The archival documents of the State Central Mining Archives in

The archival documents o f the State Central Mining Archives in
Banská Stiavnica related to different kinds of museum co llectio ns
at home and abro ad
E l e n a Kasiarová
Kasiarová, Ε. The archival do cuments o f the State Central Mining Archives in Banská Stiavnica related
to different kinds of museum co llectio ns at home and abroad. In: Winkler Prins, C F . & Donovan, S.K.
(eds.), VII International Symposium 'Cultural Heritage in Geosciences, Mining and Metallurgy: Libraries Archives - Museums': "Museums and their collections", Leiden (The Netherlands), 19-23 May 2003. Scripta
Geológica Special Issue, 4:180-192, 4 figs.; Leiden, August 2004.
Elena Kasiaro vá, State Central Mining Archives in Banská Stiavnica (SCMA), Slo vakia (k[email protected]
suba.vs.sk).
Key wo rds — Documents, co llectio ns, archives, Banská Stiavnica.
The State Central Mining Archives in Banská Stiavnica (SCMA) supervise abo ut 6 km of archival
documents relating to different fields of human activity as well as individual peo ple, pheno mena and
subjects. So me o f these documents may serve for identification or more exact description o f different
museum objects both in Slovakia and in the world.
Contents
Samples of minerals a n d rocks
180
M o d e l s of m i n e s a n d technical m a c h i n e r y
184
Pictures, statues a n d other artistic m o n u m e n t s
187
C o i n s , m e d a l s a n d other s i m i l a r objects
189
M i n i n g measures, units of w e i g h t , a n d other m e a s u r i n g devices
191
W o r k i n g a n d ceremonial clothing, a n d w o r k i n g tools of miners a n d metal w o r k e r s .. 191
O t h e r k i n d s of m u s e u m collections
192
Samples of minerals a n d rocks
It is logical that i n the special m i n i n g archives there are m a n y documents concerning
different collections of m i n e r a l s a n d rocks. M o s t materials are i n the collection of the
A c a d e m y of Banská Stiavnica. [The A c a d e m y w a s established b y the d e c i s i o n of the
ruler M a r i a Theresia f r o m December the 10th, 1762 a n d it existed i n Banská Stiavnica
t i l l 1918. T h e n it w a s m o v e d to H u n g a r y ( S o p r o n a n d M i s k o l c ) w h e r e it exists u n t i l
n o w . ] Its first professor, N i c o l a u s Joseph v o n J a c q u i n [botanist, chemist; L e y d e n
( H o l l a n d ) , 16.2.1727 ­ V i e n n a ( A u s t r i a ) , 26.10.1817; h i s father w a s a F r e n c h m a n b y
o r i g i n , w h o o w n e d a textile manufacture i n L e y den], w a s p u t i n charge of establishing
the m i n e r a l o g i c a l collection, e v e n before the b e g i n n i n g of the teaching. A t the expense
of the C o u r t C h a m b e r f o r M i n i n g a n d M i n t i n g i n V i e n n a ( C C h ) , he w a s charged to
collect samples of the domestic a n d f o r e i g n m i n e r a l s a n d rocks n e e d e d for the i l l u s t r a ­
tive teaching of future students.
In the f u n d of the M a i n C h a m b e r E a r l ' s Office i n Banská Stiavnica ( M C h E O ) , the
i n v e n t o r y of Tadeás Peitner's p r i v a t e collection of c. 2000 minerals, w h i c h h e s o l d as a
Winkler Prins & Donovan. Proc. VII Int. Symp. 'Cultural Heritage in Geosciences,Scripta Geol, Spec. Issue 4 (2004)
Fig. 1. The first page of the inventory of the mineral collection of T. Peinter, 1776.
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Winkler Prins & Donovan. Proc. VII Int. Symp. 'Cultural Heritage in Geosciences,Scripta Geol., Spec. Issue 4 (2004)
professor to the A c a d e m y of Banská Stiavnica i n 1774 is w e l l preserved (Fig. 1). The
i n v e n t o r y of the wälsch minerals dates back to 1781. The Secret C o u r t a n d State Office
i n V i e n n a sent it to Banská Stiavnica to e n r i c h the academic collection. T h i s s h i p m e n t
(six boxes of minerals) w a s to w o r k as the counter-value of the samples of minerals
a n d rocks o c c u r r i n g i n the C e n t r a l S l o v a k i a n m i n i n g area to the collection of the
Prince r u l i n g i n A u s t r i a n L o m b a r d y , n o w a part of Italy.
In the second half of the 19th century, Professor Ján Pettko took care of e x p a n d i n g
a n d i m p r o v i n g the q u a l i t y of the collections of m i n e r a l o g y , palaeontology a n d petrogr a p h y . F o r example, i n 1856, he a c q u i r e d the m i n e r a l o g i c a l collection of Professor A .
H a u c h for the A c a d e m y , a n d i n 1854 a n d 1860, he b o u g h t m i n e r a l s f r o m D r . A n t o n
K r a n t z f r o m B o n n . The collection of minerals of the A c a d e m y of Banská Stiavnica
became w o r l d r e n o w n e d t h r o u g h his endeavour.
Except f r o m the p a r t i a l records i n the a r c h i v a l f u n d s , the complete i n v e n t o r y of
this m i n e r a l o g i c a l collection w a s preserved (for example: S C M A , M C h E O , N o . 5963,
i n v e n t o r y f r o m 1886-1905.) In some inventories, each sample is described i n details
( i n c l u d i n g size a n d collecting locality), categorised into the g r o u p a c c o r d i n g to the
k i n d a n d class, a n d each one is g i v e n a registration n u m b e r . These data enable today's
users to i d e n t i f y the o r i g i n of some o l d samples. Several significant results, e x a m i n i n g
these documents, have already been recorded b y the colleagues f r o m the Technical
U n i v e r s i t y i n M i s k o l c ( H u n g a r y ) , w h e r e the remnants of the m i n e r a l o g i c a l collection
of the M i n i n g a n d Forestry A c a d e m y of Banská Stiavnica are n o w situated.
The large size of some samples enabled the A c a d e m y to sell, exchange or g i v i n g
t h e m as a present to others. For example, i n 1851, 50 m i n e r a l specimens f r o m H u n g a r y ,
B o h e m i a , G a u l , Saxony, Sweden, N o r w a y a n d N o r t h a n d South A m e r i c a enriched the
collection of the Catholic Secondary G r a m m a r School i n Banská Stiavnica.
Matters concerning the collecting of minerals i n the C e n t r a l S l o v a k i a n m i n i n g area
w e r e d i r e c t e d ( a c c o r d i n g to the i n s t r u c t i o n of the C o u r t C h a m b e r of M i n i n g a n d
M i n t i n g ) b y the M a i n C h a m b e r E a r l ' s Office. The p r i o r i t y w a s the regular d i s p a t c h of
precious a n d u n u s u a l minerals to the N a t u r a l Science Cabinet (institute) i n V i e n n a . But,
for example, i n 1775 it organised the assembly of a g r a n d collection for the U n i v e r s i t y
i n Freiberg ( G e r m a n y ) . A t the e n d of 1781 A n t o n Ruprecht, m i n i n g a d v i s o r a n d p r o fessor of c h e m i s t r y , m i n e r a l o g y a n d m e t a l l u r g y , w a s p u t i n charge of creating a c o l lection of the precious a n d exceptionally b e a u t i f u l minerals f r o m the area of Banská
Stiavnica, K r e m n i c a a n d Banská Bystrica for the N a t u r a l Science Cabinet i n Paris.
T h i s w a s i n response to the a p p l i c a t i o n of the then director of the Paris Institute, E a r l
de B u f f o n [Georges L o u i s Leclere de B u f f o n , F r e n c h scientist a n d p h i l o s o p h e r ; M o n t b a r d , 7.9.1707 - Paris, 15.4.1788.] M i n e r a l s w h i c h the F r e n c h geologist a n d m i n e r a l o gist F.S. B e u d a n t collected for several weeks i n the s u r r o u n d i n g s of Banská Stiavnica
were o b v i o u s l y destined for the same n a t u r a l science cabinet. H e w a s d o i n g this w i t h i n the f r a m e w o r k of his scientific journey a r o u n d S l o v a k i a i n 1818. Several boxes of
minerals for " C o l l e g i i Jesu C a n t a b r i d g i e s i s " (Jesus C o l l e g e C a m b r i d g e ) were collected
i n the C e n t r a l S l o v a k i a n m i n i n g area i n 1802 b y the E n g l i s h traveller a n d mineralogist
E d w a r d D a n i e l C l a r k a n d his c o m p a n i o n I . M . C r i p p s o n . W i t h the a p p r o v a l of the
M C h E O , the s h i p m e n t w a s sent v i a V i e n n a to E n g l a n d o n M a y the 2 n d .
The m i n i n g r e g i o n of C e n t r a l S l o v a k i a w a s the d e s t i n a t i o n of excursions b y
n u m e r o u s other scientists, n o b l e m e n a n d h i g h r a n k e d state officers, as w e l l as c o m m o n
Winkler Prins & Donovan. Proc. VII Int. Symp. 'Cultural Heritage in Geosciences,..'. Scripta Geol Spec. Issue 4 (2004)
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collectors. Perhaps none of t h e m c o n t i n u e d further o n or a r r i v e d back h o m e w i t h o u t
the samples of local m i n e r a l s a n d rocks either collected i n their o w n h a n d s or bought.
P r o b a b l y , neither the D u t c h travellers L . Boréel a n d W . v a n der P a u w left Banská
Stiavnica w i t h o u t samples of local minerals. T h e y started their j o u r n e y to the m i n i n g
a n d m e t a l l u r g i c a l factories i n C e n t r a l S l o v a k i a i n October 1801.
M i n e r a l s of the C e n t r a l S l o v a k i a n m i n i n g area also e n r i c h e d the private collections
of m o r e members of the r u l i n g f a m i l y of H a b s b u r g . For example, i n 1628, E m p e r o r
F e r d i n a n d II asked for beautiful samples of the rich g o l d ore, b u t he w a s not completely
satisfied w i t h the s h i p m e n t he received. The samples, t h o u g h there were lots of them,
s u p p o s e d l y contained o n l y a l o w content of g o l d . The C o u r t C h a m b e r of M i n i n g a n d
M i n t i n g ( C C h ) determined the b o t t o m level to 12 "lot" (old u n i t of weight). The d e l i v e r y
w a s a l l o w e d to be supplemented b y "handsteins" a n d ore f r o m the preparation plants.
D u r i n g the r u l i n g of his son, E m p e r o r F e r d i n a n d III, the c l a i m for the d e l i v e r y of nice
crystal ore samples for the i m p e r i a l " G r o t e " a r r i v e d at the M a i n C h a m b e r EarTs Office.
E v e n t h o u g h i n A u g u s t 1642 the office of Banská Stiavnica r e p l i e d that it d i d not have
any suitable samples at its d i s p o s a l , o b v i o u s l y it u s e d this o p p o r t u n i t y to represent
itself as w e l l as its subordinate m i n i n g area i n front of the E m p e r o r . E m p e r o r Francis
of Loraine, h u s b a n d of M a r i a Theresia, w a s g i v e n minerals a n d samples of ores directly
i n Banská Stiavnica d u r i n g his v i s i t i n 1751. O n e a r c h i v a l d o c u m e n t , for example,
mentions that the samples of K r e m n i c a ' s ore, r o c k a n d v a r i o u s stones w e r e b r o k e n
a n d collected i n the t o w n a n d its s u r r o u n d i n g s i n three days b y six people, a n d the
total price for collecting, p a c k i n g a n d transport of t w o boxes of different stones to
Banská Stiavnica w a s 10 florins a n d 52 r e d cents.
A t the b e g i n n i n g of 1763 C C h a n n o u n c e d to the M a i n C h a m b e r E a r l a n d other
h i g h - r a n k i n g officers i n Banská Stiavnica that the C r o w n Prince Joseph w a s establishing
a collection of samples of ore, m i n e r a l s a n d u n u s u a l stones. Stiavnica's m i n i n g officers
therefore h a d to prepare g o o d samples f r o m the C e n t r a l S l o v a k i a n area a n d these,
p r o v i d e d w i t h the adequate d e s c r i p t i o n ( k i n d , collecting locality or m i n e , content of
ore), were sent as soon as possible to V i e n n a . They were to continue w i t h the collecting
of the e x t r a o r d i n a r y samples f r o m then o n . I n A u g u s t 1777, one b o x of samples w a s
sent f r o m Banská Stiavnica to V i e n n a for the A r c h d u k e M a x i m i l i a n . This w a s shortly
after h i s v i s i t to Banská Stiavnica a n d K r e m n i c a . O n e year later, the collection of the
A r c h d u c h e s s M a r i e A n n w a s enriched b y ore samples f r o m the p r o d u c t i o n processes
i n K r e m n i c a a n d Banská Bystrica. A l s o other samples, e.g., " H e r r e n g r u n d e n B e r g g r ü n "
f r o m Spania D o l i n a a n d "Scheidewasser" ("lúcavka") f r o m K r e m n i c a , were sent to her.
D u k e C h a r l e s of L o r r a i n e also r e c e i v e d 19 s a m p l e s f r o m S p a n i a D o l i n a , 35 f r o m
K r e m n i c a a n d 77 f r o m the r e g i o n of Banská Stiavnica i n A p r i l 1769.
The e n d u r i n g interest i n samples of minerals a n d rocks also brought certain p r o b lems. Some m i n i n g officers, especially w h e n operating further f r o m the sight of the
M C h E O , used the m i n e r a l samples for their o w n enrichment. This, of course, the
authorities d i d not like, because the m i n i n g plants were l o s i n g the profit f r o m selling
" K r i s t a l l d r u s e " (throngs of crystals) a n d other samples, a n d the ruler was l o s i n g his tax
(Frohn, Zehend). T o thwart this arbitrary h a n d l i n g w i t h the property of the state, v a r i ous amendments a n d regulations were issued. For example i n 1780, subordinate officers
were threatened that, if they collected the samples w i t h o u t the p r e v i o u s order of the
superior authorities a n d s o l d them w i t h o u t the appropriate v a l u a t i o n a n d taxation, they
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w o u l d be strictly p u n i s h e d , even losing their job. N o t to thwart the access to the m i n i n g
areas, m i n i n g w o r k s , p r o d u c t i o n b u i l d i n g s a n d interesting samples of m i n e r a l s a n d
rocks to the real a d m i r e r s of m i n i n g a n d nature, they s h o u l d a p p l y for a special perm i s s i o n of the C C h . O f f i c i a l m i n e r a l dealers s h o u l d also receive a licence to collect or
b u y minerals i n the m i n i n g areas. T h u s , i n 1804, a dealer f r o m V i e n n a , N . M o r a v e k ,
g a i n e d p e r m i s s i o n to travel a r o u n d the m i n i n g factories of H u n g a r y a n d T r a n s i l v a n i a
(part of R o m a n i a ) . O n e year later, a c c o r d i n g to his g o o d r e p u t a t i o n a n d k e e p i n g to the
terms of p a y m e n t , the C C h r e n e w e d his p e r m i s s i o n .
The p o s s i b i l i t y of s e l l i n g b e a u t i f u l samples d r o v e e v e n some m i n e r s to i l l e g a l acts.
A s a n example, consider the case of three contract m i n e r s f r o m K r e m n i c a i n 1766. F o r
stealing the ore samples f r o m their u n d e r g r o u n d w o r k p l a c e i n the L e o p o l d shaft, one
of t h e m w a s p u n i s h e d w i t h 40 strokes b y stick, his m i n i n g leather a p r o n ('osliador')
w a s confiscated a n d he w a s d e p r i v e d of the p o s s i b i l i t y to w o r k at any state o w n e d
m i n i n g factory. The second got 30 strokes b y stick a n d w a s p r o h i b i t e d to w o r k at any
state o w n e d factory. The t h i r d w a s p u t i n jail for 8 days.
It w o u l d be possible to continue i n
i n t r o d u c i n g v a r i o u s examples of actions
related to collecting, describing a n d p l a c i n g as w e l l as selling of samples
of
m i n e r a l s a n d rocks. H o w e v e r , I o n l y
w a n t e d to p o i n t out the possibilities of
u s i n g the a r c h i v a l d o c u m e n t s
for the
clarification of different aspects of this
problem.
Models of mines and technical
machinery
M o d e l s of p e r i o d objects d i s p l a y e d
at m u s e u m s arouse interest of the lay as
w e l l as professional p u b l i c . The creation
of m o d e l s relating to the C e n t r a l S l o v a k i a n m i n i n g r e g i o n h a d several reasons.
T h e y w e r e created to serve as i l l u s t r a tive aids for u n d e r s t a n d i n g already
existing objects, b u t also as a certain
v i s i o n (e.g., the p l a n of a n e w construct i o n solution). The f o l l o w i n g examples
f r o m a r c h i v a l d o c u m e n t s w i l l tell u s
s o m e t h i n g m o r e about their creators
a n d users (Fig. 2).
The m e n t i o n of the m o d e l of a w i n d
s m e l t i n g furnace dates b a c k to 1653.
D a n i e l D a v i d M o s s m a n n w a s p a i d 12
Reichstalers for it. T h r e e m o d e l s of
Stiavnica's m i n e s cost 1039 florins a n d
Fig. 2. Mining worker by the water column
machine in the shaft. Detail from the mining map
dating back to the 2nd half of the 18th century.
Winkler Prins & Donovan. Proc. VII Int. Symp. 'Cultural Heritage in Geosciences,./. Scripta Geol., Spec. Issue 4 (2004)
185
35 r e d cents i n 1739. T h e y w e r e created b y the assistant (adjunkt) of a m i n i n g inspector, Frantisek G a l l . M o d e l s of Stiavnica's mines w i t h water p u m p i n g machines of J.K.
H e l l w e r e also created b y the m i n i n g s u r v e y o r J.T. B r i n n . H e w a s a p p r o v e d a r e w a r d
of m o r e t h a n 400 f l o r i n s b y the C o u r t C h a m b e r . O n different occasions there w e r e
created several m o d e l s of H e l l ' s water c o l u m n p u m p s . I n 1745, its i n v e n t o r Jozef
K a r o l H e l l [inventor a n d construtor; Banská Stiavnica, 16.5.1713 - i b i d e m , 11.3.1789;
he s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n t r i b u t e d to the d e v e l o p m e n t of m i n i n g i n B a n s k á Stiavnica]
received 200 florins as a r e f u n d for his expenses connected to the construction of this
m o d e l . A n o t h e r m o d e l of this m a c h i n e w a s constructed b y H e l l o n the occasion of the
visit of the E m p e r o r Francis of L o r r a i n e i n Banská Stiavnica i n 1751. T h i s time he o n l y
asked for the r e p a y m e n t of material a n d metal w o r k e r s ' p a y , w h i c h w a s 83 florins.
T h i s m o d e l w a s p l a c e d i n a m e e t i n g r o o m of the M C h E O w h e r e the p r i n c i p l e of h o w
this r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n v e n t i o n w o r k s w a s demonstrated to the E m p e r o r . I n the same
year, 111 florins a n d 45 r e d cents w e r e p a i d for another m o d e l of H e l l ' s m a c h i n e . It
w a s b u i l t b y A d a m V i e t o r at the suggestion of the C h a m b e r E a r l M a y e r [ K a r o l
T h e o b a l d v o n M a y e r , the M a i n C h a m b e r E a r l i n Banská Stiavnica i n 1747-1749.] The
r e w a r d represented the s u m of purchase expenses for i r o n a n d several w e e k s ' p a y of
the constructor (3 florins per week).
In A p r i l 1766, the Rector of a C o l l e g e i n W a r t b e r g a p p l i e d to the M C h E O to construct f u n c t i o n a l m o d e l s of p u m p m a c h i n e s ; fire m a c h i n e , air m a c h i n e a n d w a t e r
c o l u m n m a c h i n e . H e gave as a reason that his office h a d a d u t y to enable students to
become f a m i l i a r w i t h s o l v i n g p r o b l e m s of m e c h a n i c a l a n d h y d r a u l i c machines not
o n l y theoretically, but m a i n l y practically, a n d thus p r e p a r i n g t h e m to be able to p e r f o r m
higher w o r k i n g positions as best as they c o u l d .
Several interns a r r i v i n g i n Banská Stiavnica f r o m a l l parts of A u s t i a n - H u n g a r i a n
M o n a r c h y to i m p r o v e themselves i n m i n i n g u s e d to construct or h a v e constructed
different m o d e l s . Some of t h e m constructed for the reason to be able to r e c a l l the
i n d i v i d u a l machines after the a r r i v a l to mother or other enterprises, the others u s e d
t h e m as designs for i m p r o v i n g existing machines. F o r example, i n 1745, the i n t e r n J . A .
v o n Steinberg f r o m Idrija (a t o w n i n S l o v e n i a w i t h i m p o r t a n t m e r c u r y mines) constructed t w o m o d e l s of his o w n d e s i g n of the m a c h i n e r y u s e d for e c o n o m i c a l 24 h o u r s
performance of ore c r u s h i n g ('stupa', T u c h w e r c k ' ) . The E a r l F e r d i n a n d L u d w i g v o n
H a r s c h , a former a d v i s o r i n the B o h e m i a n K i n g d o m w h o a r r i v e d to Banská Stiavnica
i n 1762 as a n intern, h a d constructed for h i m s e l f the w h o l e collection of m o d e l s (e.g.,
water c o l u m n machine, air m a c h i n e a n d fire m a c h i n e , " s t a n g e n k u n s t " (water p u m p ) ,
ore treatment devices " s t u p a " , ore w a s h i n g devices, as w e l l as m o d e l s of the m a c h i n e r y
f r o m the m i n t i n K r e m n i c a , a n d other mechanisms.) M o d e l s h a d to serve h i m for p r o v i d i n g a t h o r o u g h k n o w l e d g e a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h o w this m a c h i n e r y w o r k e d . A l l
m o d e l s w e r e created at his o w n expense. Before his departure to V i e n n a he left some
of t h e m i n Banská Stiavnica, but he w a n t e d to take others w i t h h i m . Several p r o b l e m s
arose i n connection w i t h this, because e v e n after the r e d u c t i o n of their n u m b e r there
w e r e still m a n y . A l t h o u g h they w e r e taken to pieces a n d thus transported, 14 boxes
w e r e necessary to pack t h e m a l l , a n d a special cargo c a r r y i n g horse d r a w n cart h a d to
be u s e d . A s they h a d to be taken to pieces before the transportation, they w e r e accomp a n i e d b y a p e r s o n w h o w a s able to reassemble t h e m . E v e r y t h i n g t u r n e d out w e l l .
The s h i p m e n t for the E a r l H a r s c h left Banská Stiavnica i n A p r i l 1764 w i t h the regular
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" S i l b e r f u h r " a n d w a s a c c o m p a n i e d b y t w o people; chief engine keeper (Oberkunst­
steiger) Ζ. N e u s e h l a n d a s k i l l e d carpenter. In 1780, another C z e c h intern, A u g u s t i n
Wüst, a r r i v e d w i t h the d e s i g n of a n e w m a c h i n e for p l a i t i n g m i n i n g ropes. The C h i e f
E n g i n e M a s t e r , J.K. H e l l , c o u l d not j u d g e f r o m the presented p l a n a n d d e t a i l e d
d e s c r i p t i o n the w o r k i n g efficiency of this machine. H e suggested construction of a
m o d e l . The keeper of the water p u m p s of the M C h E O , Pototschka, w a s p u t i n charge
for this d u t y . The professor of mechanics at the A c a d e m y i n Banská Stiavnica, Ján
Selecky, expressed his v i e w c o n c e r n i n g Wüst's design. H e p r a i s e d the diligence a n d
inventiveness of the intern, b u t he c o n f i r m e d that the m a c h i n e w a s v e r y c u m b e r s o m e
a n d d e m a n d e d a lot of h u m a n w o r k , w h i c h is w h y he i m p r o v e d Wüst's d e s i g n b y h i s
o w n ideas. These were later i n c o r p o r a t e d into Pototschky's m o d e l a c c o r d i n g to w h i c h
a n e w m a c h i n e w a s to be constructed Professor Selecky also d e s i g n e d the i m p r o v e ­
ments of the r o l l i n g m a c h i n e for the K r e m n i c a ' s m i n t . The m o d e l , a c c o r d i n g to
Selecky's d e s i g n , w a s created b y the carpentry master W a l l n e r , f r o m Banská Bystrica.
T h i s i m p r o v e d machine, after testing the m o d e l , w a s also p r o p o s e d for construction.
H i s d e s i g n that c o n t i n u e d w a s the i m p r o v e m e n t of the device for vertical transport of
ore a n d water ( G a p p l ) . Professors of mechanics were expected to contribute to the
i m p r o v e m e n t of existing technical m a c h i n e r y i n different p r o d u c t i o n plants. These
professors, as w e l l as those i n other branches of s t u d y , h a d to d o their best to offer
students as m u c h i n f o r m a t i o n i n their g i v e n f i e l d as possible. T e a c h i n g t h r o u g h the
f u n c t i o n a l m o d e l s w a s a v e r y intelligible a n d effective w a y .
N o t o n l y students of m i n i n g a n d m e t a l l u r g i c a l branches w e r e i n contact w i t h
m o d e l s of b u i l d i n g s a n d m a c h i n e r y , as s h o w n b y the e x a m p l e of the Forestry Institute
( M i n i n g a n d Forestry A c a d e m y of Banská Stiavnica). This Institute h a d its o w n cabinet
of m o d e l s . It is s a i d that it w a s l a c k i n g m a i n l y the m o d e l s of different water w o r k s .
That is w h y , at the e n d of 1838, M C h E O asked the Office of Saltworks i n the M a r m a r o s
r e g i o n ( U k r a i n e ­ R o m a n i a ) for m o d e l s of water d a m m e d reservoirs for w o o d trans­
p o r t a t i o n (Klause), r i v e r r e t a i n i n g devices s e r v i n g for catching of the floated w o o d
(Rechen), a n d other devices o n r i v e r f l o w s . W h e n the office w a s not able to d e l i v e r the
r e q u i r e d m o d e l s i n one year, professor Feistmantel [ R u d o l f Feistmantel, V i e n n a ­
O t t a k r i n g , 22.7.1805 ­ V i e n n a , 7.2.1871; 1835­1847 h e a d of the Forestry Institute a n d
Professor of Forestry at the M i n i n g A c a d e m y i n Banská Stiavnica] suggested that they
a p p l y for h e l p f r o m the M i n i n g M a n a g e m e n t of the r e g i o n of Banská Bystrica. Some
m o r e " K l a u s e " w e r e f o u n d at that time i n the u p p e r f l o w of the R i v e r H r o n . A d i s ­
m a n t l e d m o d e l of one s u c h d a m construction w a s created b y J. K a r t n e r , master of
b u i l d i n g s a n d ' " r a k e s " ('Rechen'; r i v e r r e t a i n i n g devices s e r v i n g to catch the floated
w o o d ) i n Banská Bystrica, w i t h the h e l p of one j oiner. T h i s m o d e l , together w i t h the
d e s c r i p t i o n a n d notes, w a s d e l i v e r e d to Professor Feistmantel i n A p r i l 1840. F i f t y
florins a n d 7 1 / 2 r e d cents w e r e charged for the m a t e r i a l a n d w o r k .
C o n s t r u c t i o n of m o d e l s i n the C e n t r a l S l o v a k i a n r e g i o n w a s the most c o m m o n ,
b u t not the o n l y , w a y of g a i n i n g t h e m for the cabinet of m o d e l s of the M C h E O or for
the A c a d e m y . Except f r o m the already m e n t i o n e d efforts to g a i n m o d e l s of v a r i o u s
water w o r k s for the Forestry Institute f r o m M a r m a r o s , there are m o r e examples. I n
1782, C C h sent a detailed d e s c r i p t i o n a n d m o d e l s of t w o processing machines to B a n ­
ská Stiavnica that w e r e sent there for a n expert o p i n i o n b y their creator, A . S c h i l l i n g ,
f r o m Kitzbühl i n T y r o l (Austria). A s they w e r e not usable for practical purposes at
Winkler Prins & Donovan. Proc. VII Int. Symp. 'Cultural Heritage in Geosciences,Scripta Geol., Spec. Issue 4 (2004)
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that time, they were p l a c e d i n the cabinet of m o d e l s of the M C h E O or, p o s s i b l y , u s e d
for teaching at the Forestry Institute. C o n t r a r y , the m o d e l of a n e w p i s t o n p a d d i n g
w h i c h w a s i n t r o d u c e d a n d successfully u s e d i n P r i b r a m ( C z e c h R e p u b l i c ) w a s sent
f r o m V i e n n a to Banská Stiavnica for the practical use.
W h o k n o w s w h i c h of these a n d other m o d e l s m e n t i o n e d i n a r c h i v a l d o c u m e n t s
still exist today, a n d if they do, w h e t h e r they are correctly specified? In case they are
not preserved a n d there is a n interest to construct a m o d e l of a certain object f r o m the
p e r i o d of 18th-19th century, y o u can f i n d h e l p i n archives. Besides documents, m a n y
historical plans a n d b o o k s are p l a c e d there, a n d a f u n c t i o n a l m o d e l of a n o l d m a c h i n e
can be constructed e v e n today w i t h their h e l p . T h i s is the w a y the S l o v a k M i n i n g
M u s e u m i n Banská Stiavnica e n r i c h e d its collection of m o d e l s .
Pictures, statues and other artistic monuments
Banská Stiavnica u s e d to be one of the free r o y a l m i n i n g t o w n s . The M a i n C h a m ber Earl's Office w a s the chief office for m a n a g i n g m i n i n g enterprises a n d matters i n
the C e n t r a l S l o v a k i a n area. The task of the State m i n i n g management w a s to take care
of churches, schools a n d other needs of its employees as w e l l as c o m m o n miners.
T h a n k s to this, the d o c u m e n t s relating to different m o n u m e n t s of art are p l a c e d i n the
m i n i n g archives. F o r example, i n the s u m m e r of 1744 the picture of J o h n the Baptist
w a s a c q u i r e d b y Stiavnica's office for the c h u r c h i n K o l p a c h y [ K o l p a c h y , B a n s k y
Studenec at present, is a v i l l a g e at 5 k m f r o m B a n s k á S t i a v n i c a ; it b e l o n g e d u n d e r
the M a n a g e m e n t of the Sásov C h a m b e r Estate.] It w a s p l a n n e d for it to be arranged
the same w a y as i n the c h u r c h i n Jalná [a v i l l a g e b e l o n g i n g i n the 18th century u n d e r
the M a n a g e m e n t of the S á s o v C h a m b e r Estate.]
The d u t y of m i n i n g offices w a s to organise processions of m i n e r s o n the occasion
of certain religious h o l i d a y s . Several p r o b l e m s arose w i t h a local painter K i t s c h at the
t u r n of the 1760s-1770s i n connection w i t h the p r e p a r a t i o n of the procession i n h o n o u r
of the C o r p u s C h r i s t i H o l i d a y i n Banská Bystrica. H e suggested that he w o u l d create
t w o altars of his o w n d e s i g n for the chamber of Banská Bystrica. A s he requested 130
florins for this w o r k , the m i n i n g manager M a r z a n i f r o m Banská Bystrica a p p e a l e d to
the painter A . S c h m i d t to present his o w n design. S c h m i d t d e s i g n e d a n altar that
w o u l d l o o k l i k e a gallery. M i n i n g management l i k e d it, b u t for some reason the p l a n
w a s not carried out. The painter K i t s c h r e s p o n d e d again. W h e n he d i d not get the
order even after the repeated offer, he requested his d r a w i n g s a n d a financial r e f u n d to
the a m o u n t of 5-6 florins for his d r a w i n g s of altars a n d for p a i n t i n g t h e m a n d travell i n g costs to V i e n n a . The d e c i s i o n of the State M a n a g e m e n t w a s as f o l l o w s ; to r e t u r n
the d r a w i n g s to h i m , b u t the f i n a n c i a l requirement w a s rejected. The file states as a
reason that he c o u l d have u s e d the b o u g h t c o l o u r for another order, for e x a m p l e , for
the w o r k at a castle c h u r c h i n Banská B y s t r i c a d o n e i n 1772. M o r e w r i t t e n d o c u m e n t s
a n d picture f r o m the sphere of c h u r c h b u i l d i n g s a n d religious themes can be f o u n d i n
the archives. Plans of churches, altars, altar pictures, bells, statues, p l a g u e c o l u m n s ,
etc., especially f r o m the C e n t r a l S l o v a k i a n area, b u t also elsewhere, are p r e s e r v e d
(Fig. 3) [for example: the C a l v a r y a n d the P l a g u e c o l u m n i n Banská Stiavnica, the
H o l y T r i n i t y c o l u m n i n K r e m n i c a , the altar i n N a g y m a r o s (Hungary).]
Portraits of c h a m b e r earls b e l o n g to another category. T h e y are p l a c e d at the
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Fig. 3. Plan of the sculpture of Immaculaty built in Kosice in 1722. (Gottfried Pfautz)
Winkler Prins k Donovan. Proc. VII Int. Symp. 'Cultural Heritage in Geosciences,..'. Scripta Geol., Spec. Issue 4 (2004)
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S l o v a k M i n i n g M u s e u m i n Banská Stiavnica. (This collection has already been presented i n a f r a m e w o r k of the Heritage S y m p o s i u m b y the author; for example i n
L e o b e n i n 1995.) N o t o n l y documents concerning the life a n d w o r k activity of p i c t u r e d
chamber earls are p l a c e d i n S C M A , but also the s u p p o r t i n g documents to pictures
themselves can be f o u n d there as w e l l . For example, a d o c u m e n t f r o m 1775 says that
after the death of the M C h E O director J . A . A d á m y , " c h a r m i n g portraits of L o w e r H u n g a r i a n M a i n C h a m b e r E a r l s " were bought f r o m his heirs. They were to be installed
at a meeting r o o m of the M C h E O a n d i n June the M a i n Treasury p a i d 66 florins a n d
46 r e d cents to Adamy's heirs.
G r a n d spaces of the M C h E O were decorated w i t h portraits of rulers as w e l l . For
example, before the a r r i v a l of Francis of L o r r a i n e to Banská Stiavnica i n 1751, pictures
of M a r i a Theresia a n d her h u s b a n d Francis of L o r r a i n e were d i s p l a y e d at the meeting
r o o m of the M C h E O . T h e y were p a i n t e d b y J.J. D o l l e n s t e i n f r o m V i e n n a . H e w a s p a i d
213 florins a n d 20 r e d cents for t h e m b y the M a i n Treasury i n Banská Stiavnica. A p o r trait of the n e w E m p e r o r Francis II w a s d e l i v e r e d f r o m V i e n n a to Banská Stiavnica o n
December the 30th. It w a s determined for the meeting r o o m as w e l l . Its price i n c l u d i n g
the frame a n d package w a s 75 florins a n d 5 r e d cents. A s m a l l piece of paper enclosed
w i t h the d o c u m e n t (maybe f r o m the author of the picture) says that the p o r t r a i t h a d
to be p l a c e d i n a w a r m r o o m for 14 days u n t i l it w a s completely d r y a n d then egg
w h i t e w a s to be a p p l i e d o n it. R u l e r s are r e m i n d e d as w e l l b y d e s c r i p t i o n s of arches
of t r i u m p h b u i l t o n the occasion of their visits; b y shooting targets installed o n these
occasions for the f u n of them, members of their suite or chosen local representatives;
b y m e m o r i a l tablets o n t o w n b u i l d i n g s a n d m i n i n g w o r k s h o p s , etc.; a n d b y coins a n d
m e m o r i a l medals w i t h their portraits.
C o i n s , m e d a l s a n d other s i m i l a r objects
The a r c h i v a l d o c u m e n t a t i o n of c o m m o n coins, as w e l l as to m e m o r i a l coins a n d
medals, is very r i c h (numerous) a n d diverse i n S C M A . It is connected w i t h the h u n d r e d year o l d activity of the K r e m n i c a m i n t [the m i n t i n K r e m n i c a w a s first d o c u m e n t e d i n
1238, a n d is still operating.] D o c u m e n t s concern the m i n t devices, p r e p a r a t i o n of r a w
materials, engravers of m i n t i n g devices a n d other employees, types a n d resemblance
of coins themselves, a n d their amount, d i s t r i b u t i o n , etc.
O n the occasion of the visit of the E m p e r o r Stephan of Lorraine i n Banská Stiavnica
a n d K r e m n i c a i n 1751, large, m e d i u m a n d s m a l l size g o l d a n d silver m e m o r i a l coins
were m i n t e d w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g to the exact specification d e t e r m i n e d b y C C h , were dist r i b u t e d a m o n g the r e g i o n a l a n d l o c a l d i g n i t a r i e s as w e l l as to the m i n i n g officers.
Different k i n d s of s m a l l coins w e r e d e t e r m i n e d for w o r k e r s . C e r t a i n p r o b l e m s arose
w i t h the m i n t i n g of the V I I - r e d c o i n w i t h the portrait of the E m p e r o r . A c c o r d i n g to the
reference of the M a i n C h a m b e r E a r l , it is said that there w a s n o resemblance between
the portrait a n d the emperor, especially the nose w a s shapeless a n d v e r y b i g . T h u s the
C h a m b e r E a r l o r d e r e d the s m e l t i n g of a l l of the m i n t e d coins a n d i n case the engraver
of m i n t i n g devices Sebastian D o n n e r f r o m K r e m n i c a w a s not be able to repair it, the
o r i g i n a l w a s o r d e r e d to be destroyed a n d m a d e again. Six pieces of the V I I - r e d coins
were delivered to Banská Stiavnica a n d were to be placed i n the office safe. ( W h o k n o w s
w h e r e these u n i q u e pieces e n d e d u p ? M a y b e at a m u s e u m ? )
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In 1854, m e m o r i a l coins w e r e m i n t e d o n the occasion of the w e d d i n g of the
E m p e r o r Francis Josef I a n d B a v a r i a n Princess E l i z a b e t h . U n l i k e i n the past, w h e n
jettons were d i s t r i b u t e d o n s u c h occasions, it w a s agreed that m e m o r i a l coins w o u l d
be m a d e (thalers a n d florins). In F e b r u a r y , the M a i n C o i n Office i n V i e n n a asked
K r e m n i c a m i n t for 3000 " h r i v n a " of p u r e silver for their p r o d u c t i o n [1 h r i v n a (marka)
= 0.28068 k g ; h r i v n a (marka) - o l d u n i t of w e i g h t a n d coin.] C o i n s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d to
m i n i n g officers a c c o r d i n g to the size of their income. M e m o r i a l coins w e r e m i n t e d to
c o m m e m o r a t e other events as w e l l . F o r example, i n 1766, o n the occasion of successful
f i n i s h i n g of the hereditary gallery of E m p e r o r Francis.
D u r i n g the reconstruction of the c h u r c h i n Z a r n o v i c a i n 1772 [Zarnovica is a village
at 19 k m f r o m Banská Stiavnica. The M a n a g e m e n t of the Reviste C h a m b e r Estate seated
there i n the 18th century. A n important silver smelting w o r k s a n d a chamber b r e w e r y
were situated there.] a treasure w a s f o u n d . O n e h u n d r e d a n d seventy five pieces of o l d
ducats, it is said f r o m the times of the reign of K i n g Z i g m u n d of H u n g a r y [ Z i g m u n d of
L u x e m b u r g w a s K i n g of H u n g a r y f r o m 1387 to 1437], were b u r i e d not so deep i n the
g r o u n d u n d e r the m a i n altar; M C h E O offerred to b u y these ducats f r o m the c h u r c h at a
current price of a foreign currency, that is 4 florins a n d 18 red coins per piece, w h i c h
were to be sent for study purposes to V i e n n a . O n the document of the M C h E O sent to
the C C h s h o u l d have been the prints of ducats there. O n a draft of this document that
remained i n the archives of the M C h E O , o n l y the places of the prints are m a r k e d (where
the p r i n t of the front side a n d the back side of the ducat was o n original).
O n the other h a n d , a d o c u m e n t f r o m 1798 p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n about the usage of
m o n e y w i t h o u t their o w n v a l u e . It mentions an i n t r o d u c t i o n of w o o d e n m o n e y tokens
u s e d for p a y i n g the w o r k e r s i n some m i n i n g factories i n Spis [ Spis, a h i s t o r i c a l area i n
the north-east part of Slovakia.] These imitations of real (valid) m o n e y c o u l d o n l y be
used i n certain shops u s u a l l y o w n e d b y the employer. It is valuable that w i t h this d o c u ment the w h o l e series of these tokens w a s preserved.
W o r k tokens, i n its true m e a n i n g of the w o r d , were i n t r o d u c e d b y the C h a m b e r
estate i n L i p t o v s k y H r á d o k i n 1812. For registering the c o m p l e t e d a n d prescribed
w o r k b y v i l l e i n s w i t h a team of horses, it o r d e r e d 100 pieces of brass tokens for 4 r e d
coins per piece; to register one-day w o r k w i t h half a team of horses, it o r d e r e d 200
pieces of y e l l o w tokens for 3 r e d coins per piece; a n d i n exchange for one-day w o r k of
a v i l l e i n w i t h o u t a team of horses (manual w o r k ) , it ordered 700 tokens f r o m tin-plated
(white) i r o n plate for one a n d half r e d coins per piece.
E v e n the fakes of real (valid) m o n e y are m e n t i o n e d i n the documents. For example,
the s k i l f u l s m i t h Juraj K o w a t s c h i k f r o m the w o o d c u t t e r ' s settlement of D o b r o c ( n o w a
part of the settlement of C i e r n y Balog) m a d e i n 1817 85 pieces of 20-red coins, also
k n o w n as m o n e y w i t h a head, a portrait of the E m p e r o r . H e also successfully
exchanged these coins for g o l d coins of V i e n n a , b u t w a s caught a n d p u t i n jail.
In M a y 1745, 1000 pieces of copper plates were m a d e for the D u t c h M i n t Office
( S C M A , M C h E O , doc. n o . 153/11/1745) i n K r e m n i c a m i n t a n d i n J u l y of the same
year, the M i n t Office i n K r e m n i c a received s m a l l a n d large D u t c h melting-pots for the
p r e p a r a t i o n of the m i n t a l l o y ( " H o l l e n d i s c h e n Nürnberger T ä g l n " ) . M a n y d o c u m e n t s
illustrate the b u y i n g of D u t c h , E n g l i s h a n d other f o r e i g n coins to g a i n r a w materials
for m i n t i n g K r e m n i c a ducats. I n 1802, the b u y i n g of D u t c h ducats took place to g a i n
g o l d a n d silver for m i n t i n g a significant a m o u n t of m o n e y n e e d e d for the state lottery.
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Fig. 4. Measures used at smelting works in Zarnovica (Slovakia). 1775.
M i n i n g measures, units of weight, and other m e a s u r i n g devices
Special measures a n d units of w e i g h t were u s e d i n the m i n i n g a n d m e t a l l u r g i c a l
branches, different ones i n i n d i v i d u a l m i n i n g areas. F o r e x a m p l e , i n m e t a l l u r g y it
h e l p e d to keep the p r o d u c t i o n processes a secret, b u t o n the other h a n d it c o m p l i c a t e d
the c o m p a r i s o n of the p r o d u c t i o n costs, orientation i n the field, m a i n l y the d e t e r m i n i n g
of the distances based o n m i n i n g m a p s a n d plans.
To become familiar w i t h the p e r i o d measures, m a p s a n d plans are v e r y h e l p f u l . O l d
units of length can be studied o n the basis of illustrated measures a n d measures m a r k e d
b y w o r d s . U n i t s of capacity can be also f o u n d i n a w r i t t e n a n d picture f o r m . T h e d o c u ment of the M C h E O f r o m 1775, about the convertion of measures u s e d i n the M C h E O
district into the V i e n n a measures w a s a contribution to this f i e l d of study together w i t h
the tables a n d d r a w i n g s of Professor Tierenberger. P e r i o d m e a s u r i n g devices a n d other
surveyor aids are p i c t u r e d o n several separat plans a n d d r a w i n g s a d d e d to the m i n i n g
maps. F r o m the documents w e can also recognise producers, measure controllers, k i n d s
a n d amounts of aids used i n certain w o r k i n g places, etc. (Fig. 4).
W o r k i n g and c e r e m o n i a l c l o t h i n g , and working tools of miners and metal workers
W h e n b e c o m i n g acquainted w i t h objects f r o m a certain p e r i o d a n d f i e l d , f i l e d a n d
p i c t o r i a l materials serve the best. I n the files, c l o t h i n g of m i n e r s a n d m i n i n g officers is
m e n t i o n e d o n the occasion of p r e p a r i n g for the visits of i m p o r t a n t guests, occasional
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processions, official d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the u n i f o r m , etc. F o r example, the u n i f o r m s of
the l o w e r r a n k e d m i n i n g officers a n d w o r k e r s f r o m the C e n t r a l S l o v a k i a n r e g i o n are
described i n detail i n a d o c u m e n t f r o m 1858. L i t h o g r a p h i c pictures of m i n e r s dressed
i n these u n i f o r m s are enclosed w i t h the d o c u m e n t .
M a p s a n d p l a n s f r o m different m i n i n g areas are s u p p l e m e n t e d b y pictures of
m i n e r s , m i n i n g keepers, s u r v e y o r s , etc. E s p e c i a l l y w h e n presented i n c o l o u r , the
d r a w i n g s are of significant v a l u e . Persons s h o w n o n the m a p s u s u a l l y carry i n their
h a n d s or close to t h e m w o r k i n g tools. A p a r t f r o m that, special plans of w o r k i n g tools
of miners, metal w o r k e r s a n d foresters can also be f o u n d .
O t h e r k i n d s of m u s e u m c o l l e c t i o n s
B u i l d i n g a n d technical m e m o r i a l s can be f o u n d i n S C M A w h i c h are a d m i n i s t e r e d
b y m u s e u m s , other organizations or private persons. A l s o , d o c u m e n t s o n m u n i c i p a l
a n d factory clocks, clock masters, m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s , pieces of m u s i c a n d their
authors, w e a p o n s a n d w a r fortresses. A r c h i v a l material preserves different k i n d s of
seals a n d o l d postage stamps. M a n y precious b o o k s f r o m different fields of s t u d y are
registered i n inventories of the office a n d school libraries. Different laboratory devices
a n d tools are d r a w n i n school theses of the students of the A c a d e m y . Inventories of
m e d i c a l , butcher's a n d d a i r y e q u i p m e n t are registered.