BEGINNER GROUP 2012-2013 FALL SEMESTER VOCABULARY JOURNAL FOR OLR I ACTIVE VOCABULARY LIST Word Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, connotation, register etc.) With its 238 species of snakes, India has a long history of snakes and snake charmers. There are over a hundred species of insects in this area. *** countable/ plural: species They catch snakes and exhibit them to make a living. The gallery is exhibiting his paintings. OLR 1/ UNIT 1 Reading 1 species n exhibit v (T) n common adj uncommon __adj__ perform v (T/ I) performance (n) a set of animals or plants in which the members have similar characteristics to each other and can breed with each other to show something publicly endangered species an object such as a painting that is shown to the public the same in a lot of places or for a lot of people not seen, happening or experienced often to entertain people by dancing, singing, acting or playing music The museum has a fascinating collection of exhibits ranging from Iron Age pottery to Inuit clothing. to be common among it’s common for sb. to do sth. These are groups of people with a common past and customs living together. It is not uncommon to see snake charmers with their cobras performing at a street corner in India with a circle of watchers. Snake charmers do not only perform on the streets, of course. The surname 'Smith' is very common in Britain. Bad dreams are fairly common among children. It's common for new fathers to feel jealous of the baby. Fortunately violent crimes against the elderly are very uncommon. A major Hollywood star is performing on stage tonight. prefix: -un To talk about playing a particular part in a play, film etc, use play not perform: John Wayne played a Roman soldier in the film. Word Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning climate n (C/ UC) the general weather conditions usually found in a particular place call v (T) to give someone or something a name, or to know or address someone by a particular name grow kind v (T / I) (grew, grown) n (C) Collocation to call + object + noun to be called + noun Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries They live in warm climates. The Mediterranean climate is good for growing citrus fruits and grapes. They are called Naya in India and Sri Lanka. They've called the twins Katherine and Thomas. This is called the Bread of the Dead. a. to increase in size or amount, or to become more advanced or developed They grow up to 1.7 meters long (5.5 feet) and have gray bodies with black stripes on them. b. if you grow your hair or nails, you do not cut them … Yee Sateow has also grown his hair, to a length of 4.92 meters … The land is poor and arid –very dry – so people cannot grow anything. They open the basket and play their bean (a kind of flute) to make the snake dance. a group with similar characteristics, or a particular type Sales of new cars grew by 10% last year. I've decided to grow my hair long. Today's vehicles use two kinds of fuel - petrol and diesel. In additions to that, they make a kind of delicious bread for this day. deaf adj unable to hear, either completely or partly to go deaf to become deaf However, in reality, cobras are deaf. She's deaf and dumb (=unable to hear or speak) and communicates using sign language. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, connotation, register etc.) Word Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning move v (T / I) to (cause to) change position Collocation Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries Actually, the snake charmer moves the lid of the basket … I'm so cold I can't move my fingers. There are symbolic movements. movement n (C / UC) attack v (T / I) to try to hurt or defeat using violence to attack sb. with sth. … and the snake tries to attack that lid. She was attacked while walking home late at night. population n (C) all the people living in a particular country, area or place a/the population of … population explosion /boom (=a quick increase in the population of an area) This makes for a population of more than 5,000 snakes. Most of the world's population doesn't get enough to eat. prefer v (T) preference n (C) hang Reading 2 tradition to like, choose or want one thing rather than another to prefer sb./sth. to sb./sth. to prefer to do sth. to prefer doing sth. 97% of Kenya’s population is African, but they are from 70 different tribes. … they prefer snakes, which they hang around their neck. I prefer red wine to white. v (T / I) (hung, hung) to fasten or support something at the top leaving the other parts free to move, or to be held in this way Children of this village do no play with dolls or toys; they prefer snakes, which they hang around their neck. Philip hung his coat on a hook behind the door. n (C / UC) a belief, principle or way of acting which people in a particular society or group have continued to follow for a long time, or all of these beliefs, etc. in a particular society or group According to the tradition, that night he or she will come to their house to share the dinner with them. Getting married at an early age is a tradition in India. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, connotation, register etc.) Word Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning traditional adj. following or belonging to the customs or ways of behaving that have continued in a group of people or society for a long time without changing Collocation traditionally adv Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries After traditional dances and greetings, the referee calls out the names of the wrestlers. The school uses both modern and traditional methods in teaching reading. Traditionally, they make an offering in the main room of their house. More women are entering traditionally male jobs. add v (T / I) to put something with something else to increase the number or amount or to improve the whole to add sth. to sth. Then they think of that person’s favorite food and drink and add those to the offering. Do you want to add your name to the list? choose v (T / I) to decide what you want from two or more things or possibilities to choose sth. to choose between X and Y to choose from… to choose to do sth. If they can’t remember, they choose typical Mexican food, atole, mole or tamales. Danny, come here and choose your ice cream. (chose, chosen) share v (T / I) to divide food, money, goods, etc. and give part of it to someone else guide v (T) to help someone or something to move in a particular direction to share sth. with sb. Wrestlers often choose traditional names ending in –yama (mountain), gaura (river) or –umi (sea). According to the tradition, that night he or she will come to their house to share the dinner with them. To guide the person, they light some candles and make a path of flowers … Will you share your sandwich with me? Searchlights guide the ship into the harbour. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, connotation, register etc.) Suffix: -al Word Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries consider v (T) to think of sb./ sth. in a particular way or to have a particular opinion to consider (that) to consider sb./ sth. (to be) sth. to consider it necessary/ important etc to do sth. These have been considered the special flower of the dead since pre-Hispanic times. We don't consider her suitable for the job. greet v (T) to welcome someone with particular words or a particular action, or to react to something in the stated way something friendly or polite that you say or do when you meet or welcome someone to greet sb. with sth. That night, people also go to the graveyards to greet and visit their loved ones. The teacher greeted each child with a friendly 'Hello!' After traditional dances and greetings, the referee calls out the names of the wrestlers. The two cousins exchanged greetings. Suffix: -ing being the only existing one of its type or, more generally, unusual or special in some way This holiday in Mexico is unique in the world. Each person's genetic code (DNA) is unique. *** no comparative form Synonym: artificial Antonym: natural Antonyms: artificial, man-made greeting _n (C/ UC)_ unique __adj._ Reading 3 man-made adj. artificial rather than natural Thailand has lots of manmade and natural world records. It's a man-made lake. natural adj. existing in nature and not caused, made, or controlled by people Thailand has lots of manmade and natural world records. Floods and earthquakes are natural disasters. record n (C) the best or fastest ever done Thailand has lots of manmade and natural world records. As a student, he broke the Scottish record for the 100 metres. to set a record to establish a record to break a record a world record an Olympic record Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, connotation, register etc.) Word Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning be made from/ be made of v (T) to produce something, often using a particular substance or material promote organize prepare v (T) to encourage the popularity, sale, development or existence of something promotion n (C/ UC) the activity of persuading people to support something v (T) to make arrangements for something to happen organizer n (C) the person or group who plans and arranges an event or activity v (T / I) to make or get sth. or sb. ready for sth. that will happen in the future Collocation the promotion of … to prepare sth. to prepare for sth. to be prepared to do sth. Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries … a type of Thai soup, was made from shrimps, vegetables, and spices. He was wearing a suit made from pure silk. Their homes are made of thatch (dry tree branches, leaves and grass). The house was made of wood with an iron roof. They wanted to promote the shrimp-farming and shrimp-processing industry in Thailand. Greenpeace works to promote awareness of the dangers that threaten our planet today. The Department of Industrial Promotion organized the creation of the largest tom yum kung ... The Department of Industrial Promotion organized the creation of the largest tom yum kung … the promotion of energy conservation The organizers also wanted tourists to learn about this aromatic, spicy, tasty seafood dish. There aren't enough seats for all the guests - I must tell the organizers. It took 12 chefs to prepare the giant bowl of soup, and thousands of tourists enjoyed it. The meal took two hours to prepare. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, connotation, register etc.) the difference between to be made of/ to be made from sth.: Most things are made of plastic these days. (often used when we are identifying the material used to make sth.) Paper is made from wood. (often used when a material is changed into a completely different form to make sth.) Suffix: -ion They organized a meeting between the teachers and students. Suffix: -er Word Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning employ v (T) employer (n/C) employee (n/C) employment (n/UC) employed (adj) unemployed (adj) to have someone work or do a job for you and pay them for it staff n (C) the group of people who work for an organization Collocation staff of 10/50 etc. medical/academic/ library staff Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, connotation, register etc.) Suffixes: -er, -ee, -ment, -ed Prefix: -un The restaurant employed 1,200 staff. More people are now employed in service industries than in manufacturing. The restaurant employed 1,200 staff. The staff are not very happy about the latest pay increase. The entire staff has done an outstanding job this year. *** + plural or singular verb The staff included 541 waiters and waitresses wearing roller-skates for fast service. Your responsibilities will include making appointments on my behalf. Service is included in the bill. *** not used in progressive form Antonym: exclude The restaurant can seat 5,000 customers and can offer 1,000 dishes on the menu to suit all tastes… The city lifestyle seems to suit her - she's certainly looking very well. The restaurant can … offer 1,000 dishes on the menu to suit all tastes: Chinese, Japanese, Thai, and Western. I love the taste of garlic. I didn't like red wine before but I acquired a taste for it while I was living in France. a member of staff include v (T) to contain sth. as a part of sth. else, or to make sth. part of sth. else suit v (T) to be right for a particular person, situation or occasion taste n (C / UC) the flavour of something, or the ability of a person or animal to recognize different flavours v (T) to put food or drink in your mouth to find out what flavour it has linking verb to have a particular flavour to include sth. to include doing sth. to be included in sth. the taste of sth. to acquire a taste for sth. It's always best to keep tasting the food while you're cooking it. to taste good/ bad/ sweet/ delicious/ fresh etc. to taste like sth. This sauce tastes strange . This coffee tastes like dishwater! *** not used in progressive form Word Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning produce v (T) production (n/UC) product (n/C) producer (n/C) to make, write etc something to be bought, used, or enjoyed by people necessary (adj) needed in order to achieve a particular result belong to v (I) measure linking verb Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries Now, it can produce 3,000 dishes in an hour when necessary. France produces a great deal of wine for export. Now, it can produce 3,000 dishes in an hour when necessary. He lacks the necessary skills for the job. if something belongs to someone, they own it The world’s longest hair belongs to Hoo Sateow, a tribal medicine man from Chiang Mai, Thailand. Who does this scarf belong to? to be a particular size, length, or amount On November 21, 1997, his hair measured 5.15 meters (16 feet 11 inches). The room measures 6x6 metres. v (T) to discover the exact size or amount of something believe v (T) to think that something is true, correct or real power n (C) abilities, strength cut v (T ) (cut, cut) to break the surface of something, or to divide or make something smaller, using a sharp tool, especially a knife Collocation it is necessary (for sb.) to do sth. to be necessary for (doing) sth. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, connotation, register etc.) Suffixes: -tion, -er The earthquake measured 6.5 on the Richter scale. This machine measures your heart rate. to believe sth. to believe that … to cut sth. with sth. to cut sb. sth. to cut sth. in half/ in two to cut sth. into slices/ chunks/ pieces etc He believes his long hair is the key to his healing powers. You shouldn't believe everything you read. He believes his long hair is the key to his healing powers. My mental powers aren't as good as they used to be. He says he once fell sick after he cut his hair when he was 18 years old, and decided not to cut his hair again. Cut the orange in half. *** not in progressive Word Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries decide v (T ) to choose something, especially after thinking carefully about several possibilities to decide to do sth. to decide that… He says he once fell sick after he cut his hair when he was 18 years old, and decided not to cut his hair again. In the end, we decided to go to the theatre. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, connotation, register etc.) It was decided that four hospitals should close. People have a right to decide how to spend their own money. decision (n/C) a choice that you make about something after thinking about several possibilities adv once every year annual (adj) happening once a year Reading 4 different adj not the same culture n (C / UC) the way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time annually a/the right/wrong/ correct/hard etc. decision to make a decision to come to a decision to reach a decision They sit around the sides of the ring and check that the referee is making the correct decisions. Do you ever wonder if you made the right decision? Suffix: -sion The brothers wash their hair annually (once a year) with detergent, and wear it wound up in a fashionable beehive. The jazz festival is held annually in July. Suffix: -ly The school trip has become an annual event. slightly different completely/ totally/ entirely different to be different from sth. Kenya is home to many different cultures and ethnic groups, each with different languages, dialects, and customs. We're reading a different book this week. Kenya is home to many different cultures and ethnic groups, each with different languages, dialects, and customs. We speak Danish at home so that the boys don't lose touch with their language and culture. Antonym: same Word Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning custom n (C/ UC) tribe n (C) same adj Collocation Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries a way of behaving or a belief which has been established for a long time Kenya is home to many different cultures and ethnic groups, each with different languages, dialects, and customs. In my country, it's the custom (for women) to get married in white. a group of people, often of related families, who live together, sharing the same language, culture and history, especially those who do not live in towns or cities exactly like another or each other 97% of Kenya’s population is African, but they are from 70 different tribes. Jose belongs to a tribe of Amazonian Indians. …it is the same as that in Western cities. My twin sister and I have got the same nose. the same + n + as exactly the same She was born on the same day as me. desert n (C/ UC) an area, often covered with sand or rocks, where there is very little rain and not many plants Most of Kenya is a desert, land with very little water. That's funny, Simon said exactly the same thing. They were lost in the desert for nine days. land n (UC) the surface of the Earth that is not covered by water Most of Kenya is a desert, land with very little water. It is cheaper to drill for oil on land than at sea. The land is poor and arid –very dry – so people cannot grow anything. remote adj far away in distance, time or relation In these remote areas, there are no modern conveniences. My grandparents live in a remote mountain village. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, connotation, register etc.) Antonym: different Word Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries area n (C) a particular part of a place, piece of land or country urban/ rural/ coastal/ local etc. area In these remote areas, there are no modern conveniences. There were over 2 inches of rain in coastal areas. arid enough mix adj determiner v (T/ I) People living in these areas are nomads … The land is poor and arid –very dry – so people cannot grow anything. very dry because it has very little rain as much as is necessary; in the amount or to the degree needed enough for enough (sth) to do sth. to (cause different substances to) combine, so that the result cannot easily be separated into its parts to mix sth. with sth. to mix sth. together to mix sth. in sth. When they don’t have enough milk, they mix the milk with the blood of the animal and drink it. When they don’t have enough milk, they mix the milk with the blood of the animal and drink it. material n (C) a physical substance which things can be made from Reading 5 ancient adj of or from a long time ago, having lasted for a very long time to use physical force to try to defeat another person or group of people fight v (T / I) (fought, fought) The desert is so arid that nothing can grow there. Water from the Great Lakes is pumped to arid regions. Are there enough cakes for everyone? He didn't even earn enough to pay the rent. First mix the butter and sugar together, then add the milk. Fill the bread with a mixture of lettuce, tomatoes and pepper. mixture (n/C) These people wrap brightly-colored material around their bodies … Sumo wrestling is an ancient sport dating back 1500 years. to fight with/ against sb. A tournament lasts for to fight over/ about/ for fifteen days, and each sth. wrestler fights once every to fight like cats and day with a different dogs person. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, connotation, register etc.) Stone is a material used for building. People have lived in this valley since ancient times. They fought with the North against the South. Suffix: -ture Word Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation fight (n) an argument or an occasion when someone uses physical force to try to defeat someone to get into a fight to start a fight to break up a fight n (C/ UC) the amount that something or someone weighs overweight (adj) too heavy and fat I'm only a few kilos overweight, but I just can't seem to lose them. weigh (v) to have a heaviness of a stated amount, or to measure the heaviness of an object Your luggage must be weighed before it is put on the aircraft. huge adj … wrestlers are usually huge and overweight men. They live in a huge house. against prep extremely large in size, amount, or degree in opposition to; used to say who someone is competing with or trying to defeat in a game, battle etc. Because there are no weight limits, a wrestler can find himself against another wrestler twice his own weight. We'll be competing against the best companies in Europe. tie v (T/ I) Sumo wrestlers also have long hair and they tie it at the back of their head. I tie my hair back when it's hot. protect v (T) to fasten together two ends of a piece of string or other long thin material, or to (cause to) hold together with a long, thin piece of string, material, etc. to keep someone or something safe from injury, damage or loss weight Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, connotation, register etc.) Jeff's always getting into/ starting fights. There are no weight limits in sumo wrestling so wrestlers are usually huge and overweight men. to protect sb. against sth. It is also to protect the to protect sb./sth. from head if they fall down sth. during the match. What weight can this lorry safely carry? It's important to protect your skin from the harmful effects of the sun. Antonym: underweight Prefix: -over Synonym: enormous Word Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning pull v (T/ I) touch v (T) vital adj Collocation Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries to move something towards yourself, sometimes with great physical effort The wrestlers cannot pull each other’s hair. He pulled the chair away from the desk. to put your hand or another part of your body lightly onto and off something or someone necessary for the success or continued existence of something; extremely important They cannot touch the vital organs like the eyes, ears or throat, or kick in the stomach or chest. He touched the girl on the arm to get her attention. it is vital for sth. it is vital that it is vital to do sth. of vital importance Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, connotation, register etc.) Regular exercise is vital for your health. It is vital that you keep accurate records. It is vital to be honest with your children. The tourist industry is of vital importance to the national economy. vital organ n (C) a part of your body that is necessary to keep you alive, for example your heart and lungs They cannot touch the vital organs like the eyes, ears or throat, or kick in the stomach or chest. *** usually used in plural form ground n the surface of the Earth During the match if a wrestler touches the ground with any part of his body, his knee or even his finger, he loses the match. I sat down on the ground. immediately adv now or without waiting or thinking The referee, then, gives the start signal for the match, but the wrestlers do not start immediately. The telephone rang, and he answered it immediately. Suffix: -ly Word Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation follow v (T) to have a great interest in something or watch something closely correct adj right and not wrong; in agreement with the true facts or with what is generally accepted Reading 1 subject n. (C) the thing which is being discussed, considered or studied universe n. (C / UC) solar adj. all space, including all the stars and planets relating to the sun explain v. (T / I) to make something clear or easy to understand by describing or giving information about it partly explain smth fully briefly explain smth to sb try to explain about smth explanation n. (C / UC) the details or reasons that someone gives to make something clear or easy to understand explanation about/for sth Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries During the match the referee follows the movements of the wrestlers closely. They followed her academic progress closely. They sit around the sides of the ring and check that the referee is making the correct decisions. OFFLINE READINGS 1 / UNIT 2 The sentence is grammatically correct, but doesn't sound natural. a simple subject complex discuss a subject talk about avoid change the subject on the subject of smth in the universe Astronomy is one of physics’ most fascinating subjects. She has written a series of books on the subject of family relationships. The universe was very small and dense. Is there intelligent life elsewhere in the universe? solar heat energy Our solar system consists of the sun, nine planets, an asteroid belt and may comets and meteors. Astronomy also tries to explain the formation of the universe. The solar system is the sun and the group of planets which move around it. explanation from sb without explanation ask for an explanation give accept expect Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, connotation, register etc.) The teacher explained the rules to the children. No one has been able to explain the accident. I expected an explanation and an apology. What was her explanation for why she was late? I had no explanation for her strange behaviour. Synonym: topic Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR 1 Extra Examples Word formation n (C / I) the way something is naturally made or the way it has been arranged to make or be something cloud formation geological Astronomy also tries to explain the formation of the universe. These days a lot of people are complaining about the formation of stones in their kidneys. The students formed 4 groups. solid/ organic matter all the matter in the universe The matter has three states: solid, liquid and gas. All the matter in the universe had a very tiny volume; that is, the universe was very small and dense. All the matter in the universe had a very tiny volume. The earrings are tiny. to form v. (T / I) matter n. (U) physical substance in the universe; material tiny adj. (tinier / tiniest) extremely small n. (C / UC) a measurement of the amount of space that a substance or object fills (of a substance) containing a lot of matter in a small space the relationship between the mass of a substance and its size volume dense adj. density n. (C / UC) cause v. (T) form a group ___ to make something happen, usually something bad volume of smth very dense quite a/an high density of smth low average high in density low cause damage problems trouble cause sb / smth to do smth The universe was very small and dense. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym etc.) Synonym: minute Antonym: huge, enormous The symbol for volume is V. Volume is measured in m3, dm3…etc. Plutonium is very dense. Synonym: thick Lead(Pb) has a high density. Aluminium is low in density. Something unknown caused the universe to explode 15 billion years ago. The storm caused widespread damage. Synonym: lead to, result in, bring about Antonym: result from Word explode Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR 1 Extra Examples Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym etc.) v. (T / I) to (cause to) break up into pieces violently a bomb explodes Then, something unknown caused the universe to explode 15 billion years ago. A bomb exploded at one of London's busiest railway stations this morning. Synonym: burst, blow up explosion n. (C / UC) when something such as a bomb explodes a The universe became very hot because of the explosion. The fire was thought to have been caused by a gas explosion. big loud massive explosion create v. (T) creation n. (C / UC) period space n. (C) n. (UC) to make something new, especially to invent something the act of creating something, or the thing that is created bomb explosion gas chemical mine nuclear terrorist in an / the explosion create smth. The explosion of nuclear devices in the Bikini Atoll was stopped in 1958. a create smth from smth. 3 people were injured in the explosion. This explosion created matter, energy and also space and time in a few seconds. creation of smth. The fashion magazines were full of the latest Paris creations. encourage foster the creation support a particular length of time with a beginning and an end period of smth the empty area beyond the Earth in/into space space travel research programme exploration The Bible says that God created the world. The government is to provide more money for job creation. the period before the Big Bang His playing improved in a very short period of time. There was no time or space then.(2.1) Astronauts, when they live in space, do many of the same things that they do on Earth. (2.5) Who was the first human being in space? in / over a period Synonym: form Word expand Part of Speech/ Different Forms v. (T / I) Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym etc.) to increase in size, number or importance, or to make something increase in this way expand The universe became very hot because of the explosion and it began to expand. The water froze inside the pipe and caused it to expand and burst. Synonym: grow, extend As the universe continued to grow, it cooled off. If the rain continues, we'll have to cancel tonight's plans. Synonym: go on, carry on The first hydrogen atoms began to form. A crowd formed around the accident. A solution began to form in her mind. considerably dramatically significantly expand from ….. to……. continue v. (T / I) to keep happening, existing or doing something, or to cause something or someone to do this form v. (T / I) to begin to exist or to make something begin to exist expand into smth continue to do smth doing smth ____ make up v. (T) to come together and make, form something make up of smth These atoms made up the stars and the galaxies. Different groups of people make up society. planet n. (C) on a planet n. We call this planet the Earth. (2.1) Our solar system consists of nine planets. We call this planet the Earth. Is there life on other planets? earth a very large round object in space that moves around the sun or another star. the planet third in order of distance from the Sun, between Venus and Mars; the world on which we live The Moon goes round the Earth. Synonym: the world The universe may turn around and collapse in another big explosion. Thousands of buildings collapsed in the earthquake. Synonym: fall down collapse v. (I) to suddenly fall down, fail, or stop existing the Earth orbits revolves rotates the center of the Earth surface completely collapse suddenly collapse under the weight of smth / sb Synonym: constitute Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation v. (T) to be made of or formed from something simply mainly primarily rock n. (C / UC) the hard substance that forms the main surface of the Earth solid rock bare volcanic orbit v. (T / I) to travel in a curved path orbit smth Word Use in OLR1 Extra Examples Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym etc.) Our solar system consists of the sun, nine planets, an asteroid belt and many comets and meteors. The planets, over 61 moons, other rocks and gas all orbit the sun. The team consists of four Europeans and two Americans. Synonym: to include, to involve To build the tunnel, they had to cut through 500 feet of solid rock. rock (AmE): a piece of stone small enough to pick up The planets, over 61 moons, the asteroids, comets, meteors and other rocks and gas all orbit the sun The satellite orbits the Earth every 48 hours. The solar system is made up of two parts. The course is made up of ten core modules. Synonym: be comprised of Reading 2 consist of consist of be made up of v. (T) consist of something be simply primarily made up of contain v. (T) to have something inside or include something as a part contain smth. The inner solar system contains Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. How much liquid do you think this bottle contains? Synonym: include, comprise close to adj. only a short distance away, or separated by only a short distance very / extremely close to fairly / quite These four planets are closest to the sun. The hotel is close to the centre of town. Synonym: near Antonym: distant, far get close to smth keep relative adj. relatively adv. having a particular quality when compared to something else compared to other things ____ relatively + adj ____ These four planets are closest to the sun. They are relatively small. We weighed up the relative advantages of driving these or going by train. The system is relatively easy to use. Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, etc.) be composed of Part of Speech/ Different Forms v. (T) be made out of something, be formed from something be mainly composed of mostly primarily They are composed of rock and metal. Muscle is composed of two different types of protein. Synonym: consist of, be made out of exception n. (C / UC) someone or something that is not included in a rule, group or list with the exception of smth Pluto is an exception among outer planets. Men are usually quite good at map-reading, but Tim is an exception. He can’t read a map well. There are exceptions to every rule. I like all kinds of films with the exception of horror films. I don't know all the facts about the case. Word without exception be the exception to the rule be no exception fact n. (C / UC) something which is known to have happened or to exist an important fact well-known Here are some interesting facts about the planets! Synonym: truth facts about smth fit v. (T) to have space for someone or something fit in nicely perfectly well You can put all the other planets inside Jupiter and they will fit in nicely. How many lines can you fit in per page? I’ll come in your car, if you can fit me in. fit sb in float amount v. (I) n. (C) to stay on the surface of a liquid and not sink a quantity of something It can float on water. float on water in air You can float very easily in/on the Dead Sea because it's so salty. a huge amount of money decrease the amount of smth. increase limit An empty bottle will float. On other planets you weigh a different amount than you do on Earth. A computer can store a vast amount of information. Synonym: quantity Word gravity velocity Part of Speech/ Different Forms n. (UC) Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples the force that causes something to fall to the ground or to be attracted to another planet the force of gravity the differences in gravity Gravity makes something fall if you drop it. n. (C / UC) the speed of something that is moving in a particular direction the velocity of something Orbital velocity of the planets. The speedboat reached a velocity of 120 mph. n. (C / UC) the rate at which something happens or moves v. (T / I) to heat a liquid until it reaches a high temperature and turns into gas at high/low speed (at) a speed of 60 mph / 80 kmph, etc speed limit/restriction at speed: very fast boil sth rapidly for ... minutes speed boil Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym etc.) the law of gravity weak / strong gravity The car was travelling at a speed of 80 mph. Before you give water to a small baby, you should boil it and then cool it. When the water boils, add the rice. An astronomer called Clyde Tombaugh discovered it in 1930. William Herschel discovered Uranus in 1781. Synonym: find out The average temperature is -236 C. He’s about average height. Synonym: moderate, mediocre This makes the planet unsuitable for human beings. This film is unsuitable for children. Synonym: inappropriate Reading 3 discover v. (T) to find information, a place or an object, especially for the first time average adj. around a usual or ordinary level or standard unsuitable adj. not having the right qualities for a particular person, purpose, or situation eventually discover suddenly attempt to discover try be recently discovered newly unsuitable for somebody Word ice frozen Part of Speech/ Different Forms n. (UC) adj. v. (T / I) freeze/ froze / frozen Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples frozen water thin ice thick There may be methane ice together with frozen nitrogen on the surface. There is too much snow and ice on the road. There may be methane ice together with frozen nitrogen on the surface. They skated over the frozen lake. (of water) turned into ice, or (of food) preserved by freezing If you freeze something, you lower its temperature below 0°C, causing it to become cold and often hard, and if something freezes, its temperature goes below 0°C. the top layer of an area of water or land skating on the ice frozen lake peas freeze over up Water freezes to ice at a temperature of 0°C. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, etc.) Antonym: thaw ____ freeze to death The lake has frozen over. The pipes have frozen up. surface n. (C) the surface of smth beneath the surface under below layer n. (C) a level of material a layer of smth a thick/ thin layer change v (T / I) to become different, or to make someone or something different change dramatically considerably gradually rapidly / fast There may be methane ice together with frozen nitrogen and carbon dioxide on the cold rocky surface. The outer layer of the comet is made of ice. Nearly ten percent of the Earth's surface is covered by ice. Pluto changes its place with Neptune. After a few days, the weather changed dramatically. Synonym: alter, modify, vary, convert Frozen methane on the surface evaporates because of solar heat... Frozen methane on the surface evaporates because of solar heat. Water evaporates and forms the clouds. Synonym: vaporize, boil away Synonym: warmth There was a thin layer of oil on the surface of the water. change from smth into smth change to / into smth evaporate heat v. (T / I) n. (UC) to cause a liquid to change to a gas, especially by heating warmth or the quality of being hot ____ great heat solar Ice needs heat to melt. Word original position Part of Speech/ Different Forms adj. n. (C) Meaning existing or happening first the place where someone or something is Collocation ____ the position of smth in a strong/good/better position reason n. (C) the cause or explanation for something that happens reason for smth reason why + clause reason that + clause reason to do smth reason behind smth to continue to be in the same state or condition remain silent unclear the same Use in OLR1 Extra Examples Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, etc.) When Pluto moves to its original position, methane freezes again. Her original plan was to stay for a month, but she left after two weeks. Antonym: unoriginal When Pluto moves to its original position, methane freezes again. I have found our position on the map. This is another reason why human beings cannot live on Pluto. He explained the reasons behind the decision. Reading 4 v. (I) remain remaining adj. people/things that are left when the others have gone, been used, or been dealt with to go or travel along or through a place pass v. (T / I) shape n. (C) the form that something has (round, square, etc) shaped adj. having a certain shaped v. (I) to change or be different (from one occasion to another or from one item to another) ___ pass along/through smth round/square, etc in shape ____ The remaining 20% is chunks, or small pieces, of metal and rocky material. When it passes by the sun, it begins to evaporate. ___ The government wants the borders to remain the same. Synonym: stay (less formal) The few remaining guests were in the kitchen. Six of the team's remaining nine matches are away from home. He passed along the corridor to a small room at the back of the building. Our table is oval in shape. in the shape of smth vary ___ vary from smth to smth place to place A comet travels around the sun in an oval shaped path. The time it takes can vary, i.e., change, from 7 years to millions of years. She made a heart-shaped cake. Test scores vary from school to school. Synonym: change, differ Word increase decrease Part of Speech/ Different Forms v. (T / I) v. (T / I) Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, etc.) to (make something) become larger in amount or size increase dramatically sharply increase in size number value The velocity of a comet increases when it is near the sun. The cost of the project has increased dramatically since it began. Synonym: go up, rise to become less, or to make something become less visible adj. able to be seen disappear v. (I) If people or things disappear, they go somewhere where they cannot be seen or found exist crash hit v. (I) v. (T / I) v. (T) to be, to be real, or to appear in the real world to hit something hard, making a loud noise and often causing damage to touch / move into something or someone quickly and with force decrease in size number value decrease dramatically considerably rapidly visible to smth to the naked eye clearly visible highly barely disappear forever entirely suddenly disappear from sight view a place actually exist really continue to exist cease/stop crash smth. The velocity of a comet decreases at the outer orbit. The number smokers has decreased considerably in recent years. A comet is only visible only when it is near the sun. The outline of the mountain was clearly visible. In the end it disappears completely. The moon disappeared behind the clouds. Antonym: decrease, go down, decline Synonym: decline, go down Antonym: increase, go up Synonym: vanish Antonym: appear In the end it disappears completely; that is, it doesn’t exist anymore. I don't think ghosts exist. Synonym: be, survive, live Some of the sunglazers crash into the sun. While driving, he fall asleep and crashed into a tree. Synonym: hit Some others don't hit the sun. Some small asteroids hit the Earth. Synonym: crash Poverty still exists in this country. crash into / against smth. hit sb on his/her head leg Part of Speech/ Different Forms v. (T / I) Meaning Collocation if something burns up, or if it is burned up, fire completely destroys it suddenly unexpectedly v. (T) to keep something somewhere for the future machine n. (C) adventure Word burn up Use in OLR1 Extra Examples Some others don’t hit the sun, but just burn up. The house burned up in the fire. store smth safely carefully A place to store food for a long time Nuclear waste should be stored safely. a device with several moving parts to do a particular type of work by machine An exercise machine such as a rowing machine You can get your tickets from the machine on the platform. The books are all packed by machine. n. (C / UC) an exciting, unusual, and sometimes dangerous experience a great adventure adventure holiday be looking for adventure Sleeping in space is an adventure, too. The children were looking for adventure. Synonym: venture adventuro us adj. keen to try new or exciting things an adventurous climber diver explorer He’s much more adventurous than his younger brother. Synonym: adventuresome, daring v. (T / I) if a ball or other object bounces, or if you bounce it, it hits a surface then immediately moves away from it to (cause something to) become firmly fixed together, or in position, or closed bounce high burn up Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, etc.) Reading 5 store bounce fasten drop v. (T / I) n. (C) a small round-shaped amount of liquid There is always a chance of bouncing off a wall. The ball bounced high and she missed it. They can even fasten a pillow to their heads with a strap. Make sure you fasten the seat belt before you start driving. The drops of toothpaste can float away. There were little drops of paint on the kitchen floor. bounce off / towards smth. fasten smth firmly tightly fasten smth to smth with fasten seat belts (a) large drop(s) of rain little paint Word waste Part of Speech/ Different Forms n. (U) waste v. (T) garbage n. (UC) dump v. (T) Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) unwanted materials that are left after you have used smth. to use something wrongly or use too much of something waste / rubbish (BrE) industrial waste chemical The astronauts have to put all the waste and garbage in bags. A lot of chemical waste goes into the river. Synonym: rubbish, garbage garbage disposal can /container collector The astronauts have to put all the waste and garbage in bags. Can you take out the garbage? Synonym: rubbish /waste to get rid of something unwanted, especially by leaving it in a place where it is not allowed to be dump smth. legally illegally They cannot dump them into space! People dump waste into the sea and pollute it. Synonym: throw away waste smth on smth/sb ____ dump smth into smth. Don't waste time on unimportant details. He dumped the boxes down in the kitchen. OLR 1/ UNIT 3 Reading 1 nutrient n.(C) any substance that plants or animals need in order to live and grow nutrition n. (UC) the process of giving or poor/good nutrition getting the right type of food for good health and growth about food as something that keeps you healthy efficient as food; nourishing. completely different Unlike + (n.), sentence from a particular person or thing nutritional (adj.) unlike nutritious (adj.) linker Nutrients are substances in food necessary for good health. Fish is a source of many nutrients, such as protein, vitamins and minerals. Poor nutrition can cause heart disease in later life. Fast food has poor nutritional value. Unlike plants, our bodies can’t make nutrients. Home-cooked burgers are a nutritious meal. He is extremely ambitious, unlike me. Synonym : different from, in contrast to Antonym : similar to Word Part of Speech/ Different Forms to absorb v. (T) cell n. (C) function n. (C/UC) important adj. importance n. (UC) Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples take in or soak up (energy or a liquid) by chemical or physical action the smallest living part of an animal or a plant body to absorb smth. into smth. During digestion, the body breaks food into its nutrients, absorbs them into our ….. Fats transport, i.e., carry, nutrients and they are part of some body cells. This drug is quickly absorbed into the bloodstream. the purpose that something has, or the job that sb. or smth. does having great value or influence ; very necessary to fulfill /perform a function There are more than 40 nutrients with specific functions. The function of the heart is to pump blood through the body. important for sb. to do smth. important to sb. …. and active because they are an important source of energy. It is important for you to understand this. Spending time with my children is important to me. the fact of being important the importance of smth. to sb. to be of greatest/ utmost importance source of sth. source n. (C) a thing, place, activity etc that you get something from simple adj. not difficult or complicated to do or understand Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) The human body consists of millions of cells. Antonym: unimportant Synonyms: main, key, chief, crucial ,etc. It is of the utmost importance that you arrive on time. Carbohydrates are the body’s main source of energy. Beans are a very good source of protein. They are either simple, called sugars, or complex, called starches. I'm sure there is a perfectly simple explanation. Synonym : easy Antonym : complex Word effectively properly Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 adv. in such a manner as to achieve a desired result to use sth. effectively Our bodies need Children have to learn to carbohydrates to use fats communicate effectively. effectively. effective (adj.) someone or something that is effective works well and produces the intended result appropriately for the circumstances; suitably to be effective in doing smth. effective method/ way/means of smth. to work properly adv. equal proper (adj.) adj. right, suitable, or correct being the same in quantity, size, degree , or value per prep. solid adj. totally adv. actually adv. Extra Examples This is an effective way of controlling children. The brain can’t work properly without carbohydrates ….. Antonym : ineffective The brakes don't seem to be working properly. Synonym : correctly, suitably Antonym: improperly She’s never had a proper job. Antonym : improper The two boxes are almost Antonym : equal in weight. unequal, Three feet is roughly equal to different, one metre. dissimilar The meal will cost $20 per person. to be equal to sth. to be equal in sth. 1 pound is equal to 456 grams. used when expressing rates, prices or measurements to mean for each firm and stable in shape; not liquid or fluid per hour /day / week / month / year This amount is equal to 1/3 pound (150 grams) of sugar per day. solid substances Saturated fats are solid at room temperature. The lake was frozen solid. completely; absolutely totally + adj (new, bad...etc.) totally agree with sb. Many people think that fats are totally bad for you, but the body actually needs them. The building was totally destroyed by the fire. I totally agree with you. …..fats are totally bad for you, but the body actually needs them. I didn't actually see her - I just heard her voice. in fact or really Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) Synonym : hard Antonym : liquid Synonym: completely Antonym: partly Word to transport Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples v (T) take or carry (people or goods) from one place to another by means of a vehicle, aircraft, or ship the action of transporting sb.or smth. to transport sth./sb. to transport sb./ smth. to somewhere Fats transport, i.e., carry, nutrients and they are part of some body cells. 162.000 passengers were transported to Australia last month. transportation n. (UC) to keep to provide v. (T/I) v. (T) continue or cause to continue in a specified condition, position , course , etc. to give someone something that they need means of transportation to keep smth./sb. adj. to provide sth. (for sb./sth.) to provide sb./sth. with sth. to require Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) There are various means of transportation in big cities. They help to keep the body warm and active because they are …. The noise from their party kept me awake half the night. Vitamins do not provide energy, but they help our bodies use the energy from foods. The hotel provides a playroom for children. v. (T) to need or make necessary requirement n. (C) something that you must do, or something you need existing in or yielding great quantities; abundant a requirement for sth. to meet/fulfill/ satisfy a requirement plentiful substance /supply of food The body has almost no requirement for saturated fat. Protein is the second most plentiful substance in our bodies. A good degree is a minimum requirement for many jobs. Strawberries are plentiful in the summer. Synonym: abundant to put something that is damaged, broken or not working correctly, back into good condition or make it work again to repair a machine It is very important because it builds and repairs the body cells, and it is also essential for growth. He repaired the roof after the storm. Synonym : to fix, to mend plentiful adj. to repair v.(T) Hemoglobin needs iron, and several body enzymes require zinc. This job provided him with the opportunity to meet important people. Three patients required operations. Synonym : to supply sb. with smth. Synonym: to need Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples essential adj. necessary; needed to be essential for sth. Water is essential for/to living things. process n. (C) a series of changes that happen naturally long/slow/chemical learning process to regulate v. (T) to control smth. by making it work in a particular way to regulate economy /temperature to replace v. (T) to replace sth.(with sth.) resistance n. (U) to take the place of smth, or to put smth. or sb. in the place of smth. or sb. else when something or someone resists ….because it builds and repairs the body cells, and it is also essential for growth. Vitamins are necessary for many different body processes. The body needs them in small amounts to regulate, or control, internal chemical … Each vitamin has a specific job in the body so one vitamin cannot replace another. Vitamin C from vegetables and fruit increases our resistance to cold. to resist v. (T) to oppose or fight against someone or something to resist smth. n. (C/U) an article or substance that is manufactured or refined for sale the process of making or growing goods to be sold to buy/sell/promote industrial/beauty products production of sth. Dairy products such as cheese and yogurt are rich in vitamins. the arrangement of and relations between the parts or elements of something complex body/sentence structure …. are necessary for internal chemical reactions and they form body structures. Word product production n. (U) structure n. (C/U) resistance to/against sth. Learning process takes time. You can regulate the temperature in the house by adjusting the thermostat. The factory replaced most of its workers with robots. There's a lot of resistance to the idea of a united Europe. Our body can resist infections with the help of vitamins. People naturally resist change. I'm trying to cut down on dairy products. Plastic is used in the production of many goods. The structure of this protein is complex. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) Synonym: necessary, vital, crucial Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples to maintain v. (T) to make something stay the same to maintain strong bones good balance ideal weight several adj. more than two but not many several students For example, calcium from milk, cheese and yogurt helps build and maintain strong bones and teeth. Hemoglobin needs iron, and several body enzymes require zinc. It is difficult to maintain the right balance between your work and your home life. You should do exercise to maintain your ideal weight. Several people have complained about the scheme. Reading 2 region n. (C) to live in a coastal /central region n. (C) The Quechua Indians also live in this region now, and they have …. Potato plants have flowers, leaves, stems, tubers and roots. These birds live in tropical regions. root a particular area or part of the world, of the body, etc. the part of a plant that grows under the ground, through which the plant gets water and food the thin layer of tissue forming the natural outer covering of the body of a person or animal the skin of a fruit/ vegetable Potato skin also has nutrients. Babies have soft skins. Word the roots of a tree vegetable/plant skin n. (C/U) flesh n. (UC) the edible pulpy part of a fruit or vegetable the flesh of a fruit/ vegetable Shown on a picture on page 53. to develop v. (T) grow or cause to grow and become more mature, advanced, or elaborate to develop under the ground … but it takes longer for the potatoes, 100 to 140 days, to develop under the ground. development when someone or something grows or n. (U) changes and becomes more advanced to develop into sth. the development of sth. Olive trees have deep roots. These pears have a sweet, juicy flesh. Over time, their relationship developed into a lasting friendship. The development in the third world countries is very important to may rich countries. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) Word to depend Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 v. (I) be controlled or determined by smth. or sb. to depend on sth./ sb. The color of the flower depends on the variety or type of the potato. Extra Examples Students’ future depends on how well they do in the exams such as ÖSS. male adj. belonging to the sex that does not give birth a male giraffe/student It contains both male and female flower parts. Male penguins variety n. (C/U) the/a variety of sth. The color of the flower depends on the variety or type of the potato. The girls come from a variety of different backgrounds. unfortunately various (adj.) adv. moist adj. a lot of things of the same type that are different from each other in some way different, more than a few used to say that something is sad, disappointing or has a bad effect slightly wet, especially in a good way seed n (C/U) to prevent v. (T) prevention n. (UC) unfortunately + sentence Unfortunately, broccoli cannot be grown all over the world ... moist soil/skin to become / keep remain moist …because it needs cool climate and moist soil. a small, hard object produced by plants, from which a new plant grows to stop something from happening, or stop someone from doing something to plant/produce /grow seed grass seed It takes 100 to 120 days for broccoli seeds to grow into plants. to prevent sth./sb. from (doing) sth. …. they prevent carcinogens from forming and stop these from getting to our body cells. the act of preventing smth., or things that people do to prevent smth. accident/crime/fire/ pollution prevention programs/projects Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) There are various ways of solving the problem. Unfortunately, I didn't have my credit card with me, so I couldn’t buy it. Make sure the soil is moist before planting the seeds. My hands became moist with sweat. She grew all the broccoli plants from seed. Most seeds are spread by the wind. His back injury may prevent him from playing in tomorrow's game. Studies on the prevention of cancer show that it is a genetic illness. Antonym : female Antonym: fortunately Antonym: dry Synonym: to stop sb./smth from doing smth. Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples n. (C/U) the importance or usefulness of something to have value for sb. to be of great/ high value to sb. In short, broccoli does not only have a good nutritional value but it also helps … valuable (adj.) very useful ad important valuable advice/lessons/informati on/resource/ friend These plates are of great value to archeologists. The stolen watch had great value for her. In his new job, he gained valuable experience. disease n. (C/U) an illness which affects a person, animal, or plant to have/prevent or suffer from a disease It gives you many ways to help fight and prevent diseases such as heart disease, …. She suffers from a rare disease of the brain. Reading 3 raw adj. not cooked raw food/material to eat/serve smth. raw Cabbage can be eaten raw. to handle v. (T) to touch something or pick it up and hold it in your hands to handle smth. gently/carefully X carelessly to thaw v. (T/I) to become softer and ready to cook as a result of warming up to thaw frozen food Never thaw raw meat and poultry by leaving them on the counter at room …. … it is important not to let bacteria from raw foods stay on our hands when we handle , i.e., touch or hold, food. The proper way to thaw such products is to either thaw them in the refrigerator or thaw them in a microwave… Word value Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) *invaluable: very useful The Internet is an invaluable resource for students. Synonym: illness, ailment Antonym : cooked We teach the children to handle the animals gently. The lake thawed in March. Synonym : melt Antonym : freeze to thaw = to thaw out to suffer v. (T/I) to experience physical or mental pain to suffer from sth. Every year, millions of people suffer from foodborne illnesses. She's suffering a lot of pain. Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) illness n. (T/I) a disease of the body or mind, or the condition of being ill to cause/have/ prevent/suffer from an illness These people do not even know it was food that caused their illness. Stress can cause mental illness. Synonym: disease, ailment safety n. (U) relating to how safe something is, or designed to make something safer … if you know the basics of food safety facts, this will help you not to become victims of …. not likely to cause any physical injury or harm victim n. (C) a person harmed, injured, or killed as a result of a crime, accident, or a disaster the victims of Aids, cancer/accident/ earthquake/disaster Parents fear for the safety of their children. We were able to watch the lions in safety. These are basic rules for home safety. Is it safe to swim here? In the house, they were safe from attack. Your money will be safe with me. The victims of the earthquake were provided food and medicine. Synonym: security safe (adj.) to fear for/improve /guarantee the safety of sb. to do smth. in safety for traffic/home/ food /child safety to be safe (for sb.) to do sth. safe with sb. safe from smth. level n. (C) a position on a scale of amount, quantity, extent, or quality rapidly adv. very quickly and in a very short time safe X dangerous/ high X low increasing = rising decreasing = falling levels of smth. above X below a/the level to grow/change/ rise expand / increase /fall rapidly Therefore, if you know the basics of food safety facts, this will help you not to become victims of foodborne illnesses. …because if they warm Her blood pressure has up, bacteria may grow to returned to its normal level. dangerous levels. Radiation was below the expected level. Word rapid (adj.) Happening, moving, acting very quickly a rapid increase/fall/ change/growth/rise in smth. If we transfer those The human population is bacteria to the food, they expanding rapidly will rapidly grow there. Scientists are worried about the rapid expansion of the human population. Antonym: unsafe, dangerous Antonym: slowly, gradually Synonym: fast Antonym: slow, gradual Synonym: fast Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning especially adv. particularly; for a particular reason to let v. (T) let-let not prevent or forbid; allow Word Collocation to let sb./smth. do smth. Use in OLR1 Extra Examples Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) Similarly, some food, especially raw food, contains a certain amount of bacteria in it as well. Therefore, it is important not to let bacteria from raw foods stay on our hands …… The children really liked the museum, specially the dinosaurs. Synonym: particularly My boss let me leave early. Synonym: to allow sb. to do smth. to permit sb. to do smth. Antonym: to forbid sb. to do smth. to forbid sb. from doing smth. to prohibit sb. from doing smth. contact n. (UC) a situation in which people or things touch each other to come/be in contact with smth. Because we grow fresh fruits and vegetables outside, they may come in contact with different kinds of bacteria. harmful adj. causing or likely to cause harm harmful bacteria /products /chemicals to be harmful to smth. Most of these bacteria are not harmful, but do not forget to wash fresh fruits .. harm v. (T) to injure, damage, or have a bad effect on sb. or smth. physical or other injury or damage to (seriously) harm sb. or smth. Human activities seriously harm the environment. Synonym: to damage to do /cause harm Human activities cause great environmental harm. Synonym: damage harm n. (UC) Don't let that glue come into contact with your skin. Have you been in contact with (= touched or been very near) anyone with the disease? Most human activities are harmful to the environment. Antonym : harmless Word to consume Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning v. (T) 1. to eat or drink 2. to use consumer n. (C) someone who buys and uses goods and services the use of smth. such as fuel, energy, food or the amount that people use consumptio n n. (UC) Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples …do not forget to wash fresh fruits and vegetables well under running water before you consume them. 1. He consumes(eats)a huge amount of food. 2. How much electricity do you consume(use) per month? In developed countries, there are organizations that protect consumers. Most people need to increase their daily consumption of fruit and vegetables. The Solmonella begins to multiply and grow at a room temperature. An increase in temperature will cause micro-organisms to multiply rapidly. Our sales have multiplied in the last 3 years. Even reheating the food cannot destroy the toxins of some bacteria. The school was completely destroyed by fire. to protect/persuade consumers to increase/ decrease reduce/encourage/ the cigarette/gas/ food/water/energy/ petrol consumption to multiply rapidly /quickly to multiply v. (T/I) increase or cause to increase greatly in number or quantity to destroy v. (T) to damage smth. so badly that it no longer exists or cannot be used to completely destroy sth. to be destroyed by fire/a bomb ..etc destruction n. (U) the act or process of destroying something or of being destroyed to bring (about)/cause lead to/result in/stop/ prevent the destruction of sth. environmental, forest, habitat destruction Half the world’s rainforests have already been destroyed. An earthquake destroyed the town, killing about 20,000 people. destructive (adj.) causing severe damage or harm to be highly/very/ environmentally destructive to smth. The bomb had an enormous destructive power. These substances can be destructive to health. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples n. (C) a small hole that lets liquid or gas flow into or out of something Never eat canned food if the can has a leak. leak v. (I/T) if an object or container leaks, or if it leaks smth., liquid or gas comes out of it through a hole or crack to have to cause/stop /fix/repair/find/ discover a a leak in smth. to leak badly There is a leak in the roof. The boat had a small leak. I called a plumber to repair the leak in the pipe. The house was old and the roof leaked quite badly. They discovered that the pipe was leaking dangerous gas. consequence n. (C) something that happens as a result of a particular action or set of conditions to accept/consider/ face/suffer/bear the consequences of sth. disastrous/serious/tragic /unfortunate consequences The consequences of foodborne illnesses are not worth the money you will save. We should consider the longterm consequences before deciding. Climate change have serious consequences for farmers. Reading 4 to survive v. (I/T) to continue to live after an accident, war, or illness Plants grow and survive, i.e., continue to live, using 16 chemical elements. Only 12 of the 140 passengers survived. survival n.(U) the state of continuing to live or exist In addition, plants use large amounts for their growth and survival so the soil usually lacks … The doctors gave him only a 50% chance of survival. Nitrogen (N), phosporus (P) and potassium (K) are the three major ones. Smoking is one of the major causes of cancer. Word leak the survival of species chances of survival major adj. important, serious, large, or great a major factor/problem/ change Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) As a consequence= as a result. She didn’t wear thick clothes. As a consequence, she got ill. Antonym : minor Word to lack Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples v. (T) to not have something that you need, or not have enough of it to lack confidence/skills/ experience … for their growth and survival so the soil usually lacks these. Alex's real problem is that he lacks confidence. lack (n.)(C/UC) a situation in which you do not have any, or enough, of something become rotten; decay or cause to decay a lack of confidence lack of support to decompose v. (T/I) quantity n. (C/U) an amount of something that can be counted or measured in large/small/vast quantities available adj. able to be used or obtained; at someone's disposal to be/become (easily/ freely) available to/for sb. purpose n. (C) the reason for which something is done or created to serve/achieve a purpose for different/various purposes The match was cancelled because of lack of support. …when organic matter in the soil decomposes ,i.e., dies and breaks into pieces. …such as boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn) in very small quantities. The needed amounts are available in the soil; the plants can get them easily. Plants use all these nutrients for a variety of purposes. The body had begun to decompose. Add 50 grams of butter, and the same quantity of sugar. Computer labs should be available to all students. This information is freely available to anyone who wants to see it. What is the purpose of your visit? OLR 1/ UNIT 4 Reading 1 existence n.(UC) when someone or something exists to cover v.(T) to put or spread something over something, or to lie on the surface of smth to believe in/ discover/explain/ threaten the existence of smth. to cover smth. with smth. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) The oceans are central to existence of life on our planet. They cover about 70% of the Earth’s surface. People still argue about the existence of UFOs. Climate changes threaten the existence of some animals. Snow covered the hillsides. How much of the Earth's surface is covered with water? in large quantities =in large amounts on purpose = intentionally Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning approximately adv. used for showing that an amount, number, time etc is not exact supply n.(C) an amount or quantity of something that is available to use creature n.(C) living things such as human beings, animals but not plants to rely v.(T) to rely on to rely on sb./smth. for sth. recreation n.(U) to need a particular thing or the help and support of someone or something in order to continue, to work correctly, or to succeed (activities done for) enjoyment or amusement to affect v.(T) to have an effect on sth.; to make a difference to sth. the result of a particular influence Word n. (C/UC) effect Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) They contain approximately 97% of the Earth’s water supply. The plane will land in approximately 15 minutes. There are approximately 100 students in the class. Synonyms: almost, about, around, roughly They contain approximately 97% of the Earth’s water supply. Aquarium fish need a supply of oxygen. The largest creatures on earth (whales) and the smallest ones (bacteria and viruses) live in the same oceans. We rely on the oceans for many things. Few living creatures can survive without water. The crocodile is a strange creature. recreation facilities /activities/interests/ area/room/park We also use them (the oceans) for transportation and recreation (e.g. swimming, surfing and sailing). His favorite recreations are golf and rugby. The fields next to the school are used for recreation. to affect sth. The oceans affect the weather and temperature. The weather began to affect my health. Synonym: to influence Smoking has negative effects on one’s health. Synonym: (C/UC) influence a constant/endless/ steady/abundant supply of smth. food/ water/ electricity supply living/simple/tiny wild creature(s) to have negative/ positive effects on smth. We have to rely on the river for water. The school relies on families’ financial support. Synonyms: to depend on Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) to moderate v.(T/I) to moderate sth. (by doing sth.) They moderate the Earth’s temperature by absorbing solar heat. The protester groups refused to moderate their demands. Synonym: to lessen, to lower to distribute v.(T) to make sth. become less effective or less extreme; to lessen the extremeness of sth. to give out sth. to several places, people etc. to distribute sth. equally/fairly/ randomly to distribute sth. between /among/to sb. The ocean water distributes this heat energy around the earth. disaster (droughts, floods, storms) n.(C) something bad that causes great damage or loss of life; such as drought, flood, storm DROUGHT: low rainfall, shortage of water FLOOD: an overflow of large amounts of water STORM: strong winds usually with rain, thunder, lightning or snow a disaster hits/strikes an area awful/big/ great /major/terrible disaster to survive/face/ suffer a disaster Unfortunately, the oceans may also change weather and climate and sometimes cause droughts, floods and storms. The teacher distributed the homework sheets. We distributed the money equally among the team members. The flood was a terrible disaster; hundreds of people died. Helicopters are taking food supplies to the disaster area. force n. (C/UC) the physical strength or energy that causes motion or change; active power force of wind/ the moon/explosion Various forces can cause ocean waves but the most common cause is the wind. wave n.(C) the rising and moving part or swell of a sea/ocean big/huge/small/tidal wave(s) Various forces can cause Several villages have been ocean waves but the destroyed by a huge tidal most common cause is wave. the wind. Word The force of explosion broke all the windows in the building. Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples pressure n.(UC) the amount of force that a gas or liquid produces in an area or container ….. undersea volcanoes, atmospheric pressure) but the most common cause is the wind. Scientific research shows that smoking causes an increase in blood pressure. to blow v. (I) (blew, blown) (of wind) to move and create an air current atmospheric/air/ water/blood pressure high/low pressure pressure increases/ falls/builds up to blow hard/strongly/gently The wind is blowing very hard tonight. to grab v.(T) to take or seize smth. usually with one’s hand suddenly to grab smth. suddenly phrasal verb v.(T) to collect or take smth. that was left somewhere else to pick up smth. to pick smth. up friction n. (UC) to cause/generate/ produce/reduce friction to result in phrasal verb v.(I) the action of one surface or object rubbing against another to cause something, or to produce something I have to go back in the house and grab my car keys. He grabbed the money and ran away. Pick up all your things before we leave the beach. I picked up the magazine that was lying on the table. Oil in car engines reduces friction. Synonym: to grasp to pick up As the wind blows across the water surface, air molecules from the wind touch and grab…. ….the water surface, air molecules from the wind touch and grab the water molecules. …..air molecules from the wind touch and grab –take or pick up- the water molecules. This force, or friction, results in small waves called ripples. This force, or friction, results in small waves called ripples. A sudden change in temperature will result in rain. The crash resulted in the deaths of 14 passengers. result n.(C) to be the specific outcome, effect Synonym: to cause, to lead to, to bring about Antonym: to result from Smoking results in cancer. Cancer results from smoking. Synonym: effect Word to result in sth. to have/produce/get achieve/obtain(good/ positive) results His illness is the result of his bad eating habits. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) horizontally adv. parallel to the ground; parallel to the horizon to move horizontally Waves of water do not move horizontally. Antonym: vertically rise n.(C) regular adj. an upward movement; the act of going up formed or arranged in a constant and definite pattern; following an organized order periodic rise and fall (of ocean waves) regular change/ meeting/study/ exercise Tides are periodic rises and falls of large bodie ….in other words, they are regular changes in the surface water level of the oceans. If you put the books horizontally, they will take less space. We watched the rise and fall of the waves…… They hold regular meetings in the town. This job has regular working hours. Word Synonyms: habitual, periodic, constant Antonym: irregular rotating adj. sth. that rotates rotating Earth to rotate v.(I) to move or cause to move around one’s own axis to seem, to have an outward aspect to rotate around sth. to appear v.(I) to appear + adj. blue/calm/rude/big to reflect v.(T) to send back light, heat and sound to reflect light from somewhere to alter v.(I/T) to make something or sb. different; to become different to alter sth. smth. alter(s) greatly /slightly odd adj. not regular, not normal, quite different odd colors/ behavior appearance In 24 hours, the rotating earth passes through both of these bulges ….. The Earth rotates around its axis once every 24 hours. The ocean appears blue because it reflects the blue color of the sky. The ocean appears blue because it reflects the blue color of the sky. That’s why clouds or sunset can alter the water’s color. The dog appears happy to see its owner. There are, of course, some seas with odd colors. She had an odd look on her face. The people in the town were odd. Synonym: to seem, to look The sea reflected the clouds above. Our appearance alters as we get older. Synonyms: to change, to modify, to remake Synonyms: unusual, strange, peculiar Antonyms: normal, usual, ordinary Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) almost adv. close to the actual but not completely the same to look almost + adj The Black Sea looks almost black because there is little oxygen but a lot of hydrogen …. Look at the clock! It’s almost midnight! The school was almost empty because of snow. Synonyms: approximately, nearly Antonyms: absolutely, completely Reading 2 to reach v.(T/I) to arrive at somewhere; get to a place to try to/fail to reach some She said “Goodbye” as she reached the door. The seashells reached the shore and we collected them. to float v(I) to float on the (surface of) water/in the air shore n. (C) to move slowly on the surface of a liquid or in the air the land along the edge of a sea, lake or a bigger body of water They can be found as far down as 130 feet, or even deeper if the sunlight can reach them. It is thin and delicate and often floats near the shore or the beach. It is thin and delicate and often floats near the shore or the beach. to gain sth. again, after losing it to regain strength/ form / appearance Word to regain v. (T) to gain v(T/I) to get or achieve smth. usually as a result of a lot of effort appearance n. (UC) the way that someone or something looks throughout prep. in or to every part of a place or an object on the shores of…. to be from/off the shore It gets crispy when dried out, but regains its soft, leafy appearance when wet. to gain fortune/ access/experience/ the advantage of sth. throughout + place throughout Europe/ the world/the country It gets crispy when dried out, but regains its soft, leafy appearance when wet. Ulva is found throughout the world. Will this material sink or float? We could see a boat a mile from/off the shore. We managed to swim to the shore. After the treatment in the hospital, he regained his strength. Turkey gained independence in 1923. She gained experience by working abroad for a year. There was nothing unusual about/in her physical appearance. Pollution is a problem in major cities throughout the world. Synonym: coast Synonym: to gain back Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) edible adj. stmh. that can be eaten; eatable an edible organism plant/animal It is a beautiful and an edible organism. This is a plant with edible leaves. majority n. most of the people or things in a group a/the majority (of students/employees) A majority of the voters support the policy. depth n.(C) the distance from the surface/top to the bottom of smth. at a depth of …meters to be … meters in depth They can be freefloating, but the majority hold on to a hard surface ….. They can be found to depths of about 100 feet (30 meters). Synonym: eatable Antonym: inedible majority can be followed by a singular or plural verb deep (adj.) going a long way down from the top or the surface not deep; having a little depth Word shallow adj. except prep. not including; but not widely adv. including a lot of different places, people, subjects, etc. derivative n.(C) to restrict v.(T) smth. that is based on another source; smth. that comes from another thing to put a limit on; to keep smth. within limits to be …meters deep The shallow region of the ocean/sea/lake except for + (n.) except that + sentence Seaweeds live along the shore in the shallow region of the ocean …. Seaweeds are found in all of the oceans except the waters of the tropical western coast of Africa. widely used/known/ available methods to change/vary/ differ widely to be (a/the) derivative of sth. Carrageenan is the most widely used derivative of red algae. to restrict sb./sth. to sth. The use of carrageenan is not restricted to food products. Carrageenan is the most widely used derivative of red algae. These fish typically live at depths of 500 feet or more. The boat sank to a depth of several hundred feet. The river is quite deep here. There were high hills and deep valleys. The shallow end of the pool is only 3 feet deep. Antonym: shallow Antonym: deep The stores will be open daily except Sundays. Everyone was at the party except for Sally. They look very similar except that one is a little taller. These books are widely read by kids and adults. The products of the company are widely available. The word “childish” is the derivative of “child”. Antonym: including I will restrict myself to one glass of wine a day. Synonyms: to limit Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) present adj. to be present in sth. linker Carrageenan is also present in toothpaste, shampoo, …. It is used in many of the same ways as carrageenan. However, it is also used in cosmetics ….. Oxygen and nitrogen are the two important gases present in the Earth’s atmosphere. I don’t have any eggs; I however, I can still make us a nice breakfast. Antonym: absent however to be in sth. or in a particular place; to be existing in sth. on the other hand; but main adj. of greatest importance; the most important main road/idea/group Our main problem is lack of resources. marine adj. related to or found in the sea marine species/ plants /life calm adj. (for things) not or slightly moving to be/become/look calm There are three main groups of seaweeds: they are green, …. …the red algae, contains more marine species than the brown algae. At depths such as this, the water is much calmer and the algae are more delicate. probably adv. almost certainly; seems reasonably true or expected Together with the kelp, this group probably contains the most economically … Look at the clouds, it will probably rain today. This was probably the best concert I’ve ever been to. Reading 3 smooth adj. having an even and regular surface Their skin is smooth, and it is like a hardboiled egg without the shell. The rocks on the beach are quite smooth because of the wind and waves. Word However can be used at the beginning of, in the middle of or at the end of a sentence. a smooth skin/surface He loves collecting little marine creatures at the beach. The sea looks much calmer today. The weather will become calmer this week. “However” gives us the meaning that among the two statements said; the second will be of opposite/differ ent meaning from the first. Synonyms: primary, chief, Antonym: rough Antonym: rough Word to breathe Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples v.(I) to take air into one’s lungs and expel it They breathe through their blowholes, i.e. the openings in the ….. Always breathe your nose. He wants to live where he can breathe clean air. breath n. (C) to breathe through nose/mouth to breathe deeply/ quickly / fast/slowly to take a (deep /big) breath to migrate v.(I) the air that goes in and out of your body through nose or mouth to move from one to migrate from .. to .. region or habitat to to migrate North/ South in another according to groups seasons/temperature to feed v.(I) (fed, fed) to satisfy one’s hunger; to eat particular things in a particular area. v.(T) to give food to sb. or sth. journey n. (C) the act of travelling from one place to another to make/go on/start a journey from…to… The journey begins in the cold waters of the Chucki and Bering Seas. It will be an 8-hour train journey. to view v.(T) to look at smth. usually attentively to view smth. to view smth. from smth./somewhere ……the coast, many people enjoy going out on boats to view them. The building is more impressive when you view it from the front. shelter n. (C) a place that gives temporary protection from bad weather or danger to find/need/build /make a shelter in/under the shelter of Gray whales, also called California whales, head south for two reasons: to find shelter and calve. We made a shelter from branches. People ran for shelter when the rain started. to feed in a place to feed on sth. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) Take a deep breath and try to relax. Gray whales migrate south for the winter after feeding in the northern waters. He migrates from New York to Florida each winter. Many workers migrate to this area in summer. ….he winter after feeding in the northern waters. ….by small parasites that feed on their dead skin. The birds usually feed on worms. He feeds the horses with apples, oats and hay. Synonym: to watch, to see Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) predator n. (C) an animal that lives by hunting other animals a natural predator A natural predator of gray whales is the orca, or killer whale. Wolves are one of the main predators of small mammals. to bother v. (T) to disturb, to cause trouble, to annoy to be bothered by sth.= (to be disturbed by sth.) Gray whales are also bothered by small parasites that feed on their dead skin. predator vs. prey prey: an animal that is caught by another animal and eaten Synonym: to disturb, to trouble sb. to remove v. (T ) to take sth. away or off the position that it was in/on to remove sth. from somewhere to enter v. (I/T) to go or come in a place to enter somewhere through/by .. to kill v.(T) to cause the death of sth. or sb. to kill sth./sb. to be killed in a war/ accident etc. to hunt v.(T) to follow and kill an animal for sport or food an animal or person who hunts animals to hunt an animal Word hunter n. (C) I called your office because I didn’t want to bother you at home. Are the children bothering you? They can remove these He removed his child from parasites by entering the the class. mouths of rivers. Will you remove your makeup now? They can remove these We entered through a large parasites by entering iron gate. the mouths of rivers. Knock on the door before you enter the classroom. Fresh water kills the The disease killed thousands parasites. of people. He was killed in a car accident. In the autumn, they hunt deer. … of gray whales has been the human hunters. Hunters must have a license to shoot deer. Antonyms: to exit, to depart, to leave When a person’s life ends, he “dies”. If somebody else causes his life to end, he is “killed”. Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning species n.(C) a group of living organisms who share the same genes and biological family endangered adj. species whose number is too low and whose existence might end sewage n. (UC) waste, dirty water and human excrement in sewers pollution n. (UC) Word to observe Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) There are approximately 8000 species of ants. species (both plu. and sing.) In 1946, the United States added the gray whales to the Endangered Species Act. Pandas are among the endangered species and hunting them is banned now. The number of the endangered species is very small; they are becoming extinct or they are dying out. to dump/pump/treat sewage Cities dump sewage, garbage and chemicals into the oceans, ….. In some parts of the country raw sewage is pumped straight in the sea. damage caused to water, air, etc. by harmful substances or waste air/water/noise pollution to cause/avoid, prevent/control/ fight pollution Another problem is the The level of air pollution is noise pollution—whales rising every day. use sounds mainly to … Lots of fishes die because of water pollution. to pollute (v.) to make an area or substance, usually air, water or earth, dirty or harmful to people, animals and plants to pollute the environment v.(T) to look at or watch smth. carefully to understand to observe smth. carefully/closely from smwh. living x extinct common x rare endangered/wild threatened species animal/bird/fish/plant/tre e species Substances that are harmful to the environment are called pollutants. Some companies dump e.g. air, chemical waste, and this environmental, pollutes the environment. water, chemical, industrial pollutants …whales use sounds mainly to observe their world and hearing is the most important sense.. We use telescope to observe stars. The doctors will observe the patient. Synonym: to watch Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples sense n.(C) Human beings have five senses. His senses were quite clear; even though he was ill. n.(C) a sense of hearing seeing/sight/touch smell/taste to have/lose/regain senses sixth/poor/good senses to hear/make/emit produce a/the sound of smth. …whales use sounds mainly to observe their world and hearing is the most important sense for them. sound an ability to understand something, especially any of the five physical abilities to see, hear, smell, taste and feel a thing that can be heard Gray whales may be affected by the sound of the heavy boat traffic that exists on their migratory routes. Light travels faster than sound. … called the Devil’s triangle, is a strange and mysterious place in the North Atlantic Ocean … In other words, there was no one on board and so there was no evidence to solve the mystery. In other words, there was no one on board and so there was no evidence to solve the mystery. A mysterious person provided the money for us. We heard a mysterious noise outside our tent. His disappearance still remains a mystery. It is roughly the shape of a triangle and has its three points at Florida, Puerto Rico and Bermuda. There were roughly 300 people in the place. The cost of the two systems is roughly equal. Word Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) Can you hear that annoying sound that she is making? deafening/loud/soft/ clear/powerful sound Reading 4 mysterious adj. difficult or impossible to understand, explain, define or identify a mysterious place/ death/event mystery n.(C) a secret, unclear thing that people cannot easily understand or explain a mystery about smth. a mystery to sb. to solve/explain/ understand a mystery to solve v.(T) to find an answer to sth; find an explanation to sth. to solve a problem/a mystery roughly adv. used for showing that an amount, number, time etc is not exact They are working to solve the traffic problem. Synonym: almost Word happening disappearance rescue Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) n. (C) smth. that happened unexplained/strange/my sterious happenings many unexplained happenings in the area since the mid-19th …. She gave the details of the happenings of the weekend. to happen v(I) to take place, usually without being planned, to occur by chance a situation in which the (mysterious someone or something sudden)disappearance of can no longer be found smth. from smwh. or seen when someone in a rescue team/unit/ service dangerous situation is /operation helped and made safe to help someone or to rescue sb./an animal something out of a from smwh. dangerous, harmful or unpleasant situation a place, thing or a an abandoned ship/house person that is left forever to leave a place, thing to abandon sb/sth. or person forever Synonyms: occurrence, event Synonym: to occur, to take place n.(C/UC) n.(C/UC) v. (T) to rescue abandoned adj. to abandon v(I) evidence n. (UC) the available facts or information that tell sth. is true or valid to occur v.(I) to happen, to take place strong/good evidence of/for sth. What happened at school today? The first recorded disappearance of a ship in the Bermuda Triangle occurred in March 1918. However, when the rescue teams reached there, they could not … …. ships or planes or all they could find was an abandoned ship. Nobody could explain the disappearance of the money from my desk. Lifeboats carry out many rescues every month. The police rescued the survivors of the ship. The lifeboat rescued the sailors from the sinking boat. Children played in the garden of the abandoned house. We had to abandon the car. He was abandoned by his mother when he was a baby. Synonym: to leave In other words, there was no one on board and so there was no evidence to solve the mystery. There is no evidence that he killed his wife. He couldn’t find enough evidence to support his theory. Synonym: proof …disappearance of a ship in the Bermuda Triangle occurred in March 1918. The accident occurred at about 3.30 pm. Synonym: to happen, to take place Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples to react v.(I) to act in a particular way as a direct result of something else to react with/to smth. According to the theory, the waves in the ocean react with the currents, winds and other waves, and form new waves. to sink v.(T/I) (sank, sunk) 1. to go down below the surface of a liquid, usually the sea, without control 2. to make sth. sink to sink a ship These huge and dangerous waves can break up and even sink very large ships. The workers reacted angrily to the job losses at the factory. Many people react (badly) to penicillin. Potassium reacts (= changes when mixed) with water. The enemy sank three ships last night. Word a ship/boat sinks current n. (C) a body of water or air that moves in a definite direction ocean/sea tidal current(s) phenomenon n. (C) a fact or situation that happens, but the cause is usually not found or is not clear natural/strange/new phenomena/ phenomenon to agree v.(I) to have the same opinion (agree with ) to collectively reach a decision (agree on) to agree with sb. to agree on sth. n. (C/UC) agreement when people have the same opinion, or when they approve of or accept smth to be in (full/mutual) agreement with sb. about/on smth. According to the theory, the waves in the ocean react with the currents, winds and other waves, and form new waves. …Gulf Stream is the fourth theory, which tries to explain the phenomena in the area. Scientists cannot agree on a single theory to explain the mystery of the things going on in the area. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) The ship sank off the coast during a storm. The current is strongest in the middle of the river. They are talking about natural phenomena like lightning and earthquakes. Your body language doesn’t agree with what you’re saying. We can all agree on one thing: the law must be changed. The whole family was in agreement with her about/on what they should do. More commonly used version of the word is “phenomena”, the plural form. Antonym: to disagree Antonym: disagreement, dispute Word to apply Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples v.(I) to be relevant to a particular person or a thing to apply to sth. Perhaps, more than one theory applies to the Bermuda Triangle. This rule does not apply to our case. The questions apply only to married men. That section of the form is for UK citizens - it doesn't apply to you. Those were old regulations they don't apply any more. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) OLR 1/ UNIT 5 Reading 1 pioneer n. (C) to design v(T) success a person who is the first to do, research or develop smth. to do or plan sth. with a specific purpose to be a pioneer in sth. to design sth. Charles Babbage was a pioneer in computer science. Still others designed gliders, and then the Wright Brothers made the first airplane. He was one of the early pioneers of color photography. A team of engineers designed the new engine. n.(C/UC) the desired, wanted outcome; the accomplishment of an aim or purpose a path to success a real success to have a success in smth. In 1891, Otto Lilienthal had the first real success in controlled glider flight. The growth of the tourism industry is the city’s greatest success. full adj. containing, having as much as possible; having no empty space to be full of sth. In 1891, Otto Lilienthal had the first real success in controlled glider flight We bought a full set of dishes. This bin is full of corn. to record v(T) information kept about something that has happened the last recorded case/jump Many years passed before the next recorded jump. The levels of recorded crime are increasing day by day. Record (n): the noun of “record” is pronounced differently from the verb. Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples steam n. (UC) the vapor of water when it is heated; the gaseous form of water to produce steam to run on steam The boat runs on steam. The bowl of water on the fire soon produced lots of steam. rigid adj. not flexible, unable to bend or fold a rigid box Then another Frenchman flew a balloon that moved with steam. They flew at 18 mph and had a rigid metal frame. fixed adj. a fixed wing/shelf n. (C) smart adj. to try v(T) to make an effort or attempt to do sth. to try to do sth. He knew that the only way a man could fly was to use a fixed wing… He knew that the only way a man could fly was to use a fixed wing… They were smart and they taught themselves the principles of filght. A physician, Abbas İbnFirmas, tried to fly using wings. That’s a fixed shelf, so you cannot change its place. wing being securely in position; cannot change a part of a bird, bat or insect that allows it to fly clever, intelligent to invent v(T) to create or design sth. that didn’t exist before sth. that was invented to invent sth. Word invention n. (C) a fixed wing to be smart (enough to do sth.) a real/important invention in fact connector A connector used to emphasize that sth. is true In fact + sentence to attach v(T) to join, add or fasten to sth. else to attach sth. (to sth.) to attach wings/a document With these tries theories developed and these theories turned into real inventions. He jumped from a tower using two large hats. In fact, Emperor Shin did not really fly… He covered himself with feathers, attached wings and flew for some distance. Plastic is a seat rigid material. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) Synonym: hard The parrot’s wings are blue, red and yellow. He’s smart enough to know that he can’t run the business without help. She tried to lose 10 kg in a week. Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. The light bulb was one of the most important inventions of the 19th century. She knew him well. In fact, he was one of her old friends. The handle attaches here, on the top. She attached a note to the package. Synonyms: intelligent, clever, witty Synonym: to attempt Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples distance n. (C) the length of the space between two points to fly a long/short distance What is the distance between the Earth and the Sun? to injure v(T) to do physical harm or damage to sb. to injure one’s back/arm/leg etc. principle n. (C) the laws or facts of nature to discover the principle of … to discover v(T) to find sth. unexpectedly or during a search to discover smth. He covered himself with feathers, attached wings and flew for some distance. He tried to land like a bird and crashed to the ground, injuring his back. During Greek times, a great mathematician, Archimedes, discovered the principle of buoyancy, i.e., ability to float. …Archimedes, discovered the principle of buoyancy, i.e., the ability to float. able adj. having the power, skill, means, opportunity to do sth. the quality or state of being able to be able to do sth. Word ability n. (C) to have the ability to to sth engine n. (C) a machine with moving parts that converts power into motion to use/have an engine frame n. (C) a rigid structure that surrounds sth. such as a picture, door or window a metal/steel frame The explosion injured several people. You first have to learn the principles of hydraulics. Firemen discovered a body in the river. He was able to read Greek at the age of 8. … Archimedes, discovered the principle of buoyancy, i.e., the ability to float. About fifteen years later, a German man, Zeppelin, used an engine to fly balloons for the first time. They flew 18 mph and had a rigid metal frame. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) She was a beautiful young woman with many remarkable musical abilities. The car has a four-cylinder engine. I need new frames for my glasses. I will buy a picture frame for my brother’s birthday. Synonym: to be capable of doing smth. Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples vehicle n. (C) a thing for transporting people or goods, especially on land, such as car or lorry motor/sport utility/recreational vehicles The first manned heavier-than-air flight vehicle in history was built by George Cayley. to base on phrasal verb v. (T) to base smth. (up)on sth. Hang-gliders of today are based upon Lilienthal’s plans. to stretch v. (T) to stretch out/across/to/away sth. v. (T) bottom n. (C) the lowest part of something the bottom of sth. Blimps are large balloons stretched out to look like an egg or cigar. Blimps are large balloons stretched out to look like an egg or cigar. By adding a wooden keel along the bottom of the blimp, this problem was solved and larger blimps could be built. Rubber will stretch easily when it is pulled. to look like to use particular ideas or facts to make a decision, or develop a theory be made or be capable of being made longer or wider without tearing or breaking to have the appearance or give the impression of being The vehicle’s driver was seriously injured in the crash. Have you seen this car? It’s a good-looking vehicle. The film is based on a series of books by J.K. Rowling. v(T) (bent, bent) to shape or force into a curve or angle difficult/easy to bend to bend back/ forward/ down/ The problem was….they would bend if there was a heavy weight on them. Can you bend the wire into a circle, please? She bent down to pick up a piece of paper, and then she straightened up again. v. (T) to move something from a lower to a higher position to lift sth. These larger blimps were able to lift many people and much more weight. Could you help me lift this table, please? Word Reading 2 to bend to lift to look like sth./sb. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) The home looked like a prison. He stood at the bottom of the stairs and called up to me. Antonym: top Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples passenger n. (C) to carry a passenger This is a large box or room under the blimp for carrying passengers. The passengers got off the train and filled the station. power plant n. (C) a person who is travelling in a vehicle but is not driving it or , flying it an engine or other apparatus which provides power for a machine, building, etc. Power plant is the place in which the energy is generated. engine n. (C) a machine that uses the energy from fuel to produce movement a jet/diesel/steam engine The third part of the blimp is the power plant, or engines, which are at the end of the gondola. The engines are big enough to move the blimp in all directions. to run on phrasal verb to work, to operate to run on gas/oil/batteries The first engine was steam, but today all the blimp engines run on gas. This engine runs on batteries. direction n. (C) directional (adj.) a course along which someone or something moves to move/go in a direction The engines are big enough to move the blimp in all directions. He was going in the direction of the bedroom. to allow v. (T) let (someone) have or do something to allow sb./sth. to do sth. The controls of the blimp allow it to go up, down and forward smoothly. You're not allowed to talk during the exam. forward adv. towards the direction that is in front of you to go/move/walk forward The controls of the blimp allow it to go up, down and forward smoothly. Troops moved forward and attacked the enemy. Word Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) My car's engine is causing trouble. Synonym: to operate on smth. Synonym: to permit sb. to do smth. to let sb. do smth. Word vertical Part of Speech/ Different Forms adj. vertically (adv.) Meaning Collocation Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, etc.) standing or pointing straight up or at an angle of 90° to a horizontal surface or line a hinged flap on the tailplane of an aircraft, typically one of a pair, used to control the motion of the aircraft about its lateral axis. to make smth. full vertical movement Controls include propellers, rudders (horizontal movements) and elevators (vertical movements). Controls include propellers, rudders (horizontal movements) and elevators (vertical movements). Planes move vertically when they take off the ground. Antonym : horizontal Today, blimps are filled with helium, which does not burn. …. the largest blimp ever built, called the Hindenburg, blew up at the New Jersey Naval Air Station …… They are much safer and are mainly used for advertising, aerial photography, sightseeing, and as a TV platform for sporting events. The office was filled with reporters. elevator n. (C) to fill v. (T) to blow up phrasal verb (I/T) to explode smth. blows up (I) to blow up smth. (T) advertising n. (U) the business of trying to persuade people to buy products or services to be used for advertising to make something known generally or in public, especially in order to sell it anything that happens, especially something important or unusual to advertise sth. to advertise for sth. event to advertise (v.) (T/I) advertiser (n.) n. (C) to fill smth. with smth. a sporting event They are much safer and are mainly used for advertising, aerial photography, sightseeing, and as a TV platform for sporting events. Elevators are responsible for vertical movements to control the blimps. The car blew up when its door was opened. Terrorists threatened to blow up the school. Advertising is an important of running a business. We advertised our car in the local newspaper. I'm going to advertise for someone to clean my house. This year's Olympic Games will be the biggest ever sporting event. Antonym: to empty Word Part of Speech/ Different Forms adj. Meaning Collocation Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries keeping or showing a balance ; in good proportions to keep sth. balanced …of a boat that forms part of its structure and helps to keep the boat balanced in the water. She assembled a balanced team. balance (n.) a state where things are of equal weight or force to keep /lose balance to involve v (T) to have or include as a necessary and important part to involve sth. to involve doing smth. thrust n.(UC) the push or drive done with force balanced She lost her balance and fell. Reading 3 to oppose v (T) to be resistant to sth. to contrast or counterbalance drag n. (UC) the pull done with force to push v (T) to press sth. with force so that it goes forward. to oppose sth. to push sth. The flight of an airplane involves four forces: lift, drag, thrust, and weight. The thrust forces the pane forward in the direction of flight and the drag force opposes the thrust. The thrust forces the pane forward in the direction of flight and the drag force opposes the thrust. Renovating the house involved hiring a plumber. The thrust forces the pane forward in the direction of flight and the drag force opposes the thrust. Can this device resist the drag of the sea current? … and this force pushes the plane up against the weight. He slowly pushed the door open. He thrust his fist into the air. You should thrust the knife into his heart. The governor opposes the death penalty. She pushed her chair back and stood up. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, etc.) Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 flow n. (C) (of a liquid, gas, or electricity) the steady and continuous move in a current or stream. air/water flow There are two air She watched the flow of movements, or air flows, water in the pond for 3 around a typical wing. hours. curved adj. having the form of a curve; bent. to combine v (T) to bring two or more things/pieces together in one. to combine sth. with sth. net adj. what remains after all the contributions are left out. the net weight/ score either … or paired conjunction one of the two options given either sth. or sth. either (v) or (v) to overcome v (T) to succeed in dealing with sth. to overcome sth. /difficulty/problem Word to defeat sth. Extra Examples Modern aircraft have a curved upper surface on the wing …. Birds with long curved beaks are usually hunters. When the two forces combine, the net force is lift, which pushes the plane upwards. When the two forces combine, the net force is lift, which pushes the plane upwards. They push fast-moving air out behind the plane, by either propeller or jet. The fast-moving air overcomes weight and drag and causes the plane to move forward. The two companies combined force and made a bigger company together. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) The net weight is then, 8,7 kg. I am not sure. She either likes me or hates me. He overcame his pain after a long time. due to connector thanks to, because of, as a result of due to + noun It may also develop due to the velocity of the plane. The classes are cancelled due to heavy snow. Due to his uptight parents, he lost his job. carefully adv. sth done in an attentive, careful, concerned way. to listen to sb. /smth. carefully Airplane engineers consider all these point carefully to reduce the drag. She always drives carefully, yet she had an accident last week. Synonym: to deal with, to cope with Antonym: carelessly Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples Reading 4 angle n. (C) the space between two lines or surfaces at the point at which they touch each other at an angle from all angles Therefore, a boomerang must be thrown almost vertically at an angle of 50 to the right or left, facing the wind. In any triangle, the longest side is opposite the largest angle. backward adj. directed behind or to the rear to go/ move backward Thus, the forward moving wing experiences more lift than the backward moving wing. She left the room without a backward glance. be subject to adj. to have or experience a particular thing, especially something unpleasant to be subject to sth. As with anything flying through the air, a boomerang is subject to drag and its own weight. In recent years, she has been subject to attacks of depression. circle n. (C) a round plane figure to sit in a circle to draw a circle As the spinning boomerang flies through the air, it begins to turn in a wide circle. We sat in a circle. to connect v. (I/T) connected (adj.) connection (n.) to join or be joined with something else to connect sth. to sth. The boomerang looks like two curved wings connected together. Can I connect my printer to your computer? Synonym: to link, to combine device n. (C) an object or machine which has been invented for a particular purpose useful/complex/ simple device The boomerang is a simple device, but it relies on complex aerodynamics and physics. A scales is a measuring device. Synonym : tool Word Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) Antonym : forward Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples difference n. (C/U) different (adj.) point or way in which people or things are dissimilar the difference between sth./sb. and sth./sb. to make a difference The difference in pressure causes lift. Exercise can make a big difference to your state of health. effect n. (C/U) to affect (v.)(T) the result of a particular influence negative/long-term effect The spin has two effects on the boomerang as it travels through the air. I tried taking tablets for the headache but they didn't have any effect. enemy n. (C) to attack/kill enemy The killer-stick could fly Max stole Lee's girlfriend very far to strike and kill and they've been enemies an animal or enemy. ever since. to face v. (T/I) a person who hates or opposes another person and tries to harm them or stop them from doing something be positioned with the face or front towards to face windows/the door/the screen He turned to face her. to get away phrasal verb. to leave or escape from a person or place, often when it is difficult to do this to get away from sth. to hunt v. (I) The real weapon used by Aborigines, Australian natives, was the killer-stick. The killer-stick is like the boomerang but it does not return! The natives of Africa live in tribes. to return pursue and kill (a wild animal) for sport or food a person born in a specified place or associated with a place by birth to come or go back to a previous place to hunt an animal for food native v. (I/T) hunter (n.)(C) n. (C) Therefore, a boomerang must be thrown almost vertically at an angle of 50 to the right or left, facing the wind. Thinking that it was a hawk, they would fly down to get away and fly directly into the waiting nets of the hunter. It was used as a toy and for hunting birds. Word native of a place to return to sth. I'll get away from work as soon as I can. Some animals hunt at night. He returned to America in the late autumn. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) Part of Speech/ Different Forms Meaning Collocation Use in OLR1 Extra Examples to spin v. (I/T) spin, spun, spun spin (n.)(C) turn or whirl round quickly to spin around smth. The Earth spins on its axis. stick n. (C) to strike v. (I) weapon n. (C) Many people think the boomerang is a weapon. Iran is keen on using nuclear weapons. wild adj. a thin piece of wood walking stick that has fallen or been long stick cut off a tree hit forcibly and to strike sb./smth. on deliberately with one’s smth. hand or a weapon or other implement any object used in nuclear weapons fighting or war, such as a gun, bomb, sword, etc. uncontrolled, violent wild animals/ or extreme plants/nature However, with enough spin and velocity the boomerang may circle above the thrower’s head The killer-stick is like the boomerang but it does not return! The killer-stick could fly very far to strike and kill an animal or enemy. When an Aboriginal hunter saw a flock of birds, he would make the sound of a hawk (a kind of wild bird). We picked some wild strawberries. Word The old man was carrying a load of sticks. The ball struck him hard on the shoulder. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) OLR 1/ UNIT 6 Reading 1 rate to beat to heal n. (C) v (I)(beat, beaten) beat (n) v (T/I) healing (adj) 1. the speed at which something happens over a period of time 2. the number of times something happens when your heart beats, it moves in a regular rhythm to cure someone who is ill or make a wound heal conversely adv converse (adj) used when one situation is the opposite of another excessive adj excessively (adv) much more than is reasonable or necessary to raise v (T) to increase an amount, number, or level to lower v (T) to reduce something in amount, degree, strength etc, or to become less heart rate birth rate crime rate unemployment rate to heal cuts/bruises/ wounds/the body a wound heals Conversely, + sentence excessive amount consumption of sth. excessive noise/ drinking/ exercise to raise blood pressure to lower blood pressure Our heart rate can speed up or slow down to match the music we hear. Children learn at different rates. The crime rate is increasing in big cities. The slower the music, the more slowly the heart will beat. Lower heartbeat creates less stress and helps the body get better and heal itself. Lower heartbeat creates less stress .... Conversely, …..after listening to loud rock music by the Rolling Stones, students had increased heart rates. Excessive noise may raise blood pressure by as much as 10 %. He is still alive – I can feel his heart beating. His wife left him because of his excessive drinking. ***excessive has a negative connotation Excessive noise may raise blood pressure by as much as 10 %. Listening to soft music can lower the blood pressure. We have no plans to raise taxes at present. Synonym: to increase Antonym: to lower, decrease Synonym: to reduce, decrease Antonym: to raise, increase It took three months for the doctor to heal the wound properly. Some wrong answers were marked right. Conversely, some right answers were rejected. After 20 minutes, you need to lower the temperature to 325º. Register: formal Word patients choice to operate Part of Speech n (C) Meaning Collocation Use in OLR someone receiving medical treatment from a doctor Hospitals and clinics around the world use music therapy, and not only on their patients. n (C/U) to choose (v) chose, chosen v (I) the right to choose or the chance to choose between several things to examine/see/treat a patient AIDS/cancer/ seriously ill patient of someone’s choice have a choice give sb a choice make a choice about operation (n) accurately adv accurate (adj) emotional to enable adj emotion (n) emotionally (adv) v (T) to expose v (T) to cut open somebody’s body in order to remove or repair a part that is damaged the process of cutting to have an operation into somebody’s body in order to remove or repair a part that is damaged correctly connected with your feelings and the way you control them emotional development/state to give someone the ability or opportunity to do something to provide someone with the opportunity to experience new ideas, activities etc so that they can learn about them to enable sb to do sth to expose sb./smth. to sth Extra Examples from dictionaries The doctors said that there is nothing left to do for the treatment of the patient. It was found that surgeons who listened to the music of their choice while operating had lower blood pressure. It was found that surgeons who listened to the music of their choice while operating had lower blood pressure. It is not uncommon to see patients listening to soft music while having an operation. It was found that surgeons … could perform mental activities quickly and accurately. The natural healing chemicals … enable the body to create its own anaesthetic. It was difficult for him to make a choice about his future. The natural healing chemicals … in music enable the body to create its own anaesthetic. The studies show that patients who are exposed to 15 minutes of soothing music require only half the recommended doses of sedatives…. Money from her aunt enabled Jan to buy the house. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym etc.) It’s serious. We’ll have to operate immediately. She had to have a heart bypass operation. It is impossible to predict the weather accurately. Antonym: inaccurately, incorrectly We monitor the physical and emotional development of the children. Children are exposed to different cultures and languages when they travel abroad. Antonym: to disable Word to recommend Part of Speech v (T) Meaning Collocation to advise someone to do something, especially because you have special knowledge of a situation or subject to recommend (doing) sth. to recommend sb. to do smth. to recommend that + sentence recommended dose The studies show that patients …. require only half the recommended doses of sedatives …drugs.. to stimulate growth Due to the fact that music demand/ the economy stimulates endorphin levels… stimulating music recommend ed (adj) to stimulate v (T) stimulating (adj) stimulation (n) to encourage an activity to begin or develop further expression n (C/U) distraction n (U/C) to distract (v) n (U/C) painful (adj) when you say what you think or show how you feel using words or actions smth. that makes you stop paying attention to what you are doing the feeling you have when part of your body hurts or when you have emotional suffering the feeling of being very worried about something that may have happened or may happen pain anxiety n (U) anxious (adj) Use in OLR Extra Examples from Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym etc.) dictionaries The manufacturers recommend Synonym: to advise changing the oil after 500 km. doing smth. The patient was told not to exceed the recommended dose of the drug in order not to suffer from stomachache. An inspiring teacher can stimulate students to succeed. He wrote her a poem as an expression of his love. physical pain be in (severe) pain painful operations Psychologists have found that nonverbal expression of angry …can provide a valuable emotional release. Music provides a distraction from pain and anxiety Music provides a distraction from pain and anxiety. anxiety to do sth to be anxious about smth. Music provides a distraction from pain and anxiety. There is anxiety among staff about job losses. a facial/nonverbal expression of … to provide a distraction from smth. I have to study in the library – there are too many distractions at home. Take these tablets if you’re in pain. Synonym: worry Word Part of Speech/ Meaning Collocation to prescribe v (T) prescription (n) to say what medicine or treatment a sick person should have instead of adv. in place of somebody or something to prescribe music to prescribe pills to prescribe sb. smth. instead of + noun Instead + sentence to suggest v (T) suggestion (n) to tell someone your ideas about what they should do, where they should go, etc. to vibrate v (I/T) vibration (n) to shake something or make something shake continuously with small fast movements. response n (U/C) something that is done as a reaction to something that has happened or been said external to respond (v) adj. to react to something that has been said or done connected with the outside of a surface or body to generate v (T) to produce or create something to suggest smth. suggest doing sth. to make a suggestion a response to sth in response to sth a positive /negative /angry /emotional response to respond to sth external events to generate alpha waves/ideas/ electricity Use in OLR They prescribe harp music instead of painkillers for cancer patients. They prescribe harp music instead of painkillers for cancer patients. Dvorak’s ”Humoresque” is suggested for headaches and migraines. Extra Examples from dictionaries Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,) If these tablets don’t work, I may have to prescribe you something stronger. We should do something instead of just talking about it. If this is not convenient, please suggest another date. Our brain waves vibrate at different speeds during different activities. The vocal cords vibrate as air passes over them. This prepares us for quick responses to external events. The attack provoked an angry response. Our heart responds to music. This prepares us for quick responses to external events. Relaxing music can generate alpha waves. Clive responded to my suggestion with a laugh. The external walls were in need of repair. The program would generate a lot of new jobs. Synonym: to answer Antonym: internal Word Part of Speech/ Meaning Collocation Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries to focus v (T/I) to focus on sth n (C/U) aware adj awareness (n) if you are aware that something such as a problem exists, you realize that it exists to make sb aware of sth to be aware of sth. to raise/gain awareness Playing music at home can help a person to focus. If you are daydreaming or unfocused, a little Mozart background music can help to make you more aware. If you are daydreaming or unfocused, a little Mozart background music can help to make you more aware. Modern medicine focuses too much on complicated surgical techniques. background to pay special attention to a particular person or thing instead of others the sounds that you can hear apart from the main thing that you are listening to mental adj affecting the mind or happening in the mind mental development image/picture/ illness I tried to get a mental picture of him from her description. release n (U) freedom to show or express your feelings emotional release … a little Mozart background music can help to increase your mental organization. Aggressive feelings can provide a valuable emotional release. to release v (T) to express or get rid of feelings such as anger or worry to give money, help, ideas, etc to something that other people are also involved in to make something better or to be better to improve v (T/I) contribution (n) v (T/I) attitude n (C/U) to contribute the opinions and feelings that you usually have about something background music/ noise/information Miscellaneous (antonym,synonym The background music that I used for my presentation was by Beatles. Somebody should make him aware of the effects of his actions. ***not used before a noun Music has always provided me with a form of emotional release. Physical exercise is a good way of releasing tension. to contribute to sth to make a contribution to smth. to improve one’s attitude/strength/ skills/ability an attitude towards smth. By slowing the tempo of music, you can contribute to your own calmness. Those who listened to music …improved their attitude as well as their strength. .. they… improved their attitude as well as their strength. The volunteers contribute huge amounts of their own time to the project. A new course has been opened for students who want to improve their English. Pete’s attitude towards women really scares me. Synonym: to develop Word Part of Speech/ Meaning Collocation Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries Reading 2 widespread adj existing or happening in many places or situations, or among many people widespread concern /support /use The topic of the next meeting is the widespread use of chemicals in agriculture. concern n (C) something that worries you to behave v. (I) to do things in a particular way the way that someone behaves serious/major/ public /common concern to express/voice/ cause concerns to behave badly/well to behave like sb. behavior towards sb There is widespread concern about the possible negative effects of listening … There is widespread concern about the possible negative effects of listening … behavior n (U) behavioral (adj) relating to behavior behavioral problems adolescent n (C) a young person who is developing into an adult closely adv if you look at or study to study/look at/ something closely, you look examine sth closely at it trying to notice everything about it relationship n (C) the way in which two or more things are connected and affect each other treatment n (C/U) a method that is intended to to get/receive/ cure an injury or illness respond to treatment to be under treatment the relationship between two things Miscellaneous (antonym,synonym The main concern is that the health of the employees will be at risk. She sometimes behaves like a child. …. negative effects of listening to certain types of music on behavior. … patients under treatment for various behavioral problems. … negative effects of listening on the adolescents. The topic has not been studied closely. Can TV violence cause aggressive behavior? The authors studied the relationships between listening to heavy metal and rap music … They were patients under treatment for various problems. The experts are now trying to see the relationship between poor housing and health problems. She studied behavioral psychology at college. Adolescents often quarrel with their parents. The detective was watching him closely, waiting for a reply. She is now receiving treatment for skin cancer. Synonym: connection Word Part of Speech Meaning Collocation Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries to reveal v (T) v (T) to reveal smth. to reveal that +sentence to draw sb to sth sample n (C) Questionnaires revealed differences between teenagers. These types of music may draw troubled students. The sample does not represent adolescents in the United States. The newspaper story revealed a scandal related to some politicians. to draw to represent v (T) to represent a group The sample does not represent adolescents in the United States. The protestors represented only a small section of public opinion. error n (C/U) to make/correct/ find/ discover/spot an error The questionnaires are subject to some error. With something as delicate as brain surgery, there is little margin for error. Synonym: mistake obviously adv obvious (adj) to make known something that was previously secret or unknown to attract attention or interest a group of people who have been chosen to give information or answers to questions to say or do something that expresses the feelings, opinions etc of a group of people a mistake, especially a mistake in speaking or writing or causing serious problems used to mean that a fact can easily be noticed or understood Obviously, more research is needed. We’re obviously going to need more help. Synonym: apparently, evidently v.(I) to start to develop in a particular place or from a particular situation v (T/I) communicati on (n) to express your thoughts and feeling clearly, so that other people understand them Jazz has often been called the only art form to originate in the United States. Singing became the safest and the only way they could communicate. This is a custom which originated in ***always + Chinese culture. adv/prep and not used in progressive to communicate to originate in somewhere to originate from smth. to communicate with sb. a means of communication labor n (U) effort or work, especially physical work a day’s exhausting labor manual labor After a day’s exhausting labor, these people would gather together. Building still involves a lot of manual labor. Reading 3 to originate a random / representative sample of sth Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, etc.) He's an excellent speaker who always draws a crowd. The sample consisted of 344 elementary and secondary school teachers. He learnt how to use sign language to communicate with deaf customers. Word Part of Speech Meaning Collocation Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries to gather v (I/T) When people or animals gather, they come together in a group After a day’s exhausting labor, these people would gather together. A crowd gathered to listen to her speech. combination n (C/U) the mixture you get when two or more things are combined to gather together (for sth) to gather around sb/sth a combination of two things A combination of tiredness and boredom caused me to fall asleep. training n (U) the process of learning the skills you need to do a particular job or activity to do/have/get/ receive/give training in smth. Jazz music in the 1800s thus grew from a combination of African folk music and dance rhythms. …by black musicians who had little or no formal training in Western music. to influence v (T) influence (n) to affect or change how someone or something develops, behaves or thinks Its sound was influenced by white musicians. She's very good at making friends and influencing people. background n (C) your family and your experience of education, living conditions, money, etc. to be influenced by sb/smth. to influence sth/sb, the European influence, negative/positive influence of sth family/academic background Its sound was influenced by white musicians with classical backgrounds. The school has pupils from many different ethnic/cultural/religious backgrounds. immigrant n (C) immigrate (v) a person who has come to a different country in order to live there permanently …were all part of the Illegal immigrants are sent back cultural baggage that across the border if they are immigrants brought from caught. their countries to America apart from adv except for or not considering Apart from the musical beginnings in Africa, European influence and .. New staff receive a week's training in how to use the computers. Apart from you and me, I don't think there was anyone there under thirty. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, etc.) Word Part of Speech Meaning Collocation Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries to evolve v (I/T) to evolve from sth. to evolve into smth. A musical style called Ragtime evolved from jazz. Darwin believed that human beings evolved from apes, and apes evolved into human beings. to spread v (I) to develop gradually, or to cause something or someone to develop gradually to (cause to) cover, reach or have an effect on a wider or increasing area to spread out/across /on/over somewhere Ragtime quickly spread to all parts of the country. It started off as cancer of the liver but it spread to other areas of the body. to emphasize v (T) emphasis (n) to show or state that something is very important or worth giving attention to This new music style emphasized formal composition. Dr. Jones emphasizes the importance of exercise in addition to a change in diet. attitude n (C/U) v (T) contribution n (C/U) contribute (v) Young Americans began to rebel against the oldfashioned attitudes of their parents. Today, people appreciate jazz as an important art form. Musicians are making major contributions to jazz. It's often very difficult to change people's attitudes. to appreciate initially adv. a feeling or opinion about something or someone, or a way of behaving that is caused by this to recognize or understand that smth. is valuable, or important smth. that you do or give to help produce or achieve smth. or to help make smth. successful at the beginning to emphasize the need/importance of sth, to emphasize that + sentence to put/place an emphasis on sth to have a good/bad attitude towards/to sth to notice v (T/I) to see or become conscious of smth.or sb. Initially, most people accepted the new scheme. I noticed a crack in the ceiling. tool n (C) a piece of equipment which you use with your hands to make or repair something They had nothing to do with music initially. The idea started when someone noticed the twang. You can find all of them in the tools man used for everyday activities. to appreciate sth . to make major significant/ valuable substantial contribution to sth. to notice smth./sb. to notice that + sentence garden/farm/ industrial tools Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, etc.) There's no point buying him expensive wines - he doesn't appreciate them. We appreciate the contributions that you make. In the garden, you can find the box full of tools for bike repair. Synonym: instrument Word Part of Speech Meaning Collocation Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries n (C) the beginning or cause of something the origin(s) of sth It's a book about the origin of the universe. originally (adv) at first to satisfy v (T) to satisfy a need/ desire/demand to facilitate v (T) to have or provide something that is needed or wanted to make possible or easier Take the origins of musical instruments, for example. Originally, these were kitchen vessels like pots… They were just simple devices to satisfy his most basic need. He created tools to facilitate the job. to approach v (T/I) to come near or nearer tosmth. or sb. in space, time, quality or amount to approach an animal/a person/a place The hunter approached the animal easily. to scare v (T/I) scary (adj) to (cause to) feel frightened He scared the animal away to catch it in an open area. to intend v (T) to have as a plan or purpose to scare an animal, to be scared of sth/sb, a scary movie to intend to do sth If you look out of the window on the left of the bus, you'll see that we're now approaching the Tower of London. Sudden noises scare her. to seem v (I) to give the effect of being; to be judged to be ancestor n (C) to ease v (T) easy (adj) ease (n) a person related to you who lived a long time ago to make or become less severe, difficult, unpleasant, painful Reading 4 origin to facilitate learning/ a job to seem that + sentence to seem adj. to ease the pain /stress, to do sth. with ease All he intended to do was to leave it there for some time to let it dry. It seems this was the way our ancestors played one of the Our ancestors had other clever ways of making … It was easier to use. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, etc.) Originally it was a bedroom, but we turned it into a study. She satisfies all the requirements for the job. The new ramp will facilitate the entry of wheelchairs. Synonym: to frighten We intend to go to Australia next year. It seems (that) he isn't the right person for the job. There were portraits of his ancestors on the walls of the room. To ease the problem of overcrowding, new prisons will be built. Antonym: descendant Word Part of Speech Meaning Collocation Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, etc.) OLR 1/ UNIT 7 Reading 1 imagination n (C/UC) to imagine (v)(T) the ability to form pictures in the mind to have a (great/creative)X to lack imagination The computer lacks imagination. I can never make up stories - I have absolutely no imagination. We transmit our values to our children. We have to transmit data from one system to another. Do you have any information about/on train times? to transmit (v)(T) to pass information, beliefs, or attitudes to other people to transmit information/data from … to … The brain uses electrochemical energy to transmit information… information n (UC) to inform (v)(T) facts about a situation, person, event, etc to have/contain/ store/find/get/ obtain information about/on sth. The brain uses electrochemical energy to transmit information; … wire n (UC/C) a long thin piece of metal that carries electricity … they travel even faster through the wires in a computer. The workers accidentally damaged the telephone wires. memory n (UC/C) the part of a computer in which information, instructions, and programs are stored The computer stores memories on chips, discs and CD-ROMs; … Brain has a memory that can grow, but a computer does not. n (C/UC) to connect (v)(T) when something joins or is joined to something else, or the part or process that makes this possible connections between two (or more) things Connections between neurons enable the brain to do the same thing. It's no wonder your shaver isn't working. There's a loose connection in the plug. prefix: -dis to disconnect, disconnection n (C/UC) the total amount that can be contained or produced, or the ability to do a particular thing to have the capacity to do sth, memory capacity The memory capacity of the computer can be increased by adding new chips. The stadium has a seating capacity of 50 000. prefix: -in connection capacity prefix: -mis to misinform sb. incapacity Word Part of Speech Meaning Collocation adv. happening or done at the same time. task n (C) something that you have to do, often something that is difficult or unpleasant multi-task (ing) n (UC) (of a computer ) the ability to do several different things at the same time decade n (C) advance n (C/UC) a period of ten years, especially a period such as 1860 to 1869, or 1990 to 1999 an improvement or development in smth. content n (C) everything that is contained within something the contents of sth nevertheless linker despite a fact or idea that you have just mentioned Nevertheless, + sentence component n (C) a part which combines with other parts to form something bigger simultaneously to perform/carry out/do/accomplish a (complex/difficult/ challenging X easy/simple) task to make an advance in/towards sth Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym,etc.) The computer can do many complex tasks simultaneously. Two children answered the teacher's question simultaneously. The computer can do many complex tasks simultaneously. She failed to carry out the task she was given. The brain also does some multi-tasking using the automatic nervous system. They have been around for only a few decades. Multi-tasking makes computers inevitable in many areas. Rapid technological advances have made computer faster. The delicate contents inside the computer are protected by a hard cover. Recent advances in medical science mean that this illness can now be cured. The contents of his bag spilled all over the floor. Nevertheless, the external and internal components of the computer can be.. It is a difficult race. Nevertheless, many runners participate every year. …the external and internal components of the computer can be damaged. The factory supplies electrical components for cars. The number of obese people have increased dramatically in the last decade. ***content is used in plural form as ‘contents’ to give this meaning Synonym: nonetheless, despite the fact that Word Part of Speech Meaning Collocation to damage v (T) to harm or spoil something damage (n)(UC) harm or injury to damage smth. seriously/severely/ badly/slightly to cause/to do damage to sth v (T) to pass harmful programs from one computer to another, or within files in the same computer to infect replacement n (UC) someone or something that takes the place or does the job of another to repair something to fix v (T) to investigate v (T/I) to transplant v (T) disorder n (C/UC) hardware n (UC) the physical and electronic parts of a computer, rather than the instructions it follows n (C/UC) the process of calculating an answer or amount by using a machine computation to try to find the facts about smth. in order to learn the truth about it to take an organ from one body and put it into another body an illness of the mind or body Use in OLR The external and internal components of the computer can be damaged. …. damaged parts are replaced or the viruscause damage is removed,… to infect smth. with If you infect your computer with a virus,… smth. to be/become/get infected with a virus a replacement for sb./smth. to investigate why/what/whether … to transplant an organ from … into … (successfully) to have/suffer from/treat a (blood/ mental) disorder to do computations … there are no replacement parts to fix the damaged brain tissue. There are no replacement parts to fix damaged brain tissue. …the scientists are investigating ways to transplant nerve cells… …the scientists are investigating ways to transplant nerve cells… …ways to transplant nerve cells for certain neurological disorders. The computer only changes when new hardware or software is added or something is saved in memory. The computer is faster at doing computations. Extra Examples from dictionaries Many buildings were badly damaged during the war. Strong winds had caused serious damage to the roof. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, etc.) Synonym: to harm Synonym: harm An unseen computer virus may infect the machine's data files. He spent a lot time finding a replacement for me. They couldn't fix my old computer, so I bought a new one. Synonym: to repair, to mend The research aims to investigate why some schools are doing better Synonym: to look into, to research Organs are transplanted from donors into patients who need them. The family have a history of mental disorder. New hardware is needed for this computer to function more properly. There is seemingly a problem with this machine as the computations it does are not correct. Synonym: ailment, illness Antonym: software Word Part of Speech Meaning Collocation Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries The brain is better at interpreting the outside world. The brain is capable of imagination. It's difficult to interpret these statistics without knowing how they were obtained. A force 10 wind is capable of blowing the roofs off houses. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, etc.) prefix: -mis Antonym: to mis interpret Antonym: incapable Synonym: clever to interpret v (T) to decide what the intended meaning of something is to interpret smth. as smth. capable (adj) able to do things effectively and skillfully, and to achieve results to be capable of doing sth Reading 2 intelligent adj. able to learn and understand things easily Are men or women more intelligent? Intelligent students usually do well in maths. intelligence (n)(UC) the ability to learn, understand and make judgments that are based on reason to discover the facts or truth about something Absolute brain size may not be the best measure of intelligence. He is so different from the other kids in his class. He is a child of high intelligence. Studies that have tried to determine the differences in the brains of males .. Absolute brain size may not be the best measure of intelligence. Moreover, recent studies suggest that women … Many other claims have been made that the corpus collosum is bigger in women. The police never actually determined the cause of death. The differences become apparent after a person is four years old. This is involved in biological rhythm and reproduction cycles. Her unhappiness was apparent to everyone. to determine v (T) absolute adj recent adj. claim n (C) to claim (v)(T) apparent adj able to be seen or understood cycle n. (C) a group of events which happen in a particular order, following each other not depending on anything else; true, right, or the same in all situations happening or starting a short time ago a statement that smth. is true or is a fact, although other people might not believe it to (actually/exactly) determine smth. in recent years/ decades/ months to accept/deny/ reject/support a claim to make a claim about smth. It is apparent that + sentence to be apparent to sb. I have absolute faith in her judgment. ***used before a noun Business has boomed in recent years. Can you give any evidence to support your claim? For his assignment, he will do his project on the life cycle butterflies. Synonym: clear, obvious Word Part of Speech to imagine v (T) related to adj. individual adj Reading 3 continuously adv. continuous (adj) Meaning to form or have a mental picture or idea of something to be about smth. or to be connected with smth. belonging or relating to, or suitable for, people or things that are different or particular in some way Collocation Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries to imagine that +sentence As you might imagine, larger animals have larger brains. …many cognitive behaviors… are related more to individual … Differences in many cognitive behaviors are related more to individual differences. Imagine Robert Redford when he was young - that's what John looks like. The occurrence of the disease is apparently related to the standards of hygiene. Marion has a very individual writing style. Sleep itself is an active state because of the continuously changing brain activity. Stage 1 is the initial stage. You can't work continuously for six hours without a break! to be closely/partly/ directly related to smth. individual styles/ differences/needs at every point initial adj. of or at the beginning dream n.(C) to dream (v)(T) a series of events or images that happen in your mind when you are sleeping to have a dream It is the most active sleep stage because of dreaming. n (C) the final part of something in conclusion summary of the second paper and its conclusions I found the conclusion of the film rather irritating. to conclude (v) (T/I) 1. to end a speech, meeting or piece of writing 2. to judge or decide something after thinking carefully about it The authors concluded that the greater number of glial cells per neuron indicated the neurons in Einstein’s brain had… The jury concluded from the evidence that the defendant was innocent. the first part of something introduction of the topic The song's great, but the introduction is a bit too long. Reading 4 conclusion introduction n (C) to introduce (v)(T) Initial reports say that seven people have died, though this has not yet been confirmed. I had a very odd dream about them last night. Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, etc.) ***used before a noun synonym: first Word Part of Speech implication n (C) to imply (v)(T) description n (C) to describe (v)(T) n (C/U) to evaluate (v)(T) evaluation Meaning Collocation the effect that an action or decision will have on something else in the future something that tells you what something or someone is like the act of judging or calculating the quality, importance, amount or value of something to look at or consider a person or thing job description, a detailed/full description of sth to examine v (T) hemisphere n (C) half of a sphere, especially the Earth attention n (U) notice, thought or interest detail n (C) a single piece of information or fact about something to indicate v (T) to show, point or make clear in another way Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries summary of the implication for further research The company is cutting back its spending and I wonder what the implications will be for our department. Write a description of your favorite seaside resort. description of the first paper and its conclusion Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, etc.) ***usually plural evaluation of the evidence Evaluation of this new treatment provided by the first paper cannot take place until all the data has been collected. …studies that have examined Einstein’s brain belongs to Thomas Harvey. The research examined the effects of alcohol on long-term memory. cerebral hemisphere, left/right hemispheres to pay attention to sth/sb, to have sb’s attention, to draw sb’s attention to sth area 9 of the cerebral cortex on the right and left hemispheres Area 9 is thought to be important for planning behavior, attention, and memory. The planet Earth is split into the northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere. Wait a moment and I'll give you my full attention. in detail The numbers were examined in detail with statistics. She insisted on telling me every single detail of what they did to her in hospital. The authors concluded that the greater number of glial cells per neuron indicated the neurons in Einstein’s brain had… She indicated to me (that) she didn't want me to say anything. synonym: show Word Part of Speech Meaning genius n (C/U) hasty adj hastiness (n) to assign v (T) to account for phrasal v. to explain the reason for something or the cause of something concerning prep. about to construct v (T) to build something or put together different parts to form something whole to construct personality creativity n creative (adj) the act of producing or using original and unusual ideas to form creativity very great and rare natural ability or skill, especially in a particular area such as science or art, or a person who has this describes something that is done in a hurry, sometimes without the necessary care or thought If you assign a characteristic to something, you state that it has it. Collocation Use in OLR Extra Examples from dictionaries artistic/ creative/ mathematical genius Can Einstein’s genius be related to a particular brain region? From the age of three, she showed signs of genius. That would perhaps be too hasty a statement. He warned against making hasty decisions. To assign a particular behavior or personality to a single brain area is too simplistic. Einstein was able to pack more neurons in a given area of cortex, which possibly accounted for his genius. The most recent study concerning Einstein’s brain was published… There are still many questions about how the brain constructs personality,... There are still many questions about how the brain constructs personality and forms creativity. I would assign the most soulful poets to that district, all heavily armed with their poems. to assign a particular behavior/personality to sth Miscellaneous (antonym, synonym, etc.) ***plural: geniuses Can you account for your absence last Friday? synonym: explain I've had a letter from the tax authorities concerning my tax payments. The walls are constructed of concrete. synonyms: about/ related to Too many rules might deaden creativity.
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