b. Strict interpretation of the Constitution c. Public

Age of Jefferson
a. Smaller government (state over federal)
b. Strict interpretation of the Constitution
c. Public good over private interests
d. Virtue – educated farmers
e. Does not believe Black and Whites can live together
f. Does believe Native Americans and Whites can live together
a. Slashed expenditures
1) closed embassies, reduced the army, repeal taxes
b. Repealed Judiciary Act of 1801
1) Adams reduced Supreme Court Justices from 6 to 5 and
added 16 federal judgeships
2) “Midnight Appointments” – before leaving office, Adams
appoints 16 federal judges (Federalists)
c. Upheld judicial review, but attempted to impeach Federalist
Foreign Challenges
North Africa
Tripoli declares war with the US – 1796
No British naval protection
US pays Barbary pirates $1 million to stop ship seizure
Quasi-War History - 1798
Jefferson opposed strengthening the navy as too
Tripolitan War – 1801 to 1805
Cheaper to go to war rather than continue to pay higher
Britain – Rise of Napoleon
1805 – American merchant ships seized going into French
1807 – Embargo Act (Peaceable Coercion)
US refuses to trade with England and France
Owned East Florida, Port of New Orleans, West Florida
Territory turned over to France (Napoleon ruler)
Spain gave territory to France
Napoleon’s vision: French empire in New World, Louisiana to
become the breadbasket for the new empire, hub of empire
in Haiti and Dominican Republic
Jefferson’s Vision: “Empire of Liberty”
Western expansion by free and virtuous American people
The Spark
Port of New Orleans is the only port for western farmers ($3 mil)
1802 – right to use port is revoked by Spain (blamed on Bonaparte)
Louisiana Purchase
France faced slave rebellion in Caribbean – cannot secure empire
US purchased territory as France needed money
Sold for $15 million - .13 ½ cents/acre
Doubled size of the US – not an enumerated power of the Federal government
Contradiction – Elastic Clause
Land would promote republican liberty – goes against strict interpretation of the
Election 1804:
12th Amendment – Separate and distinct ballots for presidential and vice-presidential
Federalists – no national issue
Aaron Burr – tie in Electoral College; courts the Federalists
Jefferson – purchased Louisiana territory; starts to pay off debt
Lewis and Clark Expedition:
Objective: Find a water route across the continent
Sacajawea – served as guide
Mapping of the new territory
Expedition is interpreted as diplomatic by Native
Jefferson’s Second Term
Napoleonic Wars – US Becomes a Pawn
Homefront Challenges
Aaron Burr, Vice President
Involved himself in activities without
government consent
a. joined a pro-British group
b. created an independent confederacy
(west) to conquer Mexico and invade
West Florida
c. Fled to Europe to set up an AngloFrench invasion of the US
John Randolph - Quids
Extremist – every government action
threatened liberty
Jefferson’s policies are no longer this
Randolph’s spark – Yazoo Land Scandal
a. Compromise – land investors received
5 million acres
Foreign Challenges
Trade prior to 1805 – British Rule of 1756
If trade was closed during peacetime, it could not be opened during war
Back-door policy: American ships unload products then classify products as American products
Spark: Britain declares total war on France
Britain’s Decree: British Orders in Council
Blockade of French-controlled ports
French Response: Continental System
Objective: Make Europe self-sufficient and isolate Britain
Ships that obey British orders would be subject to French seizure
Result: US ships are seized
British search most American ships leaving port
Impressment enacted for the Royal Navy
British sailors desertion rates high = increased rates of searches
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
British board the Chesapeake-US citizens are enraged
Result: Embargo Act of 1807 (Peaceable Coercion)
US suspends trade with France and Britain
Impact: British found new markets
Loopholes – American ships blown off course can
dock in European ports
Americans bear the brunt of the embargo
a. 30,000 seamen unemployed
b. merchants go bankrupt
c. debtors jails filled up
d. farmers unable to export products
e. New England most impacted—port cities
People clamor for war
The Up Side
Capital diverted to manufacturing
Election of 1808:
Federalist – have a national issue – oppose the Embargo Act of 1807 (revived)
young Federalists gain voters by popular techniques – barbecues, mass meetings
James and Dolly Madison
Repealed Embargo Act replaced with Non-Intercourse Acts-1809
Trade opened with all nations except Britain and France
Exception – President can restore trade with B&F if neutral
rights were not violated
Macon’s Bill No. 2 -1810
Opened trade with B&F
If either nation repealed restrictions, US would halt trade with
the other
Result of failed “Peaceable Coercion” Policy
Economic Recession
War hawks - Militant Republicans (South and West)
Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, Richard Johnson, William King
War Hawk Agenda
Expel British from Canada – fear recruitment of Native Americans
Expel Spain from Florida
"No tribe has the right to sell, even to each other, much less to
strangers.... Sell a country! Why not sell the air, the great sea, as well as
the earth? Didn't the Great Spirit make them all for the use of his
The way, the only way to stop this evil is for the red man to unite in
claiming a common and equal right in the land, as it was first, and should
be now, for it was never divided."
We gave them forest-clad mountains and valleys full of game, and in
return what did they give our warriors and our women? Rum, trinkets,
and a grave.
Brothers -- My people wish for peace; the red men all wish for peace;but
where the white people are, there is no peace for them, except it be on
the bosom of our mother. Where today are the Pequot?
Where today are the Narrangansett, the Mohican, the Pakanoket,
and many other once powerful tribes of our people?
Treaty of Fort Wayne – 1809
Jefferson and Madison: Compensate Native Americans for their land if they gave up
traditional lifestyles
Reality: Settlers sign away land for liquor, guns, blankets
William Henry Harrison: Negotiated with Native Americans who did not have land
Treaty: Native Americans ceded millions of acres (2 cents/acre)
Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa: Outraged, together they revitalize their culture
Tecumseh – strategist
Tenskwatawa – visionary
Prophetstown – Battle of Tippecanoe
Tenskwatawa attacks Harrison’s camp
Significance: Harrison became a national hero
“Tippecanoe and Tyler Too” help elect him as president
Tecumseh became leader of western tribes
Tecumseh allies with the British
War of 1812 – America’s Second War of Independence
Madison sent war message to Congress
Britain suspended Orders in Council, but war had already been declared
Reason for war: Impressment
Great Britain
Strong navy
Canadians were former Tories
Native American Allies
Best troops fighting in Europe
Weak navy
Citizens uncommitted
Stages: 1812- 1813; 1813-1814; 1814
1812 – Battle of Queenston
British – Tecumseh cuts supply line, control Lake Erie
Americans – Have to control Lake Erie
1813 – Battle of Lake Erie/Battle of Put-in-Bay
British – Hold Lake Erie
Americans – Oliver Perry destroys British squadron
William Henry Harrison defeated British and
Native Americans at Battle of Thames – Death
of Tecumseh
1814 – Battles of Lundy and Chippewa
Americans cross into Canada, but cannot hold
1814 – Battle of Plattsburgh
British – reinforcements; split New England states; fails
1814 – Battle of Bladensburg – “Bladensburg Races”
Americans flee, Washington burned
British head to Baltimore and fail to hold
(Fort McHenry – Star Spangled Banner)
Treaty of Ghent – 1814
Britain loses control of Great Lakes and Lake Champlain
Neither side loses or gains territory
Impressment not addressed – but war in Europe ended
Northern border to be discussed
1815-Battle of New Orleans
Two weeks after Treaty of Ghent
Andrew Jackson (Old Hickory) crushes
British; becomes a national hero
Hartford Convention (assert states ‘
New England succession discussed
1. New Englanders becoming a
2. Amend Constitution
a. abolish 3/5’s Compromise
b. 2/3 vote of Congress to
declare war and admit
new states
c. limit president to 1 term
d. presidents cannot be from
same states (successively)
e. Embargoes cannot last
more than 60 days
Results of the War of 1812
1. Rise of Nationalism (national identity)
White House, Star Spangled Banner
2. American navy
3. Era of Good Feelings
End of Federalists
Confidence that Republic is strong
Republicans embrace Federalists ideas
American Plan – Henry Clay of Kentucky
Internal improvements – canals and roads
Tariff protection for industries
Second National Bank
Elections of 1816 & 1820
End of Federalists as a national party
Monroe elected – J. Adams, VP
John Quincy Adams, Monroe’s Vice-President
1817 – Rush-Bagot Treaty
Great Lakes demilitarized
1818 – US-Canadian border fixed
Oregon “free and open”
US claim to the Pacific
1819 - Adams-Onis Treaty Line – 1819 (Transcontinental Treaty)
Spain ceded Florida and Oregon County along 42 N
latitude line
Spain maintained sovereignty over Texas
Case: Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Marbury (Federalist) does not receive commission before Adams leaves office
Jefferson refused to give Marbury his commission
Marbury sues for “writ of mandamus” (requires Madison to give the commission)
Decision: Supreme Court can declare an act of Congress unconstitutional
Impact: Judicial Review established; the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction
Defines checks and balances
Case: Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
Facts: Fletcher and Peck are private speculators. State land sold to private speculators
had been approved in return for bribes. Peck buys land, sells to Fletcher – argues no clear
title to land . Transactions made are declared void.
Decision: Supreme Court can rule a state law unconstitutional
Impact: Creates a growing precedent for sanctity of legal contracts; hints that Native
Americans did not hold title to their own lands
Case: McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Facts: State of Maryland tries to interfere with the operation of the Second National Bank by
taxing notes of banks not chartered in Maryland-(second bank is the only out-of state bank
at the time)
Decision: Doctrine of “implied powers” - “Necessary and Proper Clause” invoked
Impact: 1. Constitution grants implied powers to Congress to create a functional national
2. States may not override constitutional powers of the Federal government
Case: Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
Facts: Dartmouth college was privately chartered. State of New Hampshire attempts to
change the private charter to a public charter.
Decision: Upholds the private charter
Impact: Settled the public versus private charters. Result in the rise of the American
business corporation.
New York Republican introduces emancipation of slaves at age 25
House accepts amendment
Senate rejects amendment
Upsetting the Balance - 1819
11 free states
11 slave states
Sectional interests take priority as Republican unity wanes
Missouri Compromise – 1820 (Congressional agreements)
1. Maine enters as free state – Missouri enters as slave state
2. Remainder of Louisiana Purchase north of 36 30 enters as free
Challenges to compromise
1. Missouri drafts a constitution that prohibits free blacks
2. Northerners bars Missouri’s admission until 1821
Second Missouri Compromise – Henry Clay
1. Citizens of other states cannot be discriminated against, but does not
address whether free blacks were citizens
Viewpoint: Southern Victory, yet the precedent is set that slaves were a different form of
Manifest Destiny -1823
God and nature ordained that the US would expand the entire continent of
North America
Monroe Doctrine
1. US will abstain from European wars
2. American continents were closed to future colonization
3. Any attempt at colonization would be construed as an “unfriendly act”