The Move Toward War James Madison becomes president in 1809 in a tense environment. Britain continued to arm Native Americans and practice impressment. American nationalism increases cry for war War Hawks - people in Congress who supported going to war. Henry Clay (KY) and John C. Calhoun (SC) were leading War Hawks. New England is opposed to war (hurt American trade). June 1812, Congress declares war on Britain Early Days of the War U.S. was unprepared for war British establish an effective blockade off the U.S. coast August 1812 USS Constitution vs. HMS Guerriere -Constitution is successful The Constitution becomes known as "Old Ironsides" It never loses a battle in the War of 1812 War in the West and the South American troops under the command of William Hull invade Canada from Detroit. An American retreat ends in the British capturing over 2,000 American soldiers. Battle of Lake Erie - 1813 - American victory under Oliver Hazard Perry forces the British to leave Detroit and return to Canada. General William Henry Harrison pursues the British in Canada and wins at the Battle of the Thames (Tecumseh dies here). Andrew Jackson takes command of American forces in Georgia. In March 1814, Jackson defeats the Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. Final Battles August 1814, the British marched into D.C. and set fire to several buildings (including the White House) Fort McHenry: guards Baltimore - British attack 9-13-14 - Francis Scott Key was an eyewitness to the attack - writes the poem The Star-Spangled Banner - becomes the national anthem in 1931 Peace talks take place in Ghent, Belgium. 12-24-14 the Treaty of Ghent is signed. The treaty returned boundaries to where they were before the war. Battle of New Orleans - fought after the treaty was signed (world traveled slow in 1814). Andrew Jackson leads the Americans in an astonishing victory over the British (January 1815). Protests and Peace Many Federalists referred to the War of 1812 as "Mr. Madison's War". War of 1812 was also called the "Second War for American Independence" Federalists meet at the Hartford Convention (December 1814) to discuss New England secession. When word arrives that the war is over, the convention ends. Some Americans were angered with the Treaty of Ghent because it did nothing to address American neutrality or the practice of impressment.
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