NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 6 6β’3 Lesson 6: Rational Numbers on the Number Line Student Outcomes ο§ Students use number lines that extend in both directions and use 0 and 1 to locate integers and rational numbers on the number line. Students know that the sign of a nonzero rational number is positive or negative, depending on whether the number is greater than zero (positive) or less than zero (negative), and use an appropriate scale when graphing rational numbers on the number line. ο§ Students know that the opposites of rational numbers are similar to the opposites of integers. Students know that two rational numbers have opposite signs if they are on different sides of zero and that they have the same sign if they are on the same side of zero on the number line. Classwork Opening Exercise (5 minutes) Students work independently for 5 minutes to review fractions and decimals. Opening Exercise a. Write the decimal equivalent of each fraction. i. π π ο§ Use polling software to elicit immediate feedback from the class to engage all learners. ο§ Display each problem one at a time, and use personal white boards for kinesthetic learners. π. π ii. Scaffolding: π π π. π iii. π π ππ π. ππ b. Scaffolding: Write the fraction equivalent of each decimal. i. π. ππ ππ ππ = πππ ππ ii. π. ππ ο§ Provide green and red pencils to help with modeling the example for visual learners. ππ π π =π πππ π iii. ο§ Use edges of square tiles on the floor as a number line to illustrate how to connect segments of equal length for visual and kinesthetic learners. ππ. ππ ππ ππ π = ππ πππ ππ Lesson 6: Rational Numbers on the Number Line This work is derived from Eureka Math β’ and licensed by Great Minds. ©2015 Great Minds. eureka-math.org This file derived from G6-M3-TE-1.3.0-08.2015 51 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Lesson 6 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM 6β’3 Example 1 (10 minutes): Graphing Rational Numbers The purpose of this example is to show students how to graph non-integer rational numbers on a real number line. Students complete the example by following along with the teacher. ο§ Locate and graph the number 3 and its opposite on a number line. 10 Before modeling the example, review graphing a fraction on the number line to the whole class by first reviewing fraction definitions with respect to the number line. Example 1: Graphing Rational Numbers If π is a nonzero whole number, then the unit fraction π π is located on the number line by dividing the segment between π and π into π segments of equal length. One of the π segments has π as its left end point; the right end point of this π segment corresponds to the unit fraction . π ο§ Since the number is a rational number, a number that can be represented as a fraction, determine how the 1 number line should be scaled. ο§ First, divide the number line into two halves to represent positive and negative numbers. Have students complete this task on their student pages. MP.4 ο§ Next, divide the right half of the number line segment between 0 and 1 into ten segments of equal length; each segment has a length of 1 . 10 Students divide their number lines into ten equal segments as shown. Check for accuracy. 0 ο§ 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 There are 10 equal segments. Each segment has a length of and the right end point corresponds to 1 . 10 7 10 1 10 8 10 9 10 1 . The first segment has 0 as its left end point, 1 Supplemental Exercise: ο§ Have four students each stand in a square floor tile forming a straight line facing the class. Give each student a number to tie around his neck: 0, 1 , 2 , or 10 10 3 . (Use index cards or construction paper.) 10 ο§ Ask a fifth student to assist by giving one end of a ball of string to the person at 0. This person holds one end of the string and passes the rest to the person to the left. (So the class sees it moving to the right.) 3 β1 2 3 β As the string gets passed down the line, each person announces her number, , , , stopping at . ο§ The assistant cuts the string at ο§ ο§ 3 10 10 10 10 and gives that end of the string to the person holding 3 10 , making one segment of length 10 Have students turn over their numbers to reveal their opposites and rearrange themselves to represent the opposite of 3 3 . 10 10 using the same process. This time, students pass the string to the right. (So the class sees it moving to the left.) Lesson 6: Rational Numbers on the Number Line This work is derived from Eureka Math β’ and licensed by Great Minds. ©2015 Great Minds. eureka-math.org This file derived from G6-M3-TE-1.3.0-08.2015 52 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. The fraction π π 6β’3 Lesson 6 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM is located on the number line by joining π segments of length π π so that (1) the left end point of the first segment is π, and (2) the right end point of each segment is the left end point of the next segment. The right end point of π the last segment corresponds to the fraction . π ο§ To locate the number π π on a number line, students should divide the interval between zero and 1 into π equal parts. Starting at 0, move along the number line π number of times. 1 10 0 ο§ ο§ ο§ 2 10 3 10 8 10 7 10 9 10 1 1 . The first segment has a 0 as its left end point, 10 3 3 and the right end point of the third segment corresponds to . The point is located at . 10 10 3 3 The opposite of is located the same distance from zero as but in the opposite direction or to the left. 10 10 3 Using your knowledge of opposites, what rational number represents the opposite of ? 10 3 οΊ β 10 3 To locate the opposite of on the number line, divide the interval between zero and β1 into ten equal 10 3 segments. Starting at zero, how far would we move to locate the opposite of , and in what direction? 10 We would move 3 units to the left of zero because that is the same distance but opposite direction we moved to plot the point β1 ο§ 6 10 5 10 There are ten equal segments. Each segment has a length of οΊ ο§ 4 10 β 9 10 β 8 10 3 . 10 β 7 10 β 6 10 β 5 10 β 4 10 β 3 10 β 2 10 β 1 10 0 1 . Three consecutive segments, starting at 0 10 3 3 and moving to the left, would have a total length of . The point is located at β . 10 10 1 Counting three consecutive segments of length of from 0 moving to the left and taking the end point of the 10 3 3 3 last segment corresponds to the number β . Therefore, the opposite of is β . 10 10 10 There are ten equal segments. Each segment has a length of Locate and graph the number βπ β π ππ and its opposite on a number line. π π π π π π π π π π β β β β β β β β ππ ππ ππ ππ ππ ππ ππ ππ ππ Lesson 6: π ππ Rational Numbers on the Number Line This work is derived from Eureka Math β’ and licensed by Great Minds. ©2015 Great Minds. eureka-math.org This file derived from G6-M3-TE-1.3.0-08.2015 π ππ π ππ π ππ π ππ π ππ π ππ π ππ π ππ π 53 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Lesson 6 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM 6β’3 Exercise 1 (5 minutes) Students work independently to practice graphing a non-integer rational number and its opposite on the number line. Allow 2β3 minutes for review as a whole group. Exercise 1 Use what you know about the point β π π π and its opposite to graph both points on the number line below. The fraction π β is located between which two consecutive integers? Explain your reasoning. β π π β π π β π π β π π β π π β π π β π π β π π π π π On the number line, each segment will have an equal length of π π π π π π π π π π π π π π π π . The fraction is located between βπ and βπ . Explanation: π π π π π π π π is the opposite of β . It is the same distance from zero but on the opposite side of zero. Since β is to the left of zero, π π π π is to the right of zero. The original fraction is located between βπ (or β ) and βπ (or β ). Example 2 (7 minutes): Rational Numbers and the Real World Display the following vertical number line model on the board. Students are to follow along in their student materials to answer the questions. Pose additional questions to the class throughout the example. Example 2: Rational Numbers and the Real World The water level of a lake rose π. ππ feet after it rained. Answer the following questions using the number line below. a. Write a rational number to represent the situation. π. ππ or π b. π π What two integers is π. ππ between on a number line? π and π c. Write the length of each segment on the number line as a decimal and a fraction. π. ππ and d. π π What will be the water level after it rained? Graph the point on the number line. π. ππ feet above the original lake level Lesson 6: Rational Numbers on the Number Line This work is derived from Eureka Math β’ and licensed by Great Minds. ©2015 Great Minds. eureka-math.org This file derived from G6-M3-TE-1.3.0-08.2015 54 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Lesson 6 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM e. 6β’3 After two weeks have passed, the water level of the lake is now the opposite of the water level when it rained. What will be the new water level? Graph the point on the number line. Explain how you determined your answer. The water level would be π. ππ feet below the original lake level. If the water level was π. ππ, the opposite of π. ππ is βπ. ππ. f. State a rational number that is not an integer whose value is less than π. ππ, and describe its location between two consecutive integers on the number line. Answers will vary. A rational number whose value is less than π. ππ is π. ππ. It would be located between π and π on a number line. Possible discussion questions: ο§ What units are we using to measure the water level? οΊ ο§ Feet What was the water level after the rain? How do you know? οΊ If zero represents the original water level on the number line, the water level after rain is 1.25 feet. 1 From 0 to 1, there are four equal segments. This tells me that the scale is . The top of the water is 5 4 represented on the number line at one mark above 1, which represents feet or 1.25 feet. 4 ο§ What strategy could we use to determine the location of the water level on the number line after it rained? οΊ 1 1 5 4 4 4 I started at 0 and counted by for each move. I counted five times to get , which is equivalent to 1 1 4 and 1.25. I know the number is positive because I moved up. Since the measurements are in feet, the answer is 1.25 feet. ο§ 5 For the fraction , what is the value of the numerator and denominator? 4 οΊ ο§ The numerator is 5, and the denominator is 4. What do the negative numbers represent on the number line? οΊ They represent the number of feet below the original lake level. Scaffolding: Exercise 2 (10 minutes) Students are seated in groups of three or four. Distribute one sheet of grid paper and a ruler to each student. Each group completes the following tasks: 1. Write a real-world story problem using a rational number and its opposite. 2. Create a horizontal or vertical number line diagram to represent your situation. a. Determine an appropriate scale, and label the number line. b. Write the units of measurement (if needed). c. Graph the rational number and its opposite that represent the situation. 3. Describe what points 0 and the opposite number represent on the number line. 4. Name a rational number to the left and right of the rational number you initially chose. Lesson 6: Rational Numbers on the Number Line This work is derived from Eureka Math β’ and licensed by Great Minds. ©2015 Great Minds. eureka-math.org This file derived from G6-M3-TE-1.3.0-08.2015 ο§ Project the directions for the example as a way for groups to make sure they are completing all task requirements. ο§ Have students write their story problems and draw their number lines on large wall grid paper. ο§ Hang posters around the room to use as a gallery walk for students who finish their Exit Tickets early, or use them as review for the Mid-Module Assessment later in the module. 55 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Lesson 6 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM 6β’3 Exercise 2 Our Story Problem Answers will vary. Melissa and Samantha weigh the same amount. Melissa gained π. π pounds last month, while Samantha lost the same amount Melissa gained. βπ βπ βπ βπ βπ βπ π π π π π π π (pounds) ο§ Our Scale: π ο§ Our Units: Pounds ο§ Description: On the number line, zero represents Melissa and Samanthaβs original weight. The point βπ. π represents the change in Samanthaβs weight. The amount lost is π. π pounds. ο§ Other Information: A rational number to the left of π. π is π. π. A rational number to the right of π. π is π. ππ. Closing (2 minutes) ο§ How is graphing the number οΊ ο§ When graphing each number, you start at zero and move to the right (or up) 4 units. 4 3 How is graphing the number on a number line different from graphing the number 4 on a number line? οΊ ο§ 4 on a number line similar to graphing the number 4 on a number line? 3 4 3 1 3 When we graph 4, the unit length is one, and when we graph , the unit length is . On a vertical number line, describe the location of the rational number that represents β5.1 and its opposite. οΊ The number β5.1 would be 5.1 units below zero because it is negative. Its opposite, 5.1, would be 5.1 units above zero because it is positive. Exit Ticket (6 minutes) Lesson 6: Rational Numbers on the Number Line This work is derived from Eureka Math β’ and licensed by Great Minds. ©2015 Great Minds. eureka-math.org This file derived from G6-M3-TE-1.3.0-08.2015 56 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Lesson 6 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Name 6β’3 Date Lesson 6: Rational Numbers on the Number Line Exit Ticket Use the number line diagram below to answer the following questions. πΎ 0 β1 1 1. What is the length of each segment on the number line? 2. What number does point πΎ represent? 3. What is the opposite of point πΎ? 4. Locate the opposite of point πΎ on the number line, and label it point πΏ. 5. In the diagram above, zero represents the location of Martin Luther King Middle School. Point πΎ represents the library, which is located to the east of the middle school. In words, create a real-world situation that could represent point πΏ, and describe its location in relation to 0 and point πΎ. Lesson 6: Rational Numbers on the Number Line This work is derived from Eureka Math β’ and licensed by Great Minds. ©2015 Great Minds. eureka-math.org This file derived from G6-M3-TE-1.3.0-08.2015 57 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Lesson 6 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM 6β’3 Exit Ticket Sample Solutions Use the number line diagram below to answer the following questions. π³ π² βπ 1. π π What is the length of each segment on the number line? π ππ 2. What number does point π² represent? π , or ππ 3. π π What is the opposite of point π²? β π π , or β ππ π 4. Locate the opposite of point π² on the number line, and label it point π³. 5. In the diagram above, zero represents the location of Martin Luther King Middle School. Point π² represents the library, which is located to the east of the middle school. In words, create a real-world situation that could represent point π³, and describe its location in relation to π and point π². π units to the left of π, so it is a negative number. Point π³ represents the recreation ππ π center, which is located mile west of Martin Luther King Middle School. This means that the recreation center ππ π and library are the same distance from the middle school but in opposite directions because the opposite of is ππ π β . ππ Answers may vary. Point π³ is Problem Set Sample Solutions Students gain additional practice with graphing rational numbers on the number line. 1. In the space provided, write the opposite of each number. a. ππ β π ππ π π π π π b. β c. π. ππ d. βπ π π Lesson 6: βπ. ππ ππ π Rational Numbers on the Number Line This work is derived from Eureka Math β’ and licensed by Great Minds. ©2015 Great Minds. eureka-math.org This file derived from G6-M3-TE-1.3.0-08.2015 58 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Lesson 6 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM 2. 6β’3 Choose a non-integer between π and π. Label it point π¨ and its opposite point π© on the number line. Write values below the points. (Answers may vary.) π© βπ a. β π π π π π π To draw a scale that would include both points, what could be the length of each segment? Answers may vary. b. π¨ π π In words, create a real-world situation that could represent the number line diagram. π π π π Answers may vary. Starting at home, I ran mile. My brother ran mile from home in the opposite direction. 3. Choose a value for point π· that is between βπ and βπ. Answers may vary. β a. ππ , βπ. ππ, βπ. π π What is the opposite of point π·? Answers may vary. b. π , π. ππ, π. π Use the value from part (a), and describe its location on the number line in relation to zero. ππ π c. ππ is the same distance as β ππ ππ π from zero but to the right. is π units to the right of (or above) zero. π π π Find the opposite of the opposite of point π·. Show your work, and explain your reasoning. ππ , then the π ππ ππ ππ ππ ππ opposite of the opposite of point π· is located at β . The opposite of β is . The opposite of is β . π π π π π The opposite of an opposite of the number is the original number. If point π· is located at β β (β ππ ππ ππ ππ )= and β (β (β )) = β π π π π Lesson 6: Rational Numbers on the Number Line This work is derived from Eureka Math β’ and licensed by Great Minds. ©2015 Great Minds. eureka-math.org This file derived from G6-M3-TE-1.3.0-08.2015 59 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Lesson 6 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM 4. 6β’3 Locate and label each point on the number line. Use the diagram to answer the questions. Jill lives one block north of the pizza shop. Janetteβs house is π π block past Jillβs house. Jeffrey and Olivia are in the park π π Janetteβs house blocks south of the pizza shop. Jillβs house Jennyβs Jazzy Jewelry Shop is located halfway between the pizza shop and the park. a. Describe an appropriate scale to show all the points in this situation. An appropriate scale would be π π π Pizza shop because the numbers given in the example all have denominators of π. I would divide the number line into equal segments of Jewelry shop π . π b. Park What number represents the location of Jennyβs Jazzy Jewelry Shop? Explain your reasoning. π π The number is β . I got my answer by finding the park first. It is π units below π. Since the jewelry shop is halfway between the pizza shop and the park, half of π is π. Then, I moved π units down on the number line since the shop is south of the pizza shop before the park. Lesson 6: Rational Numbers on the Number Line This work is derived from Eureka Math β’ and licensed by Great Minds. ©2015 Great Minds. eureka-math.org This file derived from G6-M3-TE-1.3.0-08.2015 60 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

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