Safe Toys for Children—December 2007

About The
Resource Center
The NC Child Care Health and Safety
Resource Center is a project of the
Department of Maternal and Child
Health, School of Public Health, The
University of North Carolina. Project
Director: Jonathan Kotch. Funding for
the Resource Center originates with the
Maternal and Child Health Title V Block
Grant of USDHHS’s Health Resources
and Services Administration/Maternal and
Child Health Bureau, awarded to
the University under a contract from the
Division of Public Health, NCDHHS.
The development, translating, printing,
web posting and mailing of the NC Child
Care Health and Safety Bulletin are supported
by funding from the Child Care and
Development Fund Block Grant of the
Child Care Bureau, Administration on
Children and Families, USDHHS,
through a contract between the Division
of Child Development, NCDHHS,
and the Department of Maternal and
Child Health, School of Public Health,
The University of North Carolina
at Chapel Hill.
In This Issue
Safe Toys for Children
Let’s Get Down and Play
Toy Safety
Come Play With Me!
Just Change It Up!
Alike - and Different
Ask the Resource Center
Safe Toys
for Children
illions of toys have been recalled
in recent months. The reports of
lead poisonings, finger
amputations, death and disability hardly
bring forth images of happy children at
play. With all the recent recalls, knowing
which toys are safe for children to play
with might seem confusing. Though the
alarming number of recalls has raised
public awareness about the topic of toy
safety, these issues are not new. In 2005,
the CPSC (Consumer Product Safety
Commission) reported 20 toy-related
deaths. More than 200,000 toy-related
injuries were treated in hospital
emergency rooms.
Most of the recently recalled toys were
produced in foreign countries and
contained lead. Though there are
regulations that govern the safety of toys
sold in the US , toys are randomly
inspected or inspected when there is a
concern. Toys manufactured in other
countries may have different or less
stringent standards than those in the US. It
is more likely that toys made abroad could
contain harmful levels of lead. Lead was
found in paint in children’s toys and in
children’s costume jewelry. Lead is a serious
toxin that can interfere with brain
development. It can cause lasting learning
and behavior problems. In high enough
doses is can cause death. Lead cannot be
seen or smelled; it can only be detected in
a lab. Providers cannot check for lead in
donated toys, antique toys, or toys bought
at flea markets and thrift shops. Any toy
not known to be safe should be removed.
Providers can go to the CPSC web site for recalls of new toys.
Providing safe and appropriate toys is
fundamental to healthy child care. In
addition to checking for recalls, providers
can check to make sure all toys are sturdy
and well constructed. Toys should be
checked frequently and repaired or
discarded if they are broken. Providers can
find out the recommended ages for toys
and how to use them by reading the labels
on the packaging. Each child develops
differently and the toys should match his or
her developmental age and interest.
Play, an invaluable part of childhood, builds
imaginations, minds and bodies. It is the
way children learn. Cooperative play
promotes social/emotional development
and builds language skills. Dramatic play
fosters confidence and creativity. Physical
play builds large muscles, coordination and
balance. Working with art materials,
puzzles and blocks develops small motor
skills and promotes creativity and logic.
Providing a wide range of developmentally
appropriate toys ensures that children with
different abilities and interests will find toys
that are fun and stimulating. Offer enough
toys so that each child can choose from a
variety of toys, and offer duplicates of
favorite toys. Providers can rotate toys
when children seem ready for something
different to play with. When a favorite toy
is rotated back into the classroom, it can
feel like an old friend returning after a long
The recent recalls remind providers to take
a second look at the toys they offer to the
children in their programs. When they
know what to look for, providers can
ensure that the toys are safe and
appropriate. Appropriate toys enhance
children’s learning experiences and provide
hours of fun!
Choosing Safe Toys. Retrieved Oct. 10. 2007 from
Toy Injury, The Facts. Retrieved Oct. 10. 2007 from
Toy Recall Update: Mattel Recalls 9 millions Toys.
Retrieved Oct. 10. 2007 from
Let’s Get Down and Play!
Children learn about their world and their place within it through play, and toys are the tools of children’s play. Children need a
wide variety of toys to support different areas of development and individual interests.
Hands on toys
Art and music
Construction items
Experimental materials
• eye-hand coordination
• understanding of how
things work
• cooperation
• problem solving
• fine motor development
• creativity
• early literacy skills
• early math skills
• cultivation of artistic senses
• fine motor development
• muscle strength
• early science concepts
• math skills
• problem solving
• planning
• early science skills
• discovery
• control over material
• early literacy skills
Books and recordings
Active play equipment
• early math skills: shapes,
sorting, spatial relations
• early science concepts
• cooperation
• problem solving
• strong muscles
• coordination
• balance
• physical confidence
• early social skills
• emotional and social skills
• experimentation with new
• expression of personal
concerns and conflicts
• imagination
• planning
• language and vocabulary
• appreciation of literature
• early literacy skills
• appreciation of music
Pretend play
Matching Toys with Developmental Age, Skills and Interest
Developmental milestones are approximate guidelines to development. Each child develops at his or her own pace, some
hitting milestones early, some a little later than others, and many within the typical age range. Consider the child’s individual
development, language skills, physical skills, feelings and interests when selecting toys.
Birth to 3 months
With their fresh smiling faces and burbling coos, new babies
are a delight. Babies look intently at faces; their visual
system is developing rapidly. Babies turn their heads toward
sounds; they babble and imitate those sounds. Hands and
feet are endlessly fascinating; they kick their feet in
excitement as they reach for objects with their hands.
• Toys: rattles, rings, squeeze toys, toys with bright
pictures, mobiles, high contrast pictures, unbreakable
• Books: board, cloth and vinyl books that have bright
pictures, simple shapes and familiar faces or objects.
• Music: music boxes or CD players with soft music
bang, grasp, and shake them. They can pick up objects and
put them in and out of containers. Babies can usually find a
toy hidden by an adult in play. During this time babies
begin to remember simple events and understand simple
• Toys: rag and baby dolls, stuffed animals, puppets,
containers of large beads, large plastic blocks, balls,
stacking toys, nesting toys, plastic containers, cups, pails,
toys that float or squirt, large building blocks, toy phones,
push-pull toys, large soft balls, small wooden cubes, water
toys that float, rubber and plastic balls, rubber or soft
vehicles with wheels
• Books: photo albums of family and friends, touch and feel
books, plastic/vinyl books for bath time, rhythmic poems
• Music: recordings of sounds and songs
4-6 Months
Babies between the ages of 4 and 6 months enjoy
interacting with their caregivers. At this age babies listen to
and imitate sounds; they smile, laugh and gurgle, and they
babble when “babbled” to! They are interested in mirror
images and respond to expressions of emotions. Babies grasp
and bat at objects and, if the results are interesting, they
repeat actions over and over again.
• Toys: soft dolls, textured balls, toys that make noise when
batted or squeezed, pictures of faces, unbreakable mirrors
• Books: board, cloth and vinyl books with photos of other
babies and familiar objects; books that include simple
rhymes and poems
• Music: songs, large bells, tambourines, rattles and maracas
7-12 Months
Babies between the ages of 7 and 12 months are
increasingly mobile. During this time, most will learn to sit,
crawl and take their first steps. Babies can explore toys and
Young Toddlers
1-2 Years
During the
second year
of life
learn to
walk, climb
stairs, run,
kick balls,
walk with
pull toys,
and stand
on tiptoe.
show pride in their accomplishments as they experiment
with objects and solve problems. Toddlers can sort by
shapes and colors. They understand common words and
follow simple instructions. Their understanding of language
helps them to enjoy listening to stories. Children this age
begin to play side by side with their peers and often engage
in pretend play.
• Toys: balls of all sizes, surprise boxes, large pegboards,
large piece puzzles with knobs, large beads to string,
large cardboard box to crawl in, toys that jingle, plastic
measuring cups, boats, washable dolls for water play,
geometric and unit blocks, stacking toys, containers, push
and pull toys
• Books: with just a few words on each page; that rhyme
and have a predictable text; that say hello and goodbye,
good morning and goodnight; that have shapes and
animals of all sizes; that have simple large colorful
• Music: music box recordings with songs, bells, drum,
musical tops, musical keyboards, songs with movement
• Art: soft play dough, clay, wide watercolor markers, fat
nontoxic crayons, large blank pieces of art paper
• Pretend play: kitchen set, small broom, sponge, camera,
wagon, riding toy, washable dolls of all sizes, play
phones, people and animals made of wood or rubber
2-3 Years
Older toddlers
are on the go,
learning new
skills, and
gaining more
control over
their bodies,
fingers and
hands. They
walk independently, climb stairs, and pedal tricycles. They
can hold a pencil and scribble, build a tower of 6 or more
blocks, turn pages of a book, and screw and unscrew jars.
Language grows rapidly during this period; children use
simple phrases and follow simple instructions. Toddlers are
eager to be with other children, playing make believe and
other games with their friends.
• Toys: puzzles with knobs (4-20 pieces), pegboards,
sewing cards, stacking toys, picture lotto, dominos, sound
matching games, wooden train set with large pieces, large
rubber balls, Duplo® blocks, texture matching games,
wagon or wheelbarrow, riding toys, beginning tricycle,
wood block units with accessories, blackboard and chalk
• Books: with simple stories and rhymes children can
memorize; about counting, the alphabet or shapes and
sizes; about animals, vehicles and playtime; pop-up
books; books that are funny
• Music: classical, folk, and children’s music, triangle
• Art: tempura paint, finger paint, brushes, blunt scissors,
white glue
• Pretend play: hand puppets, washable dolls with a few
clothes, doll bed, dress up clothes (no hats – possible
lice) shawls, skirts, shirts, and shoes, tea party utensils
3-5 Years
Preschoolers are
interested in the
world around
them, and want
to experience
everything first
hand. Their
physical skills
are well
developed; they
can skip, gallop,
throw balls
overhand and
pump themselves on a swing. Preschoolers’ language skills
are usually well developed and they use these skills to ask
lots of questions. Preschoolers’ attention spans are
increasing, allowing them to listen to complete stories.
They participate in group activities where they often
become boisterous and silly! Preschoolers often engage in
dramatic play where they develop social skills, explore
different roles, and sometimes work through difficult
• Toys: puzzles with more pieces, simple card or board
games, Duplo®/ Lego® blocks, sorting objects, CD or
tape player, unit blocks – shapes and accessories, realistic
model vehicles, construction set, hammer, sand and water
play equipment, egg beater, bats and balls, (plastic)
balance board, bowling pins, ring toss, bean bags and
• Books: children who are alike and different, counting and
concept books, science books, how thing work, trains,
cooking, friends, doctor visits, going to school, sisters
and brothers, and texts they can memorize
• Music: xylophone, maracas, tambourine, cymbals
• Art: clay, easel, chalk, paste, tape, collage materials
• Pretend play: child sized stove or sink, toy phone, play
food, cardboard cartons, dress up clothes, doll carriages
and accessories, airport, dollhouse, miniature settings,
finger or stick puppets
References for pages 2 and 3:
American Academy of Pediatrics. Caring for Your Baby and Young Child, Birth to Age 5. Bantom Books; 2004
NAEYC. Toys for Learning. National Association for the Education of Young Children: Washington, DC
Toy Safety
Choose toys wisely when setting the
stage for how and what children will
learn. Before buying new toys check
product recalls at
scpub/prerel/category/toy.html. Read and
follow the warning labels. Offer toys that
match with the child’s abilities and always
provide close supervision of children
playing with toys.
December is
Safe Toys and Gifts Month
December 2-8 National Handwashing Awareness Week
January is
National Birth Defects Prevention Month
Family Fitness Month
January 24 Women’s Healthy Weight Day
January 14-20 National Folic Acid Awareness Week
January 20-26 Healthy Weight Week
February is
Prevention of Injuries from Toy Hazards
Choking: Choking on balloons,
small parts, small toys and balls
remains a leading cause of toyrelated deaths and injuries. Items that
fit in a choking tube or an unused roll
of toilet paper are too small for children
under 3 years of age. Latex balloons
cause more childhood deaths than any
other toy and should be kept out of
reach for children under 8 years of age.
Strangulation: Check length
of cords or elastics on pull toys
used by children under 3 years
of age. Remove knobs or beads if
length is longer than 12 inches. Check
the cords or elastics on toys in the
infant and toddler rooms. If they can
tangle or form a loop, the length
should be less than 14 inches.
Hearing loss: Almost 15
percent of children ages 6 to
17 show signs of hearing loss.
Decrease the sound from loud toys by
removing batteries or covering the
speakers with tape.
Exposure to Toxic Chemicals:
Some toys expose children to
dangerous chemicals. Choose
wooden or cloth toys over toys made
with PVC plastic.
Swallowed Magnets: Avoid
magnetic toys for children less
than 6 years of age. If a child
swallows more than one magnet, seek
immediate medical attention.
American Heart Month
National Children’s Dental Health Month
Kids E.N.T. (Ears Nose & Throat) Health Month
February 1 Give Kids a Smile Day
February 1 National Wear Red Day
(Awareness Campaign for Women about Heart Disease)
February 1-7 National Women’s Heart Week
Bulletin Board
Find the Hidden Critter!
In the 2008 NC Child Care Health and Safety Calendar there will be a
hidden critter on one of the pages. To find out what the hidden critter
looks like, check the back page of the calendar. Read the content of the
calendar carefully to locate the hidden critter.
Be one of the first 100 callers in your region to
• Call us at 800-367-2229
• Tell us where you found the critter hiding
• And receive a free gift!
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
MRSA is a type of staph that is resistant to methicillin and other more
common antibiotics. MRSA infections in the community usually occur
in healthy people and show up as skin infections such as red, swollen
and painful pimples or boils that contain pus or other drainage. Most
MRSA infections are treatable with antibiotics. Prevent the spread of
MRSA by practicing good hygiene:
1. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water.
2. Keep cuts and scrapes clean and covered with a bandage until healed.
3. Avoid contact with other people’s wounds or bandages.
If a person has MRSA symptoms he or she should see a health care
provider. For information about Controlling MRSA in Child Care visit:
We encourage you to copy page 5 and
distribute it to families.
In addition to
being safe, toys
for young
children should
match the
children's stages
of development
and emerging
abilities. Each
child develops
at her or his
individual pace.
Children learn through play and toys invite children to
play. Look for toys that are both within the child’s
ability and understanding, and that represent their
world. Avoid toys that are too simple or too hard for a
child. This can cause frustration and may expose the
child to a safety hazard.
Come Play with Me!
• Encourage literacy and a love of the
arts. Young children of all ages enjoy music. Offer
chimes, music boxes, books with music and pictures,
recordings of lullabies and simple songs.
Many safe and appropriate play materials are free items
typically found at home. There is no need to “break the
bank” when everyday objects can offer hours of creative
• Sturdy plastic cups, plates, and wooden or plastic
• Small saucepans and their non-glass lids
• Empty plastic bottles. Add water and food coloring to
change the weight, feel, and color.
• Plastic jars and freezer containers with lids
• Paper and fabric of various textures and colors to
crumple, tear, and handle
• Every possible variety of
Provide a variety of toys
“ball”: ping pong balls,
to stimulate interest and
beach balls, balls of string
Toy safety considerations
encourage learning. Then
or yarn, pieces of fruit
join in the fun!
Sturdy and Safe Construction – No small pieces,
• Things that roll but are
• Encourage social and
sharp edges, or easily breakable parts
not spherical: large thread
language development.
Washable – Remember, babies put everything in
spools, wrapping paper
Read board books and
their mouths.
nursery rhymes to infants
Non-toxic finish – Lead-free paint
and toddlers to help them
• Flat hard things: a ruler or
learn words.
a sandpapered strip of
Safe Size – Choking can occur if a toy is less
• Encourage creativity and
than 5/8 inch in diameter or has small breakable
imagination. Offer art
Things that are squishy:
parts. No latex balloons for children under 8
supplies for preschoolers
rubber or a clean
years old.
and toddlers: crayons and
markers, paintbrushes and
No Strings Attached – Strings, cords or ribbons
• Things with lumps, dips
finger paint, modeling clay
are a strangulation hazard for babies. Attach
and holes: empty soda
and playdough, different
toys to cribs or playpens with plastic,
bottles, muffin tins,
papers for collages. Set the
colorful links.
stage for imaginary play
• Something big and heavy
with cooking utensils and
young, delicate ears.
but safe: a loaf of bread or
a cushion
• Encourage development of
eye-hand coordination and large and small motor
• Large cardboard boxes can become tunnels, play
control. Play ball with toddlers and infants: kick,
houses and more
catch, throw and chase balls of all sizes.
Creative and appropriate toys not only occupy and
• Encourage the learning of cognitive concepts like
educate children – they are just plain fun!
color and shape identification, matching and cause
and effect. Provide items for preschoolers like
matching games, magnifying glasses, measuring cups,
and block play.
National Association for the Education of Young Children
• Encourage physical activity. Riding toys and climbers
Retrieved Oct. 4, 2007 from www.naeyc
help toddlers and preschoolers explore and develop
Everyday Objects For Play
University of Utah Hospitals and Clinics, Office of Patient Education
gross motor skills. Push and pull toys do that for
Retrieved Oct. 4, 2007 from
beginning walkers.
Just Change It Up!
Join the children and invent, experiment, expand and
enjoy the opportunities for active and quiet play.
Adapting Toys
Many toys and materials used by typically developing
children can be adapted easily for children with
Tips for making items easier to grasp and manipulate:
Toys for Outdoors
Outdoor spaces that inspire children, invite them to play.
Many outdoor environments have permanent features
such as playground equipment, trees, and sheds or play
houses. These features do not need to be the only things
that define the outdoor space. Varying the choices for
outdoor play encourages children to adapt and be
creative. Bring out loose parts, prop boxes, and activities
that typically take place indoors. Outdoor projects and
research add a new purpose to being outdoors.
Magnifying glasses, tape measures, and paper bags are
tools of exploration. Add crayons and paper to document
observations. Simple tools for complex learning.
Large playground structures offer children a wide range of
physical challenges: climbing, navigating a slide, wiggling
across a suspended bridge. Children also need spaces to
run, ride, and practice skills like throwing, balancing and
hopping. Rotate in loose parts (moveable equipment) and
challenge the children to use them in a variety of ways.
How many ways can hula hoops be used? Or large snap
together blocks? What about blankets, zoo animals and
vehicles? Or tubs for bathing baby dolls? Add a clothes
line on laundry day.
Virtually anything that can be done indoors can also be
done outdoors and often with surprising results. An
outdoor arts center allows items like stones, leaves, seeds,
pine cones and needles to be added to clay sculptures or
collages. And children experience great freedom outdoors
where they can really make a mess! Provide the materials
and the opportunity and see what the children can do.
The outdoors can also offer quiet time for one or two. A
favorite tree can become a reading nook. Place a basket of
books nearby and sit a stuffed bear against the tree. Soon
a child will be snuggled up with the bear and a book. Or
place two trays of manipulatives under the tree. Add a box
of small vehicles or animals and see what happens. Sand
play can be both soothing and very creative, especially
when there are pails, measuring cups, sieves, shovels,
trucks and dinosaurs to add to the fun.
• Add wooden knobs or spools to puzzle pieces.
• Attach plastic rings to toys.
• Attach small squares of weather stripping or small felt
pads to the top right corner of book pages to separate
• Modify paint brushes, markers, crayons, or pencils by
wrapping clay, foam or cloth around them to make them
• Attach one side of Velcro® to children’s gloves or
sweatbands and the other side to children’s toys.
• Stabilize toys by attaching magnetic strips to them so
the toys can be positioned upright on a cookie sheet.
• Secure toys to surfaces using suction cups, c-clamps,
non-skid matting, Velcro® and sandbags.
• Suspend toys from appropriate surfaces.
• Add adaptive switches to toys with “on/off” functions.
• Use chenille sticks or stiff lacing instead of shoestrings
for stringing beads.
Increasing sensory input may enhance learning
opportunities. To encourage the child to explore a toy
or use one differently, consider these ideas:
• Add familiar smells by rubbing food extracts or other
scents on toys. Try adding vanilla extract to play dough.
• Add new textures to toys or activities. Mix sand in
finger paint or put Velcro dots on blocks.
• Vary temperatures to create new interest in toys
and activities. Freeze the play
food or change the temperature
of the water in the water table.
• Increase visual contrast to help
children see the different parts
of a material or activity. Use
different colors of paint or
markers to color spaces for each puzzle piece. Select
paper for drawing, coloring or painting that is a
different color from the table or easel.
Greenman,J. Caring Spaces, Learning Places: Children's Environments
That Work. Redmond, WA: Exchange Press; 1988.
McGinnis, J. Children's Outdoor Environments. A Guide to Play and
Learning. NC Partnership for Children; 2000
Wesley, P. W., Dennis, B. C., & Tyndall, S. T. QuickNotes: Inclusion resources for
early childhood professionals. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, FPG
Child Development Institute; 2007. Adapted with permission from
Partnerships for Inslusion.
Alike – and Different
It's a small world after all,
it's a small world after all,
It's a small world after all,
it's a small, small world.
There is just one moon and one golden sun
And a smile means friendship to everyone
Though the mountains divide and the oceans are wide,
It's a small world after all.
Imagine a world where everyone looks the same or celebrates special
occasions in the same way. Sounds boring, doesn’t it? Differences in people
make the world a more interesting place. Many early childhood
professionals wonder how they can embrace the cultures represented by all
children. They consider which holidays to celebrate in their program or
classroom. As young children begin to form their identity and self-concept,
they question the world around them. Who are the people who celebrate a
specific holiday? Where do they live? How are they like me? How are
they different?
An environment in which children learn about similarities and differences
promotes awareness and acceptance of both them selves and others.
Remember that children are naturally curious about the differences – and
should be recognized for their own and their family’s
unique qualities.
Activities That Support Understanding of Alike
and Different!
• Place a full-length mirror (acrylic) in the dramatic
play center. Encourage children to look at
themselves. Discuss their appearance and how they
are alike or different from the other children. Help
them see that no one is exactly alike. Extend the activity by creating
graphs of how many in the group have brown eyes, red hair, etc.
• Make hand and foot prints. Whose fingers are the longest? Who has the
widest foot?
• During circle
time, talk with
children about
how people are
the same,
especially when it
comes to feelings.
Use props to demonstrate how we
may be different on the outside but
the same on the inside. One idea is to
use brown and white eggs. Ask the
children to tell you how they are
different in color, size, and shape.
Then, using clear bowls, break the
eggs open and ask the children to tell
you what they see. Like the eggs,
despite the obvious differences, we are
all built the same on the inside, which
is what makes us
human beings.
• All year-round classroom photos,
books, and materials should reflect
various cultures, skin colors, and ways
people celebrate. Avoid the "tourist"
approach. This approach emphasizes
the "exotic" differences between
current dayto-day life
and how
people are
Celebrate Alike and
Different Just Like Me
by Lori Mitchell 1999
It’s Okay to Be Different
by Todd Parr 2001
Kids Around the World Celebrate!: The Best
Feasts and Festivals from Many Lands
by Lynda Jones 1999
• Gather holiday or seasonal music that families
in the program enjoy. Teach children songs
and dances from different cultures. Children
will begin to see that all people like to
sing and dance, but every group has its
own special ways of doing it. Invite
family members to talk with children
about what is being celebrated.
The Big Orange Splot
by D. Manus Pinkwater 1993
The Colors of Us
by Karen Katz 2002
We Are All Alike . . . We Are All Different
by the The Cheltenham Elementary
School Kindergartners 2002
= Infant-Toddler
=Preschool-School Age
Ask the Resource Center
Q: I heard that children under 6 years of age should not be given
nonprescription cold or cough medications. How can a parent or a
provider help a child with a cold or cough feel better if they can not
give cough syrup or cold medications?
A: In October 2007, the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA)
Nonprescription Drugs and Pediatric Advisory Committees met and discussed the
safety and effectiveness of cough and cold drug product use in children. They noted
there is a lack of proven effectiveness when the products are used with children.
They also noted the need for clinical trials. For both those reasons the committees
recommended that the ingredients in cough and cold medications not be used in
children younger than 6.
Though there is no cure for a cold virus, there
are ways to relieve the symptoms of a cold. For
a stuffy nose parents can try using saline nose
drops to loosen the mucus. Only saline nose
drops, NOT nonprescription nose drops
containing medication, should be used. For an
infant under 6 months of age, an adult can
clear a stuffed up nose by using a suction bulb.
The bulb should be squeezed, inserted in one
nostril and then released slowly to draw out the
mucus. The process should be repeated in the
other nostril.
A cool-mist humidifier adds moisture to the air
and to the nasal passages. This helps thin the mucus. Humidifiers need to be cleaned
and disinfected according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Humidifiers should be
filled just before each use and emptied when they are turned off.
Acetaminophen or ibuprofen will help relieve a fever. Follow the recommendations
on the packaging for children more than 2 years of age. For children under 2 years of
age, ask a health care provider for the dose that is best for the child’s age and weight.
Aspirin should not be given. It is associated with the life threatening Reye syndrome.
A stuffy nose sometimes makes it hard to drink fluids. A person with a fever often
loses body fluids from sweating. Offer small amounts of breast milk, formula, water or
other clear liquids to help hydrate the body.
If the symptoms do not get better or if they get worse, contact a health care provider
for advice.
American Academy of Pediatrics. 3/07. Parenting Corner Q&A: Childhood Infections. Retrieved Nov. 4, 2007
FDA News. Vol. 2, Number 43. Oct. 25, 2007. Advisory Committees Recommend Against Cough and Cold
Medications in Children Under . Retrieved Nov. 4, 2007 from
Jacqueline Quirk
Lucretia Dickson, Jeannie Reardon,
Suzanne Meek
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US Postage
Chapel Hill, NC
Permit No. 177
POSTMASTER: Please deliver as soon as possible – time dated material enclosed