CALUMET BAKING POWDER A Popular, Efficient and Wholesome Leavening Agent By T. J. B R Y A N , Ph. D.; D. Sc. CALUMET BAKING POWDER H E healthfulness, efficiency and economy of the Combination Type of baking powder have convinced the people of the United States of the great superiority of this type of powder. More than four-fifths of the baking powder used in this country is of this type. Demands for this baking powder are being received from every country in the world. In view of these facts, we ask your indulgence for a necessary, but concise statement with reference thereto. Baking Powder is a mixture of an acid-reacting material and an alkaline-reacting material, together with starch. This mixture, when brought into con' tact with the moisture of the dough at the time of baking, produces a chemical action between the acid-reacting material and the alkaline-reacting ma' terial during which carbon dioxid is evolved. This carbon dioxid thus liberated throughout the dough produces the "aeration" or leavening of the dough. Prior to the introduction of chemical leavening agents in the form of baking powder, the leavening was secured by the use of yeast, or eggs, which were beaten into the mixture of flour and other baking ingredients, and later by the use of sour milk and baking soda. The acid of the milk per' formed the same function as the acid-reacting material now employed in commercial baking powders. About sixty years ago, increased knowledge of chemistry suggested the use of cream of tartar in lieu of sour milk, and shortly thereafter commercial baking powder appeared upon the markets composed of cream of tartar and soda mixed with starch which assisted in preventing premature chemical reaction between the acid and alkali ingredients. At about the same period, calcium acid phosphate CALUMET BAKING POWDER was suggested as an acid-reacting material and shortly thereafter such baking powders appeared consisting of calcium acid phosphate, bicarbonate of soda and starch. Both of these types of baking powder, and especially the latter, were found to be inefficient in moist climates, especially in territory where considerable time elapsed between the manufacture of the powder and its ultimate use by the consumer. This inefficiency was due to the absorption of atmospheric moisture by the baking powder. Both cream of tartar and calcium acid phosphate are known as "quick-acting" acid materials combining in chemical union with the bicarbonate of soda in the presence of moisture at normal atmospheric temperatures. Science was again called upon to produce an acid-reacting material which would offer greater resistance to atmospheric moisture and which would not unite in chemical union with the bicarbonate of soda at normal atmospheric temperatures. Anhydrous sodium aluminum sulphate was the first slow-acting acid-reacting material suggested, known as sodium aluminum sulphate and this is the only aluminum compound used in baking powder in the United States for the last forty years. After the introduction of baking powder prepared with sodium aluminum sulphate, the consumers and the baking trade soon learned that because of the ability of this new powder to remain fresh and efficient under difficult climatic conditions existing during storage and transportation, and because of its efficiency in leavening properties, it was superior to the quick-acting baking powders containing cream of tartar or calcium acid phosphate, and its sale greatly increased. This increase has been continuous and at the present time fully 80% of CALUMET BAKING POWDER the baking powders sold in the United States contain sodium aluminum sulphate. Early in the production of this type of baking powder, it was found that a combination of calcium acid phosphate and sodium aluminum sulphate produced a baking powder of qualities superior to any other. This superiority was due to the double acting character of the powder. The calcium acid phosphate caused an evolution of gas in the cold batter while the sodium aluminum sulphate acted very slowly in the cold and its action was completed only in the heat of the oven. Thus the evolution of leavening gas was continuous from the moment the moisture of the dough came in contact with the powder until completed by the heat of the oven. This gave a more even and uniform leavening to the cake or bread than occurred in either the straight sodium aluminum sulphate powders which acted only when heated in the oven and superior to the straight phosphate and cream of tartar powders which too quickly gave off their leavening gas in the dough before heating. Calumet Baking Powder is the leading powder of this type. Calumet Baking Powder contains calcium acid phosphate, sodium aluminum sulphate, bicarbonate of soda, starch and dried white of egg. It contains only such ingredients as are recognised by the U. S. Government and the individual states thereof, as healthful and efficient in baking powder. This recognition is set forth in the standard for baking powder promulgated by the U. S. Secretary of Agriculture as Circular 174. The residue left in food prepared with it is aluminum phosphate and sodium sulphate. In 1906, the Congress of the United States en- CALUMET BAKING POWDER acted a law known as the Food and Drug Act which sought to protect the public against the sale of unwholesome foodstuffs and to guard it against misbranding and deception in the labeling of foods and drugs. This law, which is one of the most stringent and exacting pure food laws in the world, regulated the manufacture and sale of all foods and ingredients of foods, including baking powder. At the time of the enactment of this law, baking powder containing sodium aluminum sulphate was being sold to consumers of the United States at the rate of more than one hundred million pounds each year. Shortly after the passage of the Food and Drugs Act, the United States Department of Agriculture was called upon to definitely determine whether or not numerous preservatives and other ingredients of food were deleterious to health, and therefore illegal under the law. For the purpose of permitting the Department of Agriculture to establish the facts in such cases, the President of the United States appointed what was known as the Referee Board of Consulting Scientific Experts. This board was composed of five of the leading scientific ex* perts in the United States, Prof. Ira Remsen, of Johns Hopkins University, a chemist of International reputation, being appointed chairman; Prof. Russell H. Chittenden, Dean of the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University; Prof. John L. Long, of the Medical School, Northwestern University; Dr. Alonzo E. Taylor, of the University of Pennsylvania; and Prof. Christian Herter, of Columbia University, were the other members. These men constituted an authoritative and impartial board of experts and were instructed to thoroughly investigate the questions of the wholesomeness of food products which were in controversy and which were required to be determined to permit the Department of Agriculture to enforce the Pure Food Law. After this board had investigated the effects on health of the common preservatives, the Government decided that public policy prompted that the board should also determine the truth or falsity of the charges by competing manufacturers against baking powder containing aluminum salts. The effect of aluminum compounds on nutrition and health was accordingly submitted to this board for determination. Their investigations on this subject included the feeding of human beings over a period of approximately eighteen months, with the use of baking powder agents administered in both normal and excessive amounts. The several members of the board conducted experiments independent of each other. The results of all experiments agreed so well that the Referee Board was enabled to draw a unanimous report. The following are the conclusions which the board submitted to the Secretary of the United States Department of Agriculture and which are published in the official ruling of that Department in United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin No. 103: "Aluminum compounds when used in the form of bak' ing powders in foods have not been found to affect inju* riously the nutritive value of such foods." "When aluminum compounds are mixed or packed with a food, the quality or strength of said food has not been found to be thereby reduced, lowered or injuriously affected." This is set forth in the United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin No. 103. This contains the conclusions and a brief statement of the work. The details of the experiment have not been pub- CALUMET BAKING POWDER lished. The promulgation by the Secretary of Agriculture of the findings of the Referee Board of Consulting Scientific Experts was the official statement of the United States Government that these baking powders were not deleterious to health, and the manufacture, sale and use of this type of baking powder has continued and grown under the National and State Pure Food Laws ever since. The scientific literature has not disclosed any reports of experiments which in any way criticise the findings of the Referee Board or offer any scientific evidence that those findings are not correct and valid. This applies not only to scientific literature in the United States, but also to that of the world. On the other hand, there has appeared in the literature work done by Geis, by Stoklassa, and others which show that aluminum salts in proper concentration hastens the germination process. Stoklassa has also shown that aluminum salts detoxicate iron and manganese compounds, resulting in more vigorous plant growth, and Daniels has shown that aluminum plays an analogous role in animal life. Aluminum is the most widely distributed metal in the earth's crust and is taken up in small quantities by almost every plant. This results in aluminum compounds being present normally in our vegetable foods. The amount present, while small, is so universally present in all foods that it is estimated to be not less than six times the amount that would be ingested from the ordinary use of baking powder. The only publication fully reviewing the facts on the healthfulness of aluminum compounds in food is that by Dr. E. E. Smith, "Aluminum Compounds in Food." This book contains a fuller ac- CALUMET BAKING POWDER count (taken direct from the complete report of the Referee Board of Consulting Scientific Experts on file at Washington, D. C.) of their work than has been previously published, as well as reviewing all the pertinent facts on the subject. The Referee Board is generally considered in the United States as the "Supreme Court of Science." In 1918, after the Referee Board had announced its findings, the U. S. Department of Agriculture again put its stamp of approval on sodium aluminum sulphate, when it adopted a standard for baking powder. This standard sets forth the ingredients which are recognised as legal throughout the United States. Sodium Aluminum Sulphate is one of these ingredients. The effectiveness and health fulness of these ingredients were thoroughly investigated before the standard was adopted. The Government of the United States, through its organised departments of government, has thus twice announced that baking powder containing sodium aluminum sulphate is not deleterious to health. There has never been offered a word of evidence to show that any human being has ever been made ill or in any other way unfavorably affected by this type of baking powder, nor is there in the entire scientific literature a single reference to such a case. This is very pregnant of meaning when it is realised that approximately 150 million pounds of combination baking powder containing sodium aluminum sulphate are sold and consumed in the United States each year, and that this baking powder has been consumed in large quantities by young and old, sick and well, for more than thirty-five years. If there was any serious question as to the wholesomeness of this type of powder, it is neces- CALUMET BAKING POWDER sary to assume that in view of the enormous consumption of it by the consuming public of the United States, it would long ago have been the subject of further investigation by the United States Government, whose duty it is under the law to protect the public against deleterious ingredients in foods. The consuming public in the United States is required to pay approximately twice as much for Cream of Tartar powder as they pay for Calumet Baking Powder and other popular brands of powder of the same type. Two teaspoonfuls of baking powder to a quart of flour are required of Cream of Tartar baking powders, while only one teaspoon' ful of the Calumet type of powder is required. The Calumet type is surer in its leavening effects with less danger of failure under adverse conditions and adapts itself to a wider range of oven temperatures. In the light of all the facts, especially in view of the authoritative findings of the Referee Board of Consulting Scientific Experts, officially approved and accepted by the United States Government, and the absence of any evidence to show a single case of any person suffering deleterious effects from the use of this type of baking powder, and in view of the complete absence of any experimental data showing a deleterious effect, I recommend Calumet as the most wholesome, efficient and economical double-acting baking powder on the market. T. J. BRYAN, Ph. D.; D. Sc.
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