TOTAL STOPPING DISTANCE: The distance your car travels while

```Unit 4 Chapters 5, 6, & 12
NAME: ___________________________________
HOUR: ___________
Chapter 5: natural Laws and Car Control
GRAVITY- Is the force that pulls all things to Earth.
DATE: _________
1
NO: ______
 UPHILL DRIVING- Gravity will __________your car down when going uphill, unless you use extra
power.
 DOWNHILL DRIVING- Gravity will ______________your speed going downhill unless you control it.
TREAD and TRACTION
Tread- The grooved surface of a tire that grips the road.
 Allows ___________to flow through the ________________ and away from the __________.
 This action allows the tire tread to cut through the water and _________ the road.
TOTAL STOPPING DISTANCE: The distance your car travels while you make a
stop.
T = P + RT + BD
Total Stopping distance = Perception + Reaction Time + Braking Distance.
T=P+RT+BD
Perception time: The length of time
you take to identify, predict, and
decide to slow.
Reaction Time: The length of time is
takes for you to execute your action
Braking Distance: The distance your
car travels from the time you apply
the brakes until you stop.
UNIT 4
CHAPTER 5, CHAPTER 6, CHAPTER 12
Factors that affect them
1.____________________________________________
2. ___________________________________________
3. ___________________________________________
1.____________________________________________
2.____________________________________________
3.____________________________________________
1.____________________________________________
2.____________________________________________
3.____________________________________________
4.____________________________________________
5.____________________________________________
6.____________________________________________
7._____________________________________________
Using the Chart in your book on page 98 and the information provided below to describe TOTAL
STOPPING DISTANCE.
T=P+RT+BD
Road Conditions = Clear and dry
Traveling speed = 45 MPH
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
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2
Chapter 6: Performing Basic Vehicle Maneuvers
STEERING YOUR VEHCILE
Steering Straight Forward
1. Hands in a comfortable, _________________ position at 9 & 3.
2. Look ahead into your intended path of ____________________________.
Steering Straight Backwards
Driving backward involves knowing __________ to look and how to control your direction
and speed.
Before backing, make sure your ________ __________ are clear.
Follow these steps:
1. Hold the brake pedal down and ________________________.
2. Turn your body to the ____________ and put your __________ arm over the back of the
__________________ seat. Look back through the rear window.
3. Put your left hand at the top of the steering wheel at the 12 o’clock position.
4. Release pressure on the brake just enough to allow the ____________ to creep backward
__________________.
5. While looking back through the ___________________, move the top of the steering
wheel in the ___________________ you want the _______of the vehicle to go.
6. Keep your foot over the brake pedal while your vehicle is moving backward.
_____________quickly to the front and side to check traffic. Continue to look back
through the rear window as you brake and stop.
UNIT 4
CHAPTER 5, CHAPTER 6, CHAPTER 12
SIGNALING
Signaling???? What’s the point???
3
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
When making a left or right hand turn in a business or residential district, a
continuous signal to turn must be given……..
No less than _________ feet before turning!!!!!
If your turn signals or brake lights are not working
below are the proper hand signals to use to
communicate your intentions to other roadway users.
Hand Over Hand Steering
Hands in balanced 9 & 3
position
Start pulling down with
the left hand & up and
over with the right
Release the left and cross it over
the right, and continue pulling
down.
To straighten the wheel you can either relax your grip on the wheel to let it slide through your hands or
UNIT 4 using
CHAPTER 5,the
CHAPTER
6, CHAPTER
unwind the wheel
hand
over 12hand process.
Making Left and Right Turns
4
Making Turns: Depends on steering control, speed control, and good visual
habits.
Make sure to make a left or right turn only after checking all traffic.
Take these precautions when executing turns:
 Look for pedestrians and oncoming vehicles, check ________ _______
for vehicles about to pass you.
 Plan turns well in advance. Be in the _________ ________ about one
block before your turn.
 Obey all traffic signs, singles, and roadway markings. Remember you must
__________________________________traffic when you are turning left.
UNIT 4
CHAPTER 5, CHAPTER 6, CHAPTER 12
Steps or making a right turn
Begin turning the wheel when your vehicle’s front
bumper is even with the curb line.
5
Begin turning the wheel just before the front of the car reaches the
Steps for making a left turn:
UNIT 4
center of the intersection
CHAPTER 5, CHAPTER 6, CHAPTER 12
Turning the Vehicle
Around
6
Turnabouts: Turning your car around to go in the _______________________ direction.
All turnabouts are maneuvers.
Take these precautions when making a turnabout.
1. Be sure local ______ permit the turnabout (check for signs)
2. Select a site with at least 500 feet of visibility in each direction.
3. Do not make a turnabout near hills or curves or within 200 feet of intersections.
4. Never attempt a turnabout in heavy high-speed _______________.
5. Continually check all zones for traffic and pedestrians.
MIDBLOCK U-TURN: Make sure state laws permit this type of turn. You need a wide
space to make a U-turn. This is because you have to cross several lanes traffic to
execute it.
Steps for making a midblock U-turn: On a 2-way road.
1. Check your front and __________
___________ , signal right, pull to the far right,
and stop.
2. Signal left and move toward location #.
3. Check front and left-rear zones, check left blind spot, turn sharply left and move
toward location 3. Don’t stop if you have enough space to complete the turn.
4. Move slowly to location 4, check all zones, and straighten out your wheels while you
accelerate gently into the proper lane.
UNIT 4
CHAPTER 5, CHAPTER 6, CHAPTER 12
U-Turns
7
Three-Point Turnabout
This is high risk because you must cross traffic lanes and are stopped across traffic lane.
1. Check front and rear zones. Signal right and stop close to the curb.
2. Search front and rear zones (including over your left shoulder). Signal left, turn wheel sharply
to the left and move to location 3 before hitting the curb. Once there straighten wheels.
3. Check all zones for traffic, turn wheels sharply right while backing slowly to location 4. Back
only as far as necessary to complete the maneuver and before hitting the curb. Stop with your
wheels straight.
4. Check all zones for traffic, signal left, then move slowly forward while steering left toward
location 5 and on your way!!!
UNIT 4
CHAPTER 5, CHAPTER 6, CHAPTER 12
8
Parking
Define the vocabulary below in your own words. These words can be found on page 119 in
your book.
VOCABULARY (Pg. 119)
DEFINITION
Reference Point
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Standard Reference Point
Personal Reference Point
UNIT 4
CHAPTER 5, CHAPTER 6, CHAPTER 12
Angel Parking
9
Steps to follow in completing Angle Parking:
1. Check for traffic and pedestrians Position vehicle at least six feet from the row of parked cars.
Signal a right turn, check traffic to the rear, and begin braking.
2. Check your right blind spot and continue braking.
3. Creep forward until you can see the center of the space without your line of sight cutting across
the parking line. Turn your wheel sharply to the right and slowly enter the parking spot.
4. Straighten the wheels when you are centered in the space. Make sure your front bumper is even
with the curb or parking line.
Perpendicular Parking – Use when parking at a right angle to the curb.
Steps to follow when completing perpendicular parking:
1. Position your vehicle at least 8 feet from the row of parked vehicles, or as far left of the parking
spot as possible.
2. Signal a right turn, check your right blind spot, and begin to brake.
3. Check traffic to the rear, and continue braking.
4. When your front bumper passes the left rear taillight of the vehicle to the right of the empty
parking space turn your wheel sharply to the right. Check your right-rear fender for clearance.
5. Straighten your wheel when you are centered in the space.
UNIT 4
CHAPTER 5, CHAPTER 6, CHAPTER 12
Parallel Parking
Prior to parallel parking,,,,,
1.
2.
3.
4.
10
You use parallel parking to park your vehicle parallel to the curb.
You want to select a space that is 5-6 feet longer than your vehicle.
During your maneuver, the front of your vehicle will swing far to the left.
Check over your left shoulder to be sure this needed space is clear.
Steps to Follow When Completing Parallel Parking:
1. Flash brake lights, and signal a right turn. Stop two to three feet away from the front of the vehicle
with the two rear bumper even. Shift to Reverse, look back over your right shoulder, and back
slowly as you turn right.
2. When the back of your seat is EVEN with the rear bumper of the front vehicle, straighten the
wheels.
3. When your front bumper is even with the front vehicle’s back bumper, turn your wheels sharply
left.
4. When your vehicle is parallel to the curb, straighten your wheels and stop.
Steps to Follow When Leaving a Parallel Parking Space:
1. Back straight slowly until your rear bumper almost touches the vehicle behind. Turn wheel sharply
to the left.
2. Signal left turn. Check your left blind spot.
3. Check the right-front corner of your vehicle for clearance.
UNIT 4 wheels
CHAPTER 5,to
CHAPTER
CHAPTERwhen
12
4. Turn your
the 6,right
you are halfway out of the parking space. Scan zones and then
proceed into traffic lanes.
Uphill Parking with a Curb
11
1. Position your vehicle close to the curb. Just before stopping,
turn the steering wheel to the left.
2. Shift to neutral; let the vehicle creep back until the back of the
right-front tire gently touches the curb.
3. Shift to park, and set the parking brake.
4. When leaving the parking space, signal, check traffic, and
accelerate into the lane of traffic.
Uphill Parking with NO CURB
1. Pull as far off the roadway as possible. Turn the wheel to the
right (this is opposite from uphill WITH a curb)
2. Shift to park and set the parking brake.
3. When leaving the parking space, let the vehicle creep backward
while straightening the wheels. Signal and check traffic. Shift to
drive, and accelerate into traffic.
Downhill Parking With and Without a Curb
1. Position your vehicle close to the curb
and stop.
2. Let the vehicle creep forward slowly
while turning the steering wheel
sharply to the right. Let the frontright tire rest gently against the curb.
3. Shift to park, and set the parking brake.
4. When leaving check traffic and back
short distance while straightening the
wheels. Signal, check traffic again, and
shift into drive.
UNIT 4
CHAPTER 5, CHAPTER 6, CHAPTER 12
12
Chapter 12: Driving in Adverse Conditions
Reduced Visibility
 Whenever visibility is reduced drivers need more time to use the IPDE Process.
You can maintain a safe intend path of travel by……..
 Slowing down to give yourself _____________________________.
 ___________________ in and around your ________ of travel to the target
area to identify hazards.
 ________________ others will make maneuvers into your _____________ path
of travel.
 _______________ where to position your vehicle ahead of time with extra space
around it.
Visibility While Driving
Can create severe and
blinding conditions.
Sun glasses and a sun
__________ can help.
Sun Glare
The brightest day will create
the darkest shadow, with
severe glare situations behind
you, so be ______________
for other drivers to miss
seeing your signal or even
seeing your vehicle.
UNIT 4
CHAPTER 5, CHAPTER 6, CHAPTER 12
Driving with low-beam head
lights on all the time will help
other _______________ see
you.
13
Headlights
 Use _________________ headlights to look beyond your headlights for important
information.
 Only use high beam headlights when vehicles are MORE than _____________ in front
of you.
 Use low-beam headlights in snow, heavy rain, or fog.
 Using high-beam headlights will ___________ more light back into your eyes as a
result, you will see less.
 Make sure to use your ____________________ headlights when you are driving in the
rain.(Most states require your low-beam headlights to be when on using your wipers).
 During_________ use your _____________________day or night.
Reduced Traction
RAIN WHILE DRIVING:
 When rain _________________________, it mixes with dust and oil on
the road. This mix can make the road very slippery.
HYDROPLANING: When a tire rises up on ________ of water and
no longer has ___________________ with the road.
How to Avoid Hydroplaning
 Reduce Speed
 Use properly inflated tires with good
________.
 When driving at a low speed through
water, apply ____________________
pressure with your left foot while the
right is still on the accelerator. This builds
friction/heat on the brakes pads.
UNIT 4
CHAPTER 5, CHAPTER 6, CHAPTER 12
SNOW and ICE
SNOW: If possible, do not drive in extreme weather conditions.
14
DRIVING TECHNIQUES: Gentle acceleration, steering, and braking are keys to vehicle
control in snow.
ICE:
Ice on Bridges:

_____________ Roadways tend to freeze before other roadway surfaces. Cold air
_________________
above and below the roadway on bridges and overpasses.
Black ice

Forms in _________________________. Be extra careful for this type of ice in winter situations.
Ice in tire tracks

Snow can pack down into ice in the normal driving tracks. Avoid this by moving a little to the
right in lane position
Remember breaking distance will
always ______________________ in
low-traction situations. Slow early and
then be ready to slow even more.
Can you think of other road types that might
interfere with traction while driving?
1._______________________________________
2. _______________________________________
3. _______________________________________
UNIT 4
CHAPTER 5, CHAPTER 6, CHAPTER 12
SKIDDING
In extreme traction situations, your tires may lose all or part of their grip on the road.
15
Over- Braking Skid
If your vehicle doesn’t have an antilock brake system
(ABS) and your over-brake the wheels may stop or lock
up while you are still moving. To correct this release
your brake pedal enough to get your wheels rolling.
Does your family car have ABS?
Front-Wheel Skid: When your steering wheel and
your vehicle wants to slide straight ahead.
To correct this you need to regain traction for
steering. You do this by:
1. _______________ the accelerator or brake
pedal pressure.
2. Quickly _________ and release the brake
pedal to slow if your vehicle does not have
ABS
3. Continue to look and steer at the path of
travel you want to follow.
UNIT 4
CHAPTER 5, CHAPTER 6, CHAPTER 12
16
OTHER ADVERSE WEATHER CONDISTIONS
HOT WEATHER
 Your temperature light gauge
indicates when your engine is too
hot. When this happens turn off your
____________________________. You
can also cool your engine by turning
on your heater.
 Never remove the
________________ cap on
a hot engine because
the hot liquid inside
can scald you.
COLD WEATHER
 Carbon monoxide gas is
created when your
engine runs.
 If you are stuck in snow
with your engine running,
make sure your
_________________________
is not blocked.
 Ice or slush stuck to the underside
of your vehicle can
____________________your parking
brake when you park your vehicle.
UNIT 4
CHAPTER 5, CHAPTER 6, CHAPTER 12
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