Dike propagation in volcanic edifices: Overview and possible

TECTO-124367; No of Pages 11
Tectonophysics xxx (2008) xxx–xxx
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s e v i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / t e c t o
Dike propagation in volcanic edifices: Overview and possible developments
V. Acocella a,⁎, M. Neri b,1
Dip. Scienze Geologiche Roma Tre. Largo S.L. Murialdo 1, 00146, Roma, Italy
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Piazza Roma 2, 95123, Catania, Italy
a r t i c l e
i n f o
Article history:
Received 27 December 2007
Received in revised form 16 September 2008
Accepted 2 October 2008
Available online xxxx
Tectonic setting
a b s t r a c t
Eruptions are fed by dikes; therefore, better knowledge of dike propagation is necessary to improve our
understanding of how magma is transferred and extruded at volcanoes. This study presents an overview of
dike patterns and the factors controlling dike propagation within volcanic edifices. Largely based on
published data, three main types of dikes (regional, circumferential and radial) are illustrated and discussed.
Dike pattern data from 25 volcanic edifices in different settings are compared to derive semi-quantitative
relationships between the topography (relief, shape, height, and presence of sector collapses) of the volcano,
tectonic setting (presence of a regional stress field), and mean composition (SiO2 content). The overview
demonstrates how dike propagation in a volcano is not a random process; rather, it depends from the
following factors (listed in order of importance): the presence of relief, the shape of the edifice and regional
tectonic control. We find that taller volcanoes develop longer radial dikes, whose (mainly lateral)
propagation is independent of the composition of magma or the aspect ratio of the edifice. Future research,
starting from these preliminary evaluations, should be devoted to identifying dike propagation paths and
likely locations of vent formation at specific volcanoes, to better aid hazards assessment.
© 2008 Published by Elsevier B.V.
1. Introduction
Understanding magma ascent and extrusion at volcanoes is a crucial
step to minimizing hazards associated with volcanic unrest. Eruptions are
often fed by dikes, as observed at numerous active volcanoes worldwide,
for example, Afar (Sigmundsson, 2006), Cerro Negro (Nicaragua; La
Femina et al., 2004), Miyakejima (Japan; Ueda et al., 2005), Iwate (Japan;
Sato and Hamaguchi, 2006), Kilauea (Hawaii; Desmarais and Segall,
2007), Montserrat (Lesser Antilles; Mattioli et al., 1998), Piton de la
Fournaise (Reunion Island; Cayol and Cornet, 1998), Nyiragongo (Congo;
Komorowski et al., 2002), Etna (Italy; Bousquet and Lanzafame, 2001),
and Stromboli (Italy; Acocella et al., 2006a). In many of these episodes,
dikes ruptured the surface close to urban areas, feeding eruptive vents
and sometimes even causing landslides and tsunamis (Komorowski et al.,
2002; Billi et al., 2003; Behncke et al., 2005; Calvari et al., 2005). These
and other examples illustrate that to improve our understanding of
magma transport and eruption, and associated consequences, it is
fundamental to advance knowledge of dike propagation.
The mechanisms of dike propagation in the crust have been the
subject of many theoretical studies in the past several decades (e.g.,
Anderson, 1936; Ode, 1957; Pollard, 1973; Pollard and Muller, 1976;
Delaney et al., 1986). The orientation of a dike is controlled by the
⁎ Corresponding author. Tel.: +39 06 57338043; fax: +39 06 57338201.
E-mail addresses: [email protected] (V. Acocella), [email protected] (M. Neri).
Tel.: +39 095 7165858; fax: +39 095 435801.
orientation of the principal stresses, with the dike orthogonal to the
least compressive stress in the crust (e.g. Nakamura, 1977; Rubin and
Pollard, 1988). This relation is best demonstrated in absence of
prominent relief, as in flat rift zones along divergent plate boundaries
(Iceland, Afar). In such locations dike propagation may be heavily
influenced by stiffness contrasts within the host rock (Gudmundsson,
2006, and references therein).
The presence of a volcanic edifice, with some relief, complicates
this simple dependence on the regional tectonic setting, introducing
significant deviations from expected patterns. Loading by the edifice
focuses the stresses above the center of a magma chamber, promoting
the development of a central vent system (Pinel and Jaupart, 2003). In
addition, dikes and/or fissure eruptions at many volcanic edifices
show characteristic radial and/or circumferential patterns (e.g.
Chadwick and Howard, 1991; Takada, 1997), suggesting control by a
local stress field imposed by a pressurized magma reservoir and/or the
load of the edifice. In particular, the latter effect becomes predominant
with increasing volcano height (McGuire and Pullen, 1989). The
location and orientation of the dikes may be also controlled by the
shape of the edifice (Fiske and Jackson, 1972), or the presence of scarps
along the volcano slopes, commonly produced by sector collapses (e.g.
McGuire and Pullen, 1989; Tibaldi, 2003; Walter et al., 2005a).
Therefore, while dike propagation in areas without prominent relief
is usually controlled by regional tectonism, the propagation of dikes in
volcanic edifices seems to depend upon the shape and topography of
the edifice, as well as the stress conditions within shallow magma
0040-1951/$ – see front matter © 2008 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Please cite this article as: Acocella, V., Neri, M., Dike propagation in volcanic edifices: Overview and possible developments, Tectonophysics
(2008), doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2008.10.002
V. Acocella, M. Neri / Tectonophysics xxx (2008) xxx–xxx
This study aims at producing an overview of the factors controlling
the propagation of dikes within volcanic edifices. Because eruptive
fissures and rift zones on volcanic edifices are dike-fed, we include
data from such activity in our analysis. Largely based on published
data, the types of dikes and eruptive fissures in volcanic edifices are
discussed to derive general, semi-quantitative insights into dike
behavior as a function of the edifice shape, topography, structural
setting, and volcano composition.
2. Overview of dike patterns and propagation
2.1. Type of dikes within a volcanic edifice and related conditions of
The most common patterns of dikes (or eruptive fissures) in
volcanic regions can be largely categorized as belonging to one of
three classes: regional, circumferential and radial. While regional
dikes result from the influence of a far-field (i.e. regional) stress,
circumferential and radial dikes result from a near-field (or local)
stress imposed by the presence of a pressurized magma reservoir and/
or the load of the volcano. The main features of each of these configurations are summarized below.
2.1.1. Regional dikes
Regional dikes within volcanic edifices are aligned with the
regional tectonic stress field, that is, perpendicular to the least
compressive stress. Several volcanoes are characterized by a dike
complex consistent with such a far-field stress. Most of these are
located along the axis of extensional rift zones, in oceanic (Askja and
Krafla, in Iceland; Gudmundsson and Nilsen, 2006, and references
therein) and continental settings (Erta Ale, Ale Bagu, Dabbahu and
Gabho, in Afar, Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira, in Congo, Tongariro, in
New Zealand, early stage of Etna, in Italy; Barberi and Varet, 1970;
Nairn et al., 1998; Komorowski et al., 2002; Corsaro et al., 2002;
Wright et al., 2006). Common features are the development of focused
and clear rift zones, usually departing from the volcano summit and
parallel to the regional extensional structures (Fig. 1a). The regional
dikes within volcanic edifices in rift zones are usually subvertical to
steeply dipping, several meters thick (Gudmundsson, 1998); at times,
as Hawaii, dikes may constitute more of 50% of the rift zone (Walker,
1987, and references therein). The development of regionallycontrolled rift zones is also common to arc stratovolcanoes in
compressional settings, such as Reventador, Ecuador (Tibaldi, 2005);
Izu-Oshima (Ida, 1995; Fig. 1b); Iwate and Chokai, Japan (Nakano and
Tsuchiya, 1992; Ida, 1995; Sato and Hamaguchi, 2006); and Batur,
Indonesia (Newhall and Dzurisin, 1988, and references therein). The
main difference between regional dike patterns in volcanic edifices in
extensional and compressional settings lies in the fact that the former
may often propagate beyond the base of the volcano, reaching
considerable distances along the rift. This is the case for regional dikes
formed in volcanoes along the divergent plate boundaries in Iceland
and the Afro-Arabian Rift (Gudmundsson, 1995; Ebinger and Casey,
2001; Sigmundsson, 2006).
Independent from their tectonic setting, regional dikes within
volcanic edifices may undergo vertical (Sato and Hamaguchi, 2006) or
lateral (Wright et al., 2006; Paquet et al., 2007, and references therein)
propagation. Lateral propagation usually occurs when the magma
reaches the level of neutral buoyancy within the host rock (Rubin and
Pollard,1987; Morita et al., 2006), which, for most magmas, occurs when
the host rock density is between 2300 and 2700 kg/m3 (Pinel and
Jaupart, 2000). The load of a volcanic edifice enhances lateral propagation of regional dikes beneath the volcano (Pinel and Jaupart, 2004),
which may partly explain the occurrence of regional, laterally
propagating dikes in central volcanoes and within related magmatic
segments along the axis of oceanic (Gudmundsson, 1995) and
continental (Ebinger and Casey, 2001; Wright et al., 2006; Sigmundsson,
2006) rifts.
2.1.2. Circumferential dikes
Circumferential dikes form arcuate patterns concentric to the
volcanic edifice, especially at summit craters and calderas, where the
dikes may be also associated with pre-existing faults or fractures.
Fig. 1. a) Focused regional dike-fed fissures along the rift zones of Erta Ale volcano, Afar (after Acocella, 2006). b) Dispersed regional dike-fed fissures and vents at Izu-Oshima, Japan
(after Ida, 1995).
Please cite this article as: Acocella, V., Neri, M., Dike propagation in volcanic edifices: Overview and possible developments, Tectonophysics
(2008), doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2008.10.002
V. Acocella, M. Neri / Tectonophysics xxx (2008) xxx–xxx
Circumferential dikes have been mostly reported along the sides of
several calderas, including Medicine Lake (California; Donnelly-Nolan,
1990) Kilauea (Hawaii; Neal and Lockwood, 2003), Suswa (Kenya;
Skilling, 1993, and references therein) and Galàpagos Islands (Ecuador; Chadwick and Howard, 1991). In particular, the best-known examples of circumferential dikes at active volcanoes are found around
the calderas of shield volcanoes in the western Galápagos archipelago,
especially Cerro Azul, Darwin, Fernandina, and Wolf (Fig. 2; Chadwick
and Howard, 1991). Their development may be related to overpressure
within a shallow diapir-shaped magma reservoir, which also promotes
radial dike formation on the lower flanks of the volcanoes (Chadwick
and Dieterich, 1995). An additional factor for the development of
circumferential dikes around summit calderas may be the topographic
expression of the caldera, which may re-orient the least compressive
stress radially (Munro and Rowland, 1996); a similar reorientation of
the stress trajectories has been observed at volcanoes characterized by
significant scarps, like those related to sector collapses (Fiske and
Jackson, 1972; McGuire and Pullen, 1989; Acocella and Tibaldi, 2005).
At extinct caldera complexes there is widespread evidence for the
presence of circumferential dikes lying at a deeper level within the
volcanic edifice (Yoshida, 1984; Troll et al., 2000; Kennedy and Styx,
2007), even though the nature of some of these is debated (Driscoll
et al., 2006, and references therein). These circumferential dikes
usually form above the periphery of a shallow magma chamber,
resulting from an increase (cone sheets) or decrease (ring dikes) in the
magmatic pressure (Gudmundsson, 2006, and references therein).
2.1.3. Radial dikes
This group of dikes has a characteristic radial distribution with
regard to the axis of the volcanic edifice. The radial pattern may be
isotropic, with a similar frequency of dikes in every direction, or,
more often, anisotropic, with clustering along preferred orientations.
Examples of the first group include Fernandina, Galápagos (Chadwick
and Dieterich, 1995); Summer Coon volcano, Colorado (Poland et al.,
2004, 2008); Kliuchevskoi, Kamchatka (Takada, 1997); as well as
extra-terrestrial volcanoes (Krassilnikov and Head, 2003). Examples
from the second group are more numerous, including Vesuvio, Etna,
and Stromboli, Italy (Fig. 3; Acocella and Neri, 2003; Tibaldi, 2003;
Acocella et al., 2006b); Spanish Peaks, Colorado (Ode, 1957); Hekla,
Iceland (Gudmundsson et al., 1992, and references therein); Fuji and
Sakurajima, Japan (Takada, 1997, and references therein; Takada et al.,
2007); and Erta Ale, Ethiopia (Acocella, 2006). The rift zone passing
through the summit of some of these volcanoes (Hekla, Erta Ale),
Fig. 2. Circumferential and radial eruptive fissures (solid lines) at Fernandina volcano,
even though associated to a regional stress field, resembles an endmember type of highly-clustered radial configuration of dikes (see
also Section 3.1). The anisotropic distribution of radial dikes may
result, in general, from the influence of a regional stress field which
orients most dikes perpendicular to the least compressive stress
(Nakamura, 1977). Anisotropic distributions of radial dikes are also
found at volcanoes in intraplate settings, in absence of a dominant
regional stress field. In such locations, the development of rift zones
may be controlled by the stability of the flank of the volcano and/or
the presence of nearby volcanoes (e.g. Fiske and Jackson, 1972;
Walter et al., 2006). Examples include Kilauea and Mauna Loa,
Hawai'i (Decker, 1987), Fogo, Capo Verde (Day et al., 1999), and Piton
the La Fournaise (Carter et al., 2007, and references therein). In the
Canarian archipelago (Marinoni and Gudmundsson, 2000; Acosta
et al., 2003, and references therein; Walter, 2003), radial dikes cluster
in rift zones that form triple-arms spaced 120° apart and focused on
the summit conduit. This configuration is interpreted to result from
the shallow emplacement of magma below the volcano summit and/
or the growth of nearby spreading volcanoes, promoting connecting
rift zones (Walter, 2003, and references therein).
Two mechanisms favour the development of radial dikes in a
volcano. The first is the distribution of the gravitational stresses due to
the load of the edifice. This controls the trajectories of the maximum
compressive stress, which becomes subparallel to the slope of the
volcano (Dieterich, 1988), while the minimum compressive stress is
tangential (Fig. 4a; Acocella and Tibaldi, 2005, and references therein).
The larger and taller the volcano, therefore, the stronger is the
maximum local stress (McGuire and Pullen, 1989). Locally, the propagation path of radial dikes may be controlled by the presence of
significant scarps or other topographic irregularities on the volcano
flanks. In this case, the trajectory of the maximum compressive stress
at the scarp margin varies, becoming subparallel to the scarp; the
minimum compressive stress becomes perpendicular to the direction
of the scarp (Fig. 4b). As a result, dikes tend to propagate parallel to the
major scarps on volcanoes, as at Stromboli and Etna, Italy (McGuire
and Pullen, 1989; Ferrari et al., 1991; Tibaldi, 2003; Neri et al., 2004;
Acocella and Tibaldi, 2005; Rust et al., 2005; Walter et al., 2005b; Neri
and Acocella, 2006; Neri et al., 2007). Similarly, elongated volcanic
edifices will be characterized by a maximum compressive stress
oriented parallel to the major axis of the edifice, these conditions will
result in the development of dikes oriented parallel to the elongation
of the edifice (Fig. 4c; Fiske and Jackson, 1972). Notable examples of
rift zones parallel to the major elongation of the edifice include Mauna
Loa and Kilauea volcanoes, Hawai'i (Decker, 1987), even though the
shape of both volcanoes may be controlled by lateral instability. The
second mechanism controlling the development of radial dikes is
radially-oriented maximum compressive stress due to pressurization
in a subsurface magma reservoir (Knopf, 1936; Ode, 1957). In this case,
radial dikes form to accommodate the enlargement of the circumference of the edifice with relief, due to volcano inflation (Acocella et al.,
2001, and references therein).
Radial dikes may propagate vertically or laterally from the
volcano's central conduit along the slope of the volcano. The mechanism of lateral propagation of dikes from the summit of a volcanic
edifice remains poorly understood. Observational evidence
suggests that propagation direction may depend in part on the
closure/opening of the central conduit (Fig. 5; Acocella et al., 2006b).
When the central conduit is closed or solidified, magma is emplaced in
the edifice by means of vertically propagating dikes; in the upper part
of the edifice, along the frozen conduit, these may follow gravitational
stresses, becoming radial. Conversely, the lateral propagation of dikes
is widespread, but not exclusive (Acocella and Neri, 2003; Lanzafame
et al., 2003), in volcanoes characterized by an open summit conduit.
Here, magma in the upper part of the conduit degasses and,
becoming denser, intrudes laterally, propagating downslope. Notable
examples of volcanoes with such a behaviour include Tenerife
Please cite this article as: Acocella, V., Neri, M., Dike propagation in volcanic edifices: Overview and possible developments, Tectonophysics
(2008), doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2008.10.002
V. Acocella, M. Neri / Tectonophysics xxx (2008) xxx–xxx
Fig. 3. Examples of radial eruptive fissures. a) Etna, period 1900–2005; inset b) shows fissure orientation; inset c) shows the three main rift zones. d) Vesuvio, period 1631–1944; inset e shows fissure orientation.
Please cite this article as: Acocella, V., Neri, M., Dike propagation in volcanic edifices: Overview and possible developments, Tectonophysics
(2008), doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2008.10.002
V. Acocella, M. Neri / Tectonophysics xxx (2008) xxx–xxx
Fig. 4. Most common shapes for volcanic edifices with relief (2D, map view) and related local stress conditions (σHMAX = maximum horizontal stress; σHmin = minimum horizontal
stress). (a) cone, (b) cone with sector collapse, (c) ridge. The maximum horizontal stress is radial in a cone, slightly diverging in a cone with sector collapse and elongated in a ridge.
(Soriano et al., 2008), Etna (Acocella and Neri, 2003), Stromboli
(Acocella et al., 2006a) and Vesuvio (between 1631 and 1944; Acocella
et al., 2006b). Estimates from Etna and Vesuvio suggest that the mean
along-strike top surface of a laterally propagating dike has a moderate
downslope dip, on the order of 10°–15° (Acocella et al., 2006c, and
references therein). This mechanism of emplacement of radial dikes is
usually limited to the upper part of the edifice, below its slope.
Therefore, the specific conditions controlling it (i.e. opening/closure of
the conduit) need not to be the same as those of the radial dikes
propagating at the base of the volcanic edifice, as for example observed
at Summer Coon Volcano (Poland et al., 2008).
2.2. What controls dike propagation in different volcanic edifices
Fig. 5. Dikes mostly propagate laterally (a) when the summit conduit is open, and the
magma has already degassed, and vertically (b) when the conduit is closed.
The features discussed above establish general guidelines for dike
propagation in volcanic edifices. The relations between these features
(e.g., topography, regional vs. local stress field) and other factors (e.g.,
shape of the volcano, composition of magma) in the context of dike
propagation has not yet been investigated in detail. Here, we aim to
minimizing this gap, with a semi-quantitative analysis of the relations
between various factors related to dike emplacement. We consider
several features, listed in Table 1, related to dike emplacement at 25
active volcanic centers. Those features include: 1) height (H1) to the
base of the edifice, including any submerged portion. 2) Aspect ratio
(A) of the edifice (where A = height/width). 3) Eccentricity (E) of the
edifice (where E = minimum elongation/maximum elongation).
4) Mean SiO2 content of the erupted magmas, which is expected to
approximate, to a first order, average magma viscosity. It is possible
that dikes have far from average compositions, but this possibility has
not been taken into account in this study. 5) Maximum length (L)
reached by the dikes or, more commonly, the eruptive fissures in a
volcano; in both cases, it is possible that the real length of the dike
may be larger than that of its visible part, so this length has to
be considered as minimum value. 6) Difference in height (Hd)
between the highest and lowest part of the longest fissure or
outcropping dike; this value refers to the subaerial part of the dike
or fissure and thus may significantly differ from H1. 7) Frequency of
Please cite this article as: Acocella, V., Neri, M., Dike propagation in volcanic edifices: Overview and possible developments, Tectonophysics
(2008), doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2008.10.002
V. Acocella, M. Neri / Tectonophysics xxx (2008) xxx–xxx
Table 1
Mean features which may be related to the dike patterns of selected volcanoes
Hekla (Iceland)
Krafla (Iceland)
Erta Ale (Ethiopia)
Nyamuragira (Congo)
Nyiragongo (Congo)
Etna (Italy)
Vesuvio (Italy)
Stromboli (Italy)
Kliuchevskoi (Russia)
Terevaka (Chile)
Lonquimay (Chile)
Villarrica (Chile)
Fuji (Japan)
Sakurajima (Japan)
Izu-Oshima (Japan)
Miyake (Japan)
Chokai (Japan)
Fernandina (Galapagos)
Wolf (Galapagos)
Darwin (Galapagos)
Fogo (Capo Verde)
Piton (Reunion)
Kilauea (Hawaii)
Mauna Loa (Hawaii)
Tenerife (main; Spain)
48 ± 2
48 ± 3
49 ± 1
45 ± 2
40 ± 8
50 ± 3
57 ± 5
52 ± 1
51 ± 3
58 ± 5
53 ± 5
58 ± 8
62 ± 5
10, 27
1, 12, 24
21, 32
17, 26
9, 10
22, 34
10, 23, 31
6, 10
14, 15
20, 34
4, 7
4, 7
4, 16
13, 18
8, 10, 30
2, 3, 10, 19
2, 3, 10
11, 29
53 ± 3
58 ± 5
48 ± 2
48 ± 2
48 ± 2
42 ± 2
48 ± 3
48 ± 2
49 ± 2
50 ± 7
H1 = total height to the base of the edifice (including any portion below sea level); A = aspect ratio of edifice (where A = height/width); E = eccentricity of edifice (where E = minimum
elongation/maximum elongation); L = maximum length reached by the dikes or eruptive fissures; Hd = difference in height between the highest and lowest subaerial parts of the
longest fissure or outcropping dike; RT = frequency of the radial vs. circumferential dikes or fissures (where RT = number of radial dikes / number of radial + circumferential dikes);
RR = frequency of regional dikes vs. radial + circumferential dikes (where RR = number of regional dikes / number of regional + radial + circumferential dikes). (data from: (1) Barberi
et al., 1980; (2) Holcomb, 1987; (3) Lockwood and Lipman, 1987; (4) Chadwick and Howard, 1991; (5) Hayashi et al., 1992; (6) Ida, 1995; (7) Munro and Rowland 1996; (8) Albarède
et al., 1997; (9) Ozerov et al., 1997; (10) Takada, 1997; (11) Ablay et al., 1998; (12) Barrat et al., 1998; (13) Day et al., 1999, and references therein; (14) Amma-Miyasaka and Nakagawa,
2002; (15) Geshi et al., 2002; (16) Naumann et al., 2002; (17) Acocella and Neri, 2003; (18) Doucelance et al., 2003; (19) Thornber et al., 2003; (20) Kondo et al., 2004; (21) Platz et al.,
2004; (22) Witter et al., 2004; (23) Yamamoto et al., 2005; (24) Acocella, 2006; (25) Acocella et al., 2006b; (26) Allard et al., 2006, and references therein; (27) Gudmundsson and
Nilsen, 2006; (28) Vezzoli and Acocella, 2006; (29) Carracedo et al., 2007; (30) Carter et al., 2007, and references therein; (31) Takada et al., 2007; (32) Tedesco et al., 2007, and
references therein; (33) Corazzato et al., 2008 and (34) Nakamura, 1977). Asterisk refers to values of length of dikes or fissures in portions of the volcano least affected by flank slip.
the radial vs. circumferential dikes or fissures in a volcano, designated
RT (where RT = number of radial dikes/number of radial + circumferential
dikes). 8) Frequency of regional dikes vs. radial+ circumferential dikes
in a volcano, designated RR (where RR= number of regional dikes/
number of regional + radial + circumferential dikes). The 25 active
volcanoes have been selected based on availability of data (from
previously published studies), variability of edifice type (e.g., calderas,
shield volcanoes, composite volcanoes), and tectonic setting (e.g.,
regional extension, regional compression, hot spots). The general
relations between these features are summarized in Fig. 6.
The distribution of the RR values for the selected volcanoes shows a
cluster at RR = 0, where radial or circumferential systems are dominant
and regional dikes are absent (Fig. 6a). These volcanoes are ocean island
shields related to hot spot activity and away from plate boundaries with
strong regional stress fields. Another at RR ∼ 0.5 represents stratovolcanoes with similar proportions of local- and regional-controlled dikes
or fissures. A third cluster of data, approaching RR = 1, corresponds to
shield volcanoes along the axis of oceanic rifts, characterized by a strong
regional control on dike emplacement. The histogram shown in Fig. 6a
therefore indicates that the regional setting influences the dike pattern
of a volcano with different degrees of intensity.
The distribution of RT values for the selected volcanoes suggests
that volcanic edifices are largely dominated, at surface, by dikes or
fissures with a radial attitude (RT = 1; Fig. 6b). A minor number of
volcanoes have a significant component of circumferential dikes or
fissures, but RT values are never lower than 0.5. Fig. 6b thus confirms
that circumferential dikes on the surface of active volcanoes are
unusual, in contrast to observations of dike patterns below the surface
(see Section 2.1.2). The discrepancy between surface and depth dike
orientations suggests that a radial most compressive stress, induced
by the relief of the volcanic edifice, prevails at shallow depths,
inhibiting the upward propagation of circumferential dikes and/or
rotating these towards the surface.
There is a poor correlation between the degree of regional control
on dike or fissure emplacement (RR) and the eccentricity of the base of
the volcanic edifice (Fig. 6c). In fact, strongly elongated volcanic
edifices are not always controlled by regional tectonics. However,
neglecting Kilauea and Mauna Loa (arrows in Fig. 6c), whose rift zone
shapes are significantly influenced by the slip of the SE flank of Hawaii
and the topography of existing volcanoes (Fiske and Jackson, 1972;
Walter et al., 2006, and references therein), a more significant
correlation is obtained (dashed line in Fig. 6c). This relationship is
strengthened by the fact that, except for hot spot volcanoes, the
edifices are usually elongated normal to the regional minimum compressive stress. Therefore, for volcanoes that are isolated and without
major flank slip, the data suggest that there may be a general
correlation between the elongation of a volcano and the pattern of
regionally-controlled dikes.
There is also an inverse correlation between the regional tectonic
control on dike emplacement (RR) and the maximum height of a
volcano above its base (H1; Fig. 6d). Volcanoes located in hot spot
settings have not been considered in this diagram, as lacking of any
regional control. The inverse correlation suggests that taller volcanoes
are characterized by a distribution of radial dikes or fissures which
tends to be more isotropic, implying that the control of a regional
stress field fades with the size of the volcano. In general, volcanoes
taller than 3 km do not show significant evidence of regional tectonic
control on dike emplacement. Similar conclusions have been
suggested for Etna, where it has been proposed that the regional
tectonic control on dike propagation in the uppermost part of the
Please cite this article as: Acocella, V., Neri, M., Dike propagation in volcanic edifices: Overview and possible developments, Tectonophysics
(2008), doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2008.10.002
V. Acocella, M. Neri / Tectonophysics xxx (2008) xxx–xxx
Fig. 6. Relations between factors controlling dike emplacement at selected volcanoes (see Table 1). a) Distribution of RR (number of regional dikes / number of regional + radial and
circumferential dikes); b) Distribution of RT (number of radial dikes / number or radial + circumferential dikes); c) Eccentricity E of volcanoes vs. RR; d) RR of volcanoes vs. their height
H1; e) H1 of volcanoes vs. the maximum length of their dikes or fissures L; f) differential height of the fissure Hd vs. L; g) Mean SiO2 value of the magmatic products of a volcano vs L;
h) Aspect ratio A (thickness/width) of a volcano vs. L; i) A vs. Hd.
edifice is replaced by a local, topographic stress field (McGuire and
Pullen, 1989).
The development of radial dikes was analysed as a function of H1,
Hd, A and SiO2. There is a direct proportion between the maximum
length of an eruptive fissure or dike (L) and the total height of the
volcano (Fig. 6e). The association of longer fissures or dikes with taller
volcanoes suggests topographic control on dike propagation. Similar
results are suggested by Fig. 6f, which indicates a direct proportionality between L and the differential vertical height of the fissure or
dike. The behaviour may be associated with dikes propagating
laterally downslope, from the summit of an open conduit. In fact, it
is expected that the shallower the dike separates from the central
conduit, the higher its potential energy and propagation force will be;
therefore the dike will propagate laterally a greater distance. There is
Please cite this article as: Acocella, V., Neri, M., Dike propagation in volcanic edifices: Overview and possible developments, Tectonophysics
(2008), doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2008.10.002
V. Acocella, M. Neri / Tectonophysics xxx (2008) xxx–xxx
clear proof of such lateral propagation of dikes only at ∼30% of the
considered volcanoes (Table 1), so further evidence is needed to
generalize such behaviour.
The correlation between the maximum length of an eruptive
fissure or dike (L) and the SiO2 content of the related magma (Fig. 6g)
is poor, indicating that the composition and/or viscosity of the magma
does not significantly limit dike propagation. This is in agreement with
recent data from Stromboli, showing that the petrochemical features
of the magma, including viscosity, have a very low influence on the
geometry of dike propagation (Corazzato et al., 2008).
There is also no correlation between the maximum length of an
eruptive fissure or dike (L) and the aspect ratio of the volcanic edifice
(A; Fig. 6h). Apparently, the dip of the slope of the volcano, related to
the aspect ratio of the edifice, does not influence dike propagation.
Finally, there is a direct proportionality between the aspect ratio of
the volcanic edifice (A) and the differential vertical height of the
eruptive fissure (Hd; Fig. 6i). The result implies that steeper volcanoes
are also associated with eruptive fissures with larger difference in
height; therefore, even though the length of the dike is not controlled
by the steepness of the volcano (Fig. 6h), the drop in altitude of the
dike may depend from the dip of the slope of the volcano.
3. Discussion
3.1. General features of dike propagation
The overview above indicates that the propagation path followed by
dikes within a volcanic edifice is influenced by several factors. More than
one of these factors may act simultaneously, producing complex dike
patterns, and the role of each factor on dike propagation is summarized
in Fig. 7. Below, we consider each factor independently, as end-member;
however, corresponding examples are not always found in nature, given
the complex interactions between the factors or the specificity of some
conditions. Examples given (italic in Fig. 7) are supposed to provide the
best available approximation, even though the dike patterns at those
volcanoes may result from more than a single mechanism.
The most important first-order control on dike propagation within
an edifice is topographic relief. Topography always introduces a local,
gravitational stress field which is superimposed over other local (e.g.,
induced by a shallow magma reservoir) or regional stress field. The
general consequence of significant topography is the development of a
radial (more or less isotropic) dike pattern. The lack of topographic
relief may lead to circumferential and/or regional dike patterns.
Edifices without significant relief may develop subparallel dike
swarms consistent with the regional tectonic trend, as exemplified at
Krafla, Iceland. In absence of a regional stress field, the dike pattern may be
controlled by the presence of topographic irregularities, such as calderas;
circumferential dike systems may form at the periphery of the caldera. To
our knowledge, there is not any particular example of active volcano with
exposed circumferential dikes related to the lack of relief and regional
stress field. Another possible control on dike propagation is that induced
by a shallow magma reservoir; circumferential dikes are still mostly
expected to form. Underpressure conditions within the reservoir will
generate ring dikes, whereas overpressure conditions will generate cone
sheets (Anderson, 1936; Phillips, 1974). Again, we are not aware of any
clear dike pattern resulting from a magma chamber and the absence of
topographic relief and a regional stress field in an active volcano. Therefore, these conditions, even though feasible, remain largely theoretical.
Edifices with topographic relief are characterized by a radial most
compressive stress and will be dominated by radial dikes. Any departure
Fig. 7. Main features, seen as end-members, controlling dike patterns at volcanoes. Dike patterns at given volcanoes result from the features listed in the upper part of the figure, in
order of importance. Right side shows schematic map view of typical dike patterns (with relief = grey; without relief = white).
Please cite this article as: Acocella, V., Neri, M., Dike propagation in volcanic edifices: Overview and possible developments, Tectonophysics
(2008), doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2008.10.002
V. Acocella, M. Neri / Tectonophysics xxx (2008) xxx–xxx
from an isotropic radial pattern and clustering of the dikes along
preferred orientations depends upon the shape of the edifice and, to a
lesser extent, the regional stress field. If a sector collapse scar or other
major scarp is present, radial dikes will partly focus around and parallel
the relief, as observed at the Sciara del Fuoco flank collapse at Stromboli
and the Valle del Bove at Etna (McGuire and Pullen, 1989; Acocella and
Tibaldi, 2005).
In the case of subcircular or elongated edifices, the dike pattern will
depend upon the presence or absence of a regional stress field. Without
a regional stress field, dikes follow the major axis of the edifice, as at
Kilauea and Mauna Loa, or develop characteristic triple configurations
at 120°, as at Tenerife. With a regional stress field, elongated volcanoes
develop dikes focused along preferred regional orientations (as at Erta
Ale, Afar, or Hekla, Iceland) or simply dike swarms that parallel the
most compressive stress, as at Izu-Oshima (Fig. 1). The first situation
can be interpreted as an end-member type represented by a highly
asymmetric radial configuration of dikes, focused along a direction.
The second situation, where the dikes are more dispersed, regards the
emplacement of non-radial dike swarms. The development of one
configuration (focused) or the other (dispersed) may depend from the
intensity of the regional stress. At oceanic and continental divergent
plate boundaries (exemplified by Erta Ale and Hekla), extensional
stress focuses strain on the axis of the rift, where volcanoes are usually
located. Extension is therefore restricted to a narrow axial zone passing
through the volcano summit. Conversely, at arc or back-arc settings (for
example, at Izu-Oshima; Takada, 1997), weaker tectonic extension
results in more dispersed extensional structures, forming wider rift
zones (Macdonald, 1998, and references therein). As a consequence,
dike swarms may be found throughout the volcanic edifice and not
restricted to the axial zone of the volcano.
Similar to elongated edifices, the dike pattern at subcircular edifices
also depends upon the presence or absence of a regional stress field.
Without any regional stress field, the dikes follow a radial path, as at
Fogo (Capo Verde). With a regional stress field, the dike pattern may
also depend upon the height of the edifice. Dike propagation at short
volcanoes may be still partly influenced by a far-field stress, developing
radial patterns with a clustering along directions parallel to the
regional most compressive stress (for example, Nyamuragira, Nyiragongo, and Miyakejima). Dike propagation at taller volcanoes is less
influenced by a regional stress field, displaying a more (though seldom
fully) isotropic radial pattern (examples include Etna, Fuji and
Kliuchevskoi). The boundary that defines the relation between the
height of a volcano and any anisotropy of the pattern of its radial dikes
is not sharp, as several volcanoes (e.g., Vesuvio and Sakurajima),
display intermediate values of H1 and RR.
The final dike pattern on a volcano may also depend upon the
superimposition of different evolutionary stages of the edifice. In fact,
the development of the main rift zones may be also due to lateral
collapses or stress variations (Walter et al., 2005a; Tibaldi et al., 2006;
Corazzato et al., 2008, and references therein).
The dike patterns described above may be more or less
pronounced depending upon the length reached by the dikes. As
introduced above, the most important parameter controlling the
extent of dike propagation is probably the height of the edifice. Other
factors, such as the composition of magma or the aspect ratio of the
edifice, have moderate or negligible influence (Fig. 6). The comparison
with known active cases (Hawaii, Tenerife, Etna, Vesuvio, Stromboli)
suggests that these conditions may significantly apply to laterally
propagating dikes. This common process of lateral dike propagation
may be related to the opening of the central conduit, even though a
more advanced study is needed (Acocella et al., 2006b).
important controlling parameters on dike propagation. Studies that
account for dike emplacement and eruption are essential in any
project concerning hazard mitigation at active volcanoes. In fact,
many volcanic eruptions are fed by dikes, and dike-fed vents may
develop at significant distances from the summit of a volcano.
Therefore, understanding the controls on dike propagation is crucial
to predict where a vent may develop and what hazards may result.
On these premises, we suggest that future research on dike
emplacement should focus on the following points. 1) A better
definition of the mechanical conditions for the lateral development
of dikes originating from the central conduit of a volcanic edifice.
Such dikes are a common feature in many types of volcano, regardless
of tectonic setting. 2) The evaluation of the potential propagation
paths of dikes at individual volcanoes. To the latter aim, the nature of
the boundary conditions of individual volcanic systems need to be
defined, including the opening or closure of the central conduit (e.g.,
Acocella et al., 2006b), the stress distribution within the volcanic
edifice (e.g., Dieterich, 1988), also as a function of its topography
(Acocella et al., 2006a), the magmatic pressure in subsurface reservoirs (e.g. Gudmundsson, 2002, 2003), the presence of central or
eccentric reservoirs (e.g. Neri et al., 2005, and references therein), the
recent eruptive history (e.g. Behncke and Neri, 2003; Behncke et al.,
2005; Allard et al., 2006), the occurrence of pre-eruptive earthquakes
(Nostro et al., 1998; Walter et al., 2005b) and the presence of layers
with different stiffness or mechanical properties (Gudmundsson,
2006, and references therein).
For example, investigations at Vesuvio, Stromboli and Etna suggest
that most of the recent dikes propagate laterally from the central
conduit, with a path largely controlled by the topography, as significant
scarps (Neri et al., 2005, and references therein; Acocella et al., 2006a,b,
c; Neri et al., 2008). These studies may constitute a starting point to try
to evaluate with more precision the future propagation paths of the
dikes as a function of different boundary conditions in these volcanoes.
More in general, the propagation paths of dikes, as well as their likely
lengths, may be estimated at a given volcano, allowing for the creation
of hazard maps with the probability of dike-fed activity in different
areas of the volcano. Such an approach may predict dike propagation at
a volcano, considering not only the distribution of the most recent
vents or fissures, but especially understanding why and under which
conditions these dikes and fissures developed.
4. Conclusions
We describe the formation of three types of dikes (regional, circumferential and radial) in relation to several factors, including volcano
topography (positive or negative relief, shape, height, sector collapses),
tectonic setting (presence of a regional stress field) and mean composition (SiO2 content). Data from 25 volcanic edifices in different
settings indicate that dike propagation depends, in order of importance,
upon the presence of any relief, the shape of the edifice, and the
presence of a regional stress field. Taller volcanoes develop longer dikes
with radial orientations, with negligible effects of the composition of
magma or the aspect ratio of the volcano. Our overview demonstrates
that the style of dike emplacement may be predicted at given volcanoes.
Future research and hazards assessments should evaluate the possible
propagation paths of dikes at specific volcanoes, as well as the role of
the boundary conditions of the system, including the opening or closure
of conduit, the regional stress trajectories within an edifice, the magmatic pressure, the recent eruptive history, the occurrence of pre-eruptive
earthquakes, and the presence of layers with different stiffness.
3.2. Implications for hazard and future research
The factors above suggest that the emplacement of dikes in a
given volcano may be predicted based on knowledge of the most
T. Yoshida and V. Zanon kindly provided useful data and information. Constructive reviews from M. Poland and A. Tibaldi significantly
improved the paper. Partly funded with DPC-INGV funds (LAVA Project).
Please cite this article as: Acocella, V., Neri, M., Dike propagation in volcanic edifices: Overview and possible developments, Tectonophysics
(2008), doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2008.10.002
V. Acocella, M. Neri / Tectonophysics xxx (2008) xxx–xxx
Ablay, G.J., Carroll, M.R., Palmer, M.R., Martí, J., Sparks, R.S.J., 1998. Basanite–phonolite
lineages of the Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex, Tenerife, Canary Islands. J. Petrol.
39, 905–936.
Acocella, V., 2006. Regional and local tectonics at Erta Ale caldera, Afar (Ethiopia).
J. Struct. Geol. 28, 1808–1820.
Acocella, V., Neri, M., 2003. What makes flank eruptions? The 2001 Etna eruption and its
possible triggering mechanisms. Bull. Volcanol. 65, 517–529. doi:10.1007/s00445-0030280-3.
Acocella, V., Tibaldi, A., 2005. Dike propagation driven by volcano collapse: a general
model tested at Stromboli, Italy. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L08308. doi:10.1029/
Acocella, V., Cifelli, F., Funiciello, R., 2001. The control of overburden thickness on
resurgent domes: insights from analogue models. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 111,
Acocella, V., Neri, M., Scarlato, P., 2006a. Understanding shallow magma emplacement
at volcanoes: orthogonal feeder dikes during the 2002–2003 Stromboli (Italy)
eruption. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L17310. doi:10.1029/2006GL026862.
Acocella, V., Porreca, M., Neri, M., Mattei, M., Funiciello, R., 2006b. Fissure eruptions at
Mount Vesuvius (Italy): insights on the shallow propagation of dikes at volcanoes.
Geology 34, 673–676. doi:10.1130/G22552.1.
Acocella, V., Porreca, M., Neri, M., Massimi, E., Mattei, M., 2006c. Propagation of dikes at
Vesuvio (Italy) and the effect of Mt. Somma. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L08301.
Acosta, J., Uchupi, E., Smith, D., Munoz, A., Herranz, P., Palomo, C., Llanes, P., Ballesteros,
M., Zee Working Group, 2003. Comparison of volcanic rifts on La Palma and El
Hierro, Canary Islands and the Island of Hawaii. Marine Geophys. Res. 24, 59–90.
Albarède, F., Luais, B., Fitton, G., Semet, M., Kaminski, E., Upton, B.G.J., Bachelery, P.,
Cheminee, J.-L., 1997. The geochemical regimes of Piton de la Fournaise volcano
(Reunion) during the last 530 000 years. J. Petrol. 38, 171–201.
Allard, P., Behncke, B., D'Amico, S., Neri, M., Gambino, S., 2006. Mount Etna 1993–2005.
Anatomy of an evolving eruptive cycle. Earth Sci. Rev. 78, 85–114. doi:10.1016/j.
Amma-Miyasaka, M., Nakagawa, M., 2002. Origin of anorthite and olivine megacrysts in
island-arc tholeiites: petrological study of 1940 and 1962 ejecta from Miyake-Jima
volcano, Izu-mariana arc. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 117, 263–283.
Anderson, E.M., 1936. The dynamics of the formation of cone-sheets, ring dykes and
cauldron subsidence. Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. 56, 128–157.
Barberi, F., Varet, J., 1970. The Erta Ale Volcanic Range (Danakil depression, northern
Afar, Ethiopia). Bull. Volcanol. 34, 848–917.
Barberi, F., Civetta, L., Varet, J., 1980. Sr isotopic composition of Afar volcanics and its
implications for mantle evolution. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 50, 247–259.
Barrat, J.A., Fourcade, S., Jahn, B.M., Chemirke, J.L., Capdevila, R., 1998. Isotope (Sr, Nd, Pb,
O) and trace-element geochemistry of volcanics from the Erta' Ale range (Ethiopia).
J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 80, 85–100.
Behncke, B., Neri, M., 2003. Cycles and trends in the recent eruptive behaviour of Mount
Etna (Italy). Can. J. Earth Sci. 40, 1405–1411. doi:10.1139/E03-052.
Behncke, B., Neri, M., Nagay, A., 2005. Lava flow hazard at Mount Etna (Italy): new data from
a GIS-based study. In Kinematics and dynamics of lava flows, edited by Manga, M.,
Ventura, G., Spec. Pap. Geol. Soc. Am., 396-13,187–205. doi:10.1130/0-8137-2396-5.189.
Billi, A., Acocella, V., Funiciello, R., Giordano, G., Lanzafame, G., Neri, M., 2003.
Mechanism for ground surface fracturing and incipient slope failure associated
with the 2001 eruption of Mt. Etna, Italy: analysis of ephemeral field data.
J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 122, 281–294.
Bousquet, J.C., Lanzafame, G., 2001. Nouvelle interprétation des fractures des éruptions
latérales de l'Etna: conséquences pour son cadre tectonique. Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr. 172,
Calvari, S., Spampinato, L., Lodato, L., Harris, A.J.L., Patrick, M.R., Dehn, J., Burton, M.R.,
Andronico, D., 2005. Chronology and complex volcanic processes during the 2002–
2003 flank eruption at Stromboli volcano (Italy) reconstructed from direct
observations and surveys with a handheld thermal camera. J. Geophys. Res. 110.
Carracedo, J.C., Rodriguez Badiola, E., Guillou, H., Paterne, M., Scaillet, S., Perez Torrado,
F.J., Paris, R., Fra-Paleo, U., Hansen, A., 2007. Eruptive and structural history of Teide
volcano and rift zones of Tenerife, Canary Islands. GSA Bull. 119, 1027–1051.
Carter, A., van Wyk de Vries, B., Kelfoun, K., Bachelery, P., Briole, P., 2007. Pits, rifts and
slumps: the summit structure of Piton de la Fournaise. Bull. Volcanol. doi:10.1007/
Cayol, V., Cornet, F.H., 1998. Three-dimensional modelling of the 1983–1984 eruption at
piton de la Fournaise Volcano, Reunion Island. J. Geophys. Res. 103, 18025–18037.
Chadwick, W.W., Howard, K.A., 1991. The pattern of circumferential and radial eruptive
fissures on the volcanoes of Fernandina and Isabela islands, Galapagos. Bull.
Volcanol. 53, 259–275.
Chadwick, J.R., Dieterich, J.H., 1995. Mechanical modeling of circumferential and radial
dike intrusion on Galapagos volcanoes. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 66, 37–52.
Corazzato, C., Francalanci, L., Menna, M., Petrone, M.C., Renzulli, A., Tibaldi, A., Vezzoli,
L., 2008. What controls sheet intrusion in volcanoes? Structure and Petrology of the
Stromboli sheet complex, Italy. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 173, 26–54.
Corsaro, R.A., Neri, M., Pompilio, M., 2002. Paleo-environmental and volcano-tectonic
evolution of the south-eastern flank of Mt. Etna during the last 225 ka inferred from
volcanic succession of the «Timpe», Acireale, Sicily. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 113,
Day, S.J., Heleno da Silva, S.I.N., Fonseca, J.F.B.D., 1999. A past giant lateral collapse and
present-day flank instability of Fogo, Cape Verde Islands. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res.
94, 191–218.
Decker, R.W., 1987. Dynamics of Hawaiian volcanoes: an overview. U.S. Geological Surv.
Prof. Pap. 1350, 997–1018.
Delaney, P.T., Pollard, D.D., Ziony, J.I., McKee, E.H., 1986. Field relations between dikes
and joints — emplacement processes and paleostress analysis. J. Geophys. Res. 91,
Desmarais, E.K., Segall, P., 2007. Transient deformation following the 30 January 1997
dike intrusion at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. Bull. Volcanol. 69, 253–363.
Dieterich, J.H., 1988. Growth and persistence of Hawaiian volcanic rift zones. J. Geophys.
Res. 93, 4258–4270.
Donnelly-Nolan, J.M., 1990. Post 11000 year volcanism at Medicine Lake volcano,
cascade Range, Northern California. J. Geophys. Res. 95, 19693–19704.
Doucelance, R., Escrig, S., Moreira, M., Gariépy, C., Kurz, M.D., 2003. Pb–Sr–He isotope
and trace element geochemistry of the Cape Verde Archipelago. Geochim.
Cosmochim. Acta 67, 3717–3733.
Driscoll, B.O., Troll, V.R., Reavy, R.J., Turner, P., 2006. The Great Eucrite intrusion of
Ardnamurchan, Scotland, reevaluating the ring-dike concept. Geology 34, 189–192.
Ebinger, C.J., Casey, M., 2001. Continental breakup in magmatic provinces: an Ethiopian
example. Geology 29, 527–530.
Ferrari, L., Garduno, V.H., Neri, M., 1991. I dicchi della Valle del Bove, Etna: un metodo
per stimare le dilatazioni di un apparato vulcanico. Mem. Soc. Geol. It. 47, 495–508.
Fiske, R.S., Jackson, E.D., 1972. Orientation and growth of Hawaiian volcanic rifts: the
effect of regional structure and gravitational stresses. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 329,
Geshi, N., Shimano, T., Chiba, T., Nakada, S., 2002. Caldera collapse during the 2000
eruption of Miyakejima volcano, Japan. Bull. Volcanol. 64, 55–68.
Gudmundsson, A., 1995. Infrastructure and mechanics of volcanic systems in Iceland.
J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 64, 1–22.
Gudmundsson, A., 1998. Magma chambers modeled as cavities explain the formation of
rift zone central volcanoes and their eruption and intrusion statistics. J. Geophys.
Res. 103, 7401–7412.
Gudmundsson, A., 2002. Emplacement and arrest of sheets and dykes in central
volcanoes. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 116, 279–298.
Gudmundsson, A., 2003. Surface stresses associated with arrested dykes in rift zones.
Bull. Volcanol. 65, 606–619.
Gudmundsson, A., 2006. How local stresses control magma-chamber ruptures, dyke
injections, and eruptions in composite volcanoes. Earth Sci. Rev. 79, 1–31.
Gudmundsson, A., Nilsen, K., 2006. Ring faults in composite volcanoes: structures,
models, and stress fields associated with their formation. J. Geol. Soc. Lond. 269,
Gudmundsson, A., Oskarsson, N., Gronvold, K., Saemundsson, K., Sigurdsson, O.,
Stefansson, R., Gislason, S.R., Einarsson, P., Brandsdottir, B., Larsen, G., Johannesson,
H., Thordarson, T., 1992. The 1991 eruption of Hekla, Iceland. Bull. Volcanol. 54,
Kennedy, B., Styx, J., 2007. Magmatic processes associated with caldera collapse at Ossipee
ring dyke, New Hampshire. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 119, 3–17. doi:10.1130/B25980.1.
Komorowski, J.C., et al., 2002. The January 2002 flank eruption of Nyiragongo volcano
(DRC): Chronology, evidence for a tectonic rift trigger and impact of lava flows on
the city of Goma. Acta Vulcanol. 14, 25–57.
Kondo, H., Tanaka, K., Mizuochi, Y., Ninomiya, A., 2004. Long-term changes in the
distribution and chemistry of middle Miocene to Quaternary volcanism in the
Chokai-Kurikoma area across the northeast Japan Arc. Island Arc 13, 18–46.
Knopf, A., 1936. Igneous geology of the Spanish Peaks region, Colorado. Geol. Soc. Am.
Bull. 68, 1727–1784.
Krassilnikov, A.S., Head, J.W., 2003. Novae on Venus: geology, classification, evolution.
J. Geophys. Res. 108, 5108. doi:10.1029/2002JE001983.
Hayashi, S., Kasahara, M., Tanaka, K., Hamaguchi, H., Zana, N., 1992. Major chemistry of
recent eruptive products from Nyamuragire volcano, Africa (1976–1989). Tectonophysics 209, 273–276.
Holcomb, R.T., 1987. Eruptive history and long-term behavior of Kilauea volcano. U.S.
Geol. Survey Prof. Pap. 1350, 261–350.
Ida, Y., 1995. Magma chamber and eruptive processes at Izu-Oshima volcano, Japan:
buoyancy control of magma migration. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 66, 53–67.
La Femina, P.C., Condor, C.B., Hill, B.E., Strauch, W., Saballos, J.A., 2004. Magma-tectonic
interactions in Nicaragua: the 1999 seismic swarm and eruption of Cerro Negro
volcano. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 137, 187–199.
Lanzafame, G., Neri, M., Acocella, V., Billi, A., Funiciello, R., Giordano, G., 2003. Structural
features of the July–August 2001 Mount Etna eruption: evidence for a complex
magmatic system. J. Geol. Soc. Lond. 160, 531–544.
Lockwood, J.P., Lipman, P.W., 1987. Holocene eruptive history of Mauna Loa volcano. U.S.
Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 1350, 509–535.
Macdonald, K.C., 1998. Linkages between faulting, volcanism, hydrothermal activity and
segmentation on fast spreading centres. In: Buck, W.R., Delaney, P.T., Karson, J.A.,
Lagabrielle, Y. (Eds.), Faulting and Magmatism at Mid-Ocean Ridges. Am. Geophys.
Un., Washington, pp. 27–58.
Marinoni, L.B., Gudmundsson, A., 2000. Dykes, faults and paleostresses in the Teno and
Anaga massifs of Tenerife (Canary Islands). J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 103, 83–103.
Mattioli, G.S., Dixon, T.H., Farina, F., Howell, E.S., Jansma, P.E., Smith, A.L., 1998. GPS
measurement of surface deformation around Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat,
from October 1995 to July 1996. Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3417–3420.
McGuire, W.J., Pullen, A.D., 1989. Location and orientation of eruptive fissures and
feeder-dykes at Mount Etna: influence of gravitational and regional stress regimes.
J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 38, 325–344.
Morita, Y., Nakao, S., Hayashi, Y., 2006. A quantitative approach to the dike intrusion
process inferred from a joint analysis of geodetic and seismological data for the
1998 earthquake swarm of the east coast of Izu Peninsula, central Japan. J. Geophys.
Res. 111, B06208. doi:10.1029/2005JB003860.
Please cite this article as: Acocella, V., Neri, M., Dike propagation in volcanic edifices: Overview and possible developments, Tectonophysics
(2008), doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2008.10.002
V. Acocella, M. Neri / Tectonophysics xxx (2008) xxx–xxx
Munro, D.C., Rowland, S.K., 1996. Caldera morphology in the western Galapagos and
implications for volcano eruptive behaviour and mechanism of caldera formation.
J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 72, 85–100.
Nakamura, K., 1977. Volcanoes as possible indicators of tectonic stress orientation:
principle and proposal. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 2, 1–16.
Nakano, S., Tsuchiya, N., 1992. Geology of the Chokaisan and Fukura district. with
geological sheet map at 1:50,000. Geol. Surv. Japan 138 pp. (in Japanese with
English abstract 7p).
Nairn, I.A., Kobayashi, T., Nakagawa, M., 1998. The ∼10 ka multiple vent pyroclastic
eruption sequence at Tongariro Volcanic Centre, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New
Zealand. Part 1. Eruptive processes during regional extension. J. Volcanol.
Geotherm. Res. 86, 19–44.
Naumann, T., Geist, D., Kurz, M., 2002. Petrology and geochemistry of Volcán Cerro Azul:
petrologic diversity among the western Galápagos volcanoes. J. Petrol. 43, 859–883.
Neal, C.A., Lockwood, J.P., 2003. Geologic map of the summit region of Kilauea Volcano,
Hawaii. USGS map MI-2759.
Neri, M., Acocella, V., 2006. The 2004–05 Etna eruption: implications for flank
deformation and structural behaviour of the volcano. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res.
158, 195–206. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2006.04.022.
Neri, M., Acocella, V., Behncke, B., 2004. The role of the Pernicana fault system in the
spreading of Mt. Etna (Italy) during the 2002–2003 eruption. Bull. Volcanol. 66,
417–430. doi:10.1007/s00445-003-0322-x.
Neri, M., Acocella, V., Behncke, B., Maiolino, V., Ursino, A., Velardita, R., 2005.
Contrasting triggering mechanisms of the 2001 and 2002–2003 eruptions of
Mount Etna (Italy). J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 144, 235–255.
Neri, M., Guglielmino, F., Rust, D., 2007. Flank instability on Mount Etna: Radon, radar
interferometry, and geodetic data from the southwestern boundary of the unstable
sector. J. Geophys. Res. 112, B04410. doi:10.1029/2006JB0047.
Neri, M., Lanzafame, G., Acocella, V., 2008. Dike emplacement and related hazard in
volcanoes with sector collapse: the Stromboli 2007 eruption. J. Geol. Soc. Lond.
in press.
Newhall, C.G., Dzurisin, D., 1988. Historical unrest at large calderas of the world. U.S.
Geological Survey. 1109 pp.
Nostro, C., Stein, R.S., Cocco, M., Belardinelli, M.E., Marzocchi, W., 1998. Two-way
coupling between Vesuvius eruptions and southern Apennine earthquakes, Italy, by
elastic stress transfer. J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24487–24504.
Ode, H., 1957. Mechanical analysis of the dike pattern of the Spanish Peaks area,
Colorado. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 68, 567–575.
Ozerov, A.Yu., Ariskin, A.A., Kyle, Ph., Bogoyavlenskaya, G.E., Karpenko, S.F., 1997.
Petrological–geochemical model for genetic relationships between basaltic and
andesitic magmatism of Klyuchevskoi and Bezymyannyi volcanoes, Kamchatka.
Petrology 5, 550–569.
Paquet, F., Dauteuil, O., Hallot, E., Moreau, F., 2007. Tectonics and magma dynamics
coupling in a dyke swarm of Iceland. J. Struct. Geol. 29, 1477–1493.
Phillips, W.J., 1974. The dynamic emplacement of cone sheets. Tectonophysics 24,
Pinel, V., Jaupart, C., 2000. the effect of edifice load on magma scent beneath a volcano.
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 358, 1515–1532.
Pinel, V., Jaupart, C., 2003. Magma chamber behavior beneath a volcanic edifice.
J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2072. doi:10.1029/2002JB001751.
Pinel, V., Jaupart, C., 2004. Magma storage and horizontal dike injection beneath a
volcanic edifice. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 221, 245–262.
Platz, T., Foley, S.F., Andrè, L., 2004. Low-pressure fractionation of the Nyitagongo
volcanic rocks, Virunga Province, D.R. Congo. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 136,
Pollard, D.D., 1973. Derivation and evaluation of a mechanical model for sheet
intrusions. Tectonophysics 19, 233–269.
Pollard, D.D., Muller, O.H., 1976. Effect of gradients in regional stress and magma
pressure on form of sheet intrusions in cross-section. J. Geophys. Res. 81, 975–984.
Poland, M.P., Fink, J.H., Tauxe, L., 2004. Patterns of magma flow in segmented silicic
dikes at Summer Coon volcano, Colorado: AMS and thin section analysis. Earth
Planet. Sci. Lett. 219, 155–169.
Poland, M.P., Moats, W.P., Fink, J.H., 2008. A model for radial dike emplacement in
composite cones based on observations from Summer Coon volcano, Colorado, USA.
Bull. Volcanol 70, 861–875. doi:10.1007/s00445-007-0175-9.
Rubin, A.M., Pollard, D.D., 1987. Origin of blade-like dikes in volcanic rift zones. U.S. Geol.
Surv. Prof. Pap. 1350, 1449–1470.
Rubin, A.M., Pollard, D.D., 1988. Dike-induced faulting in rift zones of Iceland and Afar.
Geology 16, 413–417.
Rust, D., Behncke, B., Neri, M., Ciocanel, A., 2005. Nested zones of instability in the
Mount Etna volcanic edifice, Sicily. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 155, 137–153.
Sato, M., Hamaguchi, H., 2006. Weak long-lived round deformation related to Iwate
volcanism revealed by Bayesian decomposition of strain, tilt and positioning data.
J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 155, 244–262.
Sigmundsson, F., 2006. Magma does the splits. Nature 442, 251–252.
Skilling, I.P., 1993. Incremental caldera collapse of Suswa volcano, Gregory Rift Valley,
Kenya. J. Geol. Soc. London 150, 885–896.
Soriano, C., Beamud, E., Garcés, M., 2008. Magma flow in dikes from rift zones of the basaltic
shield of Tenerife, Canary Islands: implications for the emplacement of buoyant
magma. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 173, 55–68. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.01.007.
Takada, A., 1997. Cyclic flank-vent and central-vent eruption patterns. Bull. Volcanol. 58,
Takada, A., Ishizuka, Y., Nakano, S., Yamamoto, T., Kobayashi, M., Suzuki, Y., 2007.
Characteristic and evolution inferred from eruptive fissures of Fuji volcano, Japan.
In: Aramaki, S. (Ed.), Fuji Volcano. Volcanol. Soc., Japan, Tokyo, pp. 183–202.
Tedesco, D., Vaselli, O., Papale, P., Carn, S.A., Voltaggio, M., Sawyer, G.M., Durieux, J.,
Kasereka, M., Tassi, F., 2007. January 2002 volcano-tectonic eruption of Nyiragongo
volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo. J. Geophys. Res. 112, B09202. doi:10.1029/
Tibaldi, A., 2003. Influence of cone morphology on dikes, Stromboli, Italy. J. Volcanol.
Geotherm. Res. 126, 79–95.
Tibaldi, A., 2005. Volcanism in compressional tectonic settings. Is it possible? Geophys.
Res. Lett. 32. doi:10.1029/2004GL021798.
Tibaldi, A., Bistacchi, A., Pasquare, F.A., Vezzoli, L., 2006. Extensional tectonics and
volcano lateral collapses: insights from Ollague volcano (Chile–Bolivia) and
analogue modelling. Terra Nova 18, 282–289.
Thornber, C.R., Heliker, C., Sherrod, D.R., Kauahikaua, J.P., Miklius, A., Okubo, P.G.,
Trusdell, F.A., Budahn, J.R., Ridley, W.I., Meeker, G.P., 2003. Kilauea East Rift Zone
magmatism: an episode 54 perspective. J. Petrol. 44, 1525–1559.
Troll, V.R., Emeleus, C.H., Donaldson, C.H., 2000. Caldera formation in the Rum Central
Igneous Complex, Scotland. Bull. Volcanol. 62, 301–317.
Ueda, H., Fujita, E., Ukawa, M., Yamamoto, E., Irwan, M., Kimata, F., 2005. Magma
intrusion and discharge process at the initial stage of the 2000 activity of
Miyakejima, Central Japan, inferred from tilt and GPS data. Geophys. J. Int. 161,
Vezzoli, L., Acocella, V., 2006. Geological and structural evolution of Easter Island
(Chile). Proceedings of EGU meeting, Vienna (Austria), April 2006, p. 509. Abstract
volume pag.
Walker, G.P.L., 1987. The dike complex of Koolau volcano, Oahu: internal structure of a
Hawaiian rift zone. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 1350, 961–993.
Walter, T.R., 2003. Buttressing and fractional spreading of Tenerife, an experimental
approach on the formation of rift zones. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1296. doi:10.1029/
Walter, T.R., Troll, V.R., Cailleau, B., Belousov, A., Schmincke, H.U., Amelung, F., Bogaard,
P., 2005a. Rift zone reorganization through flank instability in ocean island
volcanoes: an example from Tenerife, Canary Islands. Bull. Volcanol. 67, 281–291.
Walter, T.R., Acocella, V., Neri, M., Amelung, F., 2005b. Feedback processes between
magmatism and E-flank movement at Mt. Etna (Italy) during the 2002–2003
eruption. J. Geophys. Res. 110, B10205. doi:10.1029/2005JB003688.
Walter, T.R., Klugel, A., Munn, S., 2006. Gravitational spreading and formation of new rift
zones on overlapping volcanoes. Terra Nova 18, 26–33.
Witter, J.B., Kress, V.C., Delmelle, P., Stix, J., 2004. Volatile degassing, petrology and
magma dynamics of the Villarrica Lava Lake, Southern Chile. J. Volcanol. Geotherm.
Res. 134, 303–337.
Wright, T.J., Ebinger, C., Biggs, J., Ayele, A., Yirgu, G., Keir, D., Stork, A., 2006. Magma
maintained rift segmentation at continental rupture in the 2005 Afar dyking episode.
Nature 442, 291–294. doi:10.1038/nature04978.
Yamamoto, T., Takada, A., Ishizuka, Y., Miyaji, N., Tajima, Y., 2005. Basaltic pyroclastic
flows of Fuji volcano, Japan: characteristics of their deposits and their origin. Bull.
Volcanol. 67, 622–633.
Yoshida, T., 1984. Tertiary Ishizuchi Cauldron, Southwestern Japan Arc: formation by
ring fracture subsidence. J. Geophys. Res. 89, 8502–8510.
Please cite this article as: Acocella, V., Neri, M., Dike propagation in volcanic edifices: Overview and possible developments, Tectonophysics
(2008), doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2008.10.002