ap chemistry - Bellarmine Preparatory School

AP CHEMISTRY
SUMMER ASSIGNMENT
Congratulations on your decision to take Advanced Placement Chemistry! This class
has the potential to be one of the most fun & rewarding classes that you will take in
high school. However, please be advised that many people have found AP Chemistry
to be a particularly challenging course with a particularly challenging exam, even
when compared with other AP courses and AP exams.
Remember also that AP classes are taught as college courses—not just college-level
courses, but actual college courses. This means that:
 I will do as much as I can to help you learn, but you and you alone are
responsible for learning and understanding everything covered in class.
 I will tell you when everything is due, but I won’t chase after you. If you were
absent and you need to turn in an assignment late, you need to remember to
turn it into me; do not assume I will ask you for it.
 If you’re having trouble with something, you need to be proactive about learning
it, either by coming in for help after school, consulting with your classmates, or
by getting outside help. This expectation is effective immediately, and it applies
to this summer assignment. Remember—your job is to succeed; my job is to do
everything in my power to help you be successful. Don’t ever hesitate to make
me do my job so you can do yours!
The book we will be using next year is: Chemistry: The Central Science 13th Ed,
Brown & LeMay. It is the newest edition of this textbook. You can buy it on the
Follett website in the middle of July, or you can purchase it digitally any time - see
the digital information on the Bellarmine website or on the booklist mailed home.
The goals of this summer assignment are to make sure you haven’t completely
forgotten your first year of Chemistry, to give you a “warm-up” for AP Chemistry, and
to ensure that you are really serious about taking on this challenge for the next year.
Answers to each assignment are to be written up on your own notebook paper. Each
assignment is a separate grade and is to be done a new sheet of paper. The heading
on the paper is to be on the right side of the paper, starting on the top line, and is
to look like this:
Name
Assignment #
For each assignment, explanations are to be complete thoughts and all work must be
shown for numerical problems. The work must be legible. Don’t forget units and
significant figures.
All three homework assignments are due on the first day of school – yes the unified
day! Not having this work done will be a warning sign to me that you are not ready
for or not committed to this class.
If you need to contact me this summer, please e-mail me at:
[email protected] I do check mail over the summer and will respond
within a couple of days.
The websites below have a lot of good information in them – check them out. Some
have tutorials, some have podcasts of lectures on a variety of topics, and others have
interactive practice. In addition to reading the chapters in the textbook, these
websites can help you review those things that you do not remember from Honors
Chemistry. If you find other websites that are useful, bookmark them and we will
share them in class the first week.
http://science.widener.edu/svb/tutorial/index.html
http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/index.shtml
http://chemmybear.com
http://chemtutor.com
http://www.bozemanscience.com/
https://www.khanacademy.org/
Some wisdom from this year’s class:
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Use the Moodle Quizzes to prepare for tests
Do the homework to understand it, not just to get it done
Read the textbook
Take good notes
Compile your notes a week in advance and study a little every night
Don’t forget all the things you are asked to memorize
Past AP tests are your friends – use them as study tools
Study your notes, the textbook, the homework – it is all important
Go in for help from the teacher, early and often
Form a study group
Do homework on the night it is assigned
Pre-read the book before class
Go back over tests and understand what you did wrong
Assignment #1 – Chapter 1: Introduction: Matter & Measurements
1. Make the following unit conversions:
a. 325 days = _____ seconds.
b. 3 meters into centimeters
c. 10 kilometers into meters
d. 15,050 milligrams into grams
e. 3,264 milliliters into liters
f. 9,674,444 grams into kilograms
2. Classify each of the following as units of mass, volume, length, density, energy, or
pressure.
a. mg
b. mL
c. cm3
d. mm
e. kg/m3
f. kJ
g. atm
h cal.
3. How many significant figures are in each of the following?
a. 1.92 mm
b. 0.030100 kJ
c. 6.022 x1023 atoms
d. 460.00 L
e. 0.00036 cm3
f. 100
g. 1001
h. 0.001
i. 0.0101
4. Record the following in correct scientific notation:
a. 350,000,000 cal
b. 0.0000721 mol
c. 0.0000000809 nm
d. 765,400,000,000 atoms
5. Calculate the following to the correct number of significant figures.
a. 1.27 g / 5.296 cm
b. 12.235 g / 1.01 L
c. 12.2 g + 0.38 g
d. 17.3 g + 2.785 g
e. 2.1 x 3.21
f. 200.1 x 120
g. 17.6 + 2.838 + 2.3 + 110.77
6. Give the chemical symbols for the following elements:
a. Carbon
b. sulfur
c. Titanium
d. Nitrogen
e. Helium
7. Write the names for each of the elements symbols:
a. Na b. Au c. Ag d. Sn e. Fe f. Hg g. K
8. A solid white substance A is heated strongly in the absence of air. It decomposes to
form a new white substance B and a gas C. The gas has exactly the same properties
as the product obtained when carbon is burned in an excess of oxygen. Based on
these observations, can we determine whether solids A and B and the gas C are
elements or compounds? Explain your conclusions for each substance.
9. Label each of the following as either a physical process or a chemical process.
a. Corrosion of aluminum metal.
b. Melting of ice.
c. Pulverizing an aspirin.
d. Digesting a candy bar.
e. Explosion of nitroglycerin.
f. Milk turning sour.
g. Burning of paper.
h. Forming of frost on a cold night.
i. Bleaching of hair with hydrogen peroxide.
j. A copper wire is hammered flat.
10. A copper refinery produces a copper ingot weighing 68.03 kg. If the copper is
drawn into wire whose diameter is 7.50 mm, determine the length, in meters, of
copper wire can be obtained from the ingot. The density of copper is 8.94 g/cm3.
(Assume that the wire is a cylinder whose volume V = πr2h, where r is the radius of
the wire and h is the length (height) of the wire.)
Assignment #2 – Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules & Ions
Memorize the following list of polyatomic ions – their name, formula and charge
– there will be a quiz over these within the first two weeks of school
Ammonium
hydroxide
cyanide
chlorate
chlorite
nitrate
nitrite
1
NH4+1
OH-1
CN-1
ClO3-1
ClO2-1
NO3-1
NO2-1
acetate
permanganate
perchlorate
hypochlorite
thiocyanate
carbonate
chromate
C2H3O2-1
MnO4-1
ClO4-1
ClO-1
SCN-1
CO3-2
CrO4-2
dichromate
silicate
sulfate
sulfite SO3-2
oxalate
phosphate
phosphite
Cr2O7-2
SiO3-2
SO4-2
SO3-2
C2O4-2
PO4-3
PO3-3
Review information on the Atomic Theory, fill in the table below.
Atomic
Notation
52
24𝐶𝑟
Mass
Notation
Atomic
Number
Mass
Number
Silver-108
Charge
# of
protons
# of
# of
electrons neutrons
0
38
88
38
-1
137
11
+1
17
56
18
54
12
2
Only two isotopes of copper occur naturally, 63Cu (atomic mass = 62.9296
amu; abundance 69.17%) and 65Cu ( atomic mass = 64.9278 amu, abundance =
30.83%). Calculate the atomic weight (average atomic mass) of copper.
Review naming and writing formulas for ionic and molecular compounds with the
flowcharts below.
3
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
Give the correct name for each of the following compounds
XeF2
I. HC2H3O2
Q. HIO3
Al2O3
J. H2CrO4
R. NI3
BaI2
K. CO
S. LiMnO4
CoP
L. NH4CN
T. HClO
SnO
M. AlP
U. HBr
HgS
N. OF2
V. SO2
Ca(ClO3)2
O. FeF3
W. CuCr2O7
Cu2Cr2O7
P. KC2H3O2
X. K2O
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
Write out the correct formula for each of the following compounds
tin (IV) phosphide
G. potassium nitride
copper (II) cyanide
H. chromium (III) carbonate
magnesium hydroxide
I. gallium arsenide
sodium peroxide
J. cobalt (II) chromate
sulfurous acid
K. zinc fluoride
lithium silicate
L. dichromic acid
4
Review percent composition, empirical formula, and molecular formula
5
Find the mass percent of nitrogen in each of the following compounds:
A. NO
C. N2O4
B. NO2
D. N2O
6
Benzene contains only carbon and hydrogen is found to have 92.26% C and
7.74% H by mass.
A. Determine the empirical formula of the compound.
B. The molar mass of benzene is 78.1g/mol; determine the molecular formula of
benzene.
7
Cinnamic acid contains only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and is found by
analysis to be 73.0% C and 5.4% hydrogen.
A. Find the empirical formula of this compound.
B. Find the molar mass of this compound.
C. Write the molecular formula for this compound.
Assignment #3 – Chapter 3: Chemical Reactions and Reaction Stoichiometry
1
Balance the following equations with the lowest whole number coefficients.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
S8 + O2  SO3
C10H16 + Cl2  C + HCl
Fe + O2  Fe2O3
C7H6O2 + O2  CO2 + H2O
KClO3  KCl + O2
H3AsO4  As2O5 + H2O
V2O5 + HCl  VOCl3 + H2O
Hg(OH) 2 + H3PO4  Hg3(PO4) 2 + H2O
2
Review the types of chemical reactions – synthesis, decomposition, combustion,
single replacement & double replacement. For each set of reactants below, determine
the type of reaction, predict the products and write a balanced chemical equation.
An example is shown
Solutions of silver nitrate and magnesium iodide are combined.
This is a double replacement reaction.
2AgNO3(aq) + MgI2(aq) →2AgI(s) + Mg(NO3)2(aq)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Zinc metal is added to a solution of copper (II) chloride.
Propane gas (C3H8) is burned in excess oxygen.
Solid calcium chlorate is heated strongly.
Sodium hydroxide solution is added to a solution of iron (III) bromide.
Chlorine gas is bubbled through a solution of sodium bromide.
3
Review mass, molar mass, Avogadro’s number, moles, and molecules
conversions
A. A sample of glucose, C6H12O6, contains 1.250 x 1021 carbon atoms.
a. Calculate the number of hydrogen atoms that this sample contains.
b. Calculate the number of molecules of glucose that the sample contains.
c. Calculate the number of moles of glucose in the sample.
d. Calculate the mass of the sample in grams.
B At least 25 μg of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in
marijuana, is required to produce intoxication. The molecular formula of
THC is C21H30O2.
a. Calculate the number of moles in 25 μg of THC.
b. Calculate the the number of molecules in 25 μg of THC.
4
Review Stoichiometry – 1, 2, and 3 step stoichiometry problems, theoretical
yield, limiting reactant, excess reactant, percent yield.
A. Calcium carbonate decomposes upon heating, producing calcium oxide and
carbon dioxide gas.
a. Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction.
b. How many grams of calcium oxide will remain after 12.25 g of calcium
carbonate is completely decomposed?
B. When ammonia gas, oxygen gas and methane gas (CH4) are combined, the
products are hydrogen cyanide gas and water.
a. Write a balance chemical equation for this reaction.
b. Calculate the mass of each product produced when 225 g of oxygen gas
is reacted with an excess of the other two reactants.
c. If the actual yield of the experiment in b) is 105 g of HCN, calculate
the percent yield.
C. Hydrogen gas and bromine gas react to form hydrogen bromide gas.
a. Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction.
b. 3.2 g of hydrogen gas and 9.5 g of bromine gas react. Which is the limiting
reagent?
c. Determine the mass of hydrogen bromide gas that can be produced from the
amounts in part b.
d. Determine the mass of excess reactant that is left unreacted.