Respirable Crystalline Silica in Construction

Respirable Crystalline Silica
Respirable Crystalline Silica
in Construction
Respirable Crystalline Silica
Introduction
Silica hazards in construction
• Welcome to this presentation!
• OSHA’s Final Rule to Protect Workers from
Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica Awareness in Construction
• Intended for:
• ASSE’s Construction Practice Specialty group
• Construction foremen, supervisors, managers,
project managers, and Safety
Managers/Supervisors and Trainers so they
understand the information needs of those
workers with the potential for only limited
exposure
• Duration: 30 minutes followed by Q&A as needed
TIP: OSHA has issued two standards to protect
workers from exposure to respirable crystalline silica
– one for construction (29 CFR 1926.1153) and
general industry / maritime (29 CFR 1910.1053)
Respirable Crystalline Silica
Introduction
Presentation objectives
• By the end of this presentation, you will be able to:
• Identify OSHA’s new Respirable Crystalline Silica
Standard in Construction and it’s principal
elements / requirements.
• Explain what respirable crystalline silica is and the
health hazards associated with it
• Identify the types of required control measures
and respiratory protection for respirable
crystalline silica
• Recognize employer responsibilities and
employee rights under the standard on respirable
crystalline silica
About 2.3 million workers are exposed to respirable crystalline silica in their workplaces, including 2 million construction workers
who drill, cut, crush, or grind silica-containing materials such as concrete and stone, and 300,000 workers in general industry
operations such as brick manufacturing, foundries, and hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking.
Respirable Crystalline Silica
Introduction
Provisions of the standard
• Reduces the permissible exposure limit (PEL) for
respirable crystalline silica to 50 micrograms per
cubic meter of air, averaged over an 8-hour shift
• Requires employer compliance
• Engineering controls
• Respirators
• Limiting worker access to high exposure areas
• Written exposure control plan
• Medical exams and health information
• Training
• Provides flexibility to help employers protect workers
TIP
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an
employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise. Permissible exposure limits are
established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). For chemicals, the chemical regulation
is usually expressed in parts per million (ppm), or in the case of respirable crystalline silica dust, micrograms per
cubic meter of air (μg/m3). Units of measure for physical agents such as noise are specific to the agent. A PEL is
usually given as a time-weighted average (TWA), although some are short-term exposure limits (STEL) or ceiling
limits. A TWA is the average exposure over a specified period of time, usually a nominal eight hours.
Respirable Crystalline Silica
Introduction
OSHA’s respirable crystalline silica rule
• 29 CFR 1926.1153
• Applies to “all occupational exposures to
respirable crystalline silica in construction
work, except where employee exposure will
remain below 25 micrograms per cubic meter
of air (25 μg/m3) as an 8-hour time-weighted
average (TWA) under any foreseeable
conditions.”
• 25 μg/m3 is the Action Level for respirable
crystalline silica in air.
TIP
Evaluating silica dust in the air requires air
monitoring. The purpose of air monitoring is to
identify and quantify airborne contaminants in order
to determine the level of worker protection needed.
Two principal approaches are available for
identifying and/or quantifying airborne contaminants:
• The onsite use of direct-reading instruments.
• Laboratory analysis of air samples obtained by
gas sampling bag, filter, sorbent, or wet
contaminant collection methods.
Respirable Crystalline Silica
Introduction
Schedule for construction industry
• June 23, 2016
• OSHA’s respirable crystalline silica standard for
construction goes into effect!
• June 23, 2017
• Start of compliance obligations to this standard
(except methods of sample analysis)
• June 23, 2018
• Start of requirements for sample analysis
methods
Respirable Crystalline Silica
What are Silica Hazards?
What is crystalline silica?
• Crystalline silica
• A basic component of soil, sand, granite, and many other minerals.
• Quartz is the most common form of crystalline silica
• Cristobalite and tridymite are two other forms of crystalline silica
• “Respirable” crystalline silica
• Quartz, cristobalite, and/or tridymite contained in airborne particles
that are determined to be respirable (breathable) by a compliant
sampling device
• Crystalline silica can become respirable size particles from worker
activities such as:
• Chipping
• Cutting
• Drilling
• Grinding
What does “respirable”
mean?
Inhalable particulate dust is
that fraction of a dust cloud
that can be breathed into the
nose or mouth.
Respirable Crystalline Silica
What are Silica Hazards?
Silica-related diseases
• Limiting workers from exposure to
respirable crystalline silica to
prevent/minimize:
• Lung cancer
• Silicosis
• Chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease
• Kidney disease
The U.S. Department of Labor first highlighted the hazards of
respirable crystalline silica in the 1930s, after a wave of worker
deaths. Current standards are outdated and do not adequately
protect workers from silica-related diseases.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HAByIIzQSuU
TIP
Respirable Crystalline Silica
What are Silica Hazards?
Silicosis
• The formation of scar tissue in the lungs
• Potentially disabling or fatal ailment
• No cure
• Also makes those with silicosis more
susceptible to lung infections like TB
• Smoking adds to the damage of silicosis
Respirable Crystalline Silica
What are Silica Hazards?
Silicosis types and symptoms
Chronic/classic
silicosis
Accelerated
silicosis
Acute
silicosis
• Chronic/classic silicosis
• The most common type
• Occurs after 15-20 years of moderate to low
exposure
• Symptoms, such as shortness of breath and poor
oxygen intake, might not be obvious
• Accelerated silicosis
• Occurs after 5-10 years of high exposure
• Symptoms include shortness of breath, weakness,
and weight loss
• Acute silicosis
• Occurs after a few months to two years of extremely
high exposure
• Symptoms include disabling shortness of breath,
weakness, weight loss, often leading to death
Respirable Crystalline Silica
Types of Control Methods
Worksite analysis
• Helps an employer determine what jobs and work
stations are the sources of potential problems
• Generally conducted by a “qualified person”
• Measures and identifies exposures, problem
tasks, and risks
• Inspects, researches, or analyzes potential
health hazards
• Recommends appropriate corrective action if a
hazardous situation is identified
The pDR-1000AN monitor features a high
measurement range of 0.001 to 400 mg/
m3 (auto-ranging)
Respirable Crystalline Silica
Types of Control Methods
General methods of control
• Depending on the exposed worker’s task, dust
exposures may be reduced in multiple ways
• Dust suppression (wet methods, surfactants, etc.)
• Vacuum dust collection (VDC)
• Respiratory protection
• Ventilated booths
• Operator isolation
• Fans (supplement only)
• Others: speed controls of equipment, restrictions
of work on windy days, working upwind, conduct
silica dust producing work in off hours, minimize
time of exposure, etc.
TIP
Later in this presentation, we will address Table 1 of the
respirable crystalline silica standard, which lists the control
methods that employers are required to use for common
construction activities.
Respirable Crystalline Silica
Types of Control Methods
Hazardous equipment and operations
• Equipment and operations that may expose workers:
• Stationary and handheld masonry saws
• Hand-operated grinders
• Tuckpointing/mortar removal
• Jackhammers, rotary hammers and similar tools
• Vehicle-mounted rock drilling rigs
• Drywall finishing
• General housekeeping operations
TIP
It is important to follow equipment manufacturers’ recommendations in order to
ensure that any modifications do not adversely affect equipment performance
and that no additional hazards are created.
Respirable Crystalline Silica
Types of Control Methods
What is Table 1?
Table 1 entitled “Specified Exposure Control
Methods When Working With Materials
Containing Crystalline Silica”
• A flexible compliance option that protects
workers.
• Identifies 18 common construction tasks that
generate
Employers who fully and properly
high exposures to respirable crystalline
implement the engineering controls, work
silica:
practices, and respiratory protection
specified for a task on Table 1 are not
• for each task;
required to measure respirable crystalline
• specifies engineering controls;
silica exposures to verify that levels are at
or below the PEL for workers engaged in
• work practices; and
the Table 1 task.
• respiratory protection that effectively
protect workers.
Respirable Crystalline Silica
Types of Control Methods
Table 1 of the
respirable crystalline
silica standard
• Provides the following information:
• Engineering and work practices
controls for various common
construction activities
• Required respiratory protection
and minimum assigned protection
factors (or APF)
• A work practice control seen
throughout Table 1
• “Operate and maintain tool in
accordance with manufacturer’s
instructions to minimize dust
emissions”
TIP: You’re
going to need to
document time
of use.
Respirable Crystalline Silica
Types of Control Methods
Respiratory protection
• Respirators are required if dust control measures are
otherwise insufficient
• Factors affecting respiratory protection systems:
• Enclosed versus open spaces
• # of operations generating silica dust
• Environmental conditions, such as wind direction and
speed
• Percentage of silica found in materials
• When respirators are required, employer must have a
written respiratory protection program compliant w/ 1926.
Employees working near operations where silica dust is generated
may need respiratory protection even if they themselves are not
performing a task that exposes them to respirable crystalline silica.
TIP
Respirable Crystalline Silica
Types of Control Methods
Air Purifying Respirators (APR’s) & Assigned Protection Factor (APF’s)
These are APF 25 respirators
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These are APF 10 respirators
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Respirable Crystalline Silica
Employer Responsibilities
Employer responsibilities under the standard
• Employer responsibilities under 29 CFR 1926.1153
• Engineering and work practices controls
• Table 1
• Alternative exposure control methods
• Respiratory protection
• Housekeeping
• Written exposure control plan
• Medical surveillance
• Communication of respirable crystalline silica
hazards to employees
• Recordkeeping
Respirable Crystalline Silica
Employer Responsibilities
Housekeeping
• Where such activity could contribute to
employee exposure to respirable
crystalline silica:
• No dry sweeping or dry brushing
• No using compressed air to clean
clothing or surfaces unless:
• Used in conjunction with a
ventilation system that effectively
captures the dust cloud, OR
• No alternative method is feasible
Respirable Crystalline Silica
Employer Responsibilities
Written exposure control plan
• Elements of the written exposure control plan
• Tasks that involve exposure to respirable crystalline
silica
• Engineering controls, work practices, and respiratory
protection
• Housekeeping measures
• Procedures used to restrict access to work areas
• Review, evaluate, and (as needed) update the plan
annually
• Make the plan readily available to employees and others
• Designate a competent person to make inspections and
implement the plan
TIP
A “written exposure control plan” establishes the minimum procedures an employer must follow to protect
employees and comply with the respirable crystalline silica standard. Employees wanting to learn more about the
employers silica control practices should be able to contact their supervisor and/or safety coordinator to learn more.
Respirable Crystalline Silica
Employer Responsibilities
Written exposure control plan
• Commercial Respirable Crystalline Exposure Control Plans out
there as well as universities, government sites.
• Create-A-Plan to Control the Dust seem like an interesting tool.
• http://plan.silica-safe.org/
• CPWR — The Center for Construction Research and Training,
and serves as the National Construction Center for the
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
Respirable Crystalline Silica
Employer Responsibilities
Medical surveillance
• At no cost for each employee who will
be required by the respirable crystalline
silica standard to use a respirator for 30
or more days per year
• Performed by a “physician or other
licensed health care professional”
(PLHCP)
• Periodic exams: At least once every
three years
• Medical reports and opinions: Delivered
within 30 days after the exam
Respirable Crystalline Silica
Employer Responsibilities
Communication of hazards to employees
• Hazard communication
• Include respirable crystalline silica in the
communication program complying with the
hazard communication standard (HCS) 29 CFR
1910.1200
• Need to address cancer and other silicarelated diseases
• Ensure that each employee covered by the
respirable crystalline silica standard can
demonstrate knowledge of the standard
• Make a copy of the respirable crystalline silica
standard readily available without cost to each
employee covered by this standard
Respirable Crystalline Silica
Final Considerations
Respirable
Crystalline
Silica
Compliance
Flowchart
**Objective Data: Information from industrywide surveys demonstrating
employee exposure to crystalline silica
associated with a process, task or activity.
The data must reflect workplace conditions
resembling work practices and
environmental conditions in the employer’s
current operations.
Respirable Crystalline Silica
Conclusion
Summary
• You should now be able to:
• Have a better understanding of OSHA’s New
Respirable Crystalline Exposure in Construction
Standard
• Explain what respirable crystalline silica is and
the health hazards associated with it
• Identify the types of control measures and
respiratory protection for respirable crystalline
silica
• Recognize employer responsibilities and
employee rights under the standard on
respirable crystalline silica
• A whole lot more to this standard and its
general industry/maritime sister. We just
scratched the surface.
Respirable Crystalline Silica
Conclusion
References
• OSHA’s Respirable Crystalline Silica Standard
29 CFR 1926.1153
• OSHA FactSheet – OSHA’s Crystalline Silica Rule:
Construction
www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3681.pdf
• OSHA’s webpage for the respirable crystalline
silica standard, which includes multiple other
related links
https://www.osha.gov/silica/index.html
Have a Safe and Healthy Day!
Pete Rice CIH/CSP
Safety and Industrial Hygiene Programs - ClickSafety
[email protected]