single battle! So, from thee,
thou sovran of the Shining-Danes,
Scyldings’-bulwark, a boon I seek, -and, Friend-of-the-folk, refuse it not,
O Warriors’-shield, now I’ve wandered far, -that I alone with my liegemen here,
this hardy band, may Heorot purge!
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More I hear, that the monster dire,
in his wanton mood, of weapons recks not;
hence shall I scorn -- so Hygelac stay,
king of my kindred, kind to me! -brand or buckler to bear in the fight,
gold-colored targe: but with gripe alone
must I front the fiend and fight for life,
foe against foe. Then faith be his
in the doom of the Lord whom death shall take.
Fain, I ween, if the fight he win,
in this hall of gold my Geatish band
will he fearless eat, -- as oft before, -my noblest thanes. Nor need’st thou then
to hide my head; for his shall I be,
dyed in gore, if death must take me;
and my blood-covered body he’ll bear as prey,
ruthless devour it, the roamer-lonely,
with my life-blood redden his lair in the fen:
no further for me need’st food prepare!
To Hygelac send, if Hild should take me,
best of war-weeds, warding my breast,
armor excellent, heirloom of Hrethel
and work of Wayland. Fares Wyrd as she
must.”
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 11-1
Lesson 11
Reading Beowulf
Today, you are going to continue reading the epic story, Beowulf&RQWLQXHWR¿OOLQWKH
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Does Beowulf remind you of any heroes from history, current events, books, television,
or movies? Who? What similarities do you notice among them? Just as important, how
are they different?
SA
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Comprehension Questions.
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 11-2
Beowulf Comprehension Questions
Answer the following questions based on what you know about the epic poem,
Beowulf.
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 11-3
Part II: Connecting with the Text
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 11-4
Unferth’s Challenge
5
6
HROTHGAR spake, the Scyldings’-helmet: -“For fight defensive, Friend my Beowulf,
to succor and save, thou hast sought us here.
Thy father’s combat a feud enkindled
when Heatholaf with hand he slew
among the Wylfings; his Weder kin
for horror of fighting feared to hold him.
Fleeing, he sought our South-Dane folk,
over surge of ocean the Honor-Scyldings,
when first I was ruling the folk of Danes,
wielded, youthful, this widespread realm,
this hoard-hold of heroes. Heorogar was dead,
my elder brother, had breathed his last,
Healfdene’s bairn: he was better than I!
Straightway the feud with fee I settled,
to the Wylfings sent, o’er watery ridges,
treasures olden: oaths he swore me.
Sore is my soul to say to any
of the race of man what ruth for me
in Heorot Grendel with hate hath wrought,
what sudden harryings. Hall-folk fail me,
my warriors wane; for Wyrd hath swept them
into Grendel’s grasp. But God is able
this deadly foe from his deeds to turn!
Boasted full oft, as my beer they drank,
earls o’er the ale-cup, armed men,
that they would bide in the beer-hall here,
Grendel’s attack with terror of blades.
Then was this mead-house at morning tide
dyed with gore, when the daylight broke,
all the boards of the benches blood-besprinkled,
gory the hall: I had heroes the less,
doughty dear-ones that death had reft.
-- But sit to the banquet, unbind thy words,
hardy hero, as heart shall prompt thee.”
UNFERTH spake, the son of Ecglaf,
who sat at the feet of the Scyldings’ lord,
unbound the battle-runes. -- Beowulf ’s quest,
sturdy seafarer’s, sorely galled him;
ever he envied that other men
should more achieve in middle-earth
of fame under heaven than he himself. -“Art thou that Beowulf, Breca’s rival,
who emulous swam on the open sea,
when for pride the pair of you proved the floods,
and wantonly dared in waters deep
to risk your lives? No living man,
or lief or loath, from your labor dire
could you dissuade, from swimming the main.
Ocean-tides with your arms ye covered,
with strenuous hands the sea-streets measured,
swam o’er the waters. Winter’s storm
rolled the rough waves. In realm of sea
a sennight strove ye. In swimming he topped thee,
had more of main! Him at morning-tide
billows bore to the Battling Reamas,
whence he hied to his home so dear
beloved of his liegemen, to land of Brondings,
fastness fair, where his folk he ruled,
town and treasure. In triumph o’er thee
Beanstan’s bairn his boast achieved.
So ween I for thee a worse adventure
-- though in buffet of battle thou brave hast been,
in struggle grim, -- if Grendel’s approach
thou darst await through the watch of night!”
Beowulf spake, bairn of Ecgtheow: -“What a deal hast uttered, dear my Unferth,
drunken with beer, of Breca now,
told of his triumph! Truth I claim it,
that I had more of might in the sea
than any man else, more ocean-endurance.
We twain had talked, in time of youth,
and made our boast, -- we were merely boys,
striplings still, -- to stake our lives
far at sea: and so we performed it.
SA
Beowulf (continued)
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Gathered together, the Geatish men
in the banquet-hall on bench assigned,
sturdy-spirited, sat them down,
hardy-hearted. A henchman attended,
carried the carven cup in hand,
served the clear mead. Oft minstrels sang
blithe in Heorot. Heroes revelled,
no dearth of warriors, Weder and Dane.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 11-5
SA
Naked swords, as we swam along,
we held in hand, with hope to guard us
against the whales. Not a whit from me
could he float afar o’er the flood of waves,
haste o’er the billows; nor him I abandoned.
Together we twain on the tides abode
five nights full till the flood divided us,
churning waves and chillest weather,
darkling night, and the northern wind
ruthless rushed on us: rough was the surge.
Now the wrath of the sea-fish rose apace;
yet me ‘gainst the monsters my mailed coat,
hard and hand-linked, help afforded, -battle-sark braided my breast to ward,
garnished with gold. There grasped me firm
and haled me to bottom the hated foe,
with grimmest gripe. ‘Twas granted me, though,
to pierce the monster with point of sword,
with blade of battle: huge beast of the sea
was whelmed by the hurly through hand of
mine.
PL
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have I heard men tell such terror of falchions,
bitter battle. Breca ne’er yet,
not one of you pair, in the play of war
such daring deed has done at all
with bloody brand, -- I boast not of it! -though thou wast the bane of thy brethren dear,
thy closest kin, whence curse of hell
awaits thee, well as thy wit may serve!
For I say in sooth, thou son of Ecglaf,
never had Grendel these grim deeds wrought,
monster dire, on thy master dear,
in Heorot such havoc, if heart of thine
were as battle-bold as thy boast is loud!
But he has found no feud will happen;
from sword-clash dread of your Danish clan
he vaunts him safe, from the Victor-Scyldings.
He forces pledges, favors none
of the land of Danes, but lustily murders,
fights and feasts, nor feud he dreads
from Spear-Dane men. But speedily now
shall I prove him the prowess and pride of the
Geats,
shall bid him battle. Blithe to mead
go he that listeth, when light of dawn
this morrow morning o’er men of earth,
ether-robed sun from the south shall beam!”
Joyous then was the Jewel-giver,
hoar-haired, war-brave; help awaited
the Bright-Danes’ prince, from Beowulf hearing,
folk’s good shepherd, such firm resolve.
Then was laughter of liegemen loud resounding
with winsome words. Came Wealhtheow forth,
queen of Hrothgar, heedful of courtesy,
gold-decked, greeting the guests in hall;
and the high-born lady handed the cup
first to the East-Danes’ heir and warden,
bade him be blithe at the beer-carouse,
the land’s beloved one. Lustily took he
banquet and beaker, battle-famed king.
Through the hall then went the Helmings’ Lady,
to younger and older everywhere
carried the cup, till come the moment
when the ring-graced queen, the royal-hearted,
to Beowulf bore the beaker of mead.
She greeted the Geats’ lord, God she thanked,
in wisdom’s words, that her will was granted,
that at last on a hero her hope could lean
for comfort in terrors. The cup he took,
hardy-in-war, from Wealhtheow’s hand,
and answer uttered the eager-for-combat.
E
ME thus often the evil monsters
thronging threatened. With thrust of my sword,
the darling, I dealt them due return!
Nowise had they bliss from their booty then
to devour their victim, vengeful creatures,
seated to banquet at bottom of sea;
but at break of day, by my brand sore hurt,
on the edge of ocean up they lay,
put to sleep by the sword. And since, by them
on the fathomless sea-ways sailor-folk
are never molested. -- Light from east,
came bright God’s beacon; the billows sank,
so that I saw the sea-cliffs high,
windy walls. For Wyrd oft saveth
earl undoomed if he doughty be!
And so it came that I killed with my sword
nine of the nicors. Of night-fought battles
ne’er heard I a harder ‘neath heaven’s dome,
nor adrift on the deep a more desolate man!
Yet I came unharmed from that hostile clutch,
though spent with swimming. The sea upbore me,
flood of the tide, on Finnish land,
the welling waters. No wise of thee
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 11-6
SA
Beowulf spake, bairn of Ecgtheow: -“This was my thought, when my thanes and I
bent to the ocean and entered our boat,
that I would work the will of your people
fully, or fighting fall in death,
in fiend’s gripe fast. I am firm to do
an earl’s brave deed, or end the days
of this life of mine in the mead-hall here.”
Well these words to the woman seemed,
Beowulf ’s battle-boast. -- Bright with gold
the stately dame by her spouse sat down.
Again, as erst, began in hall
warriors’ wassail and words of power,
the proud-band’s revel, till presently
the son of Healfdene hastened to seek
rest for the night; he knew there waited
fight for the fiend in that festal hall,
when the sheen of the sun they saw no more,
and dusk of night sank darkling nigh,
and shadowy shapes came striding on,
wan under welkin. The warriors rose.
Man to man, he made harangue,
Hrothgar to Beowulf, bade him hail,
let him wield the wine hall: a word he added: -“Never to any man erst I trusted,
since I could heave up hand and shield,
this noble Dane-Hall, till now to thee.
Have now and hold this house unpeered;
remember thy glory; thy might declare;
watch for the foe! No wish shall fail thee
if thou bidest the battle with bold-won life.”
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The feast ends. Beowulf and his men take the place of Hrothgar’s followers and lie down to sleep in
Herot. Beowulf, however, is wakeful, eager to meet his enemy.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 11-7
The Battle with Grendel
8
SA
THEN from the moorland, by misty crags,
with God’s wrath laden, Grendel came.
The monster was minded of mankind now
sundry to seize in the stately house.
Under welkin he walked, till the wine-palace
there,
gold-hall of men, he gladly discerned,
flashing with fretwork. Not first time, this,
that he the home of Hrothgar sought, -yet ne’er in his life-day, late or early,
such hardy heroes, such hall-thanes, found!
To the house the warrior walked apace,
parted from peace; {11a} the portal opended,
though with forged bolts fast, when his fists
had struck it,
and baleful he burst in his blatant rage,
the house’s mouth. All hastily, then,
o’er fair-paved floor the fiend trod on,
ireful he strode; there streamed from his eyes
fearful flashes, like flame to see.
in the ways of earth, another wight
with heavier hand-gripe; at heart he feared,
sorrowed in soul, -- none the sooner escaped!
Fain would he flee, his fastness seek,
the den of devils: no doings now
such as oft he had done in days of old!
Then bethought him the hardy Hygelac-thane
of his boast at evening: up he bounded,
grasped firm his foe, whose fingers cracked.
The fiend made off, but the earl close followed.
The monster meant -- if he might at all -to fling himself free, and far away
fly to the fens, -- knew his fingers’ power
in the gripe of the grim one. Gruesome march
to Heorot this monster of harm had made!
M
Din filled the room; the Danes were bereft,
castle-dwellers and clansmen all,
earls, of their ale. Angry were both
those savage hall-guards: the house resounded.
Wonder it was the wine-hall firm
in the strain of their struggle stood, to earth
the fair house fell not; too fast it was
within and without by its iron bands
craftily clamped; though there crashed from sill
many a mead-bench -- men have told me -gay with gold, where the grim foes wrestled.
So well had weened the wisest Scyldings
that not ever at all might any man
that bone-decked, brave house break asunder,
crush by craft, -- unless clasp of fire
in smoke engulfed it. -- Again uprose
din redoubled. Danes of the North
with fear and frenzy were filled, each one,
who from the wall that wailing heard,
God’s foe sounding his grisly song,
cry of the conquered, clamorous pain
from captive of hell. Too closely held him
he who of men in might was strongest
in that same day of this our life.
PL
He spied in hall the hero-band,
kin and clansmen clustered asleep,
hardy liegemen. Then laughed his heart;
for the monster was minded, ere morn should
dawn,
savage, to sever the soul of each,
life from body, since lusty banquet
waited his will! But Wyrd forbade him
to seize any more of men on earth
after that evening. Eagerly watched
Hygelac’s kinsman his cursed foe,
how he would fare in fell attack.
Not that the monster was minded to pause!
Straightway he seized a sleeping warrior
for the first, and tore him fiercely asunder,
the bone-frame bit, drank blood in streams,
swallowed him piecemeal: swiftly thus
the lifeless corse was clear devoured,
e’en feet and hands. Then farther he hied;
for the hardy hero with hand he grasped,
felt for the foe with fiendish claw,
for the hero reclining, -- who clutched it boldly,
prompt to answer, propped on his arm.
Soon then saw that shepherd-of-evils
that never he met in this middle-world,
E
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 11-8
10
NOT in any wise would the earls’-defence {12a}
suffer that slaughterous stranger to live,
useless deeming his days and years
to men on earth. Now many an earl
of Beowulf brandished blade ancestral,
fain the life of their lord to shield,
their praised prince, if power were theirs;
never they knew, -- as they neared the foe,
hardy-hearted heroes of war,
aiming their swords on every side
the accursed to kill, -- no keenest blade,
no farest of falchions fashioned on earth,
could harm or hurt that hideous fiend!
He was safe, by his spells, from sword of battle,
from edge of iron. Yet his end and parting
on that same day of this our life
woful should be, and his wandering soul
far off flit to the fiends’ domain.
Soon he found, who in former days,
harmful in heart and hated of God,
on many a man such murder wrought,
that the frame of his body failed him now.
For him the keen-souled kinsman of Hygelac
held in hand; hateful alive
was each to other. The outlaw dire
took mortal hurt; a mighty wound
showed on his shoulder, and sinews cracked,
and the bone-frame burst. To Beowulf now
the glory was given, and Grendel thence
death-sick his den in the dark moor sought,
noisome abode: he knew too well
that here was the last of life, an end
of his days on earth. -- To all the Danes
by that bloody battle the boon had come.
From ravage had rescued the roving stranger
Hrothgar’s hall; the hardy and wise one
had purged it anew. His night-work pleased him,
his deed and its honor. To Eastern Danes
had the valiant Geat his vaunt made good,
all their sorrow and ills assuaged,
their bale of battle borne so long,
and all the dole they erst endured
pain a-plenty. -- ‘Twas proof of this,
when the hardy-in-fight a hand laid down,
arm and shoulder, -- all, indeed,
of Grendel’s gripe, -- ‘neath the gabled roof.
MANY at morning, as men have told me,
warriors gathered the gift-hall round,
folk-leaders faring from far and near,
o’er wide-stretched ways, the wonder to view,
trace of the traitor. Not troublous seemed
the enemy’s end to any man
who saw by the gait of the graceless foe
how the weary-hearted, away from thence,
baffled in battle and banned, his steps
death-marked dragged to the devils’ mere.
Bloody the billows were boiling there,
turbid the tide of tumbling waves
horribly seething, with sword-blood hot,
by that doomed one dyed, who in den of the
moor
laid forlorn his life adown,
his heathen soul, and hell received it.
Home then rode the hoary clansmen
from that merry journey, and many a youth,
on horses white, the hardy warriors,
back from the mere. Then Beowulf ’s glory
eager they echoed, and all averred
that from sea to sea, or south or north,
there was no other in earth’s domain,
under vault of heaven, more valiant found,
of warriors none more worthy to rule!
SA
9
PL
M
E
Grendel’s monstrous mother, in grief for her son,
next attacks Herot, and in her dripping claws
she carries off one man—Hrothgar’s closest
friend. The monster also carries off Grendel’s
arm, which Beowulf had hung high from the
rafters. Beowulf is awakened and called for
again. In one of the most famous verses in the
epic, the old king describes where Grendel and
his mother live.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 11-9
11
SA
Untrod is their home;
by wolf-cliffs haunt they and windy headlands,
fenways fearful, where flows the stream
from mountains gliding to gloom of the rocks,
underground flood. Not far is it hence
in measure of miles that the mere expands,
and o’er it the frost-bound forest hanging,
sturdily rooted, shadows the wave.
By night is a wonder weird to see,
fire on the waters. So wise lived none
of the sons of men, to search those depths!
Nay, though the heath-rover, harried by dogs,
the horn-proud hart, this holt should seek,
long distance driven, his dear life first
on the brink he yields ere he brave the plunge
to hide his head: ‘tis no happy place!
Thence the welter of waters washes up
wan to welkin when winds bestir
evil storms, and air grows dusk,
and the heavens weep. Now is help once more
with thee alone! The land thou knowst not,
place of fear, where thou findest out
that sin-flecked being. Seek if thou dare!
I will reward thee, for waging this fight,
with ancient treasure, as erst I did,
with winding gold, if thou winnest back.”
PL
M
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 12-1
Lesson 12
Vocabulary Stop!
Words to Own Beowulf - Part 1
Today you are going to focus on the Vocabulary from Beowulf. First, read the text “How
to Own a Word”. Then, review the list of Vocabulary words from the Lesson 11 excerpt
from Beowulf (the words are bold in the text).
Vocabulary
Complete a Vocabulary square for each word by looking it up in the dictionary and
completing the Vocabulary Stop! Worksheet. Below is a sample of how to complete the
Worksheet.
SA
Part of Speech: How is the word used?
What part of speech is it?
Synonym: Write one or more words that
mean the same thing as the Vocabulary
word.
Antonym: Write a word that means the
opposite of the Vocabulary word.
M
Word: Vocabulary word from reading
PL
Original Sentence: Write your own sentence using the word in proper context. Your
sentence should show your understanding of the word.
Lesson Wrap-Up: Name one new word that you learned from the text Beowulf. Try to
use it in three different sentences.
E
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 12-2
Vocabulary Stop! Beowulf, Part 1
Complete the chart for each word highlighted from the Lesson 11 excerpt from
Beowulf. You will need to use a dictionary.
Word:
Part of Speech:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Original Sentence:
Word:
SA
Synonym:
Part of Speech:
Antonym:
Original Sentence:
Original Sentence:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Part of Speech:
E
Word:
Part of Speech:
PL
Synonym:
M
Word:
Antonym:
Original Sentence:
Word:
Part of Speech:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Original Sentence:
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 12-3
Word:
Part of Speech:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Original Sentence:
Word:
Part of Speech:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Original Sentence:
Synonym:
SA
Word:
Synonym:
Original Sentence:
Part of Speech:
PL
Word:
Antonym:
M
Original Sentence:
Part of Speech:
Antonym:
E
Word:
Part of Speech:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Original Sentence:
Word:
Part of Speech:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Original Sentence:
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 12-4
Word:
Part of Speech:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Original Sentence:
Word:
Part of Speech:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Original Sentence:
Synonym:
SA
Word:
Synonym:
Original Sentence:
Part of Speech:
PL
Word:
Antonym:
M
Original Sentence:
Part of Speech:
Antonym:
E
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Part of Speech:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Original Sentence:
Word:
Part of Speech:
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Antonym:
Original Sentence:
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 12-5
How to Own a Word
It is both possible and advantageous to assess the meaning of a word by looking at its context.
Context is the text that surrounds a word or sentence. It’s likely that you already use context clues.
Look at the ways of using context clues listed below.
Restatement: Sometimes, the author of a text places a simplified explanation of a word right in
the text. Restatements are often signaled by phrases like –in other words, or, that is. Also, if you
pay attention to commas and other punctuation, you can easily identify restatements.
…how ceaselessly Grendel
harassed Hrothgar, what hate he bore him,
SA
what massacre, that is, murder.
A massacre is the murder of many people. Readers can gather this definition from restatement of
the word murder.
M
Comparison: Often, writers use comparisons to help clarify meaning of a less familiar word. Look
for the following comparison clues in a text –like, as, similar to.
PL
…Hrothgar was ruthless in battle
like a lion showing no mercy to its prey.
E
In this sentence, the word ruthless may be unclear to the reader. However, it is followed by the
comparison, “like a lion showing no mercy to its prey,” which leads the reader to interpret ruthless
to mean merciless or cruel.
Contrast: In other cases, writers clarify the meaning of a word by presenting its opposite. Look for
the following indicators of a contrast –but, not, although, however, on the other hand. Look at the
following example.
Some critics think of Beowulf, not as a protagonist, but a villain.
A protagonist is a literary hero. The phrase, “but a villain”, presents a contrast to protagonist. This
contrast directs the reader to interpret protagonist to mean hero.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 12-6
Synonym: It is also common to find a word nearby that has nearly the same meaning as the word
in question.
…the monster kills as he pleases. He has no mercy, and gorges
and feasts on flesh.
The words “feasts on” give a similar meaning to “gorges” which is to eat or to swallow greedily.
Example: Occasionally, a text gives an example to clarify the meaning of an uncommon word.
Notice the following phrases that often signal an example –such as, including, especially, namely.
Scops, namely the professional storytellers who narrated the story of Beowulf, were important
members of Anglo-Saxon society.
Application:
SA
Notice the words storytellers and Anglo-Saxon. Both of these words describe a scop, which is an
Old English poet or bard.
M
PL
Now, take the ideas from the reading and apply them to improve your reading skills. You may
already use some of these forms of context clues. Continue to use the ones you know, and utilize
the one’s you’ve learned to help determine the meaning of unfamiliar words in the first excerpt
from Beowulf. Don’t forget to use a dictionary to check your work as you complete the vocabulary
squares in the Vocabulary Stop! Exercise.
E
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 13-1
Lesson 13
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HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 13-3
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HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 13-4
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HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 13-6
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 14-1
Lesson 14
The Epic Hero: Beowulf
Before you begin reading more of Beowulf, consider what you have read thus far. Then,
complete the Beowulf Quick Write.
Keep the Quick Write prompt in mind as you read this Lesson’s excerpt from Beowulf.
Also, be sure to complete the Beowulf Graphic Organizer from the previous Lesson as
you read.
Comprehension:
At the end of Part 14, Beowulf is beaten; he is suffering and abandoned by his men. As
SA
the section closes, Beowulf is left in his pain, remembering what kinship should mean
and wondering why his loyal followers have abandoned him.
M
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to maintain our safety and happiness? How do our “dragons” compare to Beowulf’s?
Think about these questions and complete the assignment, Dragons: Beowulf’s and
Our Own.
PL
Lesson Wrap-Up: What do you think of the story Beowulf? Based on what you know of
the story, how do you think it will end?
E
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 14-2
Beowulf Quick Write
Part I: Consider the importance of group loyalty and how such loyalties someWLPHVFRQÀLFWZLWKLQGLYLGXDOQHHGVRUGHVLUHV:ULWHDOLVWRITXHVWLRQVDERXW
what to do in situations that test one’s loyalty to family, friends, self, country, city,
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 14-3
Dragons: Beowulf’s and Our Own
Visualizing the Monsters
Create a drawing of Beowulf’s dragon. Use details and imagery from the text to
illustrate the monster. In a caption below the picture, use quotes from the story to
support your representation.
Next, create a visual representation of the “monster” that you have chosen for our
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the caption below, explain your monster and its elements.
SA
PL
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 14-4
Carrying the sword Hrunting, Beowulf goes to
the lake where Grendel’s mother has her underwater lair. Then, fully armed, he makes a heroic
dive to the depths of this watery hell.
The Monster’s Mother
12
. . .the ocean floods
closed o’er the hero. Long while of the day
fled ere he felt the floor of the sea.
SA
Soon found the fiend who the flood-domain
sword-hungry held these hundred winters,
greedy and grim, that some guest from above,
some man, was raiding her monster-realm.
She grasped out for him with grisly claws,
and the warrior seized; yet scathed she not
his body hale; the breastplate hindered,
as she strove to shatter the sark of war,
the linked harness, with loathsome hand.
Then bore this brine-wolf, when bottom she
touched,
the lord of rings to the lair she haunted
whiles vainly he strove, though his valor held,
weapon to wield against wondrous monsters
that sore beset him; sea-beasts many
tried with fierce tusks to tear his mail,
and swarmed on the stranger. But soon he
marked
he was now in some hall, he knew not which,
where water never could work him harm,
nor through the roof could reach him ever
fangs of the flood. Firelight he saw,
beams of a blaze that brightly shone.
Then the warrior was ware of that wolf-of-thedeep,
mere-wife monstrous. For mighty stroke
he swung his blade, and the blow withheld not.
Then sang on her head that seemly blade
its war-song wild. But the warrior found
the light-of-battle was loath to bite,
to harm the heart: its hard edge failed
the noble at need, yet had known of old
strife hand to hand, and had helmets cloven,
doomed men’s fighting-gear. First time, this,
for the gleaming blade that its glory fell.
PL
M
Firm still stood, nor failed in valor,
heedful of high deeds, Hygelac’s kinsman;
flung away fretted sword, featly jewelled,
the angry earl; on earth it lay
steel-edged and stiff. His strength he trusted,
hand-gripe of might. So man shall do
whenever in war he weens to earn him
lasting fame, nor fears for his life!
Seized then by shoulder, shrank not from combat,
the Geatish war-prince Grendel’s mother.
Flung then the fierce one, filled with wrath,
his deadly foe, that she fell to ground.
Swift on her part she paid him back
with grisly grasp, and grappled with him.
Spent with struggle, stumbled the warrior,
fiercest of fighting-men, fell adown.
On the hall-guest she hurled herself, hent her
short sword,
broad and brown-edged, the bairn to avenge,
the sole-born son. -- On his shoulder lay
braided breast-mail, barring death,
withstanding entrance of edge or blade.
Life would have ended for Ecgtheow’s son,
under wide earth for that earl of Geats,
had his armor of war not aided him,
battle-net hard, and holy God
wielded the victory, wisest Maker.
The Lord of Heaven allowed his cause;
and easily rose the earl erect.
E
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 14-5
13
SA
‘MID the battle-gear saw he a blade triumphant,
old-sword of Eotens, with edge of proof,
warriors’ heirloom, weapon unmatched,
-- save only ‘twas more than other men
to bandy-of-battle could bear at all -as the giants had wrought it, ready and keen.
Seized then its chain-hilt the Scyldings’ chieftain,
bold and battle-grim, brandished the sword,
reckless of life, and so wrathfully smote
that it gripped her neck and grasped her hard,
her bone-rings breaking: the blade pierced through
that fated-one’s flesh: to floor she sank.
Bloody the blade: he was blithe of his deed.
Then blazed forth light. ‘Twas bright within
as when from the sky there shines unclouded
heaven’s candle. The hall he scanned.
By the wall then went he; his weapon raised
high by its hilts the Hygelac-thane,
angry and eager. That edge was not useless
to the warrior now. He wished with speed
Grendel to guerdon for grim raids many,
for the war he waged on Western-Danes
oftener far than an only time,
when of Hrothgar’s hearth-companions
he slew in slumber, in sleep devoured,
fifteen men of the folk of Danes,
and as many others outward bore,
his horrible prey. Well paid for that
the wrathful prince! For now prone he saw
Grendel stretched there, spent with war,
spoiled of life, so scathed had left him
Heorot’s battle. The body sprang far
when after death it endured the blow,
sword-stroke savage, that severed its head. . . .
PL
M
E
Beowulf carries Grendel’s head to King Hrothgar and then returns gift-laden to the land of the Geats,
where he succeeds to the throne. After fifty winters pass, Beowulf, now an old man, faces his final
task: He must fight a dragon who, angry because a thief had stolen a jeweled cup from the dragon’s
hoard of gold, is laying waste to the Geats’ land. Beowulf and eleven warriors are guided to the
dragon’s lair by the thief who stole the cup. For Beowulf, the price of this last victory will be great.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 14-6
The Final Battle
14
SA
Then hailed he the helmeted heroes all,
for the last time greeting his liegemen dear,
comrades of war: “I should carry no weapon,
no sword to the serpent, if sure I knew
how, with such enemy, else my vows
I could gain as I did in Grendel’s day.
But fire in this fight I must fear me now,
and poisonous breath; so I bring with me
breastplate and board. From the barrow’s keeper
no footbreadth flee I. One fight shall end
our war by the wall, as Wyrd allots,
all mankind’s master. My mood is bold
but forbears to boast o’er this battling-flyer.
-- Now abide by the barrow, ye breastplate-mailed,
ye heroes in harness, which of us twain
better from battle-rush bear his wounds.
Wait ye the finish. The fight is not yours,
nor meet for any but me alone
to measure might with this monster here
and play the hero. Hardily I
shall win that wealth, or war shall seize,
cruel killing, your king and lord!”
Up stood then with shield the sturdy champion,
stayed by the strength of his single manhood,
and hardy ‘neath helmet his harness bore
under cleft of the cliffs: no coward’s path!
Soon spied by the wall that warrior chief,
survivor of many a victory-field
where foemen fought with furious clashings,
an arch of stone; and within, a stream
that broke from the barrow. The brooklet’s wave
was hot with fire. The hoard that way
he never could hope unharmed to near,
or endure those deeps, for the dragon’s flame.
Then let from his breast, for he burst with rage,
the Weder-Geat prince a word outgo;
stormed the stark-heart; stern went ringing
and clear his cry ‘neath the cliff-rocks gray.
The hoard-guard heard a human voice;
his rage was enkindled. No respite now
for pact of peace! The poison-breath
of that foul worm first came forth from the cave,
PL
M
hot reek-of-fight: the rocks resounded.
Stout by the stone-way his shield he raised,
lord of the Geats, against the loathed-one;
while with courage keen that coiled foe
came seeking strife. The sturdy king
had drawn his sword, not dull of edge,
heirloom old; and each of the two
felt fear of his foe, though fierce their mood.
Stoutly stood with his shield high-raised
the warrior king, as the worm now coiled
together amain: the mailed-one waited.
Now, spire by spire, fast sped and glided
that blazing serpent. The shield protected,
soul and body a shorter while
for the hero-king than his heart desired,
could his will have wielded the welcome respite
but once in his life! But Wyrd denied it,
and victory’s honors. -- His arm he lifted
lord of the Geats, the grim foe smote
with atheling’s heirloom. Its edge was turned
brown blade, on the bone, and bit more feebly
than its noble master had need of then
in his baleful stress. -- Then the barrow’s keeper
waxed full wild for that weighty blow,
cast deadly flames; wide drove and far
those vicious fires. No victor’s glory
the Geats’ lord boasted; his brand had failed,
naked in battle, as never it should,
excellent iron! -- ‘Twas no easy path
that Ecgtheow’s honored heir must tread
over the plain to the place of the foe;
for against his will he must win a home
elsewhere far, as must all men, leaving
this lapsing life! -- Not long it was
ere those champions grimly closed again.
The hoard-guard was heartened; high heaved his
breast once more; and by peril was pressed again,
enfolded in flames, the folk-commander!
Nor yet about him his band of comrades,
sons of athelings, armed stood
with warlike front: to the woods they bent them,
their lives to save. But the soul of one
with care was cumbered. Kinship true
can never be marred in a noble mind!
E
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 15-1
Lesson 15
The Epic Hero: Beowulf
Begin this Lesson by reading the Beowulf excerpt contained in the Lesson. While you
are reading, you should complete the Beowulf Graphic Organizer from Lesson 10.
Reading Comprehension:
Making Judgments: Is it an Epic?
To make judgments about a text, readers need to consider the following:
Create a set of criteria for evaluating a character or a piece of work.
Examine the text for evidence based on the criteria.
SA
Compare the evidence to the criteria.
Now, complete the Active Reading Worksheet to help you understand the traits of an
epic story.
M
Then, demonstrate your understanding of the text as a whole by completing the Reading
Comprehension Review.
PL
Lesson Wrap-Up: What did you like the most about Beowulf. What did you like the
least?
E
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 15-2
Active Reading Worksheet
Part I: The chart below lists the elements of an epic. Fill out the chart based on
what you know about Beowulf. Then, decide if Beowulf is an epic or not.
Criteria for an Epic Poem
Evidence in Beowulf
Actions of the hero often set the fate of a
nation or group of people.
Although he is not a Dane, by killing
Grendel, Beowulf saves Denmark .
Hero performs courageous deeds.
SA
Plot has supernatural beings and events,
and may involve a long, dangerous journey.
M
The characters often give long, formal
speeches.
PL
7KHSRHPUHÀHFWVWLPHOHVVYDOXHVVXFK
as courage and honor.
The poem treats universal ideas such as
good and evil, life and death.
E
Part II: In your judgment, is Beowulf a typical epic? Explain your reasoning.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 15-3
Beowulf Reading Comprehension Review
Part I:
*UHQGHO¶VPRWKHULVDPDMRU¿JXUHEXWQRWKLQJLVNQRZQDERXW*UHQGHO¶VIDWKHU,QD
poem in which ancestry is important, what does Grendel’s ancestry suggest about his
character?
&RQWUDVW%HRZXOIDQG+HUPRG+RZGRHVWKHFRQWUDVWKHOSGH¿QH%HRZXOI¶VFKDUDFWHU"
SA
PL
M
What sword does Beowulf take into battle? Who gave him the sword? What does the
sword’s failure in battle suggest about its owner?
E
The literary term deus ex machina refers to the improbable and unexpected introduction
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WR%HRZXOI¶V¿JKWZLWK*UHQGHO¶VPRWKHU"([SODLQ
,QBeowulf what are the consequences of seeking revenge? What other ways might
problems be worked out?
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 15-4
+RZGRHV%HRZXOIEHFRPHNLQJRIWKH*HDWV"([SODLQKRZKLVDVFHQVLRQWRWKHWKURQH
reinforces the character traits he displays earlier in the poem.
,QZKDWZD\GRHV:LJODIUHVHPEOHWKH\RXQJHU%HRZXOI":KDWPDNHVKLPDZRUWK\
successor to Beowulf?
SA
Why is Beowulf’s death a turning point for the Geats?
M
:KDWLVXVXDOO\GRQHZLWKWUHDVXUHVWDNHQIURPDGHIHDWHGHQHP\":K\LVLWVLJQL¿FDQW
that the treasure from the dragon’s den is buried with Beowulf?
PL
E
How might you account for the enduring popularity of Beowulf? Would you recommend
it to a friend? Why or why not?
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 15-5
Part II: Recognizing Allusions
Allusions are references in a work of literature to a well-known person, place, event,
written work, or work of art. Beowulf contains numerous biblical allusions. For example,
*UHQGHOLVGHVFULEHGDVDQRIIVSULQJRI&DLQ,QDSDUDJUDSKRUWZRH[SODLQZKDWWKLV
allusion or any other allusion of your choice adds to the poem.
SA
PL
M
Part III: Extending Your Response
Discuss Beowulf ’s portrayal of women (including Grendel’s mother). Based on the
portrayal of women in the poem, describe the “ideal” Anglo-Saxon woman. How would
she have behaved?
E
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 15-6
15
SA
WIGLAF his name was, Weohstan’s son,
linden-thane loved, the lord of Scylfings,
Aelfhere’s kinsman. His king he now saw
with heat under helmet hard oppressed.
He minded the prizes his prince had given him,
wealthy seat of the Waegmunding line,
and folk-rights that his father owned
Not long he lingered. The linden yellow,
his shield, he seized; the old sword he drew: -as heirloom of Eanmund earth-dwellers knew it,
who was slain by the sword-edge, son of Ohtere,
friendless exile, erst in fray
killed by Weohstan, who won for his kin
brown-bright helmet, breastplate ringed,
old sword of Eotens, Onela’s gift,
weeds of war of the warrior-thane,
battle-gear brave: though a brother’s child
had been felled, the feud was unfelt by Onela.
For winters this war-gear Weohstan kept,
breastplate and board, till his bairn had grown
earlship to earn as the old sire did:
then he gave him, mid Geats, the gear of battle,
portion huge, when he passed from life,
fared aged forth. For the first time now
with his leader-lord the liegeman young
was bidden to share the shock of battle.
Neither softened his soul, nor the sire’s bequest
weakened in war. So the worm found out
when once in fight the foes had met!
PL
M
E
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 15-7
SA
Wiglaf spake, -- and his words were sage;
sad in spirit, he said to his comrades: -“I remember the time, when mead we took,
what promise we made to this prince of ours
in the banquet-hall, to our breaker-of-rings,
for gear of combat to give him requital,
for hard-sword and helmet, if hap should bring
stress of this sort! Himself who chose us
from all his army to aid him now,
urged us to glory, and gave these treasures,
because he counted us keen with the spear
and hardy ‘neath helm, though this hero-work
our leader hoped unhelped and alone
to finish for us, -- folk-defender
who hath got him glory greater than all men
for daring deeds! Now the day is come
that our noble master has need of the might
of warriors stout. Let us stride along
the hero to help while the heat is about him
glowing and grim! For God is my witness
I am far more fain the fire should seize
along with my lord these limbs of mine!
Unsuiting it seems our shields to bear
homeward hence, save here we essay
to fell the foe and defend the life
of the Weders’ lord. I wot ‘twere shame
on the law of our land if alone the king
out of Geatish warriors woe endured
and sank in the struggle! . . .
PL
M
E
Together, Beowulf and the young Wiglaf kill the dragon, but the old king is fatally wounded. Beowulf,
thinking of his people, asks to see the monster’s treasure. Wiglaf enters the dragon’s cave and finds a
priceless hoard of jewels and gold.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 15-8
16
SA
. . . Hasted the herald, the hoard so spurred him
his track to retrace; he was troubled by doubt,
high-souled hero, if haply he’d find
alive, where he left him, the lord of Weders,
weakening fast by the wall of the cave.
So he carried the load. His lord and king
he found all bleeding, famous chief
at the lapse of life. The liegeman again
plashed him with water, till point of word
broke through the breast-hoard. Beowulf spake,
sage and sad, as he stared at the gold. -“For the gold and treasure, to God my thanks,
to the Wielder-of-Wonders, with words I say,
for what I behold, to Heaven’s Lord,
for the grace that I give such gifts to my folk
or ever the day of my death be run!
Now I’ve bartered here for booty of treasure
the last of my life, so look ye well
to the needs of my land! No longer I tarry.
A barrow bid ye the battle-fanned raise
for my ashes. ‘Twill shine by the shore of the flood,
to folk of mine memorial fair
on Hrones Headland high uplifted,
that ocean-wanderers oft may hail
Beowulf ’s Barrow, as back from far
they drive their keels o’er the darkling wave.”
From his neck he unclasped the collar of gold,
valorous king, to his vassal gave it
with bright-gold helmet, breastplate, and ring,
to the youthful thane: bade him use them in joy.
“Thou art end and remnant of all our race
the Waegmunding name. For Wyrd hath swept them,
all my line, to the land of doom,
earls in their glory: I after them go.”
This word was the last which the wise old man
harbored in heart ere hot death-waves
of balefire he chose. From his bosom fled
his soul to seek the saints’ reward. . . .
PL
M
E
Wiglaf berates the faithless warriors who had not gone to the aid of their king. With sorrow, the Geats
then cremate the corpse of their greatest king. They place his ashes, along with all of the dragon’s
treasure, in a huge burial tower by the sea, where it can be seen by voyagers.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 15-9
17
. . . Then about that barrow the battle-keen rode,
atheling-born, a band of twelve…
lament to make, to mourn their king,
chant their dirge, and their chieftain honor.
They praised his earlship, his acts of prowess
worthily witnessed: and well it is
that men their master-friend mightily laud,
heartily love, when hence he goes
from life in the body forlorn away.
SA
Thus made their mourning the men of Geatland,
for their hero’s passing his hearth-companions:
quoth that of all the kings of earth,
of men he was mildest and most beloved,
to his kin the kindest, keenest for praise.
PL
M
E
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 16-1
Lesson 16
Vocabulary Stop!
Words to Own Beowulf - Part 2
In this Lesson, you will be focusing on the Vocabulary found in Beowulf. Review the
list of Vocabulary words from the Lesson 15 excerpt from Beowulf (the words are bold
in the text). Then, look the words up in the dictionary and complete the Vocabulary
Squares Worksheet for each word. Below is a sample with each square explained.
Word: Vocabulary word from reading
SA
Synonym: Write one or more words that
mean the same thing as the Vocabulary
word.
Part of Speech: How is the word used?
What part of speech is it?
Antonym: Write a word that means the
opposite of the Vocabulary word.
PL
M
Original Sentence: Write your own sentence using the word in proper context. Your
sentence should show your understanding of the word.
Lesson Wrap-Up: Do your best to summarize the plot of Beowulf so far.
E
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 16-2
Vocabulary Squares Worksheet
Beowulf
Complete the cart for each word highlighted in the Lesson 15 reading of Beowulf.
You will need to use a dictionary.
Word:
Part of Speech:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Word:
SA
Original Sentence:
Antonym:
PL
Original Sentence:
M
Synonym:
Part of Speech:
E
Word:
Part of Speech:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Original Sentence:
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 16-3
Word:
Part of Speech:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Original Sentence:
Part of Speech:
Synonym:
Antonym:
SA
Word:
Original Sentence:
Antonym:
E
Original Sentence:
Part of Speech:
PL
Synonym:
M
Word:
Word:
Part of Speech:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Original Sentence:
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 17-1
Lesson 17
The Epic Hero Review
This Lesson will begin to wrap up the Unit on the epic story Beowulf. Now that you
have read excerpts from the epic, you will have an opportunity to demonstrate your
knowledge and understanding of the text by completing discussion questions. These
will consist of both short answers and a couple of essay questions that will allow you to
voice your creative perspective.
Take what you have learned from reading Beowulf to complete Beowulf : Questions for
Discussion.
SA
Lesson Wrap-Up: Name three things you have learned about Early Medieval Europe
from reading Beowulf.
PL
M
E
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 17-2
Beowulf : Questions for Discussion
Each of the following questions requires a longer response. Think about each
question carefully and organize your thoughts before writing.
Is Beowulf an epic? What sort of social order produces “epic” poetry? What values
GRHVWKHSRHPSURPRWHDQGKRZGRHVLWSURPRWHWKHP":KDWVRUWVRIFRQÀLFWVZLWKRU
resistances to the ideology of epic can be expressed? What sorts are found within the
poem itself?
SA
PL
M
What is the status of gold and gift-giving in the poem? Who gives gifts, who receives
them, and why? Are the modern concepts of wealth, payment, monetary worth and
greed appropriate for the world of Beowulf?
E
+RZGRWKHKHURHVRIOLWHUDWXUHUHÀHFWWKHYDOXHVRIWKHWLPH",Q\RXUPLQGLV%HRZXOID
hero? Explain your thinking.
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 18-1
Lesson: 18
Create Your Own Modern Day Hero
Today, you will be creating your own modern-day hero!
Begin by brainstorming and creating a list of major problems currently facing society.
This list will help you decide who the hero in your comic will be and what problem he or
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Answer each of the questions in as much detail as possible.
7KHQFRPSOHWHWKH+HUR6WRU\0DS7KLVZLOOKHOS\RXRUJDQL]H\RXULGHDVIRUWKH
comic strip you are going to create in the next Lesson. The more detail you use on the
+HUR6WRU\0DSWKHHDVLHU\RXZLOO¿QGLWWRFUHDWH\RXUKHUR¶VVWRU\
SA
Lesson Wrap-Up: Describe your hero to your teacher. Use as much detail as you can.
PL
M
E
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 18-2
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Cause:
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of problems that teens in our society face.
Examples could include peer pressure, drugs/
alcohol, academic failure, homelessness, etc.
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negatively LPSDFWLQJWKHOLYHVRIWHHQV"
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Power:
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this SUREOHP"%HFUHDWLYH7KLQNDERXWZKDW
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a power that does not relate to solving your
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 18-3
Hero Story Map
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 19-1
Lesson 19
Modern Day Hero:
Create Your Own Comic Strip
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Hero Comic Strip. Remember to be creative!
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details you will be graded on.
Lesson Wrap-Up: ,I\RXFRXOGVROYHDQ\RIWKHZRUOG¶VSUREOHPVZKLFKSUREOHPZRXOG
\RXVROYH":K\"
SA
PL
M
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 19-2
Comic Strip Rubric
4
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believable in
some panels.
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not believable.
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and are not
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 19-3
Hero Comic Strip
Tell your hero story by creating a comic strip in the following eight boxes.
Illustrate each box and add captions or word bubbles for dialogue and explanation.
8VH\RXUGLJLWDOWRROV
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 20-1
Lesson 20
Beowulf : The Assessment
Today is the completion of the Beowulf Unit. Hopefully you have come to understand
why Beowulf is a classic example of epic poetry from the Anglo-Saxon period.
Now, demonstrate your understanding of the Unit by completing the Beowulf Unit
Assessment.
Lesson Wrap-Up: What do you think was the main point of the story Beowulf?
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 20-2
Beowulf : Unit Assessment
Part I: Recall and Interpret (40 points total; 5 points each)
8VHWKHGLJLWDOSHQFLOWRROV!FRPPHQWDQGPDUNXSWRFircle the letter of the best answer.
1. Beowulf and his warriors journey to Denmark primarily to
a. seek fame and fortune
b. overthrow Hrothgar
c. avenge his father’s death
d. vanquish an evil monster
SA
2. Unferth challenges Beowulf’s bravery because
a. Unferth feels threatened
b. Unferth is jealous of Beowulf
c. Grendel is Unferth’s secret ally
M
d. Beowulf calls him a coward
3. Beowulf’s guiding philosophy is
DIDPHDQGJORU\DUHÀHHWLQJ
b. pride goeth before a fall
PL
c. a good name is better than gold
d. an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth
a. Grendel kills Welthow
b. his father was killed in battle
c. his trusted aide is killed
d. his kingdom is lost
5. Beowulf slays Grendel’s mother with
a. his bare hands
b. Unferth’s sword
c. Hrothgar’s sword
d. a sword in the monster’s den
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4. Hrothgar is grief stricken because
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 20-3
6.:KLFKRIWKHIROORZLQJLV127DFRQÀLFWDGYDQFHGLQBeowulf?
a. good versus evil
b. courage versus cowardice
c. youth versus old age
d. rich versus poor
7. Beowulf becomes King of the Geats when
a. Herdred is killed in an act of revenge
b. Higd offers him the throne
c. Higlac dies in battle
d. Herdred steps down
SA
8. Wiglaf reproaches his fellow warriors because
a. they failed to kill the dragon
b. they deserted Beowulf in battle
c. they did not honor Beowulf’s dying wish
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d. they stole the dragon’s treasures
PL
Part II: Evaluate and Connect (60 points total; 30 points each)
Answer any two of the following essay questions on a separate sheet of paper.
Make sure to answer each question completely with plenty of details to support
your argument.
E
1. How does the following warning from Hrothgar apply to Beowulf? Give examples
from the poem to support your answer.
. . . The world is God’s, He allows
A man to grow famous, and his family rich,
Gives him land and towns to rule
And delight in, lets his kingdom reach
As far as the world runs—and who
In human unwisdom, in the middle of such power,
Remembers that it all will end, and too soon?
Prosperity, prosperity, prosperity: nothing
Troubles him, no sickness, not passing time,
No sorrows, no sudden war breaking
Out of nowhere, but all the world turns
When he spins it. How can he know when he sins?
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 20-4
2. Explain why Beowulf may be said to exemplify the epic hero.
3. Examine the structure of Beowulf. In what ways are the prologue and conclusion
similar? How do these similarities help unify the poem?
4. What is the theme, or central idea, of Beowulf? Support your answer with evidence
from the poem.
5. Critic W. P. Ker evaluated Beowulf this way:
SA
“The great beauty, the real value . . . is in its dignity of style. In construction it is
curiously weak, in a sense preposterous; for while the main story is simplicity itself,
the merest commonplace of heroic legend, all about it, in the historic allusions,
there are revelations of a whole world of tragedy, plots different in import from that
of Beowulf, more like the tragic themes of Iceland. . . . The thing itself is cheap; the
moral and spirit of it can only be matched among the noblest of authors.”
What aspect of Beowulf is Ker criticizing when he calls the work “preposterous”? Do
you agree? Why or why not?
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Answer to Question #
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS – 20-5
Answer to Question #
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 21-1
Lesson 21
The Canterbury Tales:
The Man behind the Stories
Today you will be moving on to a new text, The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer.
This piece represents the next movement of the English Language—Middle English.
First you will be given background information on the author of The Canterbury Tales,
Geoffrey Chaucer by reading the articel article, The Canterbury Tales: The Man behind
the Stories.
Once you have read the background information on the author, use your new knowledge
WRFUHDWHDSUR¿OHRI*HRIIUH\&KDXFHU,QIRUPDWLRQIURP\RXUQRWHVZLOOEHKHOSIXOWR
complete the Character Map of Geoffrey Chaucer.
SA
M
Before beginning the map, take a look at your notes and brainstorm a list of possible
headings for the information that you recorded or highlighted. After this list is complete,
take time to group similar headings (for example: environment and home, or family and
parents). Once all similar headings have been grouped, choose the three headings you
feel best represent the information that you have in your notes. These headings will
become the headings used in the map.
PL
Now, complete the Character Map of Geoffrey Chaucer. Headings should be placed in
the rectangles and information for each of those heading should be placed in the ovals.
Lesson Wrap-Up: Name three things that you learned about Geoffrey Chaucer.
E
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 21-2
Character Map of Geoffrey Chaucer
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LQIRUPDWLRQ\RXJDWKHUHGZKLOHUHDGLQJ'LYLGHWKHLQIRUPDWLRQLQWRPDLQ
KHDGLQJVWRZULWHLQHDFKbox. Fill the circles attached to each box with
information related to each main KHDGLQJ
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STUDENT MANUAL
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The Canterbury Tales: The Man behind the Stories
In Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales, a group of pilgrims exchange stories on their way to
the holy land. Amidst the storytelling, Chaucer portrays himself as one of the colorful pilgrims.
When it is his turn to tell a story, he launches into a ridiculous poem about a knight named Sir
Thopas who is in love with an elf-queen and avoids fighting a vicious giant. Chaucer’s tale is so
terrible that the Host, Harry Bailly, forces Chaucer to stop telling the story.
A Busy Man
SA
Chaucer then tells the story of a man named Melibee, whose wife and daughter are assaulted.
It is dry, preachy writing, so much so that some editions of The Canterbury Tales leave it out
altogether. Other editions include an abbreviated version. The other stories in The Canterbury
Tales show that Chaucer was a master storyteller. So why did he portray his character in the story
as so dull and long winded? He seemed to be making a joke at his own expense—and not for
the first time. Chaucer often wrote himself into his works in a self-mocking way. Why was he so
determined to hide his true character? And what was he truly like?
M
PL
Geoffrey Chaucer is believed to have been born sometime between 1340 and 1343 in London. He
was the son of a wine merchant named John Chaucer. His family was neither noble nor peasant
but part of a new class that was on the rise in Europe in the late Middle Ages. It was what we now
call the middle class, or the bourgeoisie. The members of the bourgeoisie were city dwellers—
skilled workers, and business owners. Though they did not have the power and prestige of the
nobles, they sometimes had more money. In Chaucer’s day, the middle class was growing in
power.
E
Chaucer’s family had strong royal connections. By 1357, Geoffrey
Chaucer was serving as a page (a youthful servant) for Prince
Lionel, a son of King Edward III. Soon afterward, Chaucer
became a soldier. In 1360, while fighting the French in the
Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453), he was taken prisoner, then
ransomed by King Edward himself and freed. In 1366, he married
Philippa de Roet, who was a lady-in-waiting to Edward’s queen.
This marriage was certainly a smart and practical match,
strengthening Chaucer’s connections with royalty. Chaucer’s
biographers think that the couple may have had three or four
children.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 21-4
Most of the rest of Chaucer’s life was spent doing business. In 1367, he served as Edward III’s
valet, or personal servant—a job that led to lots of other work. In 1374, he became a London
customs official, overseeing shipments of wool from other countries. In 1386, he was elected a
member of Parliament. In 1389, he was put in charge of the king’s construction projects, which
included playing fields for jousting tournaments. Later on, he also served as a deputy forester,
tending to woods and wildlife in England’s Somerset County.
Though these jobs lack glamour, they seem to have suited Chaucer well. Even so, his pay was
irregular—and sometimes downright odd. In 1374, King Edward III awarded him a pitcher of
wine every day for the rest of his life. This offer expired after King Edward’s death. But in 1397,
King Richard II guaranteed him an annual barrel of wine, again for life. Though Chaucer always
had plenty to drink, hard cash wasn’t always easy to come by. He sometimes got into trouble for
debt.
SA
Chaucer, however, was a shrewd man. Shrewdness was a necessity in those politically troubled
days. Violent rebellions broke out during his life, and he lived to see King Richard II dethroned
and murdered. Civil servants like Chaucer—including some of his close personal friends—were
even executed based on who they knew or didn’t know. Chaucer apparently had a cunning way of
quitting a job and taking another to keep himself from getting killed.
M
Love of the English Language
PL
Chaucer held many high-profile jobs and was on friendly terms with three English kings in a row.
He was surely well known just as a civil servant. But he would have been forgotten if it weren’t for
his poetry. Curiously, poetry was the one activity that he seldom, if ever, got paid for. He seems to
have written it for sheer pleasure.
E
Lucky for Chaucer, he was widely celebrated and successful during
his lifetime. But why and how did a man who was busy doing so
much demanding and tedious work take the time to write poetry?
Perhaps one clue is Chaucer’s great knowledge and love of language.
When Chaucer was a boy around his father’s wine business, he
probably learned French and Italian from foreign wine merchants.
That knowledge would have helped him as an adult. While serving
royalty, he went on secret diplomatic missions to France and Italy.
In Europe, he read French and Italian poetry. In Italy, he might have
read a copy of The Divine Comedy, the magnificent epic poem by
Dante Alighieri (1265–1321). He also read Italian poetry by
Petrarch (1304–1374) and Giovanni Boccaccio (1313–1375), who
were still writing during Chaucer’s lifetime.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 21-5
Those foreign poets started Chaucer thinking about his native tongue. At that time, English was
not a language held in high regard, not even in England. French and Latin were considered more
proper for official business, literature, and high-class social situations. Chaucer didn’t think this
was fair or right. He loved English deeply, calling it a language of “great diversity.” He was sure
that great literary poems could be written in English.
So Chaucer set about writing ambitious poetry in English. (Remember, this was not the English
we speak today, but its precursor, what we now call Middle English.) He had to invent new
techniques and forms—lines, stanzas, and rhyme schemes that suited English. He got many of his
ideas from the French and Italian poems he knew so well and from the classics of antiquity.
But his poetry is notable for its original and brilliant use of English.
A Keen Observer
SA
Chaucer was also fascinated with everyday human life. In his different jobs, he met all kinds of
people from every part of English society. They ranged from kings and noblemen to merchants
and peasants—and even criminals. Chaucer observed their appearances, ways, and manners. He
also listened to their stories. It’s possible that he became obsessed with writing those stories down,
possibly in language much like the tellers’ own.
M
PL
The Canterbury Tales, the unfinished masterpiece of Chaucer’s final years, shows his command
of character. Although the tales themselves are fascinating and gripping, the pilgrims who tell
them are scarcely less so. The virtuous Knight, the wicked Pardoner, the fiercely independent Wife
of Bath, and the drunken Miller are as colorful as the tales they tell. According to some critics,
Chaucer’s varied, vivid characters remain unsurpassed by any author except those of William
Shakespeare.
E
Like Shakespeare, Chaucer disappears into his own work, letting his characters run the show.
When he does appear, it’s in a sort of disguise. He pretends to be dull and slow, probably to
highlight his other varied and irresistible characters.
Everlasting Fame
When he died in 1400, Chaucer was buried in London’s Westminster
Abbey because he had been clerk of the works of Westminster. In 1556,
his remains were moved to a tomb in what would become the abbey’s
famous “Poet’s Corner,” where many of England’s greatest writers have
been laid to rest.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 21-6
During the sixteenth century, after his death, Chaucer’s influence grew steadily. When William
Caxton introduced the first printing press to England in the 1400s, The Canterbury Tales was
one of the first works printed. During Shakespeare’s prominence in the late 1500s and early 1600s,
Chaucer was praised as the “English Homer,” after the great epic poet of the ancient Greeks.
Indeed, Shakespeare’s play Troilus and Cressida is based on Chaucer’s poem Troilus and Criseyde.
The Two Noble Kinsmen, for which Shakespeare teamed up with another author to write, is based
on The Knight’s Tale. Shakespeare’s work is scattered with many other references to Chaucer.
In the 17th century, critic and author John Dryden declared Chaucer “the father of English
poetry.” Dryden’s judgment has stuck ever since. Whether they discover Chaucer’s marvelous
writings in his original Middle English or in modern translation, readers today can scarcely resist
the originality of his language and his inventive characters and stories.
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 22-1
Lesson 22
Chaucer’s English: Decoding Middle English
Before reading Beowulf, you learned about the characteristics of Old English .Your
exploration of the transformation of language will continue with a study of characteristics
of Middle English through reading “A Guide to Chaucer’s English”. Make sure to take
notes or highlight important details as you read.
:KHQ\RXKDYH¿QLVKHGUHDGLQJWKHDUWLFOH\RXZLOOFRPSDUHDQGFRQWUDVW2OGDQG
Middle English by completing the Old English vs. Middle English Venn Diagram. Anything
that the two forms of English have in common should be written in the overlapping
section .The characteristics unique to Old English should be in the section to the left,
while the characteristics unique to Middle English should be in the section to the right.
SA
$W¿UVWJODQFH0LGGOH(QJOLVKPLJKWORRNOLNHDIRUHLJQODQJXDJH%XWLW¶VQRWDVKDUG
WR¿JXUHRXWDV\RXPLJKWWKLQN,QIDFWLWFDQEHOLNHGHFLSKHULQJDFRGH7DNHWKLV
H[DPSOHIURP*HRIIUH\&KDXFHU¶VThe Miller’s Tale.
Hym thynketh verraily that he may see
M
1RHHVÀRRGFRPHZDOZ\QJHDVWKHVHH
7RGUHQFKHQ$OLVRXQKLVKRQ\GHHUH
PL
/RRNDWWKH¿UVWOLQH7KH¿UVWZRUGhym has the same meaning as the modern word,
him. Thynketh means thinketh. However, thinketh is an outdated word, so you can
change it to the past tense of think, which is thought.
E
Next, there is the word verraily. Today, it is spelled verily, and it means truth or truly. Now,
all that is left is the end of the sentence, that he may see, which means the same then
as it does now.
Now, you can begin to put it all together.
+LPWKRXJKWLQWUXWKWKDWKHPD\VHH
When you clean it up a little bit, it reads:
+HWKRXJKWWUXO\WKDWKHFRXOGVHH
Now, take what you know about understanding Middle English and complete the
Decoding Middle English Worksheet.
Lesson Wrap-Up: Name three things that Middle and Old English have in common.
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 22-2
Decoding Middle English Worksheet
Translate the following sentences from Middle English to Modern English on the
lines provided
Example:
Hym thynketh verraily that he may see
He thought, truly, that he could see
1RHHVÀRRGFRPHZDOZ\QJHDVWKHVHH
SA
2. To drenchen Alisoun, his hony deere.
PL
M
3. He wepeth, weyleth, maketh sory cheere;
4. He siketh with ful many a sory swogh;
6. And after that a tubbe and a kymelyn,
7. And pryvely he sente hem to his in,
8. And heng hem in the roof in pryvetee.
E
5. He gooth and geteth hym a knedyng-trogh,
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 22-3
Old English vs. Middle English Venn Diagram
Complete this Venn Diagram using information you gathered from the reading,
A Guide to Chaucer’s English: Middle English. Write down characteristics of Old
English in the circle on the left. Write down characteristics of Middle English in
the circle on the right. Then, write traits that the two share in the middle.
8VH\RXUGLJLWDOSHQFLORUW\SHZULWHUWRRO7RROV!FRPPHQWPDUNXS!
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 22-4
A Guide to Chaucer’s English: Middle English
“Lordinges,” quod he, “in chirches whan I preche,
I peyne me to han an hauteyn speche,
And ringe it out as round as gooth a belle,
For I can al by rote that I telle.”
The above excerpt from The Canterbury Tales, by Geoffrey Chaucer, is spoken by the Pardoner at
the beginning of his story. Each of the stories are written in Middle English. It’s not the English we
speak today, but an earlier version of it.
SA
It was the language spoken by ordinary people in England from about 1100 to 1500, roughly the
same period of history we refer to as the late Middle Ages. Chaucer and other writers began using
it as a literary language in the 14th century. Before The Canterbury Tales, English was considered
unsophisticated and unfit for literature.
PL
M
It was the language of the street or the field—but certainly not the language of poetry, art, religion,
or high society. The clergy spoke Latin, and royalty spoke French. Business might be conducted
in Italian, but never in English. Chaucer helped change that, and opened the door for English to
grow into the rich and diverse language it is today.
Middle English is very different from the English we speak today. However, it is still possible to
understand. After all, this is the language that eventually evolved into modern English; the seeds
of many words remain.
E
What It Means
To get started, don’t worry about how a word should sound. Just try to figure out the meaning.
You should be able to make sense out of most of the words with little or no trouble. Many of them
are familiar, just spelled oddly.
chirches = churches
preche = preach
peyne = pain
speche = speech
ringe = ring
belle = bell
telle = tell
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 22-5
Other words take a little more head scratching but still aren’t too difficult. We still use the word
rote to mean “by memory” or “by heart.”
Lordinges looks like lords, so it’s a good guess that it means something like “gentlemen” or
“gentlefolk.”
Quod looks like quote, so quod he surely means “said he.”
Hauteyn looks like heightened, so the Pardoner means that his speech is fancy or loud.
A modern reading of the above excerpt might look something like this:
SA
“Gentlefolk,” said he, “in churches when I preach,
I take pains to speak in a fancy manner,
And let my voice ring out as roundly as a bell,
For I know all that I tell by heart.”
M
As you can see, it can be easy to interpret Chaucer’s meaning, even in the Middle English original.
PL
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 23 & 24-1
Lessons 23 and 24
The Canterbury Tales: The Prologue
In this Lesson, you are going to begin reading The Prologue from The Canterbury
Tales. Understand that this is quite a bit longer than an average prologue. As you read,
you should complete The Canterbury Tales&KDUDFWHU&KDUW6RPHLQIRUPDWLRQLV¿OOHG
in for you, but you must provide the rest.
This assignment will take two class periods.
Lesson Wrap-Up: Describe one of the characters from The Prologue to The
Canterbury Tales in as much detail as you can.
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STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 23 & 24-2
The Canterbury Tales Character Chart
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(A prioress is in
charge of nuns.)
'HVFULSWLRQRI
Personality
In medieval
times, coral was
considered a
defense against
temptation. . . and a
love charm
'HVFULSWLRQRI
Personality
&KDXFHU¶V
2SLQLRQRIWKLV
3LOJULP
swears “By St. Loy!”
“known as Madame
Eglantyne”
speaks French. . . .
badly
SA
M
extremely careful about
her table manners;
consciously eats in a
VXSSRVHGO\UH¿QHG
way, but the narrator
calls her manners
“counterfeit”
PL
cries if “she but saw
a mouse/Caught in a
trap” or “someone took
a stick” to her lap dogs
E
Eglantyne is a kind of
rose and also the name
of several romantic
heroines
Monks and nuns were
not supposed to keep
pets because the
money to care for them
should be spent on the
poor instead
STUDENT MANUAL
3LOJULP
Monk
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 23 & 24-3
'HVFULSWLRQRI
Personality
has a brown horse
with a fancy bridle
and hunting dogs
'HVFULSWLRQRI
Personality
“He liked fat swan
best, and roasted
whole. . .”
&KDXFHU¶V2SLQLRQ
RIWKLV3LOJULP
“he spared for no
expense” – has fur
on his cuffs and
a gold pin (in the
shape of a loveknot) to fasten his
cloak
SA
fat, bald, shiny skin,
glittering eyes
(not dull or pale or
“tormented”)
PL
M
Because peasants
did not always
have enough to
eat, obesity was a
sign of success and
luxury
E
STUDENT MANUAL
3LOJULP
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 23 & 24-4
'HVFULSWLRQRI
Personality
Friar
&KDXFHU¶V2SLQLRQ
RIWKLV3LOJULP
keeps pocket
“stuffed with pins for
curls/ And pocketknives, to give to
pretty girls”
SA
Friars went into the
world as beggars
to preach, help
the poor, and cure
the sick. One of a
friar’s duties was
to hear people’s
confessions and
to absolve or
forgive them with a
penance (penalty
of prayer or doing
good works)
'HVFULSWLRQRI
Personality
“an easy man in
penance-giving/
Where he could
hope to make a
decent living”
M
knows all the
taverns, innkeepers,
and barmaids –
better than hanging
out with “scum” like
the poor and the
diseased
PL
smooth talker – can
get money from a
poor widow who
can’t afford it
E
(illegally) settles
arguments for a
small fee
³+H¶G¿[HGXSPDQ\
a marriage, giving
each/ Of his young
women what he
could afford her”
STUDENT MANUAL
3LOJULP
Merchant
2[IRUG&OHULF
(a student)
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 23 & 24-5
'HVFULSWLRQRI
Personality
forking
beard,beaver
hat, fancy boots
and multicolored
clothing. All very
expensive.
'HVFULSWLRQRI
&KDXFHU¶V2SLQLRQ
Personality
RIWKLV3LOJULP
likes to “harp” about
business and acts
like an expert
“his horse was
thinner than a rake/
And he was not too
fat”
prefers spending
money on books,
rather than clothes
or entertainment
SA
“a hollow look, a
sober stare”
but. . . “none knew
he was in debt”
only cares about
studying
M
threadbare overcoat doesn’t talk much;
is brief, deep, and
moral
6HUJHDQWDW/DZ
(lawyer)
multicolored coat
silk, pin-striped belt
(has money)
“a man to
reverence/ Or so he
seemed”
E
(one of a select
group of lawyers
who advised the
king)
PL
“gladly would he
learn and gladly
teach”
narrow-minded and
predictable
“was less busy than
he seemed to be”
knew every law by
heart
*XLOGVPHQ
“livery [uniforms]. . .
impressive”
knives “tricked out
with . . . purest
silver”
STUDENT MANUAL
3LOJULP
Merchant
2[IRUG&OHULF
(a student)
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 23 & 24-6
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Personality
forking
beard,beaver
hat, fancy boots
and multicolored
clothing. All very
expensive.
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Personality
RIWKLV3LOJULP
likes to “harp” about
business and acts
like an expert
“his horse was
thinner than a rake/
And he was not too
fat”
prefers spending
money on books,
rather than clothes
or entertainment
SA
“a hollow look, a
sober stare”
but. . . “none knew
he was in debt”
only cares about
studying
M
threadbare overcoat doesn’t talk much;
is brief, deep, and
moral
6HUJHDQWDW/DZ
(lawyer)
multicolored coat
silk, pin-striped belt
(has money)
“a man to
reverence/ Or so he
seemed”
E
(one of a select
group of lawyers
who advised the
king)
PL
“gladly would he
learn and gladly
teach”
narrow-minded and
predictable
“was less busy than
he seemed to be”
knew every law by
heart
*XLOGVPHQ
“livery [uniforms]. . .
impressive”
knives “tricked out
with . . . purest
silver”
STUDENT MANUAL
3LOJULP
Cook
Skipper
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Personality
Personality
had a white sore on excellent cook
his knee oozing pus
makes a wonderful
white pudding
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RIWKLV3LOJULP
dagger on a cord
came from
around his neck
Dartmouth
(instead of sheathed
and put away)
steals from the
cargo while the
awkward on a horse traders sleep
SA
expensive garments
“blood-red “ in color
“slashed with bluishgray”
always kills his
prisoners (walk the
plank)
excellent seaman
knows astronomy,
humors, medicine,
and surgery very
well
PL
M
Doctor
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 23 & 24-7
E
SUR¿WVIURP
people’s illnesses
by prescribing
drugs that don’t
work and sharing
WKHSUR¿WVZLWKWKH
apothecaries
“Yet he was rather
close with his
expenses/ And kept
the gold he won in
pestilences”
STUDENT MANUAL
3LOJULP
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 23 & 24-8
'HVFULSWLRQRI
Personality
7KH:LIHRI
Bath
(woman from
Bath)
“. . . and he would help
the poor for the love of
Christ and never take a
penny. . .”
wart on his nose
with hairs, like
bristles growing out
of it
“a wrangler and a
EXIIRRQ´D¿JKWHUDQGD
joker)
E
red beard
PL
Miller
“He stayed at home
and watched over
his fold/ So that no
wolf should make the
sheep miscarry. He
was a shepherd and no
mercenary.”
M
3ORZPDQ
SA
Parson
S
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Personality
RIWKLV3LOJULP
The Wife of Bath’s
freedom to travel on
pilgrimages was a luxury
not available to many
women in her time.
Through his reference
to her “wandering” and
“gap teeth”, Chaucer is
implying that the Wife of
Bath took full advantage
of her freedom.
has a collection of
³WDYHUQVWRULHV¿OWK\LQ
the main”
wide, black nostrils
“mouth like a
furnace door”
wears a blue hood
and a white coat
cheats his customers by
SXWWLQJKLV¿QJHURQWKH
scale “He was a masterhand at stealing grain”
plays the bagpipes
STUDENT MANUAL
3LOJULP
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 23 & 24-9
'HVFULSWLRQRI
Personality
Manciple
(a food
buyer for an
institution)
'HVFULSWLRQRI
Personality
practices “insider
trading” and cashes in
on the market as he
buys the food for his
masters
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uneducated, but could
make fools of his
masters
SA
Reeve
bad-tempered
very short haircut
a stickler for details
used to be a
carpenter
he was “feared like
the plague by those
beneath” him
M
old & thin
long coat and a
“rusty blade”
PL
has gotten rich by
embezzling from his
master
E
“And he was under
contract to present/ The
accounts, right from his
master’s earliest years.
No one ever caught him
in arrears.”
A reeve was a manager
of an estate whose
job it was to inspect
everything and impose
¿QHVRQZRUNHUVLIKH
found anything wrong.
STUDENT MANUAL
3LOJULP
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 23 & 24-10
'HVFULSWLRQRI
Personality
6XPPRQHU
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RIWKLV3LOJULP
SA
Pardoner
'HVFULSWLRQRI
Personality
In Chaucer’s time,
sexual relations outside
marriage were cause
for excommunication,
and the Summoner’s
job was to track down
offenders and deliver
them to the Archdeacon
for punishment.
Even loyal members of
the Church criticized the
sale of pardons.
Relics are the remains
(bones, hair, garments,
and so on) of a holy
person .Saying a prayer
with the relic in hand
was thought to bring an
indulgence or limited
relief from the pains of
purgatory after death.
Some relics were fake,
but believers willingly
bought them and
provided a steady
income to the sellers.
PL
M
Long hair was a
violation of the
rule that men who
worked for the
Church should wear
their hair tonsured
(short, with a
shaved spot at the
top, as a symbol of
humility).
E
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 23 & 24-11
The Cantebury Tales: The Prologue
SA
WHEN that Aprilis, with his showers swoot*,
The drought of March hath pierced to the root,
And bathed every vein in such licour,
Of which virtue engender’d is the flower;
When Zephyrus eke with his swoote breath
Inspired hath in every holt* and heath
The tender croppes* and the younge sun
Hath in the Ram <1> his halfe course y-run,
And smalle fowles make melody,
That sleepen all the night with open eye,
(So pricketh them nature in their corages*);
Then longe folk to go on pilgrimages,
And palmers <2> for to seeke strange strands,
To *ferne hallows couth* in sundry lands;
And specially, from every shire’s end
Of Engleland, to Canterbury they wend,
The holy blissful Martyr for to seek,
That them hath holpen*, when that they were sick .
*sweet
*grove, forest
*twigs, boughs
*hearts, inclinations
*distant saints known<3>
PL
M
*helped
E
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 23 & 24-12
SA
Befell that, in that season on a day,
In Southwark at the Tabard <4> as I lay,
Ready to wenden on my pilgrimage
To Canterbury with devout corage,
At night was come into that hostelry
Well nine and twenty in a company
Of sundry folk, *by aventure y-fall
In fellowship*, and pilgrims were they all,
That toward Canterbury woulde ride.
The chamber, and the stables were wide,
And *well we weren eased at the best.*
And shortly, when the sunne was to rest,
So had I spoken with them every one,
That I was of their fellowship anon,
And made forword* early for to rise,
To take our way there as I you devise* .
*who had by chance fallen
into company.* <5>
*we were well provided
with the best*
*promise
*describe, relate
PL
M
But natheless, while I have time and space,
Ere that I farther in this tale pace,
Me thinketh it accordant to reason,
To tell you alle the condition
Of each of them, so as it seemed me,
And which they weren, and of what degree;
And eke in what array that they were in:
And at a Knight then will I first begin.
E
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 23 & 24-13
*farther
*journeyed
SA
A KNIGHT there was, and that a worthy man,
That from the time that he first began
To riden out, he loved chivalry,
Truth and honour, freedom and courtesy.
Full worthy was he in his Lorde’s war,
And thereto had he ridden, no man farre*,
As well in Christendom as in Heatheness,
And ever honour’d for his worthiness
At Alisandre <6> he was when it was won.
Full often time he had the board begun
Above alle nations in Prusse.<7>
In Lettowe had he reysed,* and in Russe,
No Christian man so oft of his degree.
In Grenade at the siege eke had he be
Of Algesir, and ridden in Belmarie. <8>
At Leyes was he, and at Satalie,
When they were won; and in the Greate Sea
At many a noble army had he be.
At mortal battles had he been fifteen,
And foughten for our faith at Tramissene.
In listes thries, and aye slain his foe.
This ilke* worthy knight had been also
Some time with the lord of Palatie,
Against another heathen in Turkie:
And evermore *he had a sovereign price* .
And though that he was worthy he was wise,
And of his port as meek as is a maid.
He never yet no villainy ne said
In all his life, unto no manner wight.
He was a very perfect gentle knight.
But for to telle you of his array,
His horse was good, but yet he was not gay.
Of fustian he weared a gipon*,
Alle *besmotter’d with his habergeon,*
For he was late y-come from his voyage,
And wente for to do his pilgrimage.
*He was held in very
high esteem.*
PL
M
*same <9>
E
*short doublet
*soiled by his coat of mail.*
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 23 & 24-14
SA
With him there was his son, a younge SQUIRE,
A lover, and a lusty bacheler,
With lockes crulle* as they were laid in press .
Of twenty year of age he was I guess.
Of his stature he was of even length,
And *wonderly deliver*, and great of strength .
And he had been some time in chevachie*,
In Flanders, in Artois, and Picardie,
And borne him well, *as of so little space*,
In hope to standen in his lady’s grace.
Embroider’d was he, as it were a mead
All full of freshe flowers, white and red.
Singing he was, or fluting all the day;
He was as fresh as is the month of May.
Short was his gown, with sleeves long and wide.
Well could he sit on horse, and faire ride.
He coulde songes make, and well indite,
Joust, and eke dance, and well pourtray and write.
So hot he loved, that by nightertale*
He slept no more than doth the nightingale.
Courteous he was, lowly, and serviceable,
And carv’d before his father at the table.<10>
*curled
*wonderfully nimble*
*cavalry raids
*in such a short time*
*night-time
M
PL
A YEOMAN had he, and servants no mo’
At that time, for *him list ride so*
And he was clad in coat and hood of green.
A sheaf of peacock arrows<11> bright and keen
Under his belt he bare full thriftily.
Well could he dress his tackle yeomanly:
His arrows drooped not with feathers low;
And in his hand he bare a mighty bow.
A nut-head <12> had he, with a brown visiage:
Of wood-craft coud* he well all the usage:
Upon his arm he bare a gay bracer*,
And by his side a sword and a buckler,
And on that other side a gay daggere,
Harnessed well, and sharp as point of spear:
A Christopher on his breast of silver sheen.
An horn he bare, the baldric was of green:
A forester was he soothly* as I guess .
There was also a Nun, a PRIORESS,
That of her smiling was full simple and coy;
Her greatest oathe was but by Saint Loy;
And she was cleped* Madame Eglentine.
*it pleased him so to ride*
E
*knew
*small shield
*certainly
*called
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 23 & 24-15
SA
Full well she sang the service divine,
Entuned in her nose full seemly;
And French she spake full fair and fetisly*
After the school of Stratford atte Bow,
For French of Paris was to her unknow.
At meate was she well y-taught withal;
She let no morsel from her lippes fall,
Nor wet her fingers in her sauce deep.
Well could she carry a morsel, and well keep,
That no droppe ne fell upon her breast.
In courtesy was set full much her lest* .
Her over-lippe wiped she so clean,
That in her cup there was no farthing* seen
Of grease, when she drunken had her draught;
Full seemely after her meat she raught*:
And *sickerly she was of great disport*,
And full pleasant, and amiable of port,
And *pained her to counterfeite cheer
Of court,* and be estately of mannere,
And to be holden digne* of reverence .
But for to speaken of her conscience,
She was so charitable and so pitous,*
She woulde weep if that she saw a mouse
Caught in a trap, if it were dead or bled.
Of smalle houndes had she, that she fed
With roasted flesh, and milk, and *wastel bread.*
But sore she wept if one of them were dead,
Or if men smote it with a yarde* smart:
And all was conscience and tender heart.
Full seemly her wimple y-pinched was;
Her nose tretis;* her eyen gray as glass;<13>
Her mouth full small, and thereto soft and red;
But sickerly she had a fair forehead.
It was almost a spanne broad I trow;
For *hardily she was not undergrow* .
Full fetis* was her cloak, as I was ware .
Of small coral about her arm she bare
A pair of beades, gauded all with green;
And thereon hung a brooch of gold full sheen,
On which was first y-written a crown’d A,
And after, *Amor vincit omnia.*
Another Nun also with her had she,
[That was her chapelleine, and PRIESTES three.]
*properly
*pleasure
*speck
*reached out her hand
*surely she was of a lively
disposition*
*took pains to assume
a courtly disposition*
*worthy
PL
M
*full of pity
*finest white bread*
*staff
E
*well-formed
*certainly she was not small*
*neat
*love conquers all*
STUDENT MANUAL
HIGHER ALTITUDES IN 11TH GRADE LANGUAGE ARTS 23 & 24-16
SA
A MONK there was, a fair *for the mast’ry*,
An out-rider, that loved venery*;
A manly man, to be an abbot able.
Full many a dainty horse had he in stable:
And when he rode, men might his bridle hear
Jingeling <15> in a whistling wind as clear,
And eke as loud, as doth the chapel bell,
There as this lord was keeper of the cell.
The rule of Saint Maur and of Saint Benet, <16>
Because that it was old and somedeal strait
This ilke* monk let olde thinges pace,
And held after the newe world the trace.
He *gave not of the text a pulled hen,*
That saith, that hunters be not holy men:
Ne that a monk, when he is cloisterless;
Is like to a fish that is waterless;
This is to say, a monk out of his cloister.
This ilke text held he not worth an oyster;
And I say his opinion was good.
Why should he study, and make himselfe wood*
Upon a book in cloister always pore,
Or swinken* with his handes, and labour,
As Austin bid? how shall the world be served?
Let Austin have his swink to him reserved.
Therefore he was a prickasour* aright:
Greyhounds he had as swift as fowl of flight;
Of pricking* and of hunting for the hare
Was all his lust,* for no cost would he spare .
I saw his sleeves *purfil’d at the hand
With gris,* and that the finest of the land .
And for to fasten his hood under his chin,
He had of gold y-wrought a curious pin;
A love-knot in the greater end there was.
His head was bald, and shone as any glass,
And eke his face, as it had been anoint;
He was a lord full fat and in good point;
His eyen steep,* and rolling in his head,
That steamed as a furnace of a lead.
His bootes supple, his horse in great estate,
Now certainly he was a fair prelate;
He was not pale as a forpined* ghost;
A fat swan lov’d he best of any roast.
His palfrey was as brown as is a berry.
*above all others*<14>
*hunting
*same
*he cared nothing
for the text*
*mad <17>
*hard rider
PL
M
*toil
E
*riding
*pleasure
*worked at the end with a
fur called “gris”*
*deep-set
*wasted