A Musical Time Machine Activity Guide KWS School Concerts Grades 4 - 6 March 30/31, 2010 Kitchener-Waterloo Symphony Daniel Warren, Resident Conductor Season Sponsor School Concert Sponsor Youth Orchestra Series Sponsor Dear Teachers We are so pleased that you will be bringing students from your school to hear this live performance by the Kitchener-Waterloo Symphony! This concert, A Musical Time Machine, will introduce grade 4—6 students to some important concepts from the Ontario Ministry of Education curriculum through music. Not only will the students see and hear our wonderful 60-piece orchestra in the acoustically superb Centre in the Square, they will also learn new ideas, be exposed to history and be inspired. To enhance the concert experience the KWS sends some of its musicians into the schools to meet the students, give some instrument demonstrations, talk about the concert and answer questions from the students. Please encourage your students to be inquisitive—we love answering questions about the music we perform. The materials in this booklet are designed by our KWS Education staff with input and oversight by our Educator in Residence, Nancy Kidd. We welcome your feedback. Thank you, and enjoy the concert! Christopher Sharpe Director of Education and Community Programs Kitchener-Waterloo Symphony [email protected] 519.745.4711 ext. 276 KWS Education Concerts A Musical Time Machine Tuesday, March 30, 2010 at 1:00 PM — Centre In The Square Wednesday, March 31, 2010 at 10:30 AM and 1:00 PM— Centre In The Square Traditional Gregorian Chant (Vocal Excerpt) 0:30 John Williams (b. 1932) "Hedwig's Flight" from Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, Children's Suite for Orchestra 2:00 Giovanni Gabrieli (1554 1612) / ED ROBERT KING Canzona Per Sonare No 2 3:00 George Frideric Handel (1685 - 1759) Hornpipe from Water Music, HWV 348-350 4:00 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 - 1791) Overture to Don Giovanni, K.527 7:00 Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 - 1827) 2nd movement excerpt from Symphony No.9 in D minor, op.125, Choral 3:30 Hector Berlioz (1803 - 1869) "Dream of a Witches' Sabbath" from Symphonie fantastique, op.14 3:00 Igor Stravinsky (1882 1971) / Reorchestrated by the composer in 1919 Danse infernale from The Firebird 4:00 John Williams (b. 1932) Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, Children's Suite for Orchestra Hedwig's Flight Hogwarts Forever Voldemort Nimbus 2000 Fluffy and His Harp Quidditch Family Portrait Diagon Alley Harry's Wondrous World 5:00 Daniel Warren, Conductor Daniel Warren is currently the Resident Conductor (1999-present) of the KitchenerWaterloo Symphony in Ontario, Canada. He is in frequent demand as a guest conductor and has done so with the Toronto Symphony Orchestra, the National Arts Centre Orchestra, the Edmonton Symphony Orchestra, Symphony Nova Scotia, Orchestra London Canada, the Windsor Symphony, Symphony New Brunswick, The ERGO and Continuum ensembles and the Canadian Chamber Ensemble. He is heard conducting regularly on the CBC. For the past five years he has been the conductor for the "Westben Arts Festival Theatre" in Campbellford, Ontario, performing repertoire with orchestra and full chorus with soloists both operatic and instrumental, all in a wide variety of orchestral and operatic programs. Recently released is a CD of selections from the Nutcracker with the KW Symphony that Daniel conducted. Daniel resides in his owner-built home in a rural setting with his wife and two children. A Brief History of Symphony Orchestras The history of the modern orchestra that we are familiar with today goes all the way back to Ancient Egypt. The first orchestras were made up of small groups of musicians that gathered for festivals, holidays or funerals. During the time of the Roman Empire, the government suppressed the musicians and informal ensembles were banned, but they reappeared after the collapse of the Empire. It was not until the 11th century that families of instruments started to appear with differences in tones and octaves. True modern orchestras started in the late 16th century when composers started writing music for instrumental groups. In the 15th and 16th centuries in Italy the households of nobles had musicians to provide music for dancing and the court, however with the emergence of the theatre, particularly opera, in the early 17th century, music was increasingly written for groups of players in combination, which is the origin of orchestral playing. Opera originated in Italy, and Germany eagerly followed. Dresden, Munich and Hamburg successively built opera houses. At the end of the 17th century opera flourished in England under Henry Purcell, and in France under Lully, who with the collaboration of Molière also greatly raised the status of the entertainments known as ballets, interspersed with instrumental and vocal music. In the 17th century and early 18th century, instrumental groups were taken from all of the available talent. A composer such as Johann Sebastian Bach had control over almost all of the musical resources of a town, whereas Handel would hire the best musicians available. This placed a premium on being able to rewrite music for whichever singers or musicians were best suited for a performance—Handel produced different versions of the Messiah oratorio almost every year. As nobility began to build retreats away from towns, they began to hire musicians to form permanent ensembles. A composer would then have a fixed body of instrumentalists to work with. At the same time, travelling virtuoso performers would write concerti that showed off their skills, and they would travel from town to town, arranging concerts along the way. The aristocratic orchestras worked together over long periods, making it possible for ensemble playing to improve with practice. The invention of the piston and rotary valve led to improvements in woodwind and brass instruments. The orchestra expanded as more of these instruments were added to orchestras and composers wrote for the increasing number of musicians. The orchestra size reached a peak around the time of Wagner, who’s operas sometimes required 6 harps in the orchestra. As the early 20th century dawned, symphony orchestras were larger, better funded, and better trained than ever before; consequently, composers could compose larger and more ambitious works. With the recording era beginning, the standard of performance reached a pinnacle. As sound was added to silent film, the virtuoso orchestra became a key component of the establishment of motion pictures as mass-market entertainment. The late 20th century saw a crisis of funding and support for orchestras. However, many orchestras flourish today and a large percentage of mp3 downloads are classi- KWS School Concerts A Musical Time Machine KWS, Daniel Warren Gregorian Chant Daniel Warren CD Track #1 Gregorian Chant This track provides an example of how we typically hear Gregorian Chant today. There's a famous monastery in France at Solesmes, and its monks became responsible for the restoration of Gregorian Chant as you hear it today on CDs and radio. Terms: Plainchant: The name "plainchant" doesn't mean the music is boring! Quite the reverse - it's from the old French "plein chant" meaning "full singing". References: YouTube: “Gregorian Chant” brings up several video performance of this famous piece. The history of Gregorian Chant, or “plainchant”, begins before the birth of Christ. Chant is based upon the songs sung in the synagogues and Middle Eastern countries. It’s fascinating to know that some of today’s chants are based upon the actual songs which Jesus sang when he was living in Jerusalem. In the early days the chant wasn't copied into books. It had to be memorized and it would take monks many years to learn all the different songs. Eventually they worked out a way to write music down, and words and notes were copied into one large book which all the choir monks would gather round and sing from. Gregorian Chant was adopted by the Christian Church in about the 6th Century and it quickly became an essential part of Christian worship. It was named after Pope Gregory the Great who unified all the chants into one collection. This soon became an essential part of monastic worship and monks would write new chants and take them from monastery to monastery. Gregorian Chant music Activity 1. Hand out or display a copy of a Gregorian Chant. (see next page) Have the children list on chart paper a comparison between the notations of Gregorian chant to the notation of one of their songs. Gregorian Chant Modern Notation *no clefs *treble and/or bass clefs *2-4 line staff (no staff in the beginning) *5 line staff *no time signature *time signature *no key signature *key signature *no rhythms (time values for notes) *rhythms included *no bar lines *bar lines included *neumes (no stems) *round notes with stems 2. Shut the lights in the classroom, have the children close their eyes and put their heads on their desks to listen to the Gregorian chant. Where this music might be sung? (church, cathedral) How can you tell? (acoustics, language, monks) 3. Ask them to help you list the unique characteristics of this music: *sung by male voices only *unaccompanied (a cappella) *solo / unison chorus (call and response) *no harmony *text is in Latin (sacred …church music) *no metre (difficult to find patterns of beats) *no rhythmic patterns *no “catchy” melody *limited range of notes (no extreme highs and lows) KWS School Concerts A Musical Time Machine KWS, Daniel Warren "Hedwig's Flight" from Harry Potter Daniel Warren CD Track #2 Hedwig’s Flight from Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone Film composer John Williams wrote all the music for all the Harry Potter films as well as many other movies TV shows, the Olympics and more! Terms: Timbre: The quality of sound that distinguishes one voice or instrument from another. References: YouTube: “Hedwig's flight” brings up several video performances of this famous piece. Hedwig's Flight is a recurring theme for Hedwig the owl. It was composed for the Harry Potter films. Known as the main theme of the films, it was first featured in Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone. and it has been in every Harry Potter film score to date. COMPOSER John Williams 1932 - present John Williams John is an American composer, conductor and pianist. He has composed film scores for Star Wars, Harry Potter, Indiana Jones, Jurassic Park and Jaws! John has won a variety of different awards for his music, including 5 Oscars and 16 Grammys. He has been the laureate conductor for the Boston Pops Orchestra since 1993. Activity 1. Hedwig was Harry Potter’s beloved owl. She was a gift to Harry, snowy white owl who became his trusted companion. As you listen to John Williams, “Hedwig’s Flight”, imagine where Hedwig might be flying. What is her mission? What makes this music sound so exciting and colourful? *colours and timbres of the instruments of the orchestra – celeste (eerie opening); violins (playing quick, high passages); french horns (playing Hedwig’s theme) *rhythmic changes – l l l l l l l l l l l l - (played by all section of the orchestra) *articulation changes – legato (smooth) to staccato (jumpy) *extreme dynamic contrasts *extreme ranges of all instruments of the orchestra 2. Using crayons, markers or coloured pencils, draw and colour a picture of a scene or story that the music might be describing. Be sure to listen to the music as you work! 3. When you watch the Harry Potter movie, The Sorcerer’s Stone, notice how the music adds so much to what is happening on the screen. KWS School Concerts A Musical Time Machine KWS, Daniel Warren Canzona Per Sonare No 2 Daniel Warren CD Track #3 Canzona Per Sonare No, 2 Like other Gabrieli works, this Canzona is characterized by contrasts – of space, of high and low voices, and of dynamics. Terms: Canzona: Canzoni are pieces composed for various combinations of instruments and various sizes of ensembles. References: YouTube: “Canzona Per Sonare No. 2” brings up several video performance Giovanni’s excellent work made him one of the most noted composers in Europe. Though COMPOSER Giovanni Gabrieli 1678 - 1741 Gabrieli composed in many of the forms current at the time, he preferred sacred vocal and instrumental music. Giovanni Gabrieli Giovanni Gabrieli was an Italian composer and organist, born and raised in Venice. Gabrieli wrote a wide range of innovative music, including a work in which four or more groups would play at the same time with the musicians standing in different places in the performance area. The use of instruments in this fashion laid the groundwork for the modern orchestra. Activity 1. Teach the song “Frere Jacques” by rote (see next page). Sing the canon several times until the class is confident singing it in unison. 2. Once the class has learned the song, divide it in half and have each group sing their part in canon. Try it in 3 parts or maybe 4! 3. Gabrieli was a church organist. Many of his compositions were written for the church. Listen to the “Canzona.” *What instrument family do you hear performing? (brass) *Can you name the instruments that are playing? (trumpet, french horn, trombone, tuba) *How is this piece similar to “Frere Jacques?” (parts are imitating each other at times) *Which singing voices would go with each of the brass instruments? Trumpet – soprano; French Horn – alto/tenor; Trombone – baritone ; Tuba – bass *Why would this piece sound wonderful in a church? (acoustics would enhance each part) 4. Try singing “Frere Jacques” again. To imitate much the music composed around Gabrieli’s time, you might try the following combinations in canon: *1/2 class on one side of room …….. 1/2 on the other *girls sing one part……………………………….. boys sing other *try 3, 4 parts in a circle *large group sings one part……….small group sings other *try the canon in a stairwell or hallway that has live acoustics 5. Experiment with more combinations when performing your canon, then listen to Gabrieli’s piece again. Can you hear anything else? KWS School Concerts A Musical Time Machine KWS, Daniel Warren Hornpipe from Water Music Daniel Warren CD Track #4 Please note: the track on the CD is an example of a Hornpipe from the Water Music. The Hornpipe being performed can be found at : Handel’s Water Music includes three suites. It premiered on July 17, 1717 when King George I requested a concert. The concert was performed by 50 musicians sitting on a barge on the Thames River in London, England. George I was said to have loved it so much that he ordered the musicians to play the suites three more times. George Frederick Handel www.youtube.co m/watch? v=lOoiuMYc5Wc COMPOSER George Frederick Handel 1685– 1759 George could play the violin, the oboe, the organ and the harpsichord. He also composed. He produced his first opera, Rinaldo in 1711. It was a success and gave Handel the finest reputation in England. He established the Royal Academy of Music. Near the end of his life, George became blind but still continued to perform and compose music. Activity Terms: Hornpipe: A spirited British folk dance from the Baroque period. Listen to Handel’s “Hornpipe” from Water Music. Where might this music be used? Why? (Handel was hired to write this for a King’s party). 1 The orchestra is not as large as those in more modern times, so what is it that makes it sound so regal? (trumpets, french horns,timpani) 2. Find the metre of this piece: (time signature) (3/4 time) *patcsh a steady beat on your thighs *find the strongest beat and make it the loudest *place the other beats on your shoulders *try to keep this pattern while listening to the music Patcsh shoulder shoulder | Patsch shoulder shoulder beat beat beat | beat beat beat ≥ ≥ *try conducting the 3/4 pattern while listening to the piece (see next page) References: YouTube: “Water Music” brings up several video performance of this famous piece. 3. Listen to the piece again and see if you can hum the main theme. Can you hear the instruments imitating each other? Can you hear the rhythmic imitation in the middle section of the piece? It goes like this: short short short LONG , short short short LONG Try to tap this pattern on your thighs with the music. KWS School Concerts A Musical Time Machine KWS, Daniel Warren Overture to Don Giovanni Daniel Warren CD Track #5 Overture to Don Giovanni The philosopher Søren Kierkegaard wrote that Mozart's Don Giovanni was “a work without blemish of uninterrupted perfection.” Don Giovanni is an opera. It premiered in 1787. This opera is a blend of comedy, melodrama and supernatural elements. It appears as number seven on America's list of the 20 mostperformed operas in North America. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart COMPOSER Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756 - 1827 Mozart travelled all over Europe playing music by the time he was six. He wrote his first sonata for the piano when he was four and composed his first opera when he was twelve! He composed very quickly and wrote huge amounts of music. Mozart is considered by some to be the greatest composer who ever lived. Terms: Opera: A stage work that combines music (solo singers, orchestra, and sometimes a chorus), costumes, and scenery to tell a story. Most operas are sung throughout, with no spoken lines. References: YouTube: “Don Giovanni” brings up several video performances played in various arrangements for different instruments. Activity 1. As you listen to the Overture to Don Giovanni, try to imagine what is about to happen in this opera composed by Mozart. 2. Write a short story that has been inspired from listening to the music. Share your stories with the class. Listen again focusing on the musical elements that add colour, tension and drama to this overture. Have children create a list on chart paper of all of techniques that they have heard in the piece. *extreme dynamics – loud/soft; accented beats * tonality changes- sad (minor) / happy (major) * texture changes – the number of instruments playing (many instruments / few instruments) * timbre – the colour of instruments playing ( strings, woodwinds, brass, percussion etc) * extreme tempo changes – slow (dramatic) / fast (happy, energetic) * extreme changes in rhythms – smooth and slow / scale – like and fast KWS School Concerts A Musical Time Machine KWS, Daniel Warren 2nd movement from Symphony No.9 Daniel Warren CD Track #4 Symphony No. 9 by Beethoven. The ninth symphony was composed and performed when Beethoven was entirely deaf! Terms: Beethoven was 28 years old when he first realized he was becoming deaf. He vowed to live on for music and managed to create some of the most powerful music in history despite losing his hearing very quickly. Ludwig van Beethoven COMPOSER Ludwig van Beethoven 1770 - 1827 Beethoven first studied the viola and piano, then moved to Vienna to study with a famous composer, Haydn. Beethoven quickly became known as a brilliant pianist and composer. By 1815 he was losing his hearing and had to give up performing so he concentrated on composing. His unique music compositions sounded strange to many of his audiences. He has had a great influence on many composers. Activity Symphony: A composition for orchestra, made up of (usually) four movements, each with a different mood and tempo. References: YouTube: “Symphony No. 9” brings up several video performance of this famous piece. 1. Teach the children “Ode to Joy” (next page…) from the last movement (IV) of Beethoven’s, Symphony No. 9. Beethoven was the first composer to include singing in a symphony! This symphony celebrated “brotherhood and peace.” Can you sing this song with feeling? 2. Listen to the excerpt from the 2nd movement. Which instrument from the percussion section is featured? (timpani) 3. What techniques does Beethoven use to create the feeling of “joy” in this music? (*propulsive rhythms! explosive dynamics! accents! exciting repetitive pat terns!) 4. Imagine standing on the stage of the Centre in the Square listening to the K.W Symphony Orchestra and then singing with them in the last movement!! Joyful, joyful, we adore Thee, God of glory, Lord of love; Hearts unfold like flow'rs before Thee, Op'ning to the sun above. Melt the clouds of sin and sadness; Drive the dark of doubt away; Giver of immortal gladness, Fill us with the light of day. KWS School Concerts A Musical Time Machine KWS, Daniel Warren "Dream of a Witches' Sabbath" Daniel Warren CD TRACK #7 Dream of a Witches’ bath is the story of a at his funeral, and the guests are witches monsters! Sabman only and “Dream of a Witches’ Sabbath” “Dream of a witches’ Sabbath” is a piece within the symphony An Episode in the Life of an Artist, better known as Fantastic Symphony Terms: Program Music : Instrumental music that relays a story, portrays a picture, or illustrates an event. Hector Berlioz COMPOSER Hector Berlioz 1803 - 1869 Berlioz a French composer had an amazing imagination which was expressed in his choice of instruments and how he stretched the boundaries of expression in his orchestra writing. Berlioz is well known for creating symphonic program music and the "idee fixe" which is where a melody or theme is used over and over to represent a person or an idea. Activity 1. Close your eyes and listen to “Dream of a Witches Sabbath.” This music paints a picture and tells a story through music. (program music) Choose and colour the colouring page that most represents this music to you or draw and colour your own picture. (colouring samples included) 2. Berlioz uses a special and very old theme in this piece. It originated in church music. It is called “Dies Irae.” References: YouTube: “Dream of a Witches’ Sabbath” brings up several performances of this song. 3. Listen to the piece again and see if you can hear this theme. What does Berlioz do to this theme to make it interesting? (passes it around to different instruments in the orchestra; changes the tempo (speed) 4. Listen again focusing on the musical elements that add colour, tension and drama to this piece. Can you picture the witches dancing in this dream? Have children create a list on chart paper of all of the techniques they hear that help create a story. *extreme dynamics –very loud/ very soft; accented beats * tonality changes- sad (minor) / happy (major) * texture changes – the number of instruments playing - (many instruments / few instruments) * timbre – the colour of instruments playing ( strings, woodwinds (Eb clarinet solo), brass, percussion (bells) , etc) - new and unusual instruments to add character *extreme ranges – very high notes / very low notes *extreme tempo changes – slow (dramatic) / fast ( energetic) * extreme changes in rhythms – slow (quarter notes)/ quick –( eighth and sixteenth notes) KWS School Concerts A Musical Time Machine KWS, Daniel Warren Danse infernale from The Firebird Firebird. While bewitched by Synopsis Daniel Warren CD Track #8 “Danse infernale from the Firebird” The ballet is known as Stravinsky's 'breakthrough piece', he composed it at the age of 28. Terms: Stravinsky's ballet centers on the journey of its hero, Prince Ivan. Ivan enters the magical realm of Kashchei the Immortal.While wandering in the gardens, he sees and chases the Firebird. The Firebird, once caught by Ivan, begs for its life and ultimately agrees to assist Ivan in exchange for eventual freedom. Next, Prince Ivan sees thirteen princesses, with one of whom he falls in love. The next day, Ivan chooses to confront Kashchei to ask to marry one of the princesses; the two talk and eventually begin quarreling. When Kashchei sends his magical creatures after Ivan, the Firebird, true to its pledge, intervenes, bewitching the creatures and making them dance an elaborate, energetic dance (the "Infernal Dance"). The creatures and Kashchei then fall asleep; however, Kashchei awakens and is then sent into another dance by the Atonal Music : To the uninitiated listener, atonal music can sound like chaotic, random noise. However, atonality is one of the most important movements in 20th century music. Igor Stravinsky the Firebird she tells Ivan the secret to Kashchei's immortality - his soul is contained inside an enormous, magical egg. Ivan destroys the egg, killing Kashchei. With Kashchei gone and his spell broken, the magical creatures and the palace all disappear. All of the "real" beings (including the princesses) awaken and, with one final fleeting appearance from the Firebird, to celebrate their victory. Kashchei is COMPOSER Igor Stravinsky 1882-1971 Igor Stravinsky was acknowledged as one of the most important and influential composers of 20th century. He first achieved international fame with three ballets written for the Ballet Russe. The Rite of Spring ballet transformed the way in which composers thought about rhythmic structure, and was largely responsible for Stravinsky's enduring reputation as a musical revolutionary. Activity 1. Have the children listen to the “Danse Infernal” from the ballet, The Firebird Suite. The Firebird has magical powers. Ask them to imagine what might be happening as they listen to the music 2. Write or tell a brief story that is inspired by the music. Share your story with the class. 3. What moods are evoked while listening to the piece? (excitement, anxiety, tension) 4. Share the brief synopsis of the story of Prince Ivan and the Firebird. References: YouTube: “The Firebird” brings up a video performance by the DAAYO Symphony orchestra. 5. Listen again focusing on the musical elements that add colour, tension and drama to this composition. Have children create a list on chart paper of all of techniques that they have heard in the piece. (extreme dynamics – loud/soft; tempo changes – fast/slow; extreme pitch – high/low; tonality changes- atonal music (moving away from a singable melody); texture changes – the number of instruments playing (thickness or thinness of sound), articulation – pizzicato/ accents; timbre – the colour of instruments playing (entire orchestra including a large percussion section and harp); rhythmic emphasisstrong accents, syncopation KWS School Concerts A Musical Time Machine KWS, Daniel Warren Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone Daniel Warren CD TRACK #9 Harry potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone Music from the Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone soundtrack has been used in other Harry Potter films. Terms: Dynamics: Harry potter and the Sorcerer’s stone soundtrack was nominated for ’Best Original Music Score’ at the 74th Academy awards. Composing for film or TV is not easy. The composer must work with the Director to identify exactly where the music should fit and what it should convey. Once all the selections have been composed, the composer watches the film as he conducts the orchestra so that it lines up exactly as planned. It takes a lot of skill and talent to do this successfully. John Williams COMPOSER John Williams 1932 - present John is an American composer, conductor and pianist. He has composed film scores for Star Wars, Harry Potter, Indiana Jones, Jurassic Park and Jaws; he has even composed music for four Olympic Games. John has won a variety of different awards for his music, including 5 Oscars and 16 Grammys. He has been the laureate conductor for the Boston Pops Orchestra since 1993. Activity Playing loudly or softly, as indicated in the sheet music with an “f” for forte and “p” for piano. 1. Have the class listen to a scene from a television program or from a movie without watching the screen. Write down what you think is happening on the screen based on the music score behind the action. References: 3. Listen to John William’s music from The Sorcerer’s Stone….better yet, watch the movie and notice how important the music score is to the action on the screen. Discuss some of the ways that composers bring action, characters and emotion to life through their music. *use of a variety of usual and unusual instruments – strings, woodwinds, brass, percussion * use a wide variety of dynamics * vary the tempo (speed of music) depending on the action * vary the rhythms and the use of silence * change the articulations (smooth, accented, staccato) * change the keys and tonalities (major – happy; minor – sad/scary YouTube: “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's stone” brings up several piano and orchestra video performances. 2. Share your thoughts. Why did you assume certain actions were occurring? Watch the scene now. Were you correct? What cues did the music give you? Summary of Musical Terms Atonal Music : To the uninitiated listener, atonal music can sound like chaotic, random noise. However, atonality is one of the most important movements in 20th century music. Canzona: Canzoni are pieces composed for various combinations of instruments and various sizes of ensembles. Dynamics: Playing loudly or softly, as indicated in the sheet music with an “f” for forte and “p” for piano. Hornpipe: A spirited British folk dance from the Baroque period. Opera: A stage work that combines music (solo singers, orchestra, and sometimes a chorus), costumes, and scenery to tell a story. Most operas are sung throughout, with no spoken lines. Plainchant: The name "plainchant" doesn't mean the music is boring! Quite the reverse - it's from the old French "plein chant" meaning "full singing". Program Music : Instrumental music that relays a story, portrays a picture, or illustrates an event. Symphony: A composition for orchestra, made up of (usually) four movements, each with a different mood and tempo. Timbre: The quality of sound that distinguishes one voice or instrument from another.
© Copyright 2021 Paperzz