Analyzing and Responding to Complex Text Presented By: Jill A. Takacs, Ed.D. PARCC ELA Components For the PBA Assessments: ELA will include a research simulation, a literary analysis, and a narrative task. For each task, the students will be asked to read one or more texts, answer several short comprehension and vocabulary questions, and write an essay that requires them to draw evidence from the text(s). ELA will have three units of assessment ranging from 50 to 90 minutes each. For the EOY Assessments: ELA will include 4-5 tests, with a number of short answer comprehension and vocabulary questions. There will be one unit for grades 3 to 5, and two units for grades 6-8. ELA will have two units of assessment ranging from 60 to 75 minutes each. Research Simulation Task What is a Research Simulation Task? Definition: The Research Simulation Task is an assessment component worthy of student preparation because it asks students to exercise the career- and college- readiness skills of observation, deduction, and proper use and evaluation of evidence across text types. In this task, students will analyze an informational topic presented through several articles or multimedia stimuli, the first text being an anchor text that introduces the topic. Students will engage with the texts by answering a series of questions and synthesizing information from multiple sources in order to write two analytic essays. If this is the definition, what must students know and be able to do to be successful? Understanding the Research Simulation Task • Students begin by reading an anchor text that introduces the topic. • EBSR and TECR items ask students to gather key details about the passage to support their understanding. • Students read two additional sources and answer a few questions about each text to learn more about the topic, so they are ready to write the final essay and to show their reading comprehension. • Finally, students mirror the research process by synthesizing their understandings into a writing that uses textual evidence from the sources. 7th Grade Example You have read a website entry and an article and watched a video describing Amelia Earhart. All three include information that supports the claim that Earhart was a brave, courageous person. The three titles are: “The Biography of Amelia Earhart” “Earhart’s Final Resting Place Believed Found” “Amelia Earhart’s Life and Disappearance” (video) Consider the argument each author used to demonstrate Earhart’s bravery. Write an essay that analyzes the strength of the arguments related to Earhart’s bravery in at least two of the three supporting materials. Remember to use textual evidence to support your ideas. Literary Analysis What is a Literary Analysis? Definition: The Literature Task plays an important role in honing students’ ability to read complex text closely, a skill that research reveals as the most significant factor differentiating college-ready from non-college-ready readers. This task will ask students to carefully consider literature worthy of close study and compose an analytic essay. If this is the definition, what must students know and be able to do to be successful? 8th Grade Example You have read excerpts from two novels focused on survival in the wilderness. These excerpts are from: Brian’s Winter by Gary Paulsen Call of the Wild by Jack London Consider how the main character in each excerpt reacts to the incidents that occur, and write an essay in which you analyze how each character’s thoughts and actions reveal aspects of his personality. You do not need to compare and contrast the characters from the two texts. You may consider each one separately. Be sure to include evidence from each excerpt to support your analysis and understanding. Students Must… In both the Research Simulation Task and the Literary Analysis, students must: Read closely Find text evidence Determine importance Analyze the veracity of information Synthesize information Support claims Communicate coherently and convincingly So How Do We Accomplish These Goals???? Teach Close Reading A significant body of research links the close reading of complex text—whether the student is a struggling reader or advanced—to significant gains in reading proficiency and finds close reading to be a key component of college and career readiness. (Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, 2011, p. 7) (Boyles, 2013) Close Reading Benefits Highlight key words and phrases: Close, analytic reading stresses engaging with a text of sufficient complexity directly and examining meaning thoroughly and methodically, encouraging students to read and reread deliberately. Directing student attention on the text itself empowers students to understand the central ideas and key supporting details. It also enables students to reflect on the meanings of individual words and sentences; the order in which sentences unfold; and the development of ideas over the course of the text, which ultimately leads students to arrive at an understanding of the text as a whole. (PARCC, 2011, p. 7) (Boyles, 2013) Beyond Comprehension Strategies Teaching students to formulate connections, predictions, inferences and questions is simply not enough. Although well-intentioned, the shift to teaching reading as a set of thinking strategies too often left readers with the notion that the text was simply a launching point for their musings, images that popped into their heads, and random questions that, in the end, did little to enhance their understanding of the text itself. (Boyles, 2013) Close Reading Language in the CCSS “read closely” and “cite specific textual evidence” (R.1) “analyze how…ideas develop and interact” (R.3) “interpret words and phrases” and “analyze how specific word choices shape meaning” (R.4) “analyze the structure of texts” (R.5) “assess how point of view” “shapes” a text (R.6) “analyze” “two or more texts” to build knowledge (R.9) (Lehman & Roberts, 2012) Develop a Close Reading Ritual 1. First, read through lenses: Decide what you will be paying attention to while reading and collect those details. (What characters/people: say/think/do; Relationships; Setting descriptions; Time period; Words that evoke strong emotion or images; Organization of text and the purpose; Evidence, Counter arguments) 2. Next, use lenses to find patterns: Look across all of the details you have collected and find patterns. (Which details or words fit together?; How do they fit together?; What parts are similar or different and why?; Which points of view/ideas are repeated?; What technique does the author use to make his or her point of view?) 3. Finally, use the patterns to develop a new understanding of the text: Consider these patterns in light of what you have already learned from the text. Put these together to develop a new understanding of the text or a deeper, evidence-based interpretation. (Look at patterns and think about: Character’s/people’s feelings, traits, relationships; Whole text themes, lessons; Author’s purpose; How well something is supported, Most/Lease persuasive parts) (Lehman & Roberts, 2012) Annotate Text Close Reading Strategies: 1. Number the Paragraph 2. Chunking 3. Underlining and Circling 4. Left Margin- What is the author saying? 5. Right Margin- Dig Deeper Other ideas??? Close Reading at Work Grade 5 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9emLkXlMcOs Close Reading from Fundamental Skills to Complex Applications Fundamental Skills: Read closely for- Text evidence Word choice Structure Advanced Study: Point of view Argument Reading closely across texts (Lehman & Roberts, 2012) Text Evidence Instead of developing an idea and then finding the evidence, we can teach students to gather evidence and then develop an idea. For example: “Often we have ideas about popular songs, not just from the songs themselves but because of what we are experiencing in our lives at the time. After a fight with someone you care about, every song sounds sad. And sometimes that is just what you need! But today I want to show you how listening and looking carefully at a song’s lyrics can lead us to see things we may have missed before.” (Lehman & Roberts, 2012) Let’s Try It! Taylor Swift- Mean https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4w77UU142Do Song Lyrics Close Reading Personal Narratives "Let it Go" from Frozen “What a Wonderful World" as recorded by Louis Armstrong "Be" by Usher "Circle of Life" from The Lion King "Beautiful" by Christina Aguilera "Whispers" by Usher "Help!" by the Beatles "Colors of the Wind" from Pocahontas "Unwritten" by Natasha Bedingfield "I’ll be There" by The Jackson Five "Bare Necessities" from Jungle Book "Man in the Mirror" by Michael Jackson "Happy" from Despicable Me 2 "Mean" by Taylor Swift "Don’t Stop Believin’" by Journey "Somewhere Over the Rainbow" as recorded by Israel Kamakawiwo’Ole "You Got a Friend in Me" by Randy Newman "Firework" by Katy Perry "Roar" by Katy Perry "Happy" by Pharrell "Mean" by Taylor Swift "Shake It Off" by Taylor Swift Word Choice No longer are we simply helping students find information, we are now in the position of empowering them with the vital habits of carefully sifting through all the sources that vie for their attention. One way we can do this is to teach students to be alert and attentive to language, to weigh the ways in which media, texts, and people select their words to subtly form their messages. Frames for Thinking about Word Choice: One pattern I see is _____ with words like _____. Some words fit together, like _____ and make me feel _____. These words fit together because they sound _____. The author could have _____ but instead _____. There seems to be more than one pattern _____ and also _____. (Lehman & Roberts, 2012) Structure Structure helps us see what the author values. How the text is structured is important: it is looking to see what most of the page space is spent on. Two key aspects to focus on: 1. Attuning to the author’s organizational choices 2. Identifying the purpose behind them Structure can include: genre, location of parts within a larger whole, and the techniques used when structuring parts of the text. Try to identify why the author moves from one section or technique to another and why. Are there shifts in tone or topic? Do you notice patterns in structure? (Lehman & Roberts, 2012) Structure Left- Organization of the text Right- Purpose it served Infographics Review the article in Reading Today on Infographics. Why is attuning to structure important when viewing/reading infographics? How can you use infographics in your instruction? Brainstorm ideas with your colleagues. Point of View/Argument Students should be able to: Recognize the points of view and arguments in texts and in life to see when they are happening and to actively engage in them Listen to points of view and arguments with an open mind- to truly listen to what other people believe and respectfully take in or question what they are saying Live with the confidence of trusting themselves to make sound judgments, to make sense of the world, and to take risks Try using political issue ads, commentaries, cable news reports-from different sides of an issue-and then ask students to pick one to critique. This can accomplish the following instructional goals: reading to find bias and/or validity in a point of view or in an argument. Read with 2 lenses: first to find the point of view/argument and then to analyze how it was made persuasive with the craft the author uses (text evidence, word choice, structure). (Lehman & Roberts, 2012) News Articles Read one of the news articles provided. Which one did you choose? Why? Allow students choice in text. How could you incorporate the article you selected into daily instruction? How could you teach Point of View? How could you teach Structure? What type of articles would interest your ELLs? Reading Closely Across Texts Evaluating multiple texts can help students see connections between texts, which can guide them toward new interpretations and realizations. This can lead them to see the connections across our culture, our world, and our lives. Compare and Contrast: How characters are portrayed Patterns in content, theme and language How text evidence is embedded Authors’ messages Both texts have in common___. But some differences are that___. This makes me think___. (Lehman & Roberts, 2012) What Else Can You Use? News Articles Reality TV Shows Political Cartoons Infographics Editorials Sports Articles Current Events Use Short Texts Most teachers subscribe to the belief that when students can read longer text, that's what they should read. Although we don't want to abandon longer texts, we should recognize that studying short texts is especially helpful if we want to enable students with a wide range of reading levels to practice closely reading demanding texts (Coleman & Pimentel, 2012). The Common Core standards suggest several genres of short text, both literary and informational, that can work at the elementary level. Many kinds of traditional literature—folktales, legends, myths, fables, as well as short stories, poetry, and scenes from plays—enable and reward close reading. For informational works, try short articles, biographies, personal narratives, and even some easier primary-source materials, such as Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech, the preamble to the U.S. Constitution, or sayings from Poor Richard's Almanac. Appendix B of the Common Core State Standards notes numerous picture books that can be used with younger readers. ***Because children's listening comprehension outpaces their reading comprehension in the early grades, it's important that your students build knowledge through being read to as well as through independent reading, with the balance gradually shifting to silent, independent reading. When students are learning a process, such as how to search for a recurring theme, reading short texts allows them to make more passes through the entire sequence of a text. It could take weeks or even months to read through a 100-page novel to identify a theme or concepts related to the text as a whole. A short text of a page or two can be digested in one lesson. (Boyles, 2013) Teach Students to Ask Reflective Questions While Reading How can we ensure that students both reap the requisite knowledge from each text they read and acquire skills to pursue the meaning of other texts independently? Coach students to ask themselves four basic questions as they reflect on a specific portion of any text, even the shortest: 1. What is the author telling me here? 2. Are there any hard or important words? 3. What does the author want me to understand? 4. How does the author play with language to add to meaning? If students take time to ask themselves these questions while reading and become skillful at answering them, there'll be less need for the teacher to do all the asking. For this to happen, we must develop students' capacity to observe and analyze. (Boyles, 2013) Focus on Analyzing and Observing First things first: See whether students have noticed the details of a passage and can recount those details in their own words. Note that the challenge here isn't to be brief (as in a summary); it's to be accurate, precise, and clear. The recent focus on finding evidence in a text has sent students (even in primary grades) scurrying back to their books to retrieve a quote that validates their opinion. But to paraphrase what that quote means in a student's own language, rather than the author's, is more difficult than you might think. Try it with any paragraph. Expressing the same meaning with different words often requires going back to that text a few times to get the details just right. Paraphrasing is pretty low on Bloom's continuum of lower- to higherorder thinking, yet many students stumble even here. This is the first stop along the journey to close reading. If students can't paraphrase the basic content of a passage, how can they dig for its deeper meaning? The second basic question about hard or important words encourages students to zoom in on precise meaning. (Boyles, 2013) Notice and Note Kylene Beers & Robert E. Probst “This is the missing link. While the Common Core State Standards require students to read complex texts, read closely and answer text-dependent questions, nothing shows us how to help students do all that during independent reading- nothing until Notice and Note came along.” Darl Kiernan, Ph.D., Literacy Trainer, Northwest Regional Professional Development, NV Key Points Meaning does not reside within the print, but rather emerges as readers, with all their own thoughts and experiences and predispositions, interact with the text. The text awakens associations in the reader’s mind, and out of the mix, meaning is created. It resides neither in the text nor in the reader’s mind, but in the meeting of the two. We want them inside the text, noticing everything, questioning everything, weighing everything they are reading against their lives, the lives of others, and the world around them. We believe it is the interaction, the transaction, between the reader and the text that not only creates meaning but creates the reason to read. Now more than ever, reading seems to be a social act. We’re finding it harder and harder to find any text that is only expository or only narrative. Beers and Probst, 2013 A message from Kylene Beers and Robert E. Probst https://youtu.be/6SRqZk7WkBI What is Rigor? On an index card, write your definition of rigor. Pass it to the person on your left. Add to the definition you received. Repeat two more times. Read aloud your collaborative definition. Beers and Probst, 2013 Rigor Rigor is not an attribute of a text, but rather a characteristic of our behavior with that text. Put another way, rigor resides in the energy and attention given to the text, NOT in the text itself. The essential element in rigor is engagement. The rigor has to be achieved by engaging the readers in a process that is sufficiently interesting or rewarding and they’ll invest energy in the work. If they are to read rigorously, students must be committed to understanding some intriguing character, to solving some problem, to figuring out what a writer believes or values and how those thoughts compare with their own, or to understanding how other readers have made sense of a text. Pg. 22 Beers and Probst, 2013 Text-Dependent Questions Text-dependent questions require students to substantiate their claims, opinions and musings; however, it is important that text-dependent questions do not create teacher-dependent kids. Let Students Create Text-Dependent Questions 1. Find a short text that you think might be challenging for your class 2. Read the selection aloud to students as they follow along or, if appropriate, tell the students to read it on their own. 3. Tell the students that as they read they should simply mark places in text where they feel confused, have a question, or wonder about something. 4. Ask them to reread the selection. 5. Pull the whole class back together and collect, on the board or flip-charts, the questions that have been generated. 6. Next, in pairs or trios, ask them to look at the questions, they think most interesting or important, discuss them, and make notes about their thoughts. 7. Pull the class back together and work through some of the most interesting questions, asking for the ideas produced by the pairs/trios, and expanding or refining them with contributions from others. 8. Decide what follow-up is needed. Beers and Probst, 2013 Understand Text Complexity Text complexity is defined by: Qualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands Quantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexity (e.g.: word frequency, sentence length, word familiarity) Reader and Task – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned Quantitative Measures Number of syllables per word Number of words per sentence Number of sentences per paragraph Today, quantitative measures include more such as: Frequency of colons and semicolons Use of dashes and italics Number of dependent clauses Beers and Probst, 2013 Qualitative Measures 1. Level of meaning- refers to the complexity of ideas in a text. 2. Structure- refers to the design of the narrative or exposition. 3. Language conventionality and clarity- refers to vocabulary, sentence patterns, style, and register. 4. Knowledge demands- refers to the experience and knowledge necessary to deal with the text. (Figure 5- pg. 60) Pgs. 54-55 Beers and Probst, 2013 Reader and Task One reader may find that those features have made the text impenetrable, while another may find that they make it a joy to explore. Who reads the text matters. We finally have to face the fact that the most complex factor in text complexity is the transaction between the reader and the text. The problem isn’t that we ask all students to read the same book. It’s that we expect them to read it in the same way. Consider: Students’ interests Students’ backgrounds and abilities Students’ attitudes and maturity levels Pg. 61 Beers and Probst, 2013 Consider Your ELLs How will the experiential background of these students guide the selection of texts and shape their responses to them? Will their background enable them to understand the book? Do they posses the knowledge necessary to comprehend the situation or the events presented? If not, can it be easily shared with them, or is it too complex or mature for them to deal with at their level of maturity? Do they have the vocabulary and the linguistic sophistication to handle the prose? It may be challenging to find works for those students who are older and more sophisticated and experienced in many ways but whose language skills have lagged. They may not be able to read independently more complex books that present characters and issues in which they might otherwise take an interest, and they may be too mature for the content of those books written at their independent reading level. Beers and Probst, 2013 Signposts Criteria: 1. The feature had to have some characteristic that made it noticeable, that caused it to stand out from the surrounding text. 2. The feature had to show up across the majority of books. 3. It had to offer something to readers who noticed and then reflected on it that helped them better understand their own responses, their own reading experience, and their own interpretation of the text. Beers and Probst, 2013 Contrasts and Contradictions Example How are these signposts different from comprehension strategies you have used in the past? (e.g.: forming connections, predictions, questions, inferences, visualizations, synthesis, analysis) Pg. 66 & 70 Key Points The more students noticed these signposts, the more they were using the comprehension processes: visualizing, predicting, summarizing, clarifying, questioning, inferring, and making connections. As you think about each of these signposts, you’ll see that they appear not only in texts but also in our lives. We think that these signposts show up in novels because they show up in the world. (Figure 6- pg. 75) Anchor questions: Teachers often ask questions to prompt critical thinking; however, then the questions are owned by the teacher. This needs to be reversed because the answers are more important than the questions. Students need to assume ownership for the questions in their repertoire and need to apply them appropriately. (Figure 7- pg. 79) Beers and Probst, 2013 More Key Points Noticing the signpost is necessary but insufficient; the readers also have to question it and make note of what they learn from it. Using generalizable language assists students in transferring skills from one text to another. (Figure 8- pg. 85) Pgs. 80-81 Now let’s see some examples of signpost anchor charts… Beers and Probst, 2013 Explaining the Signposts 1. Decide upon an order for teaching the Notice and Note Signposts (Contrasts and Contradictions, Aha Moments, and Tough Questions). 2. Set aside time to teach each Signpost lesson (@ 30-40 minutes to model each one). 3. Teach each Signpost lesson with a text that illustrates the targeted Signpost. 4. Recognize that the model text you choose might be one that is not at a student’s independent reading level. 5. Use a gradual release model. 6. Think about the generalizable language you will use. Pgs. 86-88 Signposts In Action Considerations… What novels will you use? Review the list on page 196. Do you currently use some of these novels? Are there any others you can suggest? Review the bookmarks on pages 206-207. Will these be helpful? How can you use these in your classroom? Review the reading logs on pages 209-210. Will these be helpful? How can you use these in your classroom? Review the Anchor Charts on the back inside cover. Will these be helpful? How can you use these in your classroom? Now in small groups review the additional resources in the Appendix from pages 196-235. Which resources are most helpful? Which resources will assist your ELLs and/or struggling readers? Nonfiction Signposts (Not out yet) Comparisons and ContrastsWhen the author uses comparisons like analogies, similes, and metaphors, to simplify concepts ask: How does this comparison help the reader understand? Valuable VisualsWhen the author uses graphic features like charts, diagrams, graphs, and pictures to convey information ask: How does the graphic help the reader understand or connect the information? Definitions and DescriptionsWhen the author defines a word or describes a concept ask: Why did the author want the reader to know that word or concept? Nonfiction Signposts cont. (Not out yet) Words from the WiseWhen the author uses quotes from experts to support the claims or evidence askHow does the expert's quote enhance the author’s information? Evidence and ExamplesWhen the author uses facts and examples to support the main idea askWhich facts are most important to support the main idea? Main IdeaWhen the author presents the "big idea" of a passage- what it's all about askHow does the author support the main idea? Assessment and the Signposts 1. Assessing by listening to their talk 2. Assessing by reading their logs (pgs. 209-210) 3. Connecting to the Common Core State Standards “key ideas and details” “read closely” “cite specific textual evidence” “determine central ideas” “summarize the key supporting details” “analyze development over the course of a text” “interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text” “analyze the structure of text” “assess point of view and purpose” Assessment, not grading, is the heart of instruction. Beers and Probst, 2013 Teach Close Viewing What is Close Viewing? How does it differ from Close Reading? What skills and proficiencies do students need to acquire that are different from those needed for Close Reading? What resources can support Close Viewing? Try Zaption: https://www.zaption.com Teach Speaking and Listening Strategies through Accountable Talk Can classroom talk help learning? Accountable talk refers to the ways that teachers skillfully encourage their students to think deeply, articulate their reasoning, and listen with purpose. Many believe talk is very useful for students as they learn. There is evidence of this world-wide. Those who are committed to teaching for understanding are also committed to engaging students in this type of classroom discourse. Using talk in this manner is a complex professional skill for a classroom teacher. It is also under-examined in the profession. Cathy O’Connor, Boston University What is Challenging About This Way of Teaching? Teachers are simultaneously responsible for the following: http://wg.serpmedia.org/accountable_talk.html 1. Making what is said intelligible with special attention paid to new and complex content 2. Managing coherence so that instruction maintains a logical flow among students with many perspectives 3. Maintaining student engagement and motivation, going beyond simply listening to inspire real interest and commitment to ideas 4. Ensuring equitable participation so that all students are heard, not just the naturally vocal Establishing this type of discourse-intensive classroom takes serious commitment from the teacher. Cathy O’Connor, Boston University Close Reading and Accountable Talk in Read Alouds http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nznO1BMtahw (Figure 4- pg. 33) English Language Learners ELA Lesson Considerations Translate kid friendly writing rubrics in students’ native languages Use strategies such as “Think, Pair, Share” and “Think-a-louds” Teach paraphrasing Incorporate environmental print Brainstorm ideas Utilize personal writer’s notebooks Incorporate picture walks Use partners Demonstrate fix-up strategies Teach vocabulary explicitly Use word sorts Choose one goal at a time (handout) Working with ELLs http://www.colorincolorado.org/multimedia/learn Utilize Simple Graphic Organizers PARCC Accommodations Accommodations available for all students: Using a highlighter tool to shade text on the screen, which helps students recall information later. Having assessment directions read aloud and repeated. Enlarging text on the computer screen to see words, pictures, and details more clearly. Using a pop-up glossary (i.e., students hold their cursor over a word and its definition appears). Using a spell checker as they write. Writing and editing notes on an on-screen notepad. Using writing tools, such as copy, cut, paste, bold, etc. Flagging items that they want to come back to later. Raising and lowering the volume on their headphones. Crossing out answers for multiple choice items. Additional PARCC Accommodations for English Language Learners Extended time General administration directions clarified in student’s native language General administration directions read aloud and repeated as needed in student’s native language Scribe or speech-to-text Word-to-word dictionary Consider offering these accommodations in your daily lessons. What other accommodations can you provide students? (handout) Tying It All Together Using the following ELA strategies: Close Reading Close Viewing Noticing and Noting Accountable Talk All provide numerous opportunities for formative assessments. These authentic practices can guide your instruction to improve teaching and learning daily. Think about all that we discussed today. Write down 3 ways you can formatively assess your students using one or more of the strategies above. References & Resources View these additional video sources: YouTube: Search Heinemann Notice and Note Visit Heinemann website to view 30 minute webinar from Kylene Beers and Robert E. Probst Visit colorincolorado.org for additional strategies for ELLs References & Resources Beers, Kylene, and Robert E. Probst. Notice and Note: Strategies for Close Reading. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2013. Print. Boyles, Nancy. "Closing in on Close Reading." Educational Leadership 70.4 (2013): 36-41. Web. O'Connor, Cathy. "SERP | Word Generation." SERP | Word Generation. Boston University, n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2014. Coleman, D., & Pimentel, S. (2012). Revised publishers' criteria for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts and Literacy, grades 3–12. Retrieved from Student Achievement Partners at www.achievethecore.org/stealthesetools Lehman, Christopher, and Kate Roberts. Falling in Love with Close Reading: Lessons for Analyzing Texts and Life. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print. Marilee Sprenger, Professional Developer/Educator, http://www.marileesprenger.com Most Significant Common Core Key Terms,http://fea.njpsa.org/documents/pdf/Common%20Core%20Key%20Terms%20%20Prepping%20for%20PARCC.pdf National Assessment Governing Board. (2002). Reading Framework for the 2003 National Assessment of Educational Progress (Appendix A). Washington, DC: Author. Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers. (2011). PARCC model content frameworks: English language arts/literacy grades 3–11. Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2008). How to read a paragraph: The art of close reading. Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking Press. Student Achievement Partners. (2012). Close reading exemplar: Grade 3, "Because of Winn-Dixie." Retrieved from Student Achievement Partners.
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