Universal Decision Making Process

Universal Decision
Making Process
Presented by:
Eric Wordekemper, Fatima Nicholson, Ron Yim, and Tiffannee Shaw
What is Decision Making?
● alternative choices to be considered
● the highest probability of success or effectiveness
● best fits with our goals, desires, lifestyle, values, ect.
● information-gathering
● Eliminating uncertainty
● Decision whether
● Select criteria
● Identify alternatives
● Match criteria to alternatives
● Make choice
Key Aspects
● Decision Making is a Recursive Process
● Effects of Quantity on Decision Making
● Peter Drucker’s Theory on Effective Decision Making
Peter Drucker’s Theory on Effective
Decision Making
“Effective decision making process must go through
some basic steps. These steps will not “make” the decision – it
will always be a judgment call – but if the steps are
ignored, the decision is not likely to be effective nor right.”
Peter (continued)
Peter proposed six steps to proper decision making;
● The classification of the problem
● The definition of the problem
● The specifications which the solution to the problem must
satisfy (the “boundary conditions”).
● The decision as to what is “right”, rather than what is
acceptable, in order to meet the boundary conditions
● The building into the decision of the action to carry it out.
● The feedback which tests the validity of the decision against
the actual course of events.
Universal Principles
When making decisions there are key factors to be
● Conceptual and operational clarity are necessities.
● Context.
● Being requirement driven.
● Diversity-management capability.
● Readiness and capability for universal application is
6 Steps of Universal
Decision Making Process
● Step 1: Specify context and overall “requirements”
● Step 2: Recognize the nature and context of the mixture
in question.
● Step 3: Assess the mixture’s tensions and complexities.
● Step 4: Identify the mixture’s requirements.
● Step 5: Identify the organizational culture and systemic
factors that must be considered as actions are planned.
● Step 6: Plan actions.
● Various types of decisions
● The environment
● Time constraints
● Ethical reasoning
● We are human, prone to errors, and don't know everything.
● We tend to block out information that does not agree with
what we already believe to be accurate.
● When it comes to decision making people often make the
wrong or unfavorable decision because the better option
takes more steps and seems more complicated when really it
is not.
Examples of coaching for
leadership at work ● Beyond access: a case study on the intersection
between accessibility, sustainability, and universal
● This case study documents how leaders with a highlydeveloped meaning-making system design and engage
in accessibility and sustainability initiatives.
● Universal design and “visibility” are practical and
sustainable principles and practices that enable persons
of all abilities to live independently in our changing
world. Bibliography
Ariely, Dan. "Are we in control of our own decisions?." Ted Events .
TED Talks. California, San Francisco . Dec 2008. Speech.
"Drucker: The Effective Decision." Genesis Management Consulting
Blog . Genesis Management Consulting , 22 Aug 2011. Web. 1 Dec.
2013. http://www.genesismc.co.uk/blog/drucker.
Gossett, Andrea, Mansha Mirza, Ann Kathleen Barnds, et al. "Beyond
access: A case study on the intersection between accessibility,
sustainability, and universal design." Disability and Rehabilitation:
Assistive Technology. 4.6 (2009): 439-450. Web. 1 Dec. 2013.
Goldsmith, Marshall, J-B US non-Franchise Leadership: The Practice
of Leadership Coaching from the World’s Greatest Coaches (3rd
Edition): Wiley, .p 165-67
Harris, Robert , Version Date: June 9, 2012, Previous versions:
December 2, 2009, October 17, 2008; July 2, 1998 http://www.