Demonstration Forest - Maine Tree Foundation

Brenton S. Halsey, Jr. Memorial
Outdoor Classroom & Demonstration Forest
Learning Guide
\
Dedicated to his vision and commitment
To finding a better way and
His ability to inspire us to appreciate
The value of Environmental Education
“Learning how to think, not what to think”
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 1
Using This Guide ................................................................................................................................................ 2
Arranging a Visit ................................................................................................................................................... 2
Housekeeping..................................................................................................................................................... 3
Demonstration Forest Location Map .................................................................................................................. 4
Demonstration Forest Site Map ........................................................................................................................... 5
Demonstration Forest Trail Map .......................................................................................................................... 6
Forest Trees Found On This Forest .................................................................................................................. 7
Classrooms ........................................................................................................................................................ 16
Wolf Tree Classroom ................................................................................................................................... 16
Clearcut Classroom ...................................................................................................................................... 17
Commercial Clearcut .................................................................................................................................... 17
Overstory Removal Harvest ......................................................................................................................... 19
Buffered Clearcut And Plantation ................................................................................................................. 19
Wildlife Habitat Classroom ........................................................................................................................... 20
Wildlife Trees ................................................................................................................................................ 20
Deer Wintering Areas ................................................................................................................................... 21
Woody Debris ............................................................................................................................................... 21
Riparian Classroom ...................................................................................................................................... 22
Forest Measurement Classroom ................................................................................................................. 23
Forest Growth Response Classroom........................................................................................................... 23
Learning Stations And Other Signage............................................................................................................... 25
Wildlife Forage & Soil Conservation ............................................................................................................. 25
Box Culverts & Corduroy ............................................................................................................................... 25
Reserve Area ................................................................................................................................................ 26
Silviculture & Single Tree Selection ............................................................................................................. 26
Ice Storm Damage ........................................................................................................................................ 28
Dwarf Mistletoe - "Witches Broom" ............................................................................................................... 28
The Natural Life Cycle Of The Forest .......................................................................................................... 29
Pileated Woodpecker ................................................................................................................................... 30
Timber Bridge ............................................................................................................................................... 30
Shelterwood .................................................................................................................................................. 31
Standing Volume ........................................................................................................................................... 31
Backyard Wildlife Garden............................................................................................................................. 32
Timber Stand Improvement ......................................................................................................................... 32
Conclusion ......................................................................................................................................................... 33
Soil Types Found On Demonstration Forest .................................................................................................... 34
Soil Map - Demonstration Forest ....................................................................................................................... 35
Forest Inventory ................................................................................................................................................. 36
Prism Point Sampling ........................................................................................................................................ 40
Cruise Specifications ......................................................................................................................................... 41
Product Specifications ....................................................................................................................................... 42
Species .............................................................................................................................................................. 43
Continuous Forest Inventory (CFI) .................................................................................................................... 44
CFI Inventory Tables ......................................................................................................................................... 45
General Standing Volume Tables - Softwood................................................................................................... 57
- Hardwood .................................................................................................. 58
Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................................... 59
Glossary ............................................................................................................................................................. 68
PLT Activity Guide Reference ............................................................................................................................ 79
PROJECT LEARNING TREE
OUTDOOR CLASSROOM AND DEMONSTRATION FOREST
LEARNING GUIDE
INTRODUCTION
Georgia-Pacific is one of the world's leading manufacturers and distributors of
paper and building products. The Georgia-Pacific Group common stock is traded on the
New York Stock Exchange (ticker: GP). Our familiar consumer brands include Angel
Soft®, Sparkle®, Coronet®, MD®, Dixie, Brawny and Quilted Northern. Our building
products distribution segment is among the nation's leading wholesale suppliers of
building products, and we are among the top manufacturers of structural panels, lumber
and gypsum wallboard. Our Unisource subsidiary is a leading marketer and distributor
of printing and imaging paper and supply systems. Founded at Augusta, Ga., in 1927,
Georgia-Pacific today employs more than 85,000 people at nearly 600 plants, mills,
distribution centers and facilities throughout the United States, Canada and 11 other
countries. The company is headquartered at Atlanta, Ga.
The Northeast Wood and Fiber Procurement Group is responsible for supplying
northern hardwood pulpwood to the Georgia Pacific Old Town and Woodland Pulp Mills.
The Northeast Wood and Fiber Procurement Group also provides land management
services. We specialize in working with forest landowners to develop long-range land use
plans to perpetuate the natural life cycles of the forests, while producing natural products
we all need and use. Our livelihoods and our way of life depend upon the careful
stewardship of this renewable resource, now and for generations to come. We are
committed to protecting the forest ecosystem’s ability to nurture the diversity of life found
in our forest.
The purpose of our Outdoor Classroom and Demonstration Forest is to provide a
complete picture of the forest as a dynamic ecosystem, as a source of valuable natural
products, and as a recreational resource. As an educational resource we feel that its
location and design will make a close, "hands-on" experience convenient for students
from the schools in the greater Bangor area.
Project Learning Tree (PLT) is an award winning environmental education program
designed for teachers and other educators working with students from kindergarten
through 12th grade. It has been in existence for over 20 years
PLT uses the forest as a "window" into the natural world, helping young people
gain an awareness and knowledge of the world around them, as well as their place within
it. PLT may be used as a "template" to teach math, science, social studies, and even the
arts.
For more information about Project Learning Tree please contact the office of “The
Maine Tree Foundation”, RR4 Box 2770, Winslow, Maine 04901, (207) 877-7123.
1
USING THIS GUIDE
This Learning Guide has been prepared with teachers and educators in mind. In
it you will find the complete text of all of the signs you will see out on our demonstration
forest. A map and description of each of the outdoor classrooms and learning stations is
also included.
We have constructed six "classrooms". They may be identified by the signs, as
well as the several benches arranged so that. your class may sit to listen to your
presentation, or just discuss and enjoy the forest setting.
There are many Learning Stations, usually identified by an appropriate sign.
These usually do not have more than one bench in the immediate area. They are
described here, by title. These stations are designed to stimulate thought and discussion
around a particular theme. A verbatim copy of each sign is included here, with other
information, if necessary, to facilitate continued discussion once your class is gathered
back at school again.
Finally, a Reference Section contains technical information relating to forest
inventory, a complete list of all the trees measured in the growth response classroom,
volume tables - by tree, and other information that you may use to create exercises for
your group or students. A book reference section compiled by teacher, Joanne Alex of
the Stillwater Montessori School lists books and publications about the natural world that
she has found to be useful at her school.
All photos in this guide were taken in September 1999.
ARRANGING A VISIT
If you would like to use our outdoor classroom for a class visit please call (207)
827-0613, (207) 827-0611 or (207) 827-0627 to reserve a time. The busiest months of
the year for class visits are September, October, May, and June.
2
HOUSEKEEPING
All of the trails on this forest are "paved" with hardwood wood chips from one of
our chipmill facilities. They provide a well-defined trail to follow, as well as a comfortable,
safe surface to walk on. Please stay on these trails so that the rest of the demonstration
forest will remain as natural as possible.
This demonstration forest has been designed as safely as possible, but it is
important to remember that it is a natural forest. As such you should be aware of
potential hazards represented by branches and splinters. If the weather is very windy,
there is the potential that limbs might be blown out of the trees. We have done everything
possible to identify any potential hazards, while maintaining the natural character of the
forest. Please, just be aware, and be careful.
Please...Carry in, and more importantly, Carry out any litter or papers. Trash
receptacles are located at the Learning Center near the entrance to the trail, for your
convenience.
There are no restroom facilities at our demonstration forest, at this time.
Many visitors and students will use our demonstration forest and outdoor
classrooms. Please leave the forest as you find it. If you or your class would like a
"souvenir" wood chip from the trails, please help yourself, but again please leave other
fauna and flora for all to enjoy.
Enjoy! Learn! Appreciate!
3
LOCATION MAP
Fort
James
Demonstration
Forest
Exit 51
Exit 50
4
Univ. of
Maine
Clearcut Classroom
Overstory Removal
Clearcut Classroom
Traditional Clearcut
The Learning Center
Compare a Managed vs.
Unmanaged Forest
Wildlife Habitat Classroom
(Wildlife tree at back is marked with a “W”.)
CFI Classroom
Pileated Woodpecker Tree
Forest Measurement Classroom
5
6
FOREST TREES FOUND ON THIS FOREST
Many of the signs you see throughout the demonstration forest describe the tree
species growing here. A description of the life cycle, value and special characteristics of
this species is detailed. Usually, the age, height, and diameter of the tree are included as
well. Those signs are included here in the Learning Guide, for further discussions later.
Project Learning Tree's Adopt a Tree activity is especially suitable at the sites of these
signs or anywhere else a particular tree strikes your "fancy".
WHITE PINE
Pinus strobus
The largest of the Maine conifers, white pine usually
grows to a height of 80 to 100 feet tall, and occasionally 150
feet or more. A long-lived tree, white pine may live longer
than 450 years, but more commonly lives to an age of about
200.
The King’s Pine, as they were called in Colonial times,
were white pine used for ship's masts for the Royal Navy.
Since 1605, white pine has
had a major impact on the
state’s economy. Because of
it’s value for lumber, as well as
it’s relative abundance, it is
known as the official tree of the
State of Maine. Also, the
pinecone and tassel is the
Official State flower.
This tree is 78 feet tall, 17.5
inches in diameter, and 78
years old (1998).
7
TAMARACK
Larix laricina
Tamarack is the only conifer (cone-bearing tree) native
to Maine that sheds all of its needles every fall. This tree is
often mistaken for “dying pine trees” every fall, as the
needles turn yellow. It normally is found growing in wet soils
of bogs and swamps.
Common names for this tree include larch, juniper, and
hackmatack. It reaches heights of 40 to 80 feet.
The wood is hard and
durable and used for railroad
ties, telephone poles, lumber,
and pulpwood. The thin roots
were used by Native
Americans for sewing birch
bark together on their canoes.
The bark and needles are a
favorite food of porcupines.
This tree is 58 feet tall, 7.3
inches in diameter, and 62
years old (1998).
BALSAM FIR
Abies balsamea
Balsam fir is the only native fir to the Northeast, growing
from sea level to over 5,000 feet in elevation. It is a mediumsized tree, reaching 40 to 60 feet in height, usually. This fir is
around 56 feet tall, 8.8 inches in diameter, and 59 years old
(1998).
Larger trees are recognized
by their pyramid-like pattern
with a spire-like top. Mature
cones remain on the branches
even after the scales, which
contain the seeds, have fallen
off, leaving only the bare stalk
of the cone. Young cones are
very resinous, as the illustration
shows.
Deer and moose browse on
the foliage of balsam fir in the
winter months.
8
NORTHERN WHITE CEDAR
Thuja occidentalis
Northern white cedar is a slow growing, long-lived tree,
sometimes living to 400 years. Usually found in swamps along
streams, old pastures, or where the soil is moist. It’s common
names include, “arborvitae” - which means “tree of life”,
swamp cedar, and eastern white cedar.
Some products produced from cedar include railroad ties,
shingles, and fences, but is probably best known as a planted
hedge or windbreak.
Cedar swamps provide a
vital protection for white-tail
deer during Maine’s severe
winters. The dense canopy
reduce snow depths, provide
protection from cold winds,
and even offer food from their
foliage.
This tree is 22 feet tall, 5.1
inches in diameter, and 66
years old (1998).
EASTERN HEMLOCK
Tsuga canadensis
Eastern hemlock is a medium sized tree, usually reaching a
height of 60 to 70 feet, and 2 to 3 feet in diameter when
mature. The largest hemlock in Maine is recorded to be 100
feet tall and 4.5 feet in diameter.
Hemlock is very shade-tolerant, surviving under an
overstory for a century or more. It is not uncommon to find a
hemlock as big as your arm to be over a hundred years old.
Many hemlock can reach an age of over 300 years.
The wood of
hemlock is mostly used
to produce lumber and
pulpwood, while the bark
was once widely used
for its tannin content in
the process of tanning
leather hides.
The bark and needles are a favorite food of porcupines,
while the needles area a preferred food of white-tailed deer,
especially in winter.
This tree is 42 feet tall, 7.7 inches in diameter, and 58
years of age (1998).
9
RED MAPLE
Acer rubrum
The red maple is well named since it has prolific red
pigmentation. Like balsam fir, it will grow on almost any site.
Height is usually 60 to 80 feet, occasionally reaching 100 feet.
The tree in front of you is about 52 feet tall (1998).
Red maple fruit is a pair of
red keys (samaras) each 1.5
inches long, borne in late spring.
Red maple can be used for
furniture stock, dowels,
dimension sock and novelty
items, to name a few. It is also
the preferred food for the whitetailed deer!
RED SPRUCE
Picea rubens
Red spruce is very common throughout Maine. Especially
on the north side of mountain slopes. The color in this tree’s
name comes from it’s distinctive wood. A medium sized tree,
it normally reaches heights of 60 to 80 feet. The largest red
spruce in Maine is 102 feet tall, and measures 9 feet 5 inches
around the trunk.
Red spruce is valuable for lumber, and is a major source
of pulpwood in Maine. It is also used extensively for sounding
boards in stringed musical instruments because of it’s
acoustic properties.
The buds and needles are an important food source for
spruce grouse in spring, fall, and winter. Squirrels, song
birds, and other species of wildlife also feed on spruce
cones.
10
ASPEN
Populus tremuloides
Aspen, also known as quaking aspen, trembling aspen, or
poplar, is the most widely distributed tree in North America. It
grows from sea level in Maine, to 10,000 feet in the mountains
of the Northwest.
The Latin and common names for aspen are fitting because
the leaves “tremble” or flutter in even the slightest breeze. This
quaking or trembling is caused by the long, flat leaf stalks.
There are two other common poplars in Maine, namely,
bigtooth aspen (Populus grandentata) , and balm-of-gilead
(Populus balsemifera).
Aspen is a pioneer species,
quickly becoming established in
abandoned fields, burned or
cutover areas. It is, however, a
short-lived tree, usually
reaching ages of only 60 to 80
years.
Beaver and rabbits eat the
bark and leaves, while deer and
moose munch on the twigs and
buds. The wood of aspen is
used for interior finish, particle
board, boxes and pulpwood.
This tree is 74 feet tall, 8.9 inches in diameter, and
41 years old (1998).
NORTHERN RED OAK
Quercus rubra
Of the eight native oak trees to Maine, Northern red oak is
the most common. It grows to an average height of 60 to 80
feet, and has a life span of 200 to 300 years. When cut or
destroyed by fire, red oak sprouts into 4 or 5 stems from the
stump.
Red oak produces extremely valuable wood products. It’s
uses range from lumber, furniture, and interior finish, to
shipbuilding and lobster traps.
Its value to wildlife is
unmatched. Virtually all wildlife,
from squirrels to black bears,
and wood ducks to white-tailed
deer benefit from the abundant
crops of acorns produced by
this tree.
This tree is 44 feet tall, and
4.2 inches in diameter (1998).
11
AMERICAN BEECH
Fagus grandifolia
Beech is a medium to large tree, usually growing 70 to 80
feet tall, and around 20 inches in diameter. The largest beech
in Maine is measured at 104 feet tall, and 59 inches in
diameter. Beech is a long-lived species, sometimes reaching
ages of 300 to 400 years.
It is easily recognized by it’s smooth bluish-gray bark.
However, much of the beech in Maine is affected by beech
bark disease, an imported, insect/disease complex that results
in the bark’s surface having a pitted or rough appearance.
Beech is very important to
wildlife species such as
squirrels, raccoons, bears,
and the many birds that feed
on the tasty beech nuts.
Beech wood is used for
furniture, firewood,
clothespins, and as
pulpwood.
This tree is 52 feet tall,
7.1 inches in diameter, and
39 years old (1998).
RED SPRUCE
Picea rubens
Under the ideal growing conditions of nearly full
sunlight and moderately drained soils, red spruce such as
this one can attain impressive growth. This tree has grown
13 inches in diameter and 78 feet tall in only 62 years! In
contrast, red spruce can also survive under inadequate
conditions of very little sunlight sometimes growing only 5
feet in 50 years. Red spruce is also found growing on steep
rocky slopes, ledges, and poorly drained soils - sites
unsuitable for many other trees.
Red spruce is a
shallow-rooted tree very
subject to windthrow.
Normally, roots of red spruce
only reach depths of 12 inches
below ground. Tap roots
found in hardwood species are
known to extend several feet
below the surface.
12
RED MAPLE
Acer rubrum
Red, white, swamp, or soft maple is typically found on
wetter sites, although it will grow almost anywhere. When cut
or destroyed by fire, red maple sprouts from the stump into
several trees. Growth at first is very fast, only to subside
once competition increases.
Red maple is widely distributed, and can be found growing
from as far north as Newfoundland, into southern Florida, and
west into the Prairie States. Even more impressive than it’s
range is the large number of different tree species it grows in
common with.
Red maple is one of the first trees to flower in the spring
with bright red flowers. However, the real show is in the fall
when the leaves turn brilliant red after the first fall frost.
This tree is 7.4 inches in diameter, 71 feet tall, and around
49 years old (1998).
APPLE TREE
Malus spp.
The apple trees you see here were probably planted around
the turn of the century by the farmer who worked the land.
Several other specimens can be found throughout this
demonstration forest.
While not native, apple trees are an important source of
food for many species of wildlife. As old orchards and farm
land returns to a forested state, apple trees become
overtopped by faster-growing trees. While many apple trees
are hardy and will survive even heavily shaded conditions, they
bear less fruit or none at all, and eventually die out.
These apple trees were
released in 1993, and pruned
back to stimulate new growth.
Releasing and reclaiming
apple trees may be the best
thing landowners can do to
help wildlife populations on
their land.
13
GREY BIRCH
Betula populifolia
Native to Maine, This small (20-30 feet tall), short-lived tree
is usually found growing in abandoned fields, swamps, or
burned-over land. Growing in clumps, it very often is in a
leaning position. The leaves flutter in even the slightest
breeze, like the leaves of Poplar (Aspen), hence the Latin or
scientific name which means “birch with poplar leaves”.
Only small amounts of gray birch
are cut for pulpwood and firewood.
Some is harvested for power
generating biomass plants. If used
for firewood it must be dried well and
kept under cover, since it decays
rapidly when exposed to the weather.
This tree is 6.8 inches in diameter,
42 feet tall, and 39 years old (1998).
BLACK CHERRY
Prunus serotina
Black Cherry is the largest of the cherries native to North
America. It normally attains a height of 60 to 80 feet. As of
1980, the largest cherry in Maine measured 9 feet, 1 inch in
circumference and was 72 feet tall. It grows throughout the
state but not in very large numbers. The underside of each
leaf has rusty brown hairs along the center.
Each spring beautiful white showy flowers can be seen
blooming.
Black cherry is an
extremely valuable timber
species, producing lovely
wood. Wild sherry syrup, a
cough medicine, is obtained
from the bark, while jelly and
wine are prepared from the
fruit.
This tree is 57 feet tall, 12
inches in diameter and 53
years old (1998).
14
BALSAM FIR
Abies balsamea
Balsam fir is probably best known and most cherished
as our favorite Christmas tree. It’s aromatic scent and soft,
dark green, “friendly” needles remain long after it is cut. Larger
trees are used for lumber and pulpwood.
On younger trees like this one, the age can be
determined by counting the branches that form whorls
encircling the trunk of the tree. Can you guess how old this
tree is?
In Maine, balsam fir is our most common tree. It is a
short-lived tree, living about as long as most people do,
although some trees have reached an age of nearly 200
years.
This tree is 69 feet tall, 7.5 inches in diameter, and 59
years old (1998).
PAPER BIRCH
Betula papyfifera
Native to North America, paper birch is often
considered one of the most beautiful trees. It’s range is
incredible; stretching from Newfoundland in the east to Alaska
and southward through the northern U.S., to as far north as
trees will grow.
Living only 60 to 75 years, it is a pioneer tree species,
becoming established after a disturbance such as fire, or in
abandoned fields.
Today, white birch’s clear, smooth wood is used for
specialty products such as toys, ice cream sticks, toothpicks,
clothespins, and golf tees, to name a few. Native Americans
made lightweight birch-bark canoes by stretching the bark over
frames constructed of northern white cedar.
Paper birch is also known as white, or canoe birch.
The bark is an excellent fire starter - even when wet. It can
also be used to write on. Birch are sensitive, however, to
having their bark stripped by souvenir-seekers. It should only
be taken from fallen logs.
As of 1979, the largest
paper birch in the U.S. was
found in Maine. It is 18 feet 1
inch in circumference, and 93
feet tall.
This tree is 62 feet tall;
6 inches in diameter, and 43
years old (1998).
15
CLASSROOMS
WOLF TREE CLASSROOM
•
This large white pine is a reflection of past land use practices. Many
years ago, when this area was open farm land, this pine sprouted as a
"volunteer" as the pasture reverted back to woodland.
•
"Wolf trees" are so-named because they are "predators", which inhibit
the growth of the trees beneath them.
•
Early in this tree's life, an insect called the white-pine weevil killed the
main growing stem. This resulted in lateral branches growing upright
towards the sun, creating the multiple stems you see today. Due to
this tree's poor form, it was left behind in past harvests.
•
"Wolf Trees" are beneficial to wildlife. Notice that the tasty bark on the
branches has been eaten by our local resident porcupine. That also
accounts for the pitch dripping on this sign!
•
The Ice Storm of 1998 caused many branches to break under the
weight of ice encrusted limbs.
•
This tree is about 80 years old, 35" in diameter, and 80 feet tall-as of
1998.
This giant “wolf tree” has very little economic value from
a timber or fiber standpoint, but it provides food and
shelter to several different species of wildlife.
16
TRAIL NOTE: The purpose of this classroom is to demonstrate some of the land management choices
presented by the forestry practice of clearcutting. These small simulations are designed to encourage
discussion regarding this controversial, but valid technique.
CLEARCUT CLASSROOM
•
•
•
•
From the circular deck you can see a conventional, chainsaw
and skidder clearcut, covering about 1/10th of an acre. Looking
clockwise a small "wedge" is left to show what the stand of trees
looked like before the cut.
Moving further clockwise, an overstory removal is shown.
The side trail leading through the buffer strip accesses a
clearcut and larch plantation. Signs facing, and at the sites
further describe the treatments and their effects.
These small demonstration areas are designed to facilitate
discussion and comparison.
COMMERCIAL CLEARCUT
•
•
•
•
The small area here has been clearcut conventionally, using chainsaws
and a skidder, during the winter of 1993. All of the tops and limbs were
left on the site. The regeneration was pushed over or damaged. Notice
the natural regeneration that has sprouted since the harvest.
Is this an example of good forest stewardship? What is "good" about this
practice? What is "bad" about it?
Many wildlife biologists assert that small patch clearcuts of less than 10
acres are necessary to provide a diversity of habitats. In contrast, very
large clearcuts will be a benefit to some species, such as moose.
The primary objection to clearcuts is often their poor aesthetics or their
size. Another concern regarding large clearcuts is that they interrupt
normal travel corridors, warm surface waters, and may foster erosion and
siltation. Clearcuts mimic natural disasters such as fire and hurricanes, in
which forests have evolved with over time. Maine's Forest Practices Act
limits the size and placement of clearcuts. It’s standards were revised and
strengthened in 1998.
17
CLEARCUT
CLASSROOM
A conventional clearcut, with slash (tops and
limbs) left in place. It’s unattractive, but slash will
decay and leave nutrients in the ground.
An overstory removal, where the older, taller trees
have been cut to make room for the younger
trees. The tops and limbs have been chipped for
biomass, leaving a neat, aesthetically pleasing
appearance.
18
A clean clearcut (tops and limbs chipped for
biomass), which has been replanted (1993) with
rows of 6’ and 3’ to 4’ native tamarack (rear), and
hybrid Japanese larch seedlings (foreground).
OVERSTORY REMOVAL HARVEST
•
This area was harvested using chainsaws and a skidder
(1993), removing most of the overstory. Great care was taken
to leave most of the regeneration in the "understory" standing
and undamaged. These trees are already well established.
Some of them are over 17 years old. The tops and limbs of
the harvested trees were chipped and removed from the site.
The small area to your left, was left to show what was growing
here before.
•
What is "good" about this practice? What is "bad" about it?
Overstory removals are becoming more common as foresters
work in managed "shelterwood" stands that were partially
harvested years before. The future forest is already growing in
the understory.
•
When advanced regeneration is present, an overstory removal
harvest allows the young forest to thrive in the full sunlight.
BUFFERED CLEARCUT AND PLANTATION
•
This small area was clearcut during the winter of 1993. All tops and branches
were removed and shipped. In the spring, native tamarack and hybrid
Japanese larch were planted in the clearcut. Two rows of 6-foot tamarack
trees were transplanted in the back of the cut. Three rows of 3 to 4-foot
tamarack were planted in front of the taller trees. The area immediately in
front of you was planted with hybrid Japanese larch seedlings, using an 8’x8’
spacing. The area to your right, and behind this sign was left unplanted, and
will be maintained open space.
•
The path you took to get here travels through a buffer strip that effectively
shields the full view of the clearcut.
•
What is good about this practice? Is it better to “hide” a clearcut? The
seedlings planted here will produce the highest growth per acre, but the
investment in planting, treatment and protection is high. Some object to the
uniformity of a plantation. Trees were planted in different patterns to break
up the view of the rows. This tree farm is growing a crop, just as a farmer
might grow a field of corn. The expected maturity of this crop, however, is
expected to occur after 30 to 40 years.
•
This and the other clearcuts represent some of the choices we have in
managing this vital, renewable resource. What do you think?
19
TRAIL NOTE: This classroom and side trail is designed to serve as a focus for the discussion of wildlife
population's needs for habitat in the forests of Maine. Signs here and along the side trail describe the
background about wildlife habitat and highlight wildlife trees, woody debris, deer wintering areas, and riparian
zones. The text of those signs is included here.
WILDLIFE HABITAT CLASSROOM
•
Forests have a definite capacity to support wildlife,
just as they do for trees. Many of the same factors
that promote tree growth also favor wildlife.
•
Biologists often express the wildlife potential, or
carrying capacity of a natural area as a "bucket" with
several holes in its side - being filled with water. The
"water" represents the wildlife population. As more animals
are born (breeding success) the level rises. The "holes" in the bucket
represent mortality by predation, disease, loss of habitat, and hunting draining the bucket.
•
The goal of natural resource managers is to provide the optimum levels of
food, water, shelter, and space that will maintain a stable population as
it ebbs and flows with the natural life cycles of those animals.
•
Sound forest management protects those life cycles by providing the
essential habitats animals need, while promoting new growth for food and
cover.
WILDLIFE TREES
•
•
20
Many species of wildlife depend on the habitat provided by
trees, both living and dead. Trees provide dens, nest sites,
perches for hawks and owls,
as well as food from their
foliage, flowers, fruits,
and bark. Trees are
obviously an integral part of
the forest ecosystem.
Trees like this 27 inch
diameter dead pine
will provide habitat for many
years. Even after
giants such as this have fallen to the ground, they continue to
provide important shelter, feeding, and mating sites, until
eventually their wood decays and returns to the earth.
DEER WINTERING AREAS
•
The closely-spaced balsam fir stand in
the area
along the brook here is just now reaching the
point
where it could begin to provide winter shelter for deer (normally,
a much larger area than this small stand would be needed).
•
These dense softwood stands along watercourses like this one
provide cover from the extremes of winter weather, and from
predators. Wintering areas are especially important for
white-tail deer. Deer exist here on the very northern fringe of
their normal range. Surviving Maine's severe winters is their
greatest challenge. These fir trees, as well as cedar, hemlock,
and spruce forests provide a dense canopy overhead that
lowers snow depths, and provides a measure of protection from
wind and cold. New browse growing close to this cover
provides a food source in close proximity to the shelter they
need.
WOODY DEBRIS
•
Any forest produces debris from fallen trees, leaves and
branches, as it progresses through the life spans of the many
members of that dynamic community.
•
The decaying log at this station represents both the beginning
and end of the natural life cycle within the forest. After falling
to the forest floor years ago, this log has provided homes to
many forms of wildlife. As fungi reduce the wood fiber to
organic soil they are also preparing an ideal bed for seedlings
that may sprout here when conditions are right. Most of this
log is not in direct contact with the ground, and will likely take
longer to decay.
•
The log across the trail from this sign has been used by
squirrels for feeding stations. It also appears that other
animals have been burrowing under its roots. Its importance
to the forest ecosystem far outlasts its own lifespan.
21
TRAIL NOTE: This classroom is located near a small, intermittent stream that flows through the
demonstration forest. While it is often dry during a time through the summer, it still provides important
habitat. The stream flows around three sides of our classroom, providing an example of this habitat almost in
the laps of the students sitting on the four benches there. The sign located there is repeated here.
RIPARIAN CLASSROOM
•
•
The area along this intermittent stream provides Riparian
Habitat important to many species of wildlife. In these
spaces immediately adjacent to water or
wetlands, food is often more abundant - for
both predators and herbivores. These areas
are often important travel corridors connecting
other portions of their range or territory, as well. Many
species of plant life grow only in the wet, fertile soils found
along these watercourses.
Deer usually seek out wintering areas in riparian zones
when snow depths and cold temperatures force them to
"yard up". When dense softwood cover and a nearby
source of browse is combined with the "street" a frozen
stream can provide, deer congregate in these areas in
order to survive the severe Maine winters.
The Riparian Classroom is ringed by a small brook.
22
FOREST MEASUREMENT CLASSROOM
•
This classroom introduces visitors to some of the units of measurement used
in the forest, by foresters. You will notice a neat pile of spruce and tamarack
at one end. This pile contains one cord of wood. In the early days of the
pulpwood industry in Maine, four-foot wood was manufactured because it was
the largest size most people could handle, manually. A cord was defined in
those days as:
•
"A pile of wood measuring 4 feet, by 4 feet, by eight; well ricked and stowed,
containing 128 cubic feet of bark, wood, and air."
•
Foresters still use the term when determining growth or volume in the forest,
although other units, such as weight or cubic volume are also in use.
•
This cord of wood weighs about 4,300 pounds, green. It will make about 800
rolls of toilet paper, over 61,000 envelopes, and over 4 million postage
stamps!
•
The four logs piled on the side of this classroom are spruce and tamarack.
They were cut to a length of 16 feet, plus a few inches for trim. Foresters
measure trees that are to be used to make lumber - sawlogs, by the boardfoot. A board-foot is a piece of wood measuring 12 inches, by 12 inches, by 1
inch. Log rules have been developed specifically for Maine trees that
determine their sawlog volume, in board-feet. Each of these four logs contain
between 50 and 70 board feet.
FOREST GROWTH RESPONSE CLASSROOM
•
Foresters use growth response samples, called C.F.I. plots,
(for Continuous Forest Inventory) to determine the health,
species composition, and growth of a managed forest. In
most cases these CFI plots are randomly located across a
forest ownership.
•
This circular, fixed-radius plot covers one-tenth of an acre.
Each tree over 4.5" in diameter (measured 4.5 feet from the
ground) is numbered, and data about that tree is recorded.
Usually, foresters return to remeasure the plot every five
years. In this way, the growth of the forest may be monitored
to determine the level at which sustained-yield management
may be attained.
•
The practice of sustained-yield forest management strives to
harvest only what a forest will grow over time, so that a wellstocked forest of healthy, valuable trees will always be ready
to provide the natural products our families need.
23
The Cordwood Classroom lets student see a cord of wood (enough fiber for 800
rolls of toilet tissue). Students can use various measuring devices to determine
the number of board feet in the four sawlogs at right.
The CFI (continuous forest inventory) Classroom includes a circular fixed-radius
growth plot, in which the specific, numbered trees are measured every five years to
keep track of their growth.
24
LEARNING STATIONS AND OTHER SIGNAGE
WILDLIFE FORAGE & SOIL CONSERVATION
•
•
•
•
The area behind this sign was seeded and mulched to demonstrate
wildlife food plot seeding and soil conservation.
Log landings and road construction sites are seeded to prevent
erosion, and to provide nutritious browse for many species of
wildlife.
Maine Conservation Seed Mix is blended specifically for Maine’s
climate and soils. Creeping red fescue, perennial and annual
ryegrass, common Kentucky bluegrass, and white clover seeds are
mixed so that a vegetative cover will sprout under a wide range of
conditions.
Red Clover seeds were added here to provide additional nutrition
for browsing wildlife, including deer, snowshoe hare, and ruffed
grouse.
BOX CULVERTS & CORDUROY
•
•
•
Along this section of the trail, three wooden box culverts and a road
building technique called corduroy were constructed.
The wooden box culverts allow water to drain under the trail,
thereby avoiding any significant erosion. The culvert locations were
determined by noting where the greatest water flow was crossing
the trail. Today, culverts are usually made of metal and are widely
used in road construction.
The corduroy method of cross-laying logs under ships helps to
stabilize the trail and provides a level walking surface. During
horse logging days, corduroy was often used in building roads.
Evidence of this practice can occasionally be seen where old roads
cross through wet areas. Today, modern forest management has
all but abandoned this practice.
25
RESERVE AREA
•
•
The area behind this sign, as well as others throughout
this demonstration forest have been left untreated to
provide a comparison to the managed portions. The
natural forest, left unmanaged, goes through the same
changes that the managed forest does, but usually to only
one or a few trees at a time. In fact, the "balance of
nature" is never "balanced" for very long, and any stage
you find a forest in is just a transition to the next phase of
its succession.
A forest is always changing, and during its normal life
span, foresters spend the vast majority of their time
nurturing, growing, and protecting the natural life cycle of
that forest.
TRAIL NOTE: This learning station is located along a side trail and demonstrates the choices provided by a
selective harvest and the stand as it was before. The sign located at the first bench defines terms such as
silviculture, and discusses the consequences of management vs. no management. The text of the sign is
included here. The trail continues to a bench at the end of this side trail, near our property line. A small red
oak tree is noted on a sign nearby.
SILVICULTURE & SINGLE TREE SELECTION
•
•
•
•
•
26
Any acre of forest land has the capability to grow a certain amount of usable
wood fiber, depending upon the quality of the site. Foresters usually express
this growth potential in cords per acre per year. Silviculture is the art and
science of growing the healthiest and most valuable trees.
Here, foresters selected the best trees for this site and harvested the lowquality and overmature stems. The well-spaced stocking of the managed area
in front of you, will allow selected trees to put on accelerated growth. The
untreated area behind you remains overstocked, restricting potential growth.
Proper stewardship protects and enhances the natural life cycle of the forest
while providing natural products for our families.
Forests are renewable. This entire area was once a pasture, over 75 years
ago. Notice the barbed-wire encased in the middle of a large spruce tree,
about 50 feet in front of you.
Depending on the forest site, an area like this may be harvested selectively
every 15 to 20 years while maintaining an adequate stocking of trees.
D and silviculture, or the art of growing trees.
More than seventy-five years ago, this piece of barbed
wire was probably supported by the outside of the young
red spruce. As the years progressed, the tree grew
around the wire, which now appears to go through the
middle of the trunk. The barbed wire suggest that the
area was once pasture land.
Depending on the forest site, an area like this may be harvested selectively
every 15 to 20 years while maintaining an adequate stocking of trees.
Managed vs. Unmanaged Forests: On the left side of the trail is a managed forest
area, where Georgia Pacific foresters have practiced silviculture (the art and
science of growing the healthiest and most valuable trees). On the right side is an
unmanaged area, which is overstocked, depriving the trees of the sunlight or
nutrients they need to achieve the optimum growth.
27
ICE STORM DAMAGE
•
•
•
In January, 1998 a severe ice storm coated Maine’s forests with up to
3 inches of ice. Other areas in the region were also affected. Up to
20% of the Northeast’s 26 million acres of forest suffered moderate to
severe damage.
Slight differences in temperature or rainfall caused dramatic
differences in damage. Here, most forest stands only suffered light
damage. Forest in mid-coast counties east and west of Augusta were
hardest hit. On one woodlot measured in Waldo County, 64% of the
trees were damaged. Some woodlots suffered as much as 90%
damage.
The weight of ice coating branches, especially for hardwood trees,
caused stems and branches to bend, splinter or break-off. The
conifers you see broken behind this sign are examples of typical
damage. Generally, conifers withstood the weight of the ice better
than deciduous trees, because the branches tend to support each
other.
DWARF MISTLETOE - “WITCHES BROOM”
28
•
Dwarf Mistletoe is a parasitic disease. It thrives off another living
tree. Seeds from the Dwarf Mistletoe plant are discharged from a
berry and are usually blown onto the needles of the host tree. Once
the host tree is infected, excessive production of distorted branches
occur and end up looking like the branch you see here.
•
Dwarf Mistletoe infects pine, spruce, fir, hemlock, larch, and cedar.
In Maine, it most commonly affects balsam fir. It usually does nit kill
the tree. Control of this disease includes removing the infected
branch.
•
Folklore referred to these growths as “witches brooms”. In fact, they
cause little harm to the tree and there have been no confirmed
sightings of use by “witches”.
TRAIL NOTE: After crossing the first bridge, the trail winds along the brook through a reserve area. A sign in
this area describes the natural process of forest succession.
THE NATURAL LIFE CYCLE OF THE FOREST
•
Forest have a natural life cycle. Through the process known
as forest succession, new tree seedlings sprout from the forest
floor when conditions are favorable. This usually occurs when
the older trees die, either natural or after a harvest.
•
In response to the new openings in the canopy of the forest,
trees that thrive in full sunlight, called pioneer species, sprout
and grow, usually dominating the site.
•
These trees are replaced over time, by longer-lived, shade
tolerant species that grow up through the canopy as the
“pioneers” complete their natural life spans.
•
Eventually, a final or climax forest type is reached. In Maine,
trees such as hemlock, white pine or spruce then grow
indefinitely - until the next disturbance. This dynamic process
is on-going throughout any forest, always growing, always
renewing.
TRAIL NOTE: In a short distance from the Natural Life Cycle sign, a small side trail leads to a tree excavated
by a pileated woodpecker. Notice that the trail goes by a rather stunted apple tree, probably from the time the
entire area was pasture or orchard. Apple trees may be found in scattered locations throughout the
demonstration forest. The large pine tree behind the pileated woodpecker tree is often used during the
daylight hours as a "bedroom" for local raccoons. If you look up high into the branches, you may see a furry
ball, or several, fast asleep!
29
PILEATED WOODPECKER
Dryócopus pileátus
This spruce tree has been “excavated” by Maine’s largest
woodpecker, the Pileated. When mature, these striking birds
may be 18 inches in height, with up to a 2 foot wing span.
They normally have a large territory, covering as much as 200
acres, depending upon the availability of suitable habitat.
Pileated woodpeckers feed primarily on
carpenter ants found in the interior of large
decaying trees. These busy birds became rare
at the turn of the century because of heavy
land clearing for agriculture. They are now
more prominent as farmland reverts back to
forest.
The distinctive cavities they make in search
of insects are often used by birds and small
mammals, making them an important part of
the forest ecosystem.
TIMBER BRIDGE
•
Three bridges cross the small brook flowing across the demonstration
forest. These bridges are 2/3rds scale models of the typical bridges
used to manage forests in Maine’s working woodlands.
•
The surface planks, called running boards, are used to guide large
trucks when crossing. The wing walls, located at each end of the
bridge, are used to stabilize the stream banks as well as the bridge.
•
These bridges are engineered
to provide an opening of at
least two and a half times the
cross sectional area of the
brook or stream they cross.
This is done to accommodate
high spring flood waters.
•
These bridges are often
constructed from sawn
hemlock timbers. They may
last up to 20 years or longer.
This timber bridge is a two-thirds scale model of the timber bridges that support
100,000 pound tractor trailers out in the woods. It’s built with 6x6 timbers, instead of
10x10’s, and is strong enough to support the heavy equipment that was used in
developing the Demonstration Forest.
30
SHELTERWOOD
•
A common silvicultural practice on managed forests in Maine employs a
technique known as a "shelterwood" treatment. The area in front of you
demonstrates, on a very small scale, the effects of this practice.
•
A shelterwood harvest removes enough of the trees in the overstory to
allow sunlight to reach the forest floor. Once this happens, seedlings
naturally sprout in the openings created. The partial shade of the trees
left "shelter" the new seedlings and helps to "train" them to grow straight
up, towards the light. This also helps, in this case, to offer some
protection for the young pine seedlings you can see here, from insect
pests like the white pine boll weevil.
•
Typically, shelterwood harvests are performed in two or three stages.
The "final" harvest removes the last of the overstory that existed
originally, leaving a well-established stand of young saplings to then
grow to maturity. When they are ready, the process may be started all
over again.
STANDING VOLUME
This 9 inch diameter white pine and the 10
and 9 inch pines to the left and right make up nearly
1/3 of a cord of wood.
One third of a cord is roughly what an
average acre of forestland in Maine will grow in one
year.
Intensive management can improve growth
rates significantly. In fact, some plantations
produce well over a cord per acre per year.
Note: This sign is located in Forest Measurement Classroom
31
BACKYARD WILDLIFE HABITAT
•
This "backyard wildlife garden" displays several
different ways to enhance wildlife habitat, even
in developed areas.
•
Once the basic needs of food, water and cover are
provided,
several species of wildlife will thrive in
an area such
as this or your own backyard. You can
plan your landscaping to attract many kinds of wildlife.
•
Take a stroll through the wildlife garden and notice the different
trees, shrubs, and wildflowers that provide food in the form of
fruits, flowers, seeds, even nectar for butterflies. The
all-natural garden attracts a variety of wildlife, from
butterflies to songbirds, small mammals to white tail
deer - even black bear!
TRAIL NOTE: The apple trees adjacent to the intermittent brook provide valuable food for many wildlife
species. The over-topping trees were removed allowing sunlight to reach the apple trees in order to stimulate
growth. Some were also carefully pruned to encourage the fruit bearing branches to grow.
TIMBER STAND IMPROVEMENT
32
•
This stand of white pine is about 35 years old (1998). A
careful, light thinning was done in 1993. The pole-size,
potential-log trees were then pruned to a height of 16 feet.
Pre-commercial timber stand improvement (TSI) treatments
like this can greatly affect the value of the crop when they
grow to log size -in about 25 or 30 years.
•
Pruning removes dead branches early in the tree's life span,
so that clear wood will form as the tree continues to grow
over the site of the "injury".
•
If you count the whorls, where annual branches and the main
stem or leader grow each summer, you can determine the
trees age.
CONCLUSION
After winding through the TSI pine stand, the trail takes a hard left to head back to
the beginning. We hope your walk through our forest has been informative and
enjoyable.
We have presented a fairly large amount of information, both here in the Learning
Guide, and in the forest itself. If you have any questions, please give us a call at (207)
827-0627 or (207) 827-0611.
In any event, we would like to hear your criticisms, suggestions, and ideas about
how we may make this learning experience even better. Let us know how you feel about
our forest.
33
PENOBSCOT COUNTY SOILS
The soils mapping of Penobscot County was issued by the Soil Conservation Service
in 1963. A soils map of the demonstration forest can be found on the following page.
The alphabetic classifications given on the map represent similar soil types within the
lined in area. Following is a general description of each soil type. This information was
compiled from the Penobscot County Soil Survey (1963).
SOIL TYPES FOUND ON DEMONSTRATION FOREST
PgB
PrC
ScB
SuB
-
Plaisted gravelly loam, 2 to 8% slopes.
Plaisted very stony loam 5 to 15% slopes.
Scantic silt loam, 0 to 8% slopes.
Suffield silt loams, 2 to 8% slopes.
DESCRIPTION OF SOIL TYPES ON DEMONSTRATION FOREST
PgB - Plaisted gravelly loam, 2 to 8% slopes. This soil is well drained and moderately
deep to very deep. It has a slow runoff and a medium capacity to absorb water; therefore
the erosion hazard is slight. The native vegetation includes, maple, beech, and birch, and
scattered spruce, fir, and hemlock.
PrC - Plaisted very stony loam, 5 to 15% slopes. The Plaisted Series of soils are well
drained and moderately deep to very deep. There are scattered boulders and surface
stones. The native vegetation is mixedwood and softwood. The major species being
maple, birch, and beech with fir, spruce and white pine.
ScB - Scantic silt loam, 0 to 8% slopes. These soils are very deep and poorly drained.
The water table is near the surface except during the summer. This soil is best suited to
pulpwood production, spruce, fir, hemlock and larch being the native species.
SuB - Suffield silt loam, 2 to 8% slopes. This soil is very deep and well drained, is gently
sloping, and has medium runoff. The native vegetation includes white pine, spruce,
balsam fir, and other softwoods and maple and aspen.
Soils map
34
35
FOREST INVENTORY
It is important to be able to visualize a "picture" of the forest to manage it properly.
Because it is impractical to count every tree on even a small area of woodland, foresters
use statistical sampling methods to estimate the volume of timber in a forest. One of the
commonly used methods employs an angle gauge, often a glass prism, to measure a
variable radius plot at designated intervals across a forest tract. Generally, the larger the
diameter of a particular tree in the vicinity of the plot center, the further it can be from the
center and still be counted "in". The forester looks through the angle gauge to determine
if the tree is "in", or "out" before measuring its diameter and recording species and
product information.
When the data is collected for a forest, a computer compiles it and projects
volumes for the entire tract or forest stand. Usually, the larger the number of sample plots
measured, the more accurate the estimate over the entire forest.
The following charts detail information about the composition of the forested land
here on the entire 13 acre lot. This information was compiled from a timber inventory
taken in 1993.
36
Demonstration Forest
Total Stems Per Acre
900
800
Stems/Acre
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
Diameter Class
Demonstration Forest
Merchantable Stems Per Acre
140
120
Stems/Acre
100
80
60
40
20
0
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
Diameter Class
37
Demonstration Forest
Volume Per Acre
4
Cords Per Acre
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Diameter Class
Demonstration Forest
Merchantable Species Composition
Other Hardwood
Balsam Fir
Red Maple
0.7%
6.9%
10.7%
Spruce
9.4%
Hemlock
1.2%
Aspen
31.6%
White Birch
8.1%
Cedar
1.0%
White Pine
30.5%
Other hardwood is comprised of grey birch and black cherry.
38
Demonstration Forest
Regeneration Species Composition
Red Maple
15.2%
Other Hardwood
2.4%
Balsam Fir
24.0%
Aspen
2.6%
White Birch
11.5%
Cedar
1.6%
Spruce
7.7%
Hemlock
0.6%
White Pine
34.4%
Regeneration is defined as trees 1-4” in diameter.
Other hardwood is comprised of grey birch and black cherry.
Demonstration Forest
Product Distribution
Plog
5.6%
Boltwood
0.3%
Pulpwood
43.1%
Biomass
42.0%
Sawlogs
3.3%
Studwood
5.6%
Plog = Potential sawlog
39
EXPLANATION OF PRISM POINT SAMPLING
“Point-sampling is a method of selecting trees to be tallied on the basis of their
sizes rather than by their frequency of occurrence. Sample points, somewhat
analogous to plot centers, are located within a forested tract, and a simple prism or
angle gauge that subtends a fixed angle view is used to “sight in” each tree dbh. Tree
boles close enough to the observation point to completely fill the fixed sighting angle
are tallied; stems too small or too far away are ignored. The resulting tree tally may be
used to complete basal area, volumes, or numbers of trees per unit area.
The probability of tallying a given tree depends on its cross-sectional area, is
distance from the sample point, and the sighting angle used. The smaller the angle, the
more stems will be included in the sample.
Point-sampling does not require direct measurement of either plot areas or tree
diameters. A predetermined basal-area factor (baf) is established in advance of
sampling, and resulting tree tallies can be easily converted to basal area per unit area.
And the relationship between basal area and tree volume makes it feasible to use pointsampling for obtaining conventional timber inventory data when “counted” trees are
recorded by merchantable or total height classes. Point-sampling was developed in
1948 by Walter Bitterlich, a forest engineer of Salzburg, Austria. The introduction and
adoption of the method in North America were largely due to the efforts of Lewis R.
Grosenbaugh.”1
NO TALLY
TALLY
Figure1 Use of the Wedge prism
for point sampling.
4040
1
Avery, Thomas Eugene, 1975, Natural Resources Measurements,
McGraw-Hill Book Co. New York, p.165,169.
40
CRUISE SPECIFICATIONS
Sample Design:
Stratified or simple random sample.
Stratification:
Broad forest type; softwood, mixedwood and hardwood.
Sample type:
Variable radius, 10 factor plot. All sample trees are measured
for DBH (Diameter Breast Height – 4.5’ above ground). All
borderline trees are distance checked. Tallied variables:
Species
DBH
Product
Statistical specifications:
Plot density is designed to yield a statistical accuracy of +/10% of total volume at the 95% confidence interval. In the
case of small lots, this accuracy is not always possible.
Calculated statistical accuracy is stated in the report.
Tabulation:
Results can be expressed in number of trees per acre, basal
area per acre, or volume per acre. Volume is based on
internally developed merchantable volume equations or
published biomass weight equations. Height is calculated
using internally developed height equations.
41
PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
PULPwood Hardwood &
Softwood
• All merchantable species not meeting studwood or
better standards.
• 4.50" DBH and larger.
• Trees having severe crook (so they cannot be
debarked) or with twisted or open seams do not meet
pulpwood standards.
STUDwood
•
•
•
•
.
Spruce, fir, hemlock.
Minimum butt diameter 7".
Minimum length 16' 6" to 4" top.
Stems must be straight and 86% soundness or better.
PLOG
• All merchantable species except spruce, Potential
logs fir, and hemlock.
• Tally spruce, fir, and hemlock potential log quality
material as studwood.
• Hardwood and other softwood -4.0" - 9.49" DBH
meeting sawlog quality standards but not size.
SAWlog Hardwood
•
•
•
•
•
All merchantable species.
Stems 10 - 21" DBH with at least an 8'3" log.
Minimum 10" diameter at the small end.
Logs must have no more than 3% crook or sweep.
Record the number of 16' logs to the nearest 1/2 log.
BOLTwood
•
•
•
•
•
White birch only.
Minimum 7" diameter and 4' length.
Must be straight and clear of defect 100% sound.
6" of knots per 4' bolt is acceptable.
Record the number of 4" bolts.
CULL
• Cull trees - all merchantable species.
• Live trees 4.50 DBH and larger, with a soundness of
less than 50%.
42
SPECIES
BF - balsam fir
RS - red spruce
BS - black spruce
WS - white spruce
NS - norway spruce
HE - hemlock
WP - white pine
RP - red pine
SP - scots pine
JP - jack pine
CE - N. white cedar
LA - larch
PP - pitch pine
BC - black cherry
*CC - choke cherry
*SM - striped maple
*MM - mountain maple
*MA - mountain ash
HM - hard maple
YB - yellow birch
BE - beech
WB - white birch
AS - aspen
RM - red maple
WA - white ash
BA - black ash
BW - basswood
RO - red oak
WO - white oak
BB - black birch
VM - silver maple
EL - elm
*GB - grey birch
*HH - hophornbeam
*PC - pin cherry
O - other
* unmerchantable species
NOTE: Tally grey birch (GB) and hophornbeam (HH) but not the other unmerchantable
species.
43
CONTINUOUS FOREST INVENTORY CLASSROOM
There are many teaching possibilities at this classroom. For example, 62 trees on this
tenth/acre plot could be easily projected to 620 trees on one acre of similar composition,
or more. The diameters (DBH: Diameter at Breast Height - 4.5 ft. from the ground) are
expressed in inches. A string could be employed to measure circumference. Then, the
diameter could be calculated. Statistics, charts, and projections are easily composed
from this data, giving students a real world example to work with.
This plot was first inventoried in the summer of 1993 and then the same trees were
inventoried again in the fall of 1999. Any new trees that had grown larger then the
minimum 4.50 inches at DBH were also tallied. Between 1993 and 1999 there were two
new trees (in-growth) added to the growth plot. There were also several trees that had
died (mortality) and were so noted in the tally sheets.
The tally sheets from the two inventories follow. Also in the following pages, a computer
inventory run was projected from the data on this growth plot. The data on this plot was
used to project a forest of similar composition - on just one acre for both inventories.
Yearly growth rates can be calculated from the data along with various other changes that
have occurred in the six years between inventories.
44
CONTINUOUS FOREST INVENTORY (CFI) - INVENTORIED 6/29/93
GROWTH PLOT TALLY SHEET - 1/10TH ACRE FIXED RADIUS PLOT
TREE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
SPECIES
RED MAPLE
RED MAPLE
RED MAPLE
RED MAPLE
RED MAPLE
QUAKING ASPEN
QUAKING ASPEN
RED SPRUCE
WHITE PINE
QUAKING ASPEN
RED SPRUCE
QUAKING ASPEN
QUAKING ASPEN
QUAKING ASPEN
QUAKING ASPEN
RED SPRUCE
EASTERN HEMLOCK
RED SPRUCE
QUAKING ASPEN
WHITE PINE
RED SPRUCE
RED MAPLE
GREY BIRCH
EASTERN HEMLOCK
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
DIAMETER
8.20
8.63
8.53
4.95
4.27
11.89
11.82
7.12
5.76
6.07
4.68
6.03
6.55
7.89
8.78
5.71
4.70
5.18
7.90
4.77
10.54
4.50
5.29
5.38
4.81
6.95
4.67
4.81
4.52
5.06
6.14
9.40
8.30
6.21
4.99
5.76
5.00
6.25
6.37
6.55
5.70
6.41
PRODUCT
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
SAWLOG
PULP
STUDWOOD
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
CULL
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
STUDWOOD
PULP
PULP
PULP
POTENTIAL LOG
POTENTIAL LOG
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
POTENTIAL LOG
PULP
POTENTIAL LOG
POTENTIAL LOG
PULP
POTENTIAL LOG
PULP
PULP
POTENTIAL LOG
PULP
POTENTIAL LOG
PULP
45
CONTINUOUS FOREST INVENTORY (CFI) CONTINUED
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
46
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
QUAKING ASPEN
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
RED MAPLE
QUAKING ASPEN
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
QUAKING ASPEN
QUAKING ASPEN
RED MAPLE
RED MAPLE
RED MAPLE
WHITE PINE
RED SPRUCE
WHITE PINE
5.77
7.54
6.32
6.38
6.20
5.30
6.52
5.02
7.24
4.85
8.89
4.90
8.03
9.33
5.18
5.38
5.89
9.02
POTENTIAL LOG
POTENTIAL LOG
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
POTENTIAL LOG
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
POTENTIAL LOG
|DOFI cruise program | OLD TOWN DEMO FOREST (CFI PLOT) INVENTORY ESTIMATE CRUISED 6/29/93 | 7/20/93
PLOT PARAMETERS
Maine
Type:
Fixed
Size:
10
Dbh Cutoff: 0
Diameter
Sub
None
PRODUCTS
PULP
STUD
0.00
4.73
3.98
2.17
2.40
5.00
0.00
Sub 5-9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23+
18.28
0.54
Sub 10-23+
0.54
1
|
SAMPLE PARAMETERS
TABLE PARAMETERS
Stratification: Unstratisfied
Acres:
1.
No. of Plots: 1
Table Type: Volume
Units: CDS* = Products in MBF
Blow Up: >*Per Acre*<
PLOG
*SAWL
BOLT
TOPP
TOPS
1
2
3
4
Sub 1-4
5
6
7
8
9
| Page:
BIOM
Total
0.31
0.00
0.00
0.18
1.48
0.46
1.35
2.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.31
0.31
4.91
5.46
3.17
3.76
7.01
5.49
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.45
0.00
0.00
24.31
1.45
1.49
2.69
1.49
2.07
0.31
2.07
1.49
0.00
0.31
0.00
1.45
0.00
0.00
5.63
20.35
2.03
5.49
0.31
0.00
1.45
0.00
0.31
30.25
Std. Dev.
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Std. Err
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
TOTAL
47
|DOFI cruise program | OLD TOWN DEMO FOREST (CFI PLOT) INVENTORY ESTIMATE CRUISED 6/29/93 | 7/20/93
PLOT PARAMETERS
Maine
Type:
Fixed
Size:
10
Dbh Cutoff: 0
SPECIES
Diameter
BF
Sub
None
SP
HE WP
RP
CE
| Page:
2
|
SAMPLE PARAMETERS
TABLE PARAMETERS
Stratification: Unstratisfied
Acres:
1.
No. of Plots: 1
Table Type: Volume
Units: CDS* = Products in MBF
Blow Up: >*Per Acre*<
LA HM
YB
BE WB
1
2
3
4
AS RM WA
RO BW
HH
GB WO OH
0.3
Sub 1-4
5
6
7
8
9
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.31 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.60 0.37 1.91
0.69 1.11
0.22
0.81
3.26
1.39
0.54
1.39
0.62 0.62
1.35
0.82 1.58
1.89
2.14 2.98
Sub 5-9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23+
0.00 1.95 0.37 9.80 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.67 6.29 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.22 0.00 0.00
1.45
1.49
2.70
Sub 10-23+
0.00 1.49 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
TOTAL
0.00 3.44 0.37 9.80 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 9.81 6.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.22 0.00 0.00
The following strata are not included in the sample acreage
Stratum:
SWAMP
ROAD
Acres:
0
0
0
0
0
Total sampled acres:
48
1.0
Total tract acres:
1.0
0
0
0
0
Total
0
|DOFI cruise program | OLD TOWN DEMO FOREST (CFI PLOT) INVENTORY ESTIMATE CRUISED 6/29/93 | 7/20/93
PLOT PARAMETERS
Type:
Size:
Dbh Cutoff:
Maine
Fixed
10
0
Sub
None
PRODUCTS
Diameter
PULP
Balsam Fir
Spruce
Hemlock
White Pine
Red Pine
N. White Cedar
Larch
Hard Maple
Yellow Birch
Beech
White Birch
Aspen
Red Maple
White Ash
Red Oak
Basswood
Hophornbeam
Grey Birch
White Oak
Other Hardwood
Softwood
Hardwood
Total
STUD
1.41
0.37
5.38
3
|
SAMPLE PARAMETERS
TABLE PARAMETERS
Stratification: Unstratisfied
Acres:
1.
No. of Plots: 1
Table Type: Volume
Units: CDS* = Products in MBF
Blow Up: >*Per Acre*<
PLOG
*SAWL
BOLT
TOPP
TOPS
BIOM
Total
2.03
3.44
0.37
9.80
4.42
6.67
6.29
1.07
0.31
1.45
9.81
6.60
0.31
0.22
0.22
7.16
13.18
20.34
2.03
2.03
4.42
1.07
5.49
0.31
0.31
The following strata are not included in the sample acreage
Stratum:
SWAMP
ROAD
Acres:
0
0
0
0
Total sampled acres:
| Page:
1.0
Total tract acres:
1.45
1.45
0
0
0.31
0.31
0
0
13.61
16.63
30.24
0
1.0
49
INVENTORY SUMMARY
Stratum: TOTAL
Species
Volume per Acre
Total Volume
1.41
.00
.37
6.52
9.19
.00
.00
9.80
.00
27.29
1.41
.00
.37
6.52
9.19
.00
.00
9.80
.00
27.29
Spruce std
Fir std
Hem std
Subtotal (cds)
2.03
.00
.00
2.03
2.03
.00
.00
2.03
White Pine logs
Red Pine logs
Hardwood logs
Spruce logs
Hemlock logs
Cedar logs
Subtotal (MBF)
.00
.00
.31
.00
.00
.00
.31
.00
.00
.31
.00
.00
.00
.31
Biomass cds
.31
.31
30.25
30.25
Spruce cds
Fir cds
Hemlock cds
Hardwood cds
Poplar cds
Cedar cds
Larch cds
Pine cds
White Birch bolts
Subtotal (cds)
Total (cds)
50
CONTINUOUS FOREST INVENTORY (CFI) - INVENTORIED 10/12/99
GROWTH PLOT TALLY SHEET - 1/10TH ACRE FIXED RADIUS PLOT
TREE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
SPECIES
RED MAPLE
RED MAPLE
RED MAPLE
RED MAPLE
RED MAPLE
QUAKING ASPEN
QUAKING ASPEN
RED SPRUCE
WHITE PINE
QUAKING ASPEN
RED SPRUCE
QUAKING ASPEN
QUAKING ASPEN
QUAKING ASPEN
QUAKING ASPEN
RED SPRUCE
EASTERN HEMLOCK
RED SPRUCE
QUAKING ASPEN
WHITE PINE
RED SPRUCE
RED MAPLE
GREY BIRCH
EASTERN HEMLOCK
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
DIAMETER
9.10
9.79
9.29
5.52
4.50
12.84
13.10
7.52
6.05
6.20
5.63
6.40
6.76
8.14
9.62
6.08
5.40
5.41
9.22
5.08
11.37
5.12
5.42
6.19
5.33
7.49
5.28
4.83
4.79
5.06
6.82
10.68
8.96
6.84
5.41
5.90
5.13
6.74
6.78
6.90
5.99
6.83
PRODUCT
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
SAWLOG
PULP
STUDWOOD
PULP
DEAD
PULP
PULP
PULP
CULL
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
STUDWOOD
PULP
PULP
PULP
POTENTIAL LOG
POTENTIAL LOG
PULP
DEAD
PULP
DEAD
POTENTIAL LOG
PULP
POTENTIAL LOG
POTENTIAL LOG
PULP
POTENTIAL LOG
PULP
PULP
POTENTIAL LOG
PULP
POTENTIAL LOG
PULP
51
CONTINUOUS FOREST INVENTORY (CFI) CONTINUED
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
52
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
QUAKING ASPEN
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
RED MAPLE
QUAKING ASPEN
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
QUAKING ASPEN
QUAKING ASPEN
RED MAPLE
RED MAPLE
RED MAPLE
WHITE PINE
RED SPRUCE
WHITE PINE
WHITE PINE
BALSAM FIR
5.31
8.30
6.81
6.38
6.52
5.58
7.73
5.10
7.31
4.92
10.17
4.90
9.05
10.46
5.50
5.45
6.25
10.05
4.58
4.88
POTENTIAL LOG
PULP
PULP
DEAD
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
SAWLOG
DEAD
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
PULP
SAWLOG
PULP
PULP
|DOFI cruise program | OLD TOWN DEMO FOREST (CFI PLOT) INVENTORY ESTIMATE CRUISED 10/12/99 | 10/13/99
PLOT PARAMETERS
Maine
Type:
Fixed
Size:
10
Dbh Cutoff: 0
Diameter
Sub
None
PRODUCTS
PULP
| Page:
1
|
SAMPLE PARAMETERS
TABLE PARAMETERS
Stratification: Unstratisfied
Acres:
1.
No. of Plots: 1
Table Type: Volume
Units: CDS* = Products in MBF
Blow Up: >*Per Acre*<
STUD
PLOG
*SAWL
BOLT
TOPP
TOPS
BIOM
Total
0.00
0.35
0.89
1.85
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
3.67
4.42
5.41
3.62
5.94
0.00
0.60
0.00
1.43
0.00
0.00
24.31
5.02
4.89
1
2
3
4
Sub 1-4
5
6
7
8
9
0.00
3.32
3.53
3.56
1.47
5.00
0.00
Sub 5-9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23+
16.87
3.83
1.65
0.72
Sub 10-23+
0.72
0.94
4.03
1.49
1.75
2.49
0.37
3.23
7.97
1.49
0.00
0.97
0.00
1.75
0.00
0.00
13.14
24.85
2.20
4.03
0.97
0.00
3.18
0.00
0.00
36.19
Std. Dev.
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Std. Err
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
TOTAL
53
|DOFI cruise program | OLD TOWN DEMO FOREST (CFI PLOT) INVENTORY ESTIMATE CRUISED 10/12/99 | 10/13/99
PLOT PARAMETERS
Maine
Type:
Fixed
Size:
10
Dbh Cutoff: 0
SPECIES
Diameter
Sub
None
BF SP
HE
WP
RP
CE
| Page:
2
|
SAMPLE PARAMETERS
TABLE PARAMETERS
Stratification: Unstratisfied
Acres:
1.
No. of Plots: 1
Table Type: Volume
Units: CDS* = Products in MBF
Blow Up: >*Per Acre*<
LA HM
YB
BE WB
AS RM WA
RO BW
HH
GB WO OH
1
2
3
4
Sub 1-4
5
6
7
8
9
0.00 0.00 0.00
0.31 0.30 0.18
1.22 0.30
Sub 5-9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23+
0.31 2.23 0.48 10.27 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.06 5.47 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.22 0.00 0.00
0.77
1.78 2.47
1.49
1.65
1.75
Sub 1023+
0.00 1.49 0.00
TOTAL
0.31 3.72 0.48 12.69 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 10.82 7.94 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.22 0.00 0.00
0.72
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
1.56
0.34 0.74
0.22
1.48
0.46 0.96
4.16
1.25
1.17
0.94 0.79
1.89
1.07 2.98
3.23
2.42 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.76 2.47 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
The following strata are not included in the sample acreage
Stratum:
SWAMP
ROAD
Acres:
0
0
0
0
0
Total sampled acres:
54
1.0
Total tract acres:
1.0
0
0
0
0
Total
0
|DOFI cruise program | OLD TOWN DEMO FOREST (CFI PLOT) INVENTORY ESTIMATE CRUISED 10/12/99 | 10/13/99
PLOT PARAMETERS
Type:
Size:
Dbh Cutoff:
Maine
Fixed
10
0
Sub
None
PRODUCTS
Diameter
PULP
Balsam Fir
Spruce
Hemlock
White Pine
Red Pine
N. White Cedar
Larch
Hard Maple
Yellow Birch
Beech
White Birch
Aspen
Red Maple
White Ash
Red Oak
Basswood
Hophornbeam
Grey Birch
White Oak
Other Hardwood
Softwood
Hardwood
Total
STUD
0.31
1.52
0.48
7.39
3
|
SAMPLE PARAMETERS
TABLE PARAMETERS
Stratification: Unstratisfied
Acres:
1.
No. of Plots: 1
Table Type: Volume
Units: CDS* = Products in MBF
Blow Up: >*Per Acre*<
PLOG
*SAWL
BOLT
TOPP
TOPS
BIOM
4.03
6.97
7.94
0.39
0.49
0.58
2.69
Total
0.31
3.72
0.48
12.69
2.20
10.82
7.94
0.22
0.22
9.70
15.14
24.84
2.20
4.03
2.20
4.03
0.39
0.58
0.97
The following strata are not included in the sample acreage
Stratum:
SWAMP
ROAD
Acres:
0
0
0
0
Total sampled acres:
| Page:
1.0
Total tract acres:
0.49
2.69
3.18
0
0
17.20
18.99
36.19
0
0
0
1.0
55
INVENTORY SUMMARY
Stratum: TOTAL
Species
Volume per Acre
Total Volume
1.52
.31
.48
8.17
9.66
.00
.00
11.92
.00
32.05
1.52
.31
.48
8.17
9.66
.00
.00
11.92
.00
32.05
Spruce std
Fir std
Hem std
Subtotal (cds)
2.20
.00
.00
2.20
2.20
.00
.00
2.20
White Pine logs
Red Pine logs
Hardwood logs
Spruce logs
Hemlock logs
Cedar logs
Subtotal (MBF)
.39
.00
.58
.00
.00
.00
.97
.39
.00
.58
.00
.00
.00
.97
Biomass cds
.00
.00
36.19
36.19
Spruce cds
Fir cds
Hemlock cds
Hardwood cds
Poplar cds
Cedar cds
Larch cds
Pine cds
White Birch bolts
Subtotal (cds)
Total (cds)
56
SOFTWOOD VOLUME TABLES
Cords Per Tree
DBH
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Spruce
.0302
.0406
.0543
.0716
.0930
.1187
.1489
.1839
.2239
.2689
.3192
.3748
.4358
.5022
.5740
.6510
.7334
.8208
.9133
1.0105
1.1123
1.2185
1.3287
1.4426
1.5598
1.6801
Fir
.0307
.0415
.0559
.0741
.0964
.1233
.1549
.1916
.2334
.2805
.3330
.3911
.4547
.5238
.5984
.6784
.7638
.8543
.9497
1.0499
1.1545
1.2633
1.3758
1.4918
1.6109
1.7324
Hemlock
.0183
.0295
.0442
.0629
.0860
.1138
.1466
.1848
.2286
.2784
.3343
.3966
.4654
.5410
.6234
.7129
.8094
.9131
1.0241
1.1422
1.2676
1.4002
1.5399
1.6867
1.8405
2.0012
Cedar
.0211
.0297
.0403
.0533
.0696
.0898
.1148
.1458
.1840
.2307
.2875
.3559
.4378
.5352
.6500
.7846
.9413
1.1226
1.3312
1.5699
1.8416
2.1494
2.4966
2.8865
3.3226
3.8087
Larch
.0173
.0296
.0462
.0676
.0943
.1266
.1648
.2090
.2594
.3161
.3791
.4482
.5233
.6043
.6908
.7825
.8789
.9795
1.0838
1.1911
1.3007
1.4119
1.5237
1.6353
1.7457
1.8538
Pine
.0173
.0296
.0462
.0676
.0943
.1266
.1648
.2090
.2594
.3161
.3791
.4482
.5233
.6043
.6908
.7825
.8789
.9795
1.0838
1.1911
1.3007
1.4119
1.5237
1.6353
1.7457
1.8538
Spr Std
.0302
.0406
.0543
.0716
.0930
.1187
.1489
.1839
.2239
.2689
.3192
.3748
.4358
.5022
.5740
.6510
.7334
.8208
.9133
1.0105
1.1123
1.2185
1.3287
1.4426
1.5598
1.6801
Fir Std
.0307
.0415
.0559
.0741
.0964
.1233
.1549
.1916
.2334
.2805
.3330
.3911
.4547
.5238
.5984
.6784
.7638
.8543
.9497
1.0499
1.1545
1.2633
1.3758
1.4918
1.6109
1.7324
Hem Std
.0183
.0295
.0442
.0629
.0860
.1138
.1466
.1848
.2286
.2784
.3343
.3966
.4654
.5410
.6234
.7129
.8094
.9131
1.0241
1.1422
1.2676
1.4002
1.5399
1.6867
1.8405
2.0012
57
HARDWOOD VOLUME TABLES
Cords Per Tree
DBH
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Misc.
Hwd
.0371
.0480
.0619
.0790
.0995
.1235
.1513
.1831
.2188
.2587
.3028
.3512
.4039
.4609
.5222
.5877
.6575
.7313
.8092
.8909
09764
1.0654
1.1578
1.2534
1.3518
1.4528
Ash
.0504
.0614
.0752
.0923
.1128
.1368
.1646
.1964
.2321
.2720
.3162
.3645
.4172
.4742
.5355
.6010
.6708
.7446
.8225
.9043
.9897
1.0788
1.1711
1.2667
1.3651
1.4661
GIRARD FORM CLASS
White Pine =
.80
Red Pine
=
.80
Spruce
=
.78
Hemlock
=
.78
Ash
=
.80
Aspen
=
.78
Beech
=
.84
W. Birch
=
.78
Y. Birch
=
.78
H. Maple
=
.79
R. Maple
=
.79
Oak
=
.78
58
Aspen
.0345
.0464
.0623
.0825
.1070
.1361
.1695
.2073
.2491
.2946
.3433
.3946
.4479
.5024
.5571
.6111
.6632
.7122
.7569
.7957
.8271
.8495
.8611
.8601
.8444
.8121
Beech
.0204
.0314
.0452
.0623
.0828
.1068
.1347
.1664
.2022
.2421
.2862
.3346
.3872
.4442
.5055
.5711
.6408
.7146
.7925
.8743
.9597
1.0488
1.1412
1.2367
1.3351
1.4361
W. Birch
Y. Birch
H. Maple
R. Maple
WB Bolt
.0224
.0345
.0500
.0689
.0916
.1182
.1488
.1835
.2224
.2655
.3128
.3642
.4197
.4791
.5422
.6089
.6789
.7520
.8277
.9059
.9860
1.0678
1.1506
1.2341
1.3176
1.4007
.0371
.0480
.0619
.0790
.0995
.1235
.1513
.1831
.2188
.2587
.3028
.3512
.4039
.4609
.5222
.5877
.6575
.7313
.8092
.8909
09764
1.0654
1.1578
1.2534
1.3518
1.4528
.0371
.0480
.0619
.0790
.0995
.1235
.1513
.1831
.2188
.2587
.3028
.3512
.4039
.4609
.5222
.5877
.6575
.7313
.8092
.8909
09764
1.0654
1.1578
1.2534
1.3518
1.4528
.0371
.0480
.0619
.0790
.0995
.1235
.1513
.1831
.2188
.2587
.3028
.3512
.4039
.4609
.5222
.5877
.6575
.7313
.8092
.8909
09764
1.0654
1.1578
1.2534
1.3518
1.4528
.0224
.0345
.0500
.0689
.0916
.1182
.1488
.1835
.2224
.2655
.3128
.3642
.4197
.4791
.5422
.6089
.6789
.7520
.8277
.9059
.9860
1.0678
1.1506
1.2341
1.3176
1.4007
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Reference and Resource List – Joanne Alex, Stillwater Montessori School
Trees
A Tree Is Nice, Janice May Vary, Harper and Row, 1987
A Tree Is a Plant, Clyde Robert Bulla, illus. By Lois Lignell, Thomas & Crowell,
N.Y. 1960
Look Inside A Tree, Gina Ingoglia, Poke & Look Learning Books, Grosset &
Dunlap, N.Y. 1989
Once There Was A Tree, Natalia Romanova Dial Books, 1985
The Giving Tree, Shel Silverstein, Harper & Row, N.Y. 1971
The Lorax, Dr. Seuss, Random House, N.Y. 1971
Animals That Live In Trees, Jane R. McCauley, National Geographic Society, 1986
Raccoons, K.M. Kostyal, National Geographic Society, 1987
Tree Trunk Traffic, Lavies, Dutton, 1989
Trees, Eyewitness Series, Alfred Aknopf, N.Y. 1988
A Tree In The Forest, Jane Thornhill, Simon & Shuster, N.Y. 1991
Trees Are Terrific, Ranger Rick’s Nature Scope
Red Leaf, Yellow Leaf, lois Elhert
Crinkleroot’s Guide To Knowing Trees, Jim Arnosky, Bradbury Press, N.Y. 1992
The Tree, A First Discovery Book, Gallinard Jeunesse, Scholastic, N.Y. 1992
The Singing Fir Tree, (A Swiss Folktale) retold by Marti Stone, Putnam’s & Sons,
N.Y. 1992
Nature All Year Long, Clare Walker Leslie, Greenwillow Books, N.Y. 1991
Ring of Earth, Jane Yolen (A child’s book of Seasons) Harcourt Brace &
Jovanovich, N.Y. 1986
59
Earth Book For Kids, Linda Schwartz, The Learning Works 1990
The Berenstein Bear’s Nature Guide, Stan & Jan Berenstein, Random House,
N.Y. 1975
RAINFOREST
The Great Kapok Tree, (A tale of the Amazon Rain Forest) Lynne Cherry, Harcourt
Brace & Jovanovich, N.Y. 1990
Rain Forest, Helen Cowcher, Farrar Straus & Giroux, N.Y. 1988
Rain Forest Secrets, Arthur Dorrors, Scholashe, N.Y. 1990 (In front of book there
is a list of rainforest organizations you can write to. Also may provide classroom
materials.)
Save Our Wildlife, Althea Parrots, Longman Group, U.S.A. 1988
Our Planet – Forests, David Lambert, Troll, N.J. 1990
The Emerald Realm, Earth’s Precious Rainforests, National Geographic Society,
1990
The Rainforest Book, (How you can save the world’s rainforests), Scott Lewis,
Living Planet, U.A. CA 1990
Where The Forest Meets The Sea, Jeannie Baker
Resource For Protecting Acreage, for booklet (Rainforests Educational Resources)
The Children’s Rainforest, P.O. Box 936, Lewiston, ME 04240
World Wildlife Fund/Conservation Foundation, 1250 24th Street N.W., Washington,
D.C. 20037 (They have a kit including booklet, poster and excellent video.)
Joanne Sharpe (rainforest biologist) Sharplex Services, 4555 RR1 #1, Dresden,
ME 04342 (does school programs)
Tropical Rainforests And The PLT Connection, (special rainforest adaptation for
PLT’s K-12 activities – get from State PLT office)
Migratory Songbird Kit, (from National Audubon Society – Shows how devestation
of the rainforests affects our songbird population – brings Maine issues closer to
home.)
60
NATURAL RESOURCES, SENSITIVITIES, OURSELVES
The Listening Walk, Paul Showers
We’re Different, We’re The Same, (Sesame Street) BoobiJanekales
Got Me A Story To Tell, (A multi-ethnic book; five children tell about their lives.),
Sylvia Yee & Lisa Kokin, from taped interviews
Professor Noah’s Spaceship, Brian Wildsmith
We Are All AlikeYWe Are All Different, Chelteham Elementary School
Kindergartners
Just A Dream, Chris Van Allsburg
A River Ran Wild, Lynne Cherry
Prince William, Gloria Rand
Here Are My Hands, Bill Martin and John Archambault
Wump World, Bill Peet
Eating The Alphabet, Lois Ehlert (fruits and vegetables from A to Z)
The Earth And Sky, (A First Discovery Book)
Good Earth Art, (environmental art for kids), Mary Ann F. Kohl/ Cindy Gainer
Earth Child, (games, stories, activities, experiments and ideas about living lightly in
the earth), Katherine Sheehan and Mary Waidner
Teaching Kids To Love The Earth, Marina Herman, Joesph E. Passineau and Ann
Schimpf
Sharing Nature With Children, Listening to Nature, Enjoying Nature, Joseph
Cornell
Little Water And The Gift Of The Animals, C.J. Taylor, Tundra, N.Y. 1992
Mushroom On The Rain, (adapted from the Russian of V. Suteyev), Mivea
Grounsbury, Aladdin, N.Y. 1990
61
RIVERS
Tattie’s River Journey, Shirley Rousseau-Murphy
Paddle-to-the-Sea, Holling Clancy Holling
Seabird, Holling Clancy Holling
Wonders Of Rivers, Rae Bains
Rivers, Lawrence Santrey, Troll Associates
Three Days On A River In A Red Canoe, Vera B. Williams
The River Bank, (from the Wind in the Willows) Kenneth Grahame
River Life, (A close-up look at the natural world of a river.), Barbara Taylor, Darling
Kindersley, Inc.
My River, Shari Halpern
The Unfolding River, Quarto Publishing
Let’s Explore A River, Jane R. McCauley, Books For Young Explorers
A River Ran Wild, Jynne Cherry
Amazing Otters, M. Barbara Browne, Books For Young Explorers
Signs Along The River, (Learning to read the natural landscape.), Kayo Robertson
Pond And River, Eyewitness Books
The Boats On The River, Marjorie Flack
Letting Swift River Go, Jan Yolen
WATERS CYCLES AND WATER
What Makes It Rain?, (the story of a raindrop), Keith Brandt
Water, Adrienne Soutter-Perrot, also The Earth, The Air, Fire
Rain, Robert Kalan
Ground Water, Maine’s Hidden Resource
62
Water, Rae Bains, Troll Associates
The Magic School Bus At The Waterworks, Joanna Cole
Rain Drop Splash, Alvin Tresselt
Bob The Snowman, Sylvia Lorentan
Rain, Peter Spier
Rain Makes Applesauce, Julien Scheer
Euphoria And The Flood, Mary Calhoun
A Flood Of Creatures, Dahlou Ipcar
Wonders Of The Pond, Francene Sabin
HABITATS
Tree Trunk Traffic, Lavies, Bianca
The City Kid’s Field Guide, Herberman, Ethan
Deer At The Brook, Jim Arnosky
Raccoon And Ripe Corn, Jim Arnosky
Come Out Muskrat, Jim Arnosky
Crinkleroot’s Guide To Wild Places, Jim Arnosky
Crinkleroot’s Guide To Trees, Jim Arnosky
Crinkleroot’s Guide To Animal Tracks, Jim Arnosky
Crinkleroot’s Guide To Birds, Jim Arnosky
Crinkleroot’s I Was Born In A Tree And Raised By Bears, Jim Arnosky
In The Tall Tall Grass, Denise Fleming
The Salamander Room, Anne Mayer
Fish Is Fish, Leo Lionni
63
Animal Architects, Books For World Explores, National Geographic Society, 1987
The Biggest House In the World, Leo Lionni
A House For Hermit-Crab, Eric Carle
Animals Underground, Charlotte Ruffault, 1988
Who Lives InYAlligator Swamp?, Ron Hirche
Heron Street, Ann Turner
Wonders Of The Pond, Francene Sabin
Wonders Of The River, Rae Bains
Signs Along The River, (Learning to read the natural landscape.), Kayo Robertson
Animal Tracks, Arhtur Dorros
A Chorus Of Frogs, Joni Phelps Hunt
Pond & River, Eyewitness Books
PEOPLE HABITATS
A Country Far Away, Nigel Gray and Philippe Dupasquier
Houses And Homes, Anne Morris
Roomrhymes, poems by Sylivia Cassidy
There’s No Place Like Home, Marc Brown
A House Is A House For Me, Mary Ann Hoberman
This Is My House, Arthur Dorros
This Place Is Cold, Vicki Cobb
This Place Is Wet, Vicki Cobb
This Place Is Dry, Vicki Cobb
This Place Is High, Vicki Cobb
64
NON-FICTION AND FICTION LITERATURE ON INSECTS
A Picture Book Of Insects, Vitaly Tanasyichuk, Raduga Publishers, Moscow,
Russia, 1989
Stopwatch Books, Silver Burdett, N.J. 1988:
Dragonfly, Barrie Watts
Butterfly & Caterpillar
Bumblebee
Ladybug
Spider’s Web
Learn About Insects, Bobbie Whitcombe, Checkerboard Press, N.Y. 1990
Bugs, Nancy Winston Parker and Joan Richards, Wright, Greenwillow Books, N.Y.
1987
Backyard Insects, Millicent E. Selsam and Ronald Goor, Scholastic, N.Y. 1981
I Know An Old Lady, Rose Bonne, Scholastic, N.Y. 1961
Bug City, Dahlov Ipcar, Gannett Books, Portland, ME 1975
A Picture Book Of Insects, Joanne Mattern, Troll Associates, N.J. 1991
The Grouchy Ladybug, Eric Carle, Scholastic Books, N.Y.
The Very Hungry Caterpillar, Eric Carle, Scholastic Books, N.Y.
The Very Busy Spider, Eric Carle, Scholastic Books, N.Y.
The Book Of Big Bugs, Haris Petie, Prentice-Hall, N.J. 1977
Catch A Cricket, (About the capture and care of crickets, grasshoppers, fireflies,
and other companionable creatures.), E.M. Hale & Co., Wisconsin, 1967
The Very Quiet Cricket, Eric Carle, Scholastic Books, N.Y., 1990
The Bug Book, (with bug bottle), Dr. Hugh Danks, Workman Publishing, N.Y. 1987
National Geographic Society: Young Explorer Series:
65
Honeybees, Jane Lecht, 1973
The World Beneath Your Feet, Judith Richards, 1985
Spiders, Lillian Bason, 1974
Life In Ponds And Streams, William H. Amos, 1981
Life Of The Honeybee, (A Ladybird Natural History Book), England, 1969
HUMAN/ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTIONS
Once There Was A Tree, Natalea Romanova
The Singing Fir Tree, Marti Stone
The People Who Hugged The Trees, Deborah Lee Rose
Rain Forest, Helen Cowcher
Tigress, Helen Cowcher
A Tree Is Nice, Janice May Udry
Grandpa And The Sea, Katherine Orr
Surrounded By Sea, Gail Gibbons
Blueberries For Sal, Robert McCloskey
The Giving Tree, Shel Silverstein
ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS
The Listening Walk, Paul Showers
Taking A Walk, Rebecca Emberly, (A book in two languages) Caminando (Un
Libro en Dos Lenguas)
Owl Moon, Jane Yolen
66
FOR TEACHERS AND EDUCTORS – RESOURCES FOR NATURE STUDY
Discover The World: Empowering Children To Value Themselves, Others, And
The Earth, edited by Susan Hopkins and Jeffrey Winters
Hug A Tree And Other Things To Do Outdoors With Young Children, Rockwell,
Sherwood, and Williams
Our World (Learning And Caring About It), Gayle Bitlinger, Totling Magazine
The Wonder Of It: Exploring How The World Works, edited by Bonnie
Neugeloauer
Teaching Kids To Love The Earth, (Sharing a Sense of Wonder – 186 Outdoor
Activities for Parents and Other Teachers), Marina C. Herman, Joseph E.
Passineau, Ann L. Schimpf, and Paul Treuer
Good Earth Art, (Environmental Art For Kids), Mary Ann F. Kohl and Cindy Gainer
Earth Child, (games, stories, activities)
On The Earth, Katherine Sheehan and Mary Weidner, PhD (excellent, excellent
resource!)
Sharing Nature With Children, Joseph Cornell
Sharing The Joy Of Nature, Joseph Cornell
Listening To Nature, Joseph Cornell
Sense Of Wonder, Rachel Carson ( a must read for all teachers)
Nature Activities For Early Childhood, Janet Nicklesburg
Nature With Children Of All Ages, Edith A. Sisson, The Massachusetts Audobon
Society
The Seaside Naturalist, (A guide to nature study at the seashore), Deborah A.
Coulombe
The Curious Naturalist, National geographic Society
Exploring Nature With Your Child, Dorothy Shuttlesworth
67
GLOSSARY
Allowable Cut
The amount of wood fiber that may be harvested annually or periodically from a
specified area over a stated period in accordance with the objectives of
management.
Alpine Zone
The portion of a mountain that lies above timber line.
Anadromous Fish
Salmon, shad, bass, and others that migrate from the sea up a river to spawn.
Annual
A plant that completes its life cycle from seedling to mature seed bearing plant
during a single growing season, and then dies.
Association
A grouping of plants and animals that repeatedly occur together in a forest region.
Associations may be identified in terms of their predominant tree association, as
oak-hickory forest.
Basal Area
A unit of measure used by foresters to estimate volumes of timber from standing
trees.
Biennial
A plant that lives for two growing seasons, producing only leaves during the first
season, flowers and seeds during the second.
Biodegradable
The property of a substance that permits it to be broken down by microorganisms
into simple, stable compounds such as carbon dioxide and water.
Biome
A complex of communities characterized by a distinctive type of vegetation and
maintained under the climatic conditions of the region.
Biotic
The animal and plant life of a region or period.
Biotic Potential
The capacity of a population of animals or plants to increase in numbers under
optimum environmental conditions.
Blaze
To mark a tree with a shallow axe cut, to show the course of a boundary.
Board Foot
The amount of timber equivalent to a piece of wood 12 inches square and 1 inch
thick. As the forest products industry changes to the metric system, it will
probably use cubic meters fore trees/logs and lumber in bulk and will measure
lumber in retail on a linear or piece basis.
B O D (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) A measure of the amount of oxygen used by microorganisms to
consume biodegradable organic strength or waste water in terms of dissolved
oxygen that would be consumed if the waste water were discharged into a natural
body of water.
Bog
A wet, low area, often an old lake bed, filling or filled with partially decayed matter
known as peat.
Bole
The portion of a tree beginning at the base and usually extending to the base of
the crown. Also referred to as the stem or trunk.
Boreal Forest
Northern conifer forest.
68
Broadleaf
The term describing a plant with widebladed leaves, such as an oak or maple;
generally refers to flowering trees in contrast to conifers.
Browse
To eat the twigs and leaves of woody plants. Deer, moose, and their relatives are
browsers.
Buffer Strip
A barrier of trees left untouched in order to protect the adjacent resource.
Canopy
Layer formed by the leaves and branches of the forest’s tallest trees.
Carrying Capacity
The number of organisms of a given species and quality that can survive in a
given ecosystem without causing deterioration thereof.
Carnivore
Any chiefly flesh-eating mammal of the order Carnivora, comprising dogs, cats,
bears, seals, and the like.
Chaparral
Dense scrub vegetation of broadleaf, evergreen, or wintergreen shrubs.
-Cide
From Latin, meaning kill; used in combination words, such as pesticide.
Chlorophyll
A group of pigments that produce the green hue of plants; essential to
photosynthesis.
Clearcut
Complete harvesting of a stand of trees in one harvest, such that less than 30
feet of basal area is left standing. Removal of an entire standing crop.
Clearcutting System
A silvicultural system in which the old crop is cleared at one time; regeneration by
artificial or natural means.
Climax
The relatively stable association that represents the final stage in a sere under
the existing conditions of soil and climate.
Commercial Forest Land
Forest lands capable of bearing merchantable timber currently or
prospectively accessible and not withdrawn from such use.
Commercial Thinning Any type of thinning producing merchantable material at least to the value of the
direct cost of harvesting it.
Commercial Tree Species
Species commonly used for pulpwood, logs, veneer, or other forest
products, excluding those species used only for biomass or fuel.
Community
All the plants and animals in a particular habitat that are bound together by food
chains and other interrelations.
Cone
A structure composed of many spirally-arranged scales in which pollen ovules are
produced. Cones differ from flowers in that the ovules are borne on the surface
of the scales, or carpels. In a flower the carpels form a container called the pistil
inside which the ovules are borne.
Conifer, Coniferous
A plant that bears its seeds in cones. Usually refers to needleleaf trees, although
some needleleafs, such as yew, do not bear cones.
Conservation
The use of natural resources in a way that assures their continually availability to
future generations; the intelligent use of natural resources.
69
Cord
A unit of measurement of stacked wood. The standard dimensions are; 4 feet
long logs, stacked 4 feet high, by 8 feet long.
Crop Trees
Any tree forming or destined to form a part of the major forest crop.
Crown
The upper part of a tree, including the branches with their foliage.
Cruise
An inventory of forest land to locate timber and estimate its quantity by species,
products, size, quality and condition.
3
Cubic Foot (ft )
The amount of timber in squared or rounded form necessary to produce the
equivalent of 1 cubic foot of wood. One cubic foot equals 0.0283 cubic meters.
3
Cubic Meter (m )
The amount of wood necessary to produce a block 1 meter on a side or the
equivalent.
Decibel
A unit of intensity of sound, equal to 20 times the common logarithm of the ration
of the pressure produced by the sound wave to a reference pressure. A
measurement of 50 decibels is considered moderate sound; 80, loud; and 100,
the level beyond which the sound becomes tolerable.
Deciduous
Term describing a plant that periodically loses all its leaves, usually in autumn.
Most North American broadleaf trees are deciduous. A few conifers, such as
larch and cypress, also are deciduous. See EVERGREEN.
Decomposer
A plant or animal that feeds on dead material and causes its mechanical or
chemical breakdown.
Dendrology
A branch of botany devoted to the study of trees.
DBH
Diameter breast height, a point along the bole of the tree, 4.5 feet above the
ground where trees are measured.
Ecology
The scientific study of the relations of living things to one another and to their
environment. A scientist who studies these relationships is called and ecologist.
Ecosystem
All living things and their environment in an area of any size. All linked together
by energy and nutrient flow.
Edaphic
Related to or caused by particular soil conditions , as of texture or drainage,
rather than by physiographic or climatic factors.
Effluent
The outflow, usually offensive, from sewage or industrial plants, and the like.
Environment
The aggregate of surrounding things, conditions, or influences, especially as
affecting the existence or development of people or of nature.
Environmental Resistance
The limiting effect of environmental conditions on the numerical growth of
a population.
Esker
70
A long narrow ridge or mound of sand, gravel, and rocks deposited by a stream
flowing on, within, or beneath a glacier.
Eutrophication
Enrichment of soils and water due to fertilization, sewage effluent, or other waters
that carry a high plant-nutrient component.
Even-age Stands
Forest areas where the trees are all of the same age due to planting or harvesting
the entire area at one time. Even-age stands are desirable for species whose
young trees do not thrive in the shade of older trees.
Evergreen
A plant that does not lose all of its leaves at one time. Among trees, some
broadleaf species, such as live oak, remain green all year, but most North
American evergreens are coniferous. See CONIFER; DECIDUOUS.
Fiber
Any long, narrow cell of wood or bast.
general.
Flagging
A flexible plastic ribbon used to temporarily mark points of interest, comes in a
variety of colors.
Food Chain
A series of plants and animals linked by their food relationships. A green plant, a
leaf-eating insect, and an insect-eating bird would form a simple food chain. Any
one of species is usually represented in several or many food chains.
Foothill Zone
Lowest of the vegetation zone in mountainous regions.
ZONES, VERTICAL.
Forest
A complex community of plants and animals in which trees are the most
conspicuous members.
Forest Floor
The layer of decomposing material that covers the soil in a forest.
Forest Management
The practical application of scientific, economic, and social principals to the
administration of a forest estate for specified objectives.
Forest Region
An extensive area of a continent in which the climax-forest associations are
closely similar. The major forest regions of North America are West Coast
Forest, Western Forest, Central Hardwood Forest, Tropical Forest, Northern
Forest, and Southern Forest.
Fungicide
Any chemical preparation used to control fungal pests.
Girdling
Stripping or gnawing a section of bark around the trunk of a tree or shrub; may
eventually kill the plant.
Grassland
A vegetation community in which grasses are the most conspicuous plants.
Growing Stock
All the tree growing in a forest or in a specified part of it.
Habitat
The native environment of an animal or plant, or the kind of place that is natural
for an animal or plant.
Hardwood
A class of trees with broad leaves or are deciduous. The wood from such trees.
See SOFTWOOD.
Herb
Any flowering plant or fern that has a soft, rather than woody, stem.
Loosely used for wood elements in
See VEGETATION
71
Herb Layer
The layer of soft-stemmed plants growing close to the forest floor.
Herbicide
A substance or preparation for killing plants, especially weeds.
PESTICIDE.
Increment
Growth accretion generally expressed in volume per acre per year. Also spoken
of as annual yield.
Insecticide
Any chemical preparation used to control insects.
Intensive Forestry
The practice of forestry so as to attain a high level of volume and quality of outturn per unit area, through the application of the best techniques of silviculture
and management.
Kerf
The narrow slot cut by a saw as it advances through wood.
Landfill
A method of disposing of refuse on land by utilizing the principals of engineering
to confine the refuse to the smallest practical area and to reduce it to the smallest
practical volume.
Leaching
The removal of soluble substances from the soil by percolating water.
Leader
The main shoot growing from the top of a tree with a single main trunk.
Life Cycle
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by an organism from one
primary form to the development of the same form again.
Lignin
The organic substance that holds together the individual fibers of wood. Lignin is
responsible for the dark color in pulp mill effluents.
Live Crown Ratio
The percentage of length of the stem covered with living branches.
Mast
Trees which produce nuts; for example oak, walnut. Food for animals.
Mast Year
A year of above-average nut production in a forest.
Mature
(1) The age at which a tree will no longer increase in value fast enough to earn a
satisfactory rate of interest.
(2) The age at which a tree has already reached its greatest growth potential and
begins to decline in growth and health.
Merchantable
A tree which can be profitably marketed.
Microclimate
“Little climate”; the environmental conditions in a restricted area.
Microhabitat
A “small habitat” within a larger one in which environmental conditions differ from
those in the surrounding area. A hole in a tree trunk or an animal carcass is a
microhabitat within the forest.
Mixedforest
A forest that includes both coniferous and deciduous trees.
Mixedwood
A stand of trees made up approximately half softwood and half hardwood.
Monoculture
The raising or a crop of a single species, generally even-aged.
72
See also
Mountain Zone
The band of vegetation that occurs at intermediate elevations in mountainous
regions between foothill and subalpine zones. See VEGETATION ZONES,
VERTICAL.
Mor
A type of forest floor formed by a thick mat of slowly decomposing matter, often
conifer needles.
Mull
A type of forest floor and soil in which the decomposing matter, usually formed of
broad leaves, decays rapidly. The humus is mixed thoroughly, so there is no
sharp boundary between the forest floor and soil.
Multiple-use Forestry Any practice of forestry fulfilling two or more objectives of management.
Muskeag
A mossy bog in the northern coniferous forest region.
Natural Selection
A process in nature resulting in the survival and perpetuation of only those forms
of plant and animal life having certain favorable characteristics that enable them
to adapt best to a specific environment.
Needleleaf
Bearing needlelike leaves. See CONIFER.
Nitrogen-fixation
The conversion of elemental nitrogen from the atmosphere to organic
combinations or to forms readily utilizable in biological processes. Normally
carried out by bacteria, living symbiotically in legumes or by free-living soil
bacteria.
Nonrenewable Resources Substances such as oil, gas, coal, copper, and gold, which, once used, cannot
be replaced, at least not in this geological age.
North
The North includes New England, the Middle Atlantic States, and the Lake States.
Old Field
Farmland once cultivated, but now untended.
Organic Matter
Chemical compounds of carbon combined with other chemical elements, and
generally manufactured in the life processes of plants and animals. Most organic
compounds are a source of food for bacteria and are usually combustible.
Organism
A form of life composed of mutually dependant parts that maintain various vital
processes.
Pacific Coast States
Those states that border the west coast of the United States.
Partial Cutting
Tree removal other than by clearcutting.
Particulates
Perennial
Small particles of liquid or solid matter.
A plant that lives for several years and usually produces seeds each year.
Pesticides
Any chemical preparation used to control populations of injurious organisms,
plants, or animals.
Photosynthesis
The process by which green plants convert carbon dioxide and water into simple
sugar. Chlorophyll and sunlight are essential to the series of complex chemical
reactions involved.
73
Pigment
A chemical substance that reflects or transmits only certain light rays and thus
imparts color to an object. For example, a substance that absorbs all but red
rays, which it reflects, will appear red. See CHLOROPHYLL.
Pioneer
A plant capable of invading bare sites such as newly exposed soil surface, and
persisting there until supplanted by successor species.
Planimeter
An instrument used for measuring the area of any plan figure by tracing its
boundary.
Plantation
A humanmade forest, usually established by planting seedlings.
Plywood
A composite product made up of crossbanded layers of veneer, bonded with
adhesive.
Pole
A young tree usually between 4 and 8 inches (10 to 20 centimeters) in diameter.
Pollution
Harmful substances deposited in the air or water or land, leading to a state of
dirtiness, impurity, or unhealthiness.
Predator
An animal that lives by capturing other animals for food.
Prescribed Burning
The planned application of fire to natural fuels including logging slash with the
intent to confine the burning to a predetermined area.
Pulpwood
Wood, usually due to its low quality, which is cut or prepared primarily for
manufacture into wood pulp, for subsequent manufacture into paper, fiber board,
or other products.
Rain Shadow
An area on the leeward side of a mountain barrier that receives little rainfall.
Range
All lands, including forest land, that produce native forage in contrast to land
cultivated for agriculture crops or carrying dense forest. Also applied to the range
of individual species of plants and animals.
Recycle
The salvage and reprocessing of used materials (such as paper, metals, glass,
and cloth).
Reforestation
The replanting of trees in forests that have been affected by cutting, fire, disease,
or other incursion.
Regeneration
Renewal of a tree crop whether by natural or artificial means. The regeneration
period is the period required or allowed in the plan for regeneration following
timber harvest.
Artificial
Forest renewal by planting or seeding.
Natural
Forest renewal by self-sown seeds or sprouts.
Advanced
Regeneration which is well established, usually 3 feet or more in
height.
Renewable Resources Living resources such as plants and animals which have the capacity to renew
themselves by natural ecological cycles or sound management practices.
74
Riparian
A zone of habitat adjacent to streams, ponds, bogs, and other wet areas, where
wildlife travel is most abundant.
Roading
The provision of roads in an area.
Rocky Mountain States
Those states between the Pacific Coast States and the Great Plains.
Rodentcides
Chemical preparations used against mice, rats, and other rodents that may
consume forestry seed or debark trees.
Sanitary Fill
Used to describe the dumping process whereby the garbage or other refuse is
covered with soil, thus controlling the smell, rodent activity, etc., and speeding the
decay of organic substances.-
Sapling
A young tree normally more than 4½ feet (1.5 meters) high and less than 4 inches
(10 centimeters) in diameter.
Savanna
A park like grassland with scattered trees or clumps of trees.
Sawlog
A log considered suitable in size and quality for producing sawn timber.
Sawtimber
Trees fit to yield sawlogs.
Scavenger
An animal that eats the dead remains and wastes of other animals and plants.
Scrub
A low, woody vegetation composed principally of shrubs.
Secondary Fiber
Fiber used as a raw material for making new products. The fibers have been
reclaimed from waste paper or collected during the manufacture or paper and
paperboard products.
Section Cutting
The annual or periodic removal of trees individually or in small groups.
Seedling
A young tree grown from the seed up to the sapling stage, that is a height of 4½
to 6 feet (1.5 to 2 meters).
Seral Stage
One community of a sere.
Sere
The series of communities that follow one another in a natural succession, as in
the change from bare field to a mature forest.
Shelter Wood Cutting Any regeneration cutting in a more or less regular or mature crop designed to
establish a new crop under the protection of the old.
Shrub
A woody plant less than 12 feet (4 meters) tall, usually with more than one stem
rising from the ground.
Siltation
Disturbance of the ground from any activity that results in soil runoff into a water
course.
Silvicides
Any chemical preparation used to control unwanted trees.
Silvics
The life history and general characteristics of forest trees and stands, with
particular reference to environmental factors.
75
Silviculture
The art and science of producing and tending a forest; the application of the
knowledge of silvics in the treatment of a forest.
Site Class
The measure of the relative productive capacity of an area for timber or other
crops.
Site Index
A measure of the site class based on the height of the dominant trees in the
stand at age 50 or 100 years (or some other arbitrary chosen age).
Skidding
Moving logs from the stump to a landing usually with the forward end supported
off the ground.
Slash
The residue left on the ground after felling timber.
Smog
Originally a combination of fog and smoke; now applied also to photochemical
haze produced by the action of the sun and the atmosphere on automobile and
industrial elements.
Snag
Any dead or dying tree at least 4 inches DBH and 6 feet tall. A standing dead
tree from which the leaves and most of the branches have fallen.
Softwood
A coniferous tee. A common but not strictly accurate term; the wood of many
conifers is harder than some so-called hardwood tees.
Solid Waste
All items discarded after use in a solid state that must be collected and disposed
of separately. Solid waste is collected by municipal collection systems. Solid
waste does not include items discarded into sewage systems or those emitted
with smoke or gas.
South
The South includes the states to the south of the Middle Atlantic States and the
lake States, notably along the South Atlantic region, across the South Central
States, and across the Mississippi into Texas and Oklahoma.
Species
A class or organisms having some common characteristics or qualities. The
major subdivision or a genus or subgenus, regarded as the basic category of
biological classification, composed of related individuals that resemble one
another, are able to breed among themselves but are not able to breed with
members of another species.
Sprout
A tree which has grown from stump or root.
Stand
An aggregation of trees occupying a specific area so as to be distinguished from
the surrounding forest.
Stocking
Density of a stand.
Stoma
A microscopic opening in the surface of a leaf that allows gases to pass in and
out.
Subalpine Zone
The band of vegetation in mountainous regions that occurs below timber line and
alpine zone. See VEGETATION ZONE, VERTICAL.
Succession
The gradual replacement of one community by another. See SERE.
76
Sustained Yield
The yield that a forest produces continuously at a given intensity of management.
Territory
An area defended by an animal against others of the same species. Used for
breeding, feeding, or both.
Timber
A general term for forest crops and stands containing trees of commercial size
and quality suitable for sawing into lumber.
Timberline
The upper limit of tree growth on mountains. A band of stunted and usually oddly
shaped trees between the subalpine forest and alpine tundra. See VEGETATION
ZONES, VERTICAL.
Tolerance
The ability of a tree to develop and grow in the shade of and in competition of
other trees.
Transpiration
The process by which water evaporates from plant tissues.
Tree
A woody plant 12 or more feet (4 or more meters) tall with a single main stem
(trunk) and a more or less distinct crown of leaves.
Tree Seed Orchard
A plantation of trees assumed or proven genetically to be superior but isolated so
as to reduce pollination from genetically inferior outside sources.
Tundra
Treeless vegetation in regions with long winter and low annual temperatures.
Arctic tundra extends above timberline on mountains.
Uneven-aged
A forest or stand composed of intermingling trees that differ markedly in age.
This contrasts with even-aged stands in which all trees are within 10 to 20 years
of the same age.
Understory
The layer formed by the crowns of smaller trees in the forest.
Vegetation
The mass of plants that covers a given area. Flora, a term often wrongly used
interchangeably with vegetation, is a list of the species of plants that compose the
vegetation.
Vegetation Zones, Vertical
The horizontal belts of distinctive plant cover in mountainous regions,
resulting from climatic changes related to elevation changes. From base to peak,
the zones are foothill, montane, subalpine, timberline, and alpine.
Veneer
A thin sheet of wood of uniform thickness produces by rotary cutting.
Virgin Forest
Primeval forest or original forest. Primarily a forest undisturbed by people.
Wilderness Area
An area established by the federal government to conserve its primeval character
and influence for public enjoyment under primitive conditions in perpetuity.
Wildfire
Any fire other than controlled or prescribed burn occurring on wild land.
Wildlife
A loose term that includes non-domesticated vertebrates, especially mammals,
birds, and fish.
Windthrow
Uprooting of trees by wind.
77
Winter-bare Forest
A forest composed of deciduous trees.
Woodland
A wooded area in which the trees are often small, short bowled, and open grown;
farm woodland, any wooded area that is part of a farm.
Woodpulp
Wood fiber separated by mechanical or chemical means used in making paper
and other products.
Yard Up
To gather in a sheltered area in winter; used in reference to deer, moose, and
their relatives.
Zero Population Growth
The maintenance or holding or population numbers at a fixed level so as
to obviate increase.
78
PLT ACTIVITY GUIDE REFERENCE
FEATURE
Animal Tracking Plot
Arboretum , Orchard
Archaeological Dig
Berry Producing Shrubs,
Fence Row, Windbreaks
PLT ACTIVITY
Wildlife Habitat
Snow Use
Expanding Sensory Perception
Schoolyard Safari
Web Of Life
Schoolyard Diversity
Get In Touch With Trees
Planet Of Plenty
Web Of Life
A Cassette Tour Of Neighborhood
Trees
Design With Nature
Adopt A Tree
Tree Shapes, Natural And
Unnatural
Did You See That Dogwood Bark
Healthy And Unhealthy
The Shape Of Things
Get In Touch With Trees
Trees In Trouble
Make A Fossil
The Native Way
How Do You Bury A Pile Of Dirt?
Wildlife Habitat
Building For The Birds
Trees As Habitat
Green Mufflers
OLD ELEM.
ACTIVITY NUMBER
OLD SEC.
NEW PRE-K THROUGH 8
55
45
7
52
65
70
46
2
9
45
65
5
87
1
10
21
66
76
1
2
77
85
41
90
64
68
22
An Individual Experiment
Trees As Habitat
Birds ‘n’ Worms
Building For The Birds
Poet-Tree
3
68
69
22
77
Bird Feeders
Birds ‘n’ Worms
Adopt A Tree
Trees As Habitat
Web Of Life
69
1
68
65
Bulbs, Corms & Tubers
Patters In Nature
Plant Growth And Temperature
Growth Graph
How Plants Grow
8
72
51
Leaf Prints
Web Of Life
9
65
Bird Blind
Butterfly Garden
Compost Pile
Creek
How Do You Bury A Pile Of Dirt
What’s In Soi
Sow Bugs ‘n’ Soil
Improve Your School Site
Planet Of Plenty
Soil Stories
Improve Your Place
A Field, A Forest And A Stream
Sand, Silt And Clay
44
77
21
22
45
41
45
64
54
64
75
24
70
96
74
64
48
79
Dinosaur Study Area
Erosion Control Demo
Existing Timber Stand
Fossil Path
Groundwater
Herb Garden
Herbaceous Wildlife
Plantings, Wildlife Food
Plots Of Grain
Horticulture And
Agriculture Plots
Indian Theme Area
80
Water You Know
Water We Doing?
Water Wonders
Soil Stories
58
Make A Fossil
Another Way Of Seeing
Endangered Species
A Look At Lifestyles
85
88
59
Growin’ Seeds ‘n’ Savin’ Soil
Soil Compaction
Pollution Search
Holding Power
Rainfall And The Forest
Improve Your School Site
Rain Reasons
Water Wonders
Improve Your Place
46
44
70
92
42
40
65
30
73
75
29
44
96
Forest Consequences
Fire
Woodwork
The Value Of 100 Acres Of
Forestland
Careers In Forestry
The Influence Of The Forest On
Your Region’s History
Living With Fire
89
82
20
Make A Fossil
A Treasure Hunt For Energy
85
Why Do Trees Grow There?
Rainfall And The Forest
Rain Reasons
33
53
83
16
81
66
54
73
29
Colors From Nature
Leaf Prints
Plant Dyes
The Native Way
Looking At Leaves
29
9
27
41
Seed Dispersal
Sunlight And Shades Of Green
The Value Of Wildlife
Signs Of Fall
Have Seeds, Will Travel
63
61
Sap + Energy = Syrup
Fertilizers
Keep On Truckin’
Did You Ever Eat A Pine Tree?
A Calorie’s Cost
pH And Plants
Pass The Plants, Please
Trees in Trouble
56
81
Folklore
Native American Dwellings
Indian Summer, Winter, Spring
And Fall
Native American Web Of Life
Native Americans And The Forest
Tale Of The Sun
35
42
90
64
42
43
16
78
43
87
32
61
41
16
77
20
19
18
18
Teepee Talk
Insect Traps
Lath Structure
Marsh/Watering Hole
Milled Sawlog
Nature “Swap Shop”
Build An Ecosystem
Hard Choices
A Field, A Forest and A Stream
The Fallen Log
Are Vacant Lots Vacant?
Trees As Habitats
Web Of Life
Trees In Trouble
Healthy And Unhealthy
60
52
74
62
78
68
65
19
21
Rainfall And The Forest
Holding Power
We Can Work It Out
How Clean Is Clean
Food Mobile
Rain Reasons
Water Wonders
73
30
The Second Little Pig
Woodwork
Interview A Board Worker
Maple Mallets & Ash Bats
How Big Is Your Tree?
Why Wooden Pencils?
Keep On Truckin’
Forest Products All Around Us
Three Little Pigs Revisited
Artisans In Wood
Loose Knots & Tight Knots
What Shall I Use To Build It?
The Second Time Around
Careers In Forestry
Tree Treasures
Renewable Or Not?
Resource-Go-Round
19
20
21
22
36
55
87
Biography Of A Favorite Thing
An Environmental Exchange Box
The Touchy-Feely Box
Get In Touch With Trees
Building For The Birds
Artisans In Wood
What Shall I Use To Build It?
What Wood Waste?
Noxious Weed ID Plat
Seed Dispersal
Patterns In Nature
Leaf Prints
Hard Choices
Have Seeds, Will Travel
Looking At Leaves
Growin’ Seeds And Savin’ Soil
pH And Plants
Fertilizers
Seed Dispersal
48
23
47
22
45
77
76
The Second Little Pig
Interview A Board Worker
The Three Little Pigs Revisited
What Wood Waste?
Renewable Or Not
Nesting Boxes
Ornamental Flower Beds
75
10
69
14
37
50
62
29
44
67
9
10
17
47
68
76
83
12
14
82
71
77
11
20
2
44
17
68
69
63
8
9
52
43
64
42
41
81
63
81
Outdoor Seating Area, Shelter
Perch and Plant
Pond
Prairie Plot, Succession Area,
Wildflower Plot, Grasses Plot
Road, Parking Lot
Rock Pile, Geological Studies
Sensory Discovery Area
Design With Nature
Have Seeds, Will Travel
Trees In Trouble
87
Ticky Tacky
Sylvan Serenade
Shades Of Meaning
Plant Personification
Sounds Abound
Living Labels
To Be A Tree
Tree Factory
Forest For The Trees
Tree Lifecycle
27
1
3
Seed Dispersal
Plant Growth And Temperature
How Plants Grow
Have Seeds, Will Travel
Water We Doing?
Food Mobile
Water You Know
A Field, A Forest And A Stream
Water Wonders
Fire
Woven History
Pioneers In The Wilderness
Succession On The School
Ground
Climax Forest
A Field, A Forest And A Stream
Living With Fire
Impact Statement
Christmas Tree And The
Environment
ORV’s And Us
Changing Land Values
Planning The Ideal Community
Mining And Renewable Resources
We Can Work It Out
A Treasure Hunt For Energy
Can You Dig It?
Energy Sleuths
Adopt A Tree
Living Labels
Expanding Sensory Perception
The Closer You Look
Get in Touch With Trees
Tree Factory
43
77
17
12
14
62
63
69
79
63
72
41
43
46
62
58
74
21
63
57
74
48
81
67
72
79
48
55
51
37
66
57
39
1
14
7
5
What Shall I Use To Build It?
Snow Fence Demonstration
Forest Consequences
Water You Know
Snow Use
Water Wonders
89
58
What’s In Soil
The Touchy-Feely Box
Build An Ecosystem
54
11
82
48
44
82
34
Signs
Soil Studies
4
21
61
2
63
68
45
44
60
Where Are The Cedars Of
Lebanon?
How Do You Bury A Pile Of Dirt?
Get In Touch With Trees
Soil Stories
Solar/ Wind Energy Demo
Time Capsule
Trail
Tree Cross Section
Tree Plantation
Tree Seedling Nursery
Weather Station
Woodland Clearing,
Regenerating Area
15
64
2
70
Can You Dig It?
Mining And Renewable Resources
A Treasure Hunt For Energy
Dome Homes
Energy Sleuths
57
Woven History
An Environmental Exchange Box
A Letter From Archy
Environmental Editorials
Environmental Advertising
34
A Cassette Tour Of Neighborhood
Trees
ORV’s And Us
Healthy And Unhealthy
Trees In Trouble
Woodwork
Tree Cookies
Loose Knots And Tight Knots
Christmas Trees And The
Environment
Forest Products All Around Us
Nature’s Air Conditioners
Christmas Trees, After Christmas
Interview A Board Worker
51
66
86
39
23
30
31
5
79
76
77
20
37
72
8
7
71
21
Branching Out
City Trees
A Tree From An Acorn Grows
Growth Graph
Bursting Buds
Where To Plant
Plant A Tree
How Plants Grow
Germinating Giants
Name That Tree
15
49
50
51
59
Rainfall And The Forest
Rain Reasons
73
A Day In The Life
The Changing Forest
Did You Notice?
Long Range --- Short Range
Are Vacant Lots Vacant?
Forest For The Trees
76
47
65
35
31
41
66
68
29
22
56
40
47
78
95
47
69
83