Pearson Unit 1 Notes

Pearson Unit 1 Notes
I. Elements of a Short Story
A. Short Story: a brief work of fiction
B. Characters: the people or animals that take part in a
story’s action. They are driven by motivation, their
reasons for acting as they do.
1. Direct Characterization: the author describes the
2. Indirect Characterization: the author reveals a
character through speech and actions
C. Conflict: A struggle or problem the
characters face
1. External Conflict: a struggle between a
character and an outside force
2. Internal Conflict: a struggle that takes
place within the character’s mind
D. Plot: the sequence of events in a story
1. Exposition: characters, setting, and
background information are introduced
2. Central Conflict: the main struggle the
characters face
3. Rising Action: suspense builds; usually
the longest part of the story
D. Plot: (continued)
4. Climax: the turning point / high point
5. Falling Action: the conflict eases; action
dies down
6. Resolution: the end of the story; conflict
is resolved
E. Setting: the time and place of the action
1. historical period
2. physical location
3. season of year
4. time of day
5. climate and weather
6. culture and social systems or traditions
F. Theme: a central message or insight; often
expresses a truth about life or human nature
1. Stated Themes: expressed directly
2. Implied Themes: suggested by the author
based on the events or outcomes in the story
3. Universal Themes: recur in different cultures
and time periods
G. Point of View: the perspective from which a story is
1. First-person: the narrator of the story is also a
character in the story
2. Third-person Limited: the narrator is a voice
outside the story but only reveals the thoughts
and views of one character
3. Third-person Omniscient: the narrator is a voice
outside the story and is able to reveal the
thoughts and views of all characters
H. Objective vs. Subjective Narrator
1. Objective Narrator: a neutral observer one who comments on events without
including personal thoughts and feelings
2. Subjective Narrator: tells the story but
also offers opinions about what takes place.
Subjective narrators can sometimes be
unreliable and can’t entirely be trusted.
I. Flashback: a scene from the past
J. Foreshadowing: clues that hint at events to
K. Symbol: a person, place, or an object that
represents something else
II. Grammar
A. Common, Proper, and Possessive Nouns
1. Common Noun: names a person, place, or
a. Common nouns are not capitalized unless
they begin a sentence or are in a title.
b. Examples: singer, city, boy
2. Proper Noun: names a specific person,
place, or thing.
a. Proper nouns are always capitalized
b. Examples: Bruno Mars, London,
Abraham Lincoln
3. Possessive Noun: shows ownership
a. They are formed in different ways for
singular and plural nouns.
b. If the noun is singular, add apostrophe
i. The player’s hat
ii. The book’s cover
c. If the noun is singular and ends in -s, add
apostrophe -s.
i. Lucas’s room
ii. Iris’s essay
d. If the noun is plural and ends in -s, add an
i. The bees’ honey
ii. The students’ classroom
e. If the noun is plural but does not end
in -s, add apostrophe -s.
i. The children’s toys
ii. The men’s hats
B. Personal and Possessive Pronouns
1. Personal Pronoun: takes the place of a
noun or another pronoun elsewhere in the
a. First person personal pronouns: I, me,
we, us
b. Second person personal pronoun: you
c. Third person personal pronouns: he,
him, she, her, it, they, them
2. Possessive Pronoun: shows possession
or ownership
a. First person possessive pronouns:
my, mine, our, ours
b. Second person possessive pronoun:
your, yours
c. Third person possessive pronouns:
his, her, hers, its, their, theirs
C. Adjectives and Adverbs
1. Adjective: a word that is used to describe or
modify a noun or pronoun
a. Adjectives answer the questions “What kind?”
“Which one?” “How many?” and “Whose?”
b. Dan ate a hot roll. (What kind?)
c. Hand me that one. (Which one?)
d. We sold fifty tickets. (How many?)
e. We saw Kathy’s play. (Whose?)
2. Adverb: a word that is used to describe or
modify a verb, adjective, or another adverb
a. Adverbs answer the questions “How?”
“When?” “Where?” “How often?” and “To
what extent?”
b. She paced nervously. (How?)
c. I will finish it later. (When?)
d. The robins flew away. (Where?)
e. Linda always laughs. (How often?)
f. I am not happy. (To what extent?)
D. Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs
1. Positive Degree: used when no
comparison is being made
a. Hannah is a fast runner.
b. My sister is intelligent.
2. Comparative Degree: used when two
things are being compared
a. Eva is a faster runner than Hannah.
b. My brother is more intelligent than
my sister.
3. Superlative Degree: used when three or
more things are being compared
a. Tanya is the fastest runner on the
b. My mom is the most intelligent
person in the family.