This article is about the strait in Turkey. For other uses,
see Bosphorus (disambiguation).
The Bosphorus (/ˈbɒsfərəs/) or Bosporus
Black Sea
Sea of
A map depicting the location of the Bosphorus (red) relative to the
Dardanelles (yellow) and the Sea of Marmara, which together
form the Turkish Straits.
Close-up satellite image of the Bosphorus strait, taken from the
ISS in April 2004. The body of water at the top is the Black Sea,
the one at the bottom is the Marmara Sea, and the Bosphorus is
the winding vertical waterway that connects the two. The western
banks of the Bosphorus constitute the geographic starting point of
the European continent, while the banks to the east are the geographic beginnings of the continent of Asia. The city of Istanbul
is visible along both banks.
between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey
from European Turkey. The world’s narrowest strait used
for international navigation, the Bosporus connects the
Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara, and, by extension
via the Dardanelles, the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas.
Most of the shores of the strait are heavily settled, straddled by the city of Istanbul's metropolitan population of
17 million inhabitants extending inland from both coasts.
Together with the Dardanelles (Hellespont) strait, the
Bosphorus forms the Turkish Straits.
A wider-scope satellite map showing the narrow North-South
channel of the Bosphorus in relation to the Black Sea (north)
and the Sea of Marmara (south).
1 Name
(/ˈbɒspərəs/; Ancient Greek: Βόσπορος, Bósporos;
Boğaziçi) is a natural strait and
internationally-significant waterway located in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary
The original name of the channel comes from an
Anglicization of the Ancient Greek Βόσπορος
(Bosporos), which was folk-etymologized as βοὸς
πόρος, i.e. “cattle strait” (or "Ox-ford"[1] ), from the gen1
A cruise ship (left) and Seabus (right) navigating through the
Bosphorus, with the Dolmabahçe Palace seen at the right end
of the frame.
Aerial view of the Bosphorus taken from its northern end near
the Black Sea (bottom), looking south (top) toward the Marmara,
with the city center of Istanbul visible along the strait’s hilly
Skyline of Levent as seen from the Khedive Palace gardens on
the Asian coast of the Bosphorus. Istanbul Sapphire is the first
skyscraper at right.
Prometheus Bound (v. 734f.), where Prometheus prophesies to Io that the strait would be named after her. The site
where Io supposedly went ashore was near Chrysopolis
(present-day Üsküdar), and was named Bous “the Cow”.
The same site was also known as Damalis, as it was where
the Athenian general Chares had erected a monument to
his wife Damalis, which included a colossal statue of a
cow (the name Damalis translating to “calf”).[3]
The spelling with -ph-, as Bosphorus, has no justification in the ancient Greek name, but it occurs as a variant in medieval Latin (as Bosphorus, and occasionally
Bosforus, Bosferus), and in medieval Greek sometimes
as Βόσφορος,[4] giving rise to the French form Bosphore,
Spanish Bósforo, and Russian Босфор. The 12th-century
A view of the Bosphorus strait, with the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Greek scholar John Tzetzes calls it Damaliten Bosporon
(after Damalis), but he also reports that in popular
Bridge seen in the background.
usage the strait was known as Prosphorion during his
day,[5] the name of the most ancient northern harbour of
itive of bous βοῦς “ox, cattle” + poros πόρος “passage”, Constantinople.
thus meaning “cattle-passage”, or “cow passage”.[2] Historically, the Bosphorus was also known as the “Strait
This is in reference to the mythological story of Io, of Constantinople", or the Thracian Bosphorus, in order
who was transformed into a cow, and was subsequently to distinguish it from the Cimmerian Bosporus in Crimea.
condemned to wander the Earth until she crossed the These are expressed in Herodotus' Histories, 4.83; as
Bosphorus, where she met the Titan Prometheus, who Bosporus Thracius, Bosporus Thraciae , and Βόσπορος
comforted Io with the information that she would be re- Θρᾴκιος, respectively. Other names by which the strait is
stored to human form by Zeus and become the ancestress referenced by Herodotus include Chalcedonian Bosporus
of the greatest of all heroes, Heracles (Hercules).
(Bosporus Chalcedoniae, Bosporos tes Khalkedonies,
This folk etymology was canonized by Aeschylus in Herodotus 4.87), or Mysian Bosporus (Bosporus My-
Present morphology
2.2 Present morphology
The term eventually came to be used as common noun
The limits of the Bosphorus are defined as the connectβόσπορος, meaning “a strait”, and was also formerly aping line between the lighthouses of Rumeli Feneri and
plied to the Hellespont in Classical Greek by Aeschylus
Anadolu Feneri in the north, and between the Ahırkapı
and Sophocles.
Feneri and the Kadıköy İnciburnu Feneri in the south.
Presently, the waterway is officially referred to as sim- Between these limits, the strait is 31 km (17 nmi) long,
ply “Bosphorus” (Turkish:
Boğaziçi), the “Strait of with a width of 3,329 m (1.798 nmi) at the northern
Istanbul", or "Istanbul Strait” (Turkish:
İstanbul Bo- entrance and 2,826 m (1.526 nmi) at the southern enğazı).
trance. Its maximum width is 3,420 m (1.85 nmi) between Umuryeri and Büyükdere Limanı, and minimum
width 700 m (0.38 nmi) between Kandilli Point and
As a maritime waterway, the Bosphorus connects various seas along the Eastern Mediterranean, the Balkans,
the Near East, and Western Eurasia, and specifically connects the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara. The Marmara
further connects to the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas
via the Dardanelles. Thus, the Bosphorus allows maritime connections from the Black Sea all the way to the
Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean via Gibraltar,
and the Indian Ocean through the Suez Canal, making it
a crucial international waterway, in particular for the passage of goods coming in from Russia.
The depth of the Bosphorus varies from 13 to 110 m (43
to 361 ft) in midstream with an average of 65 m (213
ft). The deepest location is between Kandilli and Bebek
with 110 m (360 ft). The most shallow locations are off
Kadıköy İnciburnu on the northward route with 18 m (59
ft) and off Aşiyan Point on the southward route with 13
m (43 ft).[7]
The Golden Horn is an estuary off the main strait that
historically acted as a moat to protect Old Istanbul from
attack, as well as providing a sheltered anchorage for the
imperial navies of various empires until the 19th century,
after which it became a historic neighborhood at the heart
of the city, popular with tourists and locals alike.
A common mistake often made by foreigners is to assume
the Bosphorus is a river, when it is, in fact, a narrow sea 2.3
Newer explorations
It had been known since before the 20th century that the
Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara flow into each other
in a geographic example of “density flow”, and in August
2.1 Formation
2010, a continuous 'underwater channel' of suspension
composition was discovered to flow along the floor of
the Bosphorus, which would be the sixth largest river on
Main article: Black Sea deluge theory
Earth if it were to be on land. The study of the water and
The exact scientific cause for the formation of the wind erosion of the straits relates to that of its formation.
Sections of the shore have been reinforced with concrete
Bosphorus remains the subject of debate among geologists. One of the more prominent theories, dubbed or rubble and sections of the strait prone to deposition are
periodically dredged.
The Black Sea deluge theory, which was reinforced in
credibility by a study of the same name in 1997 by two The 2010 team of scientists, led by the University of
scientists from Columbia University, contends that the Leeds, used a robotic “yellow submarine” to observe
Bosphorus was formed in circa 5600 BCE when the rising detailed flows within an “undersea river”, scientificallywaters of the Mediterranean Sea and the Sea of Marmara referred-to as a submarine channel, for the first time. Subbreached through to the Black Sea, which at the time, ac- marine channels are similar to land rivers, but they are
cording to the theory, was a low-lying body of fresh water. formed by density currents—underwater flow mixtures
From the perspective of ancient Greek mythology, it of sand, mud and water that are denser than sea water
was said that colossal floating rocks known as the and so sink and flow along the bottom. These channels
Symplegades, or Clashing Rocks, once occupied the hill- are the main transport pathway for sediments to the deep
tops on both sides of the Bosphorus, and destroyed any sea where they form sedimentary deposits. These deship that attempted passage of the channel by rolling posits ultimately hold not only untapped reserves of gas
down the strait’s hills and violently crushing all vessels and oil, they also house important secrets—from clues on
change to the ways in which mountains were
between them. The Symplegades were defeated when past climate
the lyrical hero Jason obtained successful passage, whereupon the rocks became fixed, and Greek access to the The team studied the detailed flow within these channels
and findings included:
Black Sea was opened.
The channel complex and the density flow
provide the ideal natural laboratory for investigating and detailing the structure of the flow
field through the channel. Our initial findings
show that the flow in these channels is quite
different to the flow in river channels on land.
Specifically, as flow moves around a bend it
spirals in the opposite direction in the deep sea
compared to the spiral to that found in river
channels on land. This is important in understanding the sedimentology and layers of sediment deposited by these systems.[9]
flowing through it.[13]
3 History
As part of the only passage between the Black Sea and
the Mediterranean, the Bosphorus has always been of
great importance from a commercial and military point
of view, and remains strategically important today. It is a
major sea access route for numerous countries, including
Russia and Ukraine. Control over it has been an objective
of a number of hostilities in modern history, notably the
The central tenet of the Black Sea deluge theory is that as Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), as well as of the attack
the ocean rose 72.5 metres (238 ft) at the end of the last of the Allied Powers on the Dardanelles during the 1915
Ice Age when the massive ice sheets melted, the sealed Battle of Gallipoli in the course of World War I.
Bosphorus was overtopped in a spectacular flood that increased the then fresh water Black Sea Lake 50%, and
drove people from the shores for many months. This was 3.1 Ancient Greek, Persian, Roman, and
Byzantine Eras (pre-1453)
proven by undersea explorer Robert Ballard, who discovered settlements along the old shoreline; scientists dated
the Flood to 7500 BP or 5500 BC from fresh-salt water microflora. The peoples driven out by the constantly
rising water, which must have been terrifying and inexplicable, spread to all corners of the Western world carrying
the story of the Great Flood, how it probably entered most
religions. As the waters surged, they scoured a network
of sea-floor channels less resistant to denser suspended
solids in liquid, which remains a very active layer today.
The first images of these submarine channels were obtained in 1999, showing them to be of great size[10] in the
frame of a NATO SACLANT Undersea Research project
using jointly the NATO RV Alliance, and the Turkish
Navy survey ship Çubuklu. In 2002, a survey was carried out on board the Ifremer RV Le Suroit for BlaSON
project (Lericolais, et al., 2003[11] ) completed the multibeam mapping of this underwater channel fan-delta. A
complete map was published in 2009 [12] using these previous results with high quality mapping obtained in 2006
(by researchers at Memorial University, Newfoundland,
Canada who are project partners in this study.)
The team will use the data obtained to create innovative
computer simulations that can be used to model how sediment flows through these channels. The models the team
will produce will have broad applications, including in- Map of Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), designed in 1422
putting into the design of seafloor engineering by oil and by Florentine cartographer Cristoforo Buondelmonti. This is the
oldest surviving map of the city, and the only surviving map
gas companies.
The project was led by Dr. Jeff Peakall and Dr. Daniel
Parsons at the University of Leeds, in collaboration with
the University of Southampton, Memorial University
(Newfoundland, Canada), and the Institute of Marine
Sciences (Izmir, Turkey). The survey was run and coordinated from the Institute of Marine Sciences research
ship, the R/V Koca Piri Reis.
which predates the Turkish conquest of 1453. The Bosphorus is
visible along the right hand side of the map, wrapping vertically
around the historic city.
The strategic importance of the Bosphorus dates back
millennia. The Greek city-state of Athens in the 5th
century BC, which was dependent on grain imports
from Scythia, maintained critical alliances with cities
The researchers estimate that the river, known as a which controlled the straits, such as the Megarian colony
submarine channel, would be the sixth largest river in the Byzantium.
world if it were on land based on the amount of water Persian King Darius I the Great, in an attempt to sub-
Turkish Republican and Modern Eras (1923-present)
due the Scythian horsemen who roamed across the north
of the Black Sea, crossed through the Bosphorus, then
marched towards the Danube River. His army crossed
the Bosphorus over an enormous bridge made by connecting Achaemenid boats.[14] This bridge essentially connected the farthest geographic tip of Asia to Europe, encompassing at least some 1000 meters of open water if
not more.[15] Years later, a similar boat bridge would be
constructed by Xerxes I on the Dardanelles (Hellespont)
strait, during his invasion of Greece.
vessels of other powers.[18] By the terms of the London
Straits Convention concluded on July 13, 1841, between
the Great Powers of Europe — Russia, the United Kingdom, France, Austria and Prussia — the “ancient rule”
of the Ottoman Empire was re-established by closing the
Turkish Straits to any and all warships, barring those
of the Sultan's allies during wartime. It thus benefited
British naval power at the expense of Russian, as the latter
lacked direct access for its navy to the Mediterranean.[19]
Following World War I, the 1920 Treaty of Sèvres demilThe Byzantines called the Bosphorus “Stenon” and most itarized the strait and made it an international territory
important toponyms of it Bosporios Akra, Argyropo- under the control of the League of Nations.
lis, St. Mamas, St. Phokas, Hestiai or Michaelion,
Phoneus, Anaplous or Sosthenion in European side and
Hieron tower, Eirenaion, Anthemiou, Sophianai, Bithynian Chryspolis in Asian side in this era [16]
The strategic significance of the strait was one of the factors in the decision of the Roman Emperor Constantine
3.3 Turkish Republican and Modern Eras
the Great to found there in AD 330 his new capital,
Constantinople, which came to be known as the capital
of the Eastern Roman Empire. The phrase “swim the
Bosphorus” or “crossing the Bosphorus” was, and is still
This was amended under the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne,
used to indicate religious conversion to the Eastern Orwhich restored the straits to Turkish territory—but althodox Church.
lowed all foreign warships and commercial shipping to
traverse the straits freely. Turkey eventually rejected the
terms of that treaty, and subsequently Turkey remilita3.2 Ottoman Era (1453-1922)
rized the straits area. The reversion was formalized under
the Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the
Turkish Straits of July 20, 1936. That convention, which
is still in force, treats the straits as an international shipping lane save that Turkey retains the right to restrict the
naval traffic of non-Black Sea states.
The Bosphorus with the Castles of Europe and Asia. 19thcentury engraving by Thomas Allom.
The castles are
Rumelihisarı and Anadoluhisarı, respectively.
Turkey was neutral in World War II until February 1945,
and the straits were closed to the warships of belligerent
nations during this time, although some German auxiliary
vessels were permitted to transit. In diplomatic conferences, Soviet representatives had made known their interest in Turkish concession of Soviet naval bases on the
straits. This, as well as Stalin’s demands for the restitution
of the Turkish provinces of Kars, Artvin and Ardahan
to the Soviet Union (which were lost by Turkey in the
Russo–Turkish War of 1877–1878, but were regained
with the Treaty of Kars in 1921), were considerations in
Turkey’s decision to abandon neutrality in foreign affairs.
Turkey declared war against Germany in February 1945,
but did not engage in offensive actions.[20][21][22][23]
On 29 May 1453, Constantine’s city was conquered by
the emerging Ottoman Empire. In fact, as the Ottoman
Turks closed in on Constantinople, they constructed a fortification on each side of the strait, Anadoluhisarı (1393) Turkey joined NATO in 1952, thus affording its straits
and Rumelihisarı (1451).
even more strategic importance as a commercial and milAt its peak in the 16th through the 18th centuries, the itary waterway.
Ottoman Empire had wrested control of the entire Black In more recent years, the Turkish Straits have become
Sea area, which was for the time an “Ottoman lake”, on particularly important for the oil industry. Russian oil,
which Russian warships were prohibited.[17]
from ports such as Novorossyisk, is exported by tankers
Subsequently, several international treaties have governed
vessels using the waters. Under the Treaty of Hünkâr
İskelesi of July 8, 1833, the Bosporus and Dardanelles
straits were to be closed on Russian demand to naval
primarily to western Europe and the U.S. via the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles straits. In 2011 Turkey planned
a 50 km canal through Silivri as a second waterway, reducing risk in the Bosphorus.[24][25]
Bosphorus Bridge, the first to be built across the Bosphorus, completed in 1973
Aşiyan requires a 45-degree course alteration in a location
where the currents can reach 7 to 8 knots (3.6 to 4.1 m/s).
To the south, at Yeniköy, the necessary course alteration
is 80 degrees. Compounding these difficult changes in
trajectory, the rear and forward sights at Kandilli and
Yeniköy are also completely blocked prior to and during
the course alteration, making it impossible for ships approaching from the opposite direction to see around these
bends. The risks posed by geography are further multiplied by the heavy ferry traffic across the strait, linking
the European and Asian sides of the city. As such, all the
dangers and obstacles characteristic of narrow waterways
are present and acute in this critical sea lane.
4.2 Land
Two suspension bridges cross the Bosphorus. The first
of these, the Bosporus Bridge, is 1,074 m (3,524 ft) long
and was completed in 1973. The second, named Fatih
Sultan Mehmet (Bosphorus II) Bridge, is 1,090 m (3,576
ft) long, and was completed in 1988 about 5 km (3 mi)
north of the first bridge. The Bosphorus Bridge forms
part of the O1 Motorway, while the Fatih Sultan Mehmet
Bridge forms part of the Trans-European Motorway.
Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge, the second crossing built in 1988,
as seen from the Rumelian Castle on the Bosphorus
Construction of a third suspension bridge, the Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge, began on May 29, 2013; opening is
planned for the end of 2015.[26] The bridge will be built
near the northern end of the Bosphorus, between the villages of Garipçe on the European side and Poyrazköy on
the Asian side.[27] It will be part of the “Northern Marmara Motorway”, which will be further integrated with
the existing Black Sea Coastal Highway, and will allow
transit traffic to bypass city traffic.
4.3 Submarine
Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge, the third and most recent crossing, in
July 2015. The bridge is slated for completion in 2016.
The Marmaray project, featuring a 13.7 km (8.5 mi) long
undersea railway tunnel, opened on 29 October 2013.[28]
Approximately 1,400 m (4,593 ft) of the tunnel runs under the strait, at a depth of about 55 m (180 ft).
An undersea water supply tunnel with a length of 5,551
m (18,212 ft),[29] named the Bosporus Water Tunnel, was
4.1 Maritime
constructed in 2012 to transfer water from the Melen
Creek in Düzce Province (to the east of the Bosphorus
The waters of the Bosphorus are traversed by numerous
strait, in northwestern Anatolia) to the European side of
passenger and vehicular ferries daily, as well as recreIstanbul, a distance of 185 km (115 mi).[29][30]
ational and fishing boats ranging from dinghies to yachts
The Eurasia Tunnel is a road tunnel between Kazlıçeşme
owned by both public and private entities.
and Göztepe, which began construction in February 2011
The strait also experiences significant amounts of interand is expected to open in 2016.
national commercial shipping traffic by freighters and
tankers. Between its northern limits at Rumeli Feneri
and Anadolu Feneri and its southern ones at Ahırkapı
Feneri and Kadıköy İnciburnu Feneri, there are numer- 5 Sightseeing
ous dangerous points for large-scale maritime traffic that
require sharp turns and management of visual obstruc- See also: Yalı, Ferries in Istanbul and İDO
tions. Famously, the stretch between Kandilli Point and
The Bosphorus has 620 waterfront houses (yalı) built during the Ottoman period along the strait’s European and
Asian shorelines. Ottoman palaces such as the Topkapı
Palace, Dolmabahçe Palace, Yıldız Palace, Çırağan
Palace, Feriye Palaces, Beylerbeyi Palace, Küçüksu
Palace, Ihlamur Palace, Hatice Sultan Palace, Adile Sultan Palace and Khedive Palace are within its view. Buildings and landmarks within view include the Hagia Sophia,
Hagia Irene, Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Yeni Mosque,
Kılıç Ali Pasha Mosque, Nusretiye Mosque, Dolmabahçe
Mosque, Ortaköy Mosque, Üsküdar Mihrimah Sultan
Mosque, Yeni Valide Mosque, Maiden’s Tower, Galata
Tower, Rumelian Castle, Anatolian Castle, Yoros Castle, Selimiye Barracks, Sakıp Sabancı Museum, Sadberk
Hanım Museum, Istanbul Museum of Modern Art,
Borusan Museum of Contemporary Art, Tophane-i
Amire Museum, Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University,
Galatasaray University, Boğaziçi University, Robert College, Kabataş High School, Kuleli Military High School.
Two points in Istanbul have most of the public ferries
that traverse the strait: from Eminönü (ferries dock at the
Boğaz İskelesi pier) on the historic peninsula of Istanbul to
Anadolu Kavağı near the Black Sea, zigzagging and calling briefly multiple times at the Rumelian and Anatolian
sides of the city. At central piers shorter, regular ride in
one of the public ferries cross.
Private ferries operate between Üsküdar and Beşiktaş or
Kabataş in the city. The few well-known geographic hazards are multiplied by ferry traffic across the strait, linking the European and Asian sides of the city, particularly
for the largest ships.[7]
The catamaran seabuses offer high-speed commuter services between the European and Asian shores of the
Bosphorus, but they stop at fewer ports and piers in comparison to the public ferries. Both the public ferries and
the seabuses also provide commuter services between the
Bosphorus and the Prince Islands in the Sea of Marmara.
• Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge (1988) and the Bosphorus strait.
• Dolmabahçe Palace on the Bosphorus.
• View from Topkapi Palace on the Bosphorus.
• View of the Bosphorus from the Marmara Hotel,
Taksim Square.
• The Rumelian Castle on the Bosphorus, with both
suspension bridges which span the strait.
• 620 historic waterfront houses stretch along the
coasts of the Bosphorus, such as the yalı of Ahmet
Rasim Pasha.
• Yalı of Hacı Şefik Bey on the Bosphorus.
• Ottoman era waterfront houses on the Bosphorus.
• Afif Pasha Mansion on the Bosphorus was designed
by Alexander Vallaury.
• The quarters of Bebek, Arnavutköy and Yeniköy on
the Bosphorus are famous for their fish restaurants.
• Ottoman era waterfront houses (yalı) on the Bosphorus.
• Ottoman era waterfront houses (yalı) on the Bosphorus.
• Ottoman era waterfront houses (yalı) on the Bosphorus.
7 See also
• Bosphorus Bridge, also called the First Bosphorus
There are also tourist rides available in various places
along the coasts of the Bosphorus. The prices vary according to the type of the ride, and some feature loud
popular music for the duration of the trip.
• Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge, also called the Second
Bosphorus Bridge, located about 5 km north of the
Bosphorus Bridge.
• Eurasia Tunnel, undersea tunnel, crossing the
Bosphorus for vehicular traffic, currently under construction.
Image gallery
• View of the European side of Istanbul from the
southern entrance to the Bosphorus.
• Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge, also called the Third
Bosphorus Bridge, currently under construction.
• View of the European side of Istanbul from the
• Marmaray, undersea rail tunnel, crossing the
Bosphorus and connecting the Asian and European
sides of Istanbul.
• View of the entrance to the Bosphorus from the Sea
of Marmara, as seen from the Topkapı Palace.
• Public transport in Istanbul
• Panoramic view of the Bosphorus as seen from Ulus
on the European side, with the Fatih Sultan Mehmet
Bridge (1988) at left and the Bosphorus Bridge
(1973) at right.
• Rail transport in Turkey
• Turkish Straits
• List of maritime incidents in the Turkish Straits
[1] there is a certain (Oxonian) tradition of equating the name
“Oxford” with “Bosporus”, see e.g. Wolstenholme Parr,
Memoir on the propriety of the word Oxford, Oxford,1820,
esp. p. 18
[2] Entry: Βόσπορος at Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott,
1940, A Greek-English Lexicon.
[3] F. Sickler, Handbuch der alten Geographie, 1824, p. 551.
[4] Bosporus inCharlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin
Dictionary (1879).
[5] Carl Müller, Geographi graeci minores, Didot, 1861, p. 7.
[6] Friedrich Heinrich Theodor Bischoff, Verleichendes
wörterbuch der alten, mittleren und neuen geographie,
Becker, 1829, 195f.
[7] “Türk Boğazları ve Marmara Denizi'nin Coğrafi Konumuİstanbul Boğazı" (in Turkish). Denizcilik. Archived from
the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 2010-09-18.
[8] Leeds researchers study undersea rivers with a yellow submarine AUVAC, 2010
[9] “Robotic sub. records flow of undersea
river” (August 2, 2010.)
[10] Di Iorio, D., and Yüce, H. (1999). Observations of
Mediterranean flow into the Black Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research 104(C2), 3091-3108.
[11] Lericolais, G., Le Drezen, E., Nouzé, H., Gillet, H., Ergun, M., Cifci, G., Avci, M., Dondurur, D., and Okay, S.
(2002). Recent canyon heads evidenced at the Bosporus
outlet. EOS transactions, AGU Fall Meet. Suppl. 83(47),
Abstract PP71B-0409.
[12] Flood, R. D., Hiscott, R. N., and Aksu, A. E. (2009).
Morphology and evolution of an anastomosed channel
network where saline underflow enters the Black Sea.
Sedimentology 56(3), 807-839.
[13] “University of Leeds”. Retrieved 2016-0131.
[14] Polybios, Historiae IV, 39, 16; Özhan Öztürk. Pontus:
Antik Çağ’dan Günümüze Karadeniz’in Etnik ve Siyasi
Tarihi Genesis Yayınları. Ankara, 2011 pp. 28–29
[15] Herodotus (Translation by George Rawlinson, Sir Henry
Creswicke Rawlinson, Sir John Gardner Wilkinson)
(1859). The History of Herodotus: a new English version,
Volume 3. John Murray. pp. 77 (Chp. 86).
[16] Özhan Öztürk. Pontus: Antik Çağ’dan Günümüze Karadeniz’in Etnik ve Siyasi Tarihi Genesis Yayınları. Ankara,
2011 pp. 28–32
[17] “Turkey - Köprülü Era”. 2007-03-24.
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[18] “Turkey - External Threats and Internal Transformations”. 2007-03-24. Retrieved 2010-06-08.
[19] Christos L. Rozakis (1987). The Turkish Straits. Martinus
Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 24–25.
[20] “Foreign Policy Research Institute: The Turkish Factor in
the Geopolitics of the Post-Soviet Space (Igor Torbakov)". 2003-01-10. Retrieved 2010-06-08.
[21] “Turkish-Soviet Relations”. Robert Cutler. 1999-03-28.
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[22] “Russia’s relations with Turkey”. Retrieved 2010-06-08.
[23] “Today’s Zaman: Against who and where are we going to
stand? (Ali Bulaç)". Retrieved 201006-08.
[24] "Turkey to build Bosphorus bypass" New Civil Engineer,
20 April 2011. Accessed: 2 December 2014.
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Tyrkiet" Ingeniøren, 29 April 2011. Accessed: 2 December 2014.
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9 External links
"Bosphorus". The New Student’s Reference Work. 1914.
• istanbul bosphorus
Coordinates: 41°07′10″N 29°04′31″E / 41.11944°N
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