Timeline of Egyptian History

Timeline of Egyptian History
The Predynastic Period:
ca. 5000 - 3000 BCE
Scattered Neolithic communities
throughout Egypt.
Early Dynastic Period:
ca. 3100 – 2700 BCE
• Two major kingdoms had emerged: a
kingdom of Upper Egypt in the south and a
kingdom of Lower Egypt in the north.
• King Narmer (Menes) unified these two
parts of Egypt in ca. 3100 BCE
• Egyptian Hieroglyphic writing was invented
at this time.
The Palette of King Narmer
Lower Egypt
Upper Egypt
The 1st capital:
The kingdom was divided into districts called nomes.
It was built in a
strategic location
near the juncture
Lower and Upper
Nomarch (governors) appointed and ruled on behalf of
the king. In charge of irrigation and the storage and
distribution of grain in times of famine.
Viziers (1st official civil servants). In charge of justice
and public works. Taxes, keeping records of
Other Officials
The Pharaoh “The Great House” (royal palace) Each
king had at least 5 names! A throne name (taken at
coronation) and a birth name
This is not a
Written in a cartouche
(oval rope)
“everything which the
sun encircles” =
“rule the world”
strength, no breaks
They were divine kings . They got their
authority from the gods. Seen as gods
themselves. In life they identified with
Horus. In death they identified with Osiris.
Seen with a variety of symbols.
Crook and Flail = shepherd and rule the
Crowns and Headdresses = royalty and
Ankh = eternal life
Crook and Flail
Crown of Upper Egypt
Crown of Lower Egypt
United Crown
The Old Kingdom:
ca. 2700 – 2200 BCE
• The period of stability and prosperity.
• Intellectual highpoint
- medical and dental textbooks, math
astronomy and engineering
• Period of monumental building.
• Pyramids and roads.
• Expansion south to Nubia.
• Kings – pharaohs - were considered to be
gods on earth.
The Step Pyramid of King Djoser –
the first monumental building project
in Egypt.
Pharaoh’s vizier Imhotep
was an architect of the Step Pyramid
at Saqqara.
The great Pyramid of Giza built by
Pharaoh Khufu (aka Cheops)
Pyramids of Giza
Built by Khufu
The Pyramids of Giza
Middle Kingdom:
ca. 2000 – 1700 BCE
Time of artistic achievement and literature
Political stability
Time of peace and prosperity
Kings buried in rock-cut tombs in the Valley of
the Kings
Phamous Pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom
Senusret I (1971 – 1926) – established political
stability, extended Egypt’s territories through
trade and conquest, built splendid
monuments and encouraged the arts.
The New Kingdom
ca. 1600 – 1100 BCE
The New Kingdom was characterized by:
• a military expansion
tightly centralized royal rule
Egyptian nationalism
Thebes was the capital
artistic revival
Phamous Pharaohs of the New Kingdom
Queen Hatshepsut (1473 – 1458) – female
pharaoh, dressed as a man, trade prospered
White Chapel at Karnak
Senusret I
Akhenaten (1353 – 1335) – controversial
pharaoh, closed down temples and
acknowledged only one god Aten (the daytime
sun god)
Nefertiti – his wife, mother of Tutankhamon and
known for her beauty.
Tutankhamon (1333 – 1323) – young king, 7yrs.
old and died young in teens. Famous for his
tomb being found undisturbed in 1922 by
Howard Carter.
Ramses II (1290 - 1224 ) – strong military
general, promoting building monuments and
statues, large family (90+ children)
The new capital:
ruled ca. 1479 -1457 BCE
Was further south and
near the Valley of
the Kings
The Temple of Hatshepsut
at Dayr al - Bahri
Ramses II
ruled ca. 1290 - 1224 BCE
The Sun Temple of Ramses II
at Abu Simbel