Pearson Unit 1 Notes I. Elements of a Short Story A. Short Story: a brief work of fiction B. Characters: the people or animals that take part in a story’s action. They are driven by motivation, their reasons for acting as they do. 1. Direct Characterization: the author describes the character 2. Indirect Characterization: the author reveals a character through speech and actions C. Conflict: A struggle or problem the characters face 1. External Conflict: a struggle between a character and an outside force 2. Internal Conflict: a struggle that takes place within the character’s mind D. Plot: the sequence of events in a story 1. Exposition: characters, setting, and background information are introduced 2. Central Conflict: the main struggle the characters face 3. Rising Action: suspense builds; usually the longest part of the story D. Plot: (continued) 4. Climax: the turning point / high point 5. Falling Action: the conflict eases; action dies down 6. Resolution: the end of the story; conflict is resolved E. Setting: the time and place of the action including… 1. historical period 2. physical location 3. season of year 4. time of day 5. climate and weather 6. culture and social systems or traditions F. Theme: a central message or insight; often expresses a truth about life or human nature 1. Stated Themes: expressed directly 2. Implied Themes: suggested by the author based on the events or outcomes in the story 3. Universal Themes: recur in different cultures and time periods G. Point of View: the perspective from which a story is told 1. First-person: the narrator of the story is also a character in the story 2. Third-person Limited: the narrator is a voice outside the story but only reveals the thoughts and views of one character 3. Third-person Omniscient: the narrator is a voice outside the story and is able to reveal the thoughts and views of all characters H. Objective vs. Subjective Narrator 1. Objective Narrator: a neutral observer one who comments on events without including personal thoughts and feelings 2. Subjective Narrator: tells the story but also offers opinions about what takes place. Subjective narrators can sometimes be unreliable and can’t entirely be trusted. I. Flashback: a scene from the past J. Foreshadowing: clues that hint at events to come K. Symbol: a person, place, or an object that represents something else II. Grammar A. Common, Proper, and Possessive Nouns 1. Common Noun: names a person, place, or thing a. Common nouns are not capitalized unless they begin a sentence or are in a title. b. Examples: singer, city, boy 2. Proper Noun: names a specific person, place, or thing. a. Proper nouns are always capitalized b. Examples: Bruno Mars, London, Abraham Lincoln 3. Possessive Noun: shows ownership a. They are formed in different ways for singular and plural nouns. b. If the noun is singular, add apostrophe -s. i. The player’s hat ii. The book’s cover c. If the noun is singular and ends in -s, add apostrophe -s. i. Lucas’s room ii. Iris’s essay d. If the noun is plural and ends in -s, add an apostrophe. i. The bees’ honey ii. The students’ classroom e. If the noun is plural but does not end in -s, add apostrophe -s. i. The children’s toys ii. The men’s hats B. Personal and Possessive Pronouns 1. Personal Pronoun: takes the place of a noun or another pronoun elsewhere in the sentence a. First person personal pronouns: I, me, we, us b. Second person personal pronoun: you c. Third person personal pronouns: he, him, she, her, it, they, them 2. Possessive Pronoun: shows possession or ownership a. First person possessive pronouns: my, mine, our, ours b. Second person possessive pronoun: your, yours c. Third person possessive pronouns: his, her, hers, its, their, theirs C. Adjectives and Adverbs 1. Adjective: a word that is used to describe or modify a noun or pronoun a. Adjectives answer the questions “What kind?” “Which one?” “How many?” and “Whose?” b. Dan ate a hot roll. (What kind?) c. Hand me that one. (Which one?) d. We sold fifty tickets. (How many?) e. We saw Kathy’s play. (Whose?) 2. Adverb: a word that is used to describe or modify a verb, adjective, or another adverb a. Adverbs answer the questions “How?” “When?” “Where?” “How often?” and “To what extent?” b. She paced nervously. (How?) c. I will finish it later. (When?) d. The robins flew away. (Where?) e. Linda always laughs. (How often?) f. I am not happy. (To what extent?) D. Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs 1. Positive Degree: used when no comparison is being made a. Hannah is a fast runner. b. My sister is intelligent. 2. Comparative Degree: used when two things are being compared a. Eva is a faster runner than Hannah. b. My brother is more intelligent than my sister. 3. Superlative Degree: used when three or more things are being compared a. Tanya is the fastest runner on the team. b. My mom is the most intelligent person in the family.
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